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Sappho, Lucretius, JSbakespeare, etc. most distinguisbed modern savans are
Iffe

Tbe
bis fa-

SUIS

ILiivcs

aitd IIa» fiSccu IleariX

From.

TUE VIKENIGIAN LOOU VTTEULY DEM0LI81IED.

TO THE EDITOIi OF TUE GAZETTE:-^ A letter lias been latcly recoiVed by
fjentloman a of this vicinitv, froiii Cliaton G. Gilroy of Caithaoo l/ooni notoiiet.v, datcd St.Louis. in whicli after doscribtind sicknoss— beinopiteouslv for a small to a Cüirospondonce in wliicli bc was distinctly rcqucstod to ojvo bis authority for the Statements made in'iiis book as to tbe discovery of varions macliines
Ini; Ins

extieme dostitution
Tliis led

in tue Hüt^pital, lic pleads

sum

of money,

,

Site of ancient Carthage. llore says in reply copied verbaiim and witb tbe same italics:— '•St. Louis, July C, 1877. '-Dear Sir: *' * * * Althoußb tbat entire introdnction to my work on Weaving is a iake-off on nien wbo
tlie
is

on

wbat

correspondents: '-Dr. Lepsius, tbe bierologist of Gerraany, in one of bis me says: "Dr. Davis, tbe scientist tbe sent by Queen Victoria to explore tbe Site of ancient Cartbage writes me," and so on. Dr. Lepsius bere referred to was sent out by tliePrussian government witb a Company of artists to inake explorations in Egypt, and bis report fills ten volumes, eacli nearly a yard Square and severalincbes tliick. In close proxiinity, in tbe Congressional Library, inay be found tbe work of PioÜ— perliaps I ougbt to say Dr. Gilroy It seems stränge at first tbat tliis work bas remained so long unexposed. But it must be considered tbatmof^ of tbe descriptions are given witb all tbe matbematical precision of a work on georaetry and tbus tbe reader is tbrown Tlien it is~ilhiniined and fortitied off bis guard. by sucb a formidable arra^ of great names, anmiliär

learned

letters to

lic

***:*'

{

I

'

'Angle hourljT to snrprise bait ißeir hocks wtih prejudic8 aad lits,' (that entire intrcducticnis cfmy inventlon and designed to expose 'fcome people,' wbo Claim to be great inventors in tbese last times: i^°so tbat you raust look upon all tbe discoveries spoken of in tbat introdnction as Coming
i

Ana

yet

it

and modern, known and unknown, tbat most readers accept its Statements witbout question. I confess I was myself somewbat taken in at lirst and migbt have been sold, like manj otberß...bad it not been for an invincible distrust as to "lost arts" and some knowledge of mecbanic motions. Any one familiär witb loom macbiner^ woukl at once pronounce tbe statement of a loom capable ot weaving 16 webs of ßgured clotb at one and tbe same Operation as absurd on tbe
cient

under tbe E. K. Arphaxed boroscope. Witb regard to tbe modes of manufacture in use among tlie ancients tbere is not a trace of Power loom machinery of tbeir invention; not a trace of Danforth frames and of self-acting mulep, not a trace. A U loas done hy hand.

Very truly yours, Clinton G. GiLROT." Tbe Introdnction above referred to fills over sixty pages, and contains tlie entire Statement publisbed in tbe Spy of Feb. 5tb, and mucb more of tbe »ame tenor to sbow tbe wonderful attalnments of tbe ancients in mecbanic arts. It also contains Tbe 'Tantastic" Letters of Dr.
,

Kersivenus. tbe aTitbor's lictitious correspondent in Egypt. Tbis author, Gilroj', be it remembered, bad been endorsed by a respectable Journal and a professed antiquariän as being recognizecl in England as a Standard author. It tberefore becoraes pertinent to inquire if any one bas been guilty of making "dogmatic assertions" in tbis controvcrsy; and If so wbo tbe most. But it 18 vastly more important to inquire bowsball tbis book be discredited so as to prevent future inipositions ? It bas been in print 33years, during wbicb it bas found its way into many brst class libraries, sucb as tbe Congressional at Wasbington, wbere it Stands side by side witb tbe most respectable classic autbors and in all tbese years its Statements in regard to tbe ancients have never, so far as I can
learn,

been

challenged or disputed. The book is got up in a manner well calculated to deceive tbe very elect and it was only after many days' study that I could arrive at any conclusion upon it. It is a royal octavo-volume of600 pages witb tbe semblance of a flrst class scientitic work, illustrated by numerous enijraved plates. It aims to sbow all tbe dilferent processes in ppinning and weaving from tbe earliest times down to tbe pre.sent witb all tbe various iraprovements aud inventions.His specitications of Patents are drawn witb tiie precision and sklil of a professional expert and were probably copied witb tbe drawings, from tbe Patent 01Lces of Wasbington and London. Gilroy's com-

mand

man and
3tical

of language is perfect, and bis familiarity witb autbors, ancient and modern, sacred and proiane, is quitö bewildering. Ile quutes from writera in Japanese, Cliinese, Mebrew. Hindoo, Greek, Latin, Prencb, Gerto jiive an interest to X drysubject be Ornaments bis periods witb po-

In tlie present state of tbe arts impossible to conceive of such a loom. Even BigeloAv's, tbe most complicated probably ever devised, only weavea one web at a time. VVbat sball be done to publicly discredit Gilroy's book ? Few tbat read it will ever read or bear of bis confession in tbis article. Tbere it Stands unimpeacbed and tbere in public libraries it perbaps may stand for centuries to come, a constant stumbling block lor future antiquarians and advocates of Lost Arts and prebistoric It sbould be brauded at once, witb tbeorists. an indelible stamp, "Unrebable." Before closing I wisli to say a word on "Lost Arts," witbout going iuto tbe 8ub}itct in extenso. From a limited examination, I believe tbe trutb of tbe matter, briefly stated, to be tbis Since tbe days of tbe ancients, a great number of arts bave been abandoned for better metbods, and, in its as tbe World moves on onward progress, tbis process is constantly repeated year by year, but it can not be sbown tbat any valuable arts bave been lost wbicb liave not been supplemented by sometbing better. In my ignorance I would tliank Mr. Wendell Phillips, or any one eise, to uanie one. There may For tbirty years and be, but I don't recali it. more Mr. Phillips bas been repeating, in dilferent parts of tbecountry, bis famous lecture upon "Lost Arts," until be bas produced ageneral Impression tbat amid tbe debris of ages a vast deal of valuable art and knowledge bave been buried and becoine forever lost to tbe world. But a careful investigation will sbow, I think, tbat any of bis Statements rest on no better autbority tban Gilroy's,tIiat mucb of bis reasoning is sopbistical and bis conclusions erroneous, tbat in Short it is tiie greatest liumbug extant great and imposition a on populär crodulity. Whatever other arts !iave been lost, that of burnbuijging tbe people to tbe tune of one and two bundred düllars a night if not one of them. It is bigti time tbe public were disabused of tbe wrong impressions of tbis lecture, and some one wbo bas loisure and does not, like myself, dislike controversy sbould undertuke it. The Chief diüiculty will be to obtain a copy of it. Mr. Phillips, witb great wisdom, bas never published it be never will. Then be is cont'tantly changing tbe tenor of it. He Said biraself not long since "it was like tbe
face of
it
it.

is

:

m

;

'

out— tben tbe otber, — then sbe turned it end for end,— tben sbe patcbed and spliced it, tili tbe
original could bardly be recognized."
,

woman's apron wbicb

siie

More

lirst

one side

Englisb.

Tben

Millbury, Sept. 14, 1877.

qaotations from tbe

iJible,

from Homer

THE

ART OF WEAVING.
BY HAND AND BY POWER,
WITH AN

INTRODÜCTORY ACCOUNT
OF ITS RISE AND PROGRESS IN

ANCIENT AND MODEHN TIMES.
FOR THE USE OF

MANUFACTURERS AND OTHERS.
BY CLINTON
G.

GILROY,

PRACTICAL WEAVER AND M ANUFACTURER.

GENERAL SUBJECTS OP THIS WORK.
1. Plftin

Weaving.

5.
6.

Figured Weaving.
Carpeting including Ingram, Imperial, Brüssels, Wilton, Turkey and Velvet File also Rugs, Tapestry, etc.
;

2. 3.

Tweeling. , , j ^ ht Double Cloth, (piain and tweeled,) Mar-

seilles duilting and Velvets. Ganze and 4 Cross Weaving, comprising

7.

Net Work.

8.

Lace and Embroidery. Piain and Figured Weaving by Power.

ILLUSTMTEl) BY APPEOPRIATE ENGMYINGS.

IN ONE VOLUME.

NEW YORK:
GEORGE
D.

BALDWIN,

35

SPRUCE STREEjT.

1844.

\

Entered according

to act

of Congress, in the year 1844, by

GEORGE
in the Clerk's Office

D.

BALDWIN,
New
York.

of the District Court for the Southern

District of

S.

h Z

TBREOTYPED BY
216

T.

B.

SMITH,
YORK,

WILLIAM STREET,

NEW

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'^

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ADVERTISEMENT.
In making books

we own that we are green^ And for defects this should be some apology. The Author of this Treatise has not been
^

Plucking suiRcient

fruit

from

off the

knowledge

tree

A fact which by our readers will be seen,
Without the proofs afforded by phrenology
But, to avoid the evils ol'satiety,

We shall endeavour to give some variety.
Materials inexhaustible abound,

Which,

if well

handled, might adorn our pages

;

By

learning, metaphysical, profound,

We might,

no doubt, be rank'd among the sages j The natives too, perhaps, we might astound, With lists comparative of weavers' wages
;

Or, essays on political economy
Or, loftier
still,

the science of astronomy.

Though
That
to

all
it

these themes are worthy of attention,

We think
A

proper in this place
all

to state,

exclude

chances of dissension,

The Author

shall not in this

Work

relate

sentence, which,

Could e'er Hence, politics we never once shall touch. Lest we should say too little, or too much.
'Tis

by men o^ comprehension^ be deem'd admitting of debate

Bul, here

We We publish solely Ibr the public good,
Food
for the

wisdom to make hay while weather's sunny we should not be misunderstood disavow all thoughts of making money:

(Our own included). Op'ning flowers yield honey This Book shall yield to weavers ample food
;

mind, which,
fill

when

digested,

may

Yield food

to

the

body every day.
not a periodical

The

present

Work

is

We do not publish number after number
Poetic, philosophical, rhapsodical,

With shining gems amidst a mass oWumber. Our plan, in most respects, is quite methodical. Meantime, our readers we shall not encumber With more remarks, but show them, with facility,

A

specimen or two of our

ability.

.

by Zabozok. the Inventor of the Jaw-Temple Letter from Alexis Kersivenus. with imperial Let-ofF and Take-up Motions Weaving in Palestine. . of Nodville— Wallotty Trot's Spinning Jenny— — Weaving among the Ancient Egyp— Late Discoveries in Egypt. Fellows. of Sidon— Pope GXVI. by the Assyrians — Coan Robes — Coan Vests — Account of Joseph's Coat. by Ghelen tians Temple— Ancient Spinning Machine. King of Nodville Oration on Weaving. 1 SECTIßN FIEST. with 256 Spindles. described by Pope Leo X Weaving Gold and Silver Wiredrawing Machine. Specimen of Egyptian Shebetz. his Account of the Cloth Manufacture in Ancient omon's — — — — Times by Arkite Ghiden Ghelen Discoveries in Arabia Zannkul K. his Samples of Gold and Silver Lace-wire. Winding Cloth Roller — — Spooling— Beaming— Drawing or Entering—Yarn Beam Rods— Headles— Lay and Reed Temples— Shuttles Operation of Weaving— Sizing—Treading— Crossing the Shuttle Striking up the Weft— Stripes and Checks— Warping Striped or — — Webs. inventedby Zurishaddai. procured from Mehemet Ali. of Shinar in • . Babylonian Pen-knife— Silk Manufacture in China The Gods' Eyes Puncher Seven-ply Carpeting Figured Weaving in India Pope Alexander VI. by Pope Leo X — The Pope error— Basharaboo's account of Joseph's Coat—Manufactures of Lydia and Phrygia — Letter from Alexis Kersivenus. PAGE Spinning. &c. &c. by Doctor Lepsius. PLAIN WEAVING. Viceroy of Egypt A Mantle — — — — — — — — — — — — — Babylonish Carpets and ShawJs — Persian Carpets — Egyptian Carpets. delivered by Arphaxad before Deioces. first King of the Medes Alarm Loon Lemuel P. Arybas. of the Plains of Shinar. and others — Bronze Power Loom — Dimity Power Loom — Fork and Grid Stop-thread Motion — Ancient Net-work or Lace — Decorations of SolOrigin of Weaving. of Alexandria.&c 69 . Egypt Contest in Weaving between Minerva and Arachne Egyptian Tapestry Weaving.— CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. Euzen. Mr. with raised Pile — Tyrian Purple — Grecian Tapestry Säle of Old Maids at Public Auction.

FIGURED WEAVING. Common Gauze— GauzeMountings— WhipNet— Spider and Mail Nets Patent Net or Night Thought— Princess Royal Net— Dropped Nets. WEAVING DOUBLE CLOTH. Brüssels. by Cementing a Nap or Pile on Piain Cloth Chenille Gobelins Tapestry Cashmere Shawls Origin and Progress of the New Race of Cashmere or Angora Goats Spinning Cashmere Wool Weaving Imitation Cashmere — — — — — Shawls— &c 210 SECTION EIGHTH. Three-ply. Egyptian Lace Letter from Alexis Kersivenus Various kinds of Lacemaking Machines^ Embroidery Hielmann's Embroidering Machine 275 Lf'tter from Mr. CARPETING.uilt Waved Gluilt Diamond Q. Hielmann — — — — — . &c<. Wilton. LACE MANUFACTURE. Tweeling Double Cloth Marseilles duilting The Junction of Two Unequal Fabrics Diagonal Q. Rugs. FIGURED WEAVING. WEAVING CROSSED WARPS. Ingrain. Velvet Pile and Turkey Carpets Manufacture of Carpets.mlt Double Cloth Harness Velvets Piain or Tabby-backed Velvet-^Simple Jean Velvet— Plush Velvet— &c 116 — — — — — — — SECTION FOURTH.— CONTENTS. Barrel or Cylinder the Pattern Cards Loom —Jacquard Machine— Cutting or Punching 182 SECTION SEVENTH. Draw Loom —Mounting the Draw Loom— Reading or lashing Patterns Counterpoise Harness — Harmonious Colouring —Design and Colouring— Ornamental Drawing —Design Paper—Designing Patterns 143 Comb Draw Loom SECTION SIXTH. SECTION SECOND. TWEELING. 124 SECTION FIFTH. Tweeled Cloth Mounting of Looms for Tweeling Draughts and Cordings Arrangement of Treadles Breaking the Tweel Various kinds of Tweels Various kinds of Tweeled Stripes Dimily Cord Mounting Dornic and Diaper &c — — — PAGB. — — — — — — 96 SECTION THIRD. &c.

English. SECTION NINTH. G. by Power 330 SECTION TENTH. Gilroy's Fullharness Jacquard Loom — Dohmme and Romagney's Jacquard— Frederick Goos' Jacquard — C. Bigelow's Patents— Evidence the — E. B. T. Stillman's Loom — W. BY POWER. G. G. 's — C. Roberts & Co. FANCY WEAVING. Charles Fletcher's — Shining Taffeta— Gros de Naples— Thick Silk Cloth— Satin— Headle-making machine — Improved Headles —Varnishes Headles —Jaw Temple —Draper's Rotary Temple— Craig and Cochran's Improved Rotary Temple — Fork and Grid Motion— BuUough and Gilfor Loom— George Clarke's Loom— Robert Bowman's Loom — Richard Roberts' Loom —John Potter's Loom —Joseph Jones's Loom — Burt and Boyds' Loom — Manufacture of Silk Goods— Taffetas roy's Patents 386 SECTION TWELFTH. &c 423 . Gilroy's Weft Calcula- — — — — — tion Tables. Warping and Sizing. M. G. Ellsturers on C. Gilroy's Loom Mountings. BY POWER. G. H. with lowdew's Loom 345 SECTION ELEVENTH. Damask Haight and Bigelow's Carpet Looms Tompkins and Gilroy's Damask Loom — C. Shallcross's Loom— Thomas Welch's Loom— Thomas MelC. with Letter from worth C. Gilroy's Marseilles Quilting Loom. PAGE. Sharp. G. Gilroy's Presser-harness Jacquard Loöm of Select Committee of House of Commons on Arts and Manufactures Reed Scale Gilroy's Specimens of Design Paper French Card Cutting or Punching Machine Reports of French. Bigelow's Gluilting Loom Loom — Glass Weaving — C. L. Potter's Loom — Horace Hendrick's Loom — Frederick Downing's Loom— Elijah Fairman's Loom — O. Gilroy's Improved Loom — Amassa Stone's Loom — Oliver C. G. &c. with Thomas Yates' Improvements thereon Berry's Metallic Tissue — — — Claims of E.— — CONTENTS. and other ManufacHon. FIGURED WEAVING. Gilroy's Improvements thereon Loom — Howard and Scattergood's Loom. PLAIN WEAVING. Spooling. BY POWER. B. Gilroy's Looms. Burr's Loom — Gilroy's Patent Welcome A.

.

together with the improvements made on many of them since their intro. common fabrics.INTRODUCTION A THOROUGH knowledge of the Art of rieties. France. have.. which were formerly confined to the closet of the philosopher. the most complex of all prove dangerous rivals to those similarly engaged in other . for nearly a quarter of a Century. Prussia. dein this country. . at different times. is the gradual result of indefatigable exertion. and it is impossible to anticipate what may be the result. embodying them with our own experience as a practical weaver and manufacturer. signed for the use of weavers of peared. Belgium. except by a long course of practical application in those parts of tlie Many and artSj to of our world where it is best understood. known . &c. parts of the globe tensive. Ireland. The fabrication of almost every species of cloth appears to have been carried on to a surprising extent in the ancient world and a knowledge of the processes by which it was accomplished. Diogenes. and no apology is necessary for our attempting a coUection of facts on the subject. duction into Europe. Weaving. is rapidly extending. in all its vaand cannot be acquired. American weavers already possess sufficient skill dexterity in several branches of this. but the field for improvement country is still very ex- In every quarter of this vast men of scientific genius are busy in applying those elementary and speculative principles. ap- by such authors as O'Doherty. to the grand purpose of social improvement. A variety of publications relative to this brauch of industry. the intricate . Scotland. in England. fabrics is Although the sively art of weaving the more common exten- and ornamental textures are not well understood neither have they been explained by any one thoroughly versed in the business which precludes the necessity of further Observation from us on this head. are objects of the first national importance. nevertheless. The great chain which connects theory with the useful arts. indeed.

that of from one to six others. carried further the mounting of a loom in the figured department is it frequently the business of several persons. that these authors were. however. Indeed. is of a Pekin brocade. by persons who required instruction themtestifies. or were produced and although by this constant application to one brauch. we have demonstrative proofs in their own works. and drawboy to operate upon it. have been intended for the use of the piain cloth manufacturer of the twelfth Century. seldom troubles himself to enquire by what means other kinds are now. complicated looms contain from one to twelve cumber boards (someas eight Jacquards. tends to tical dexterity in it . impede bis bis progress in the attainment of vocation. Ireland. : The division of labour. many of the difFerent species of a complete knowledge of weaving have already become nearly local. or in a great measure. 900. that whoUy. abundantly filled Such compilations are nearly ^^for the with tables and useless repetitions. these writers were Murphy. 600.^^ as they are termed. simple. (in the words of Pollok) " Resolved (in spite offate) before tliey died. perfect state. for example. The books of these men for contain raerely such scraps and sketches as were furnished selves. he increases bis pracyet. but. and the working looms have as of Some figured even 1300 needles each and and from one to four pulley-boxes. which seems at the time most necessary The weaver who is accustomed to be em- ployed at one kind of work. Ignorant of the subject. matter there presented. of 400. In Great Britain.a INTRODUCTION. seems to us." The great majority of mankind are ever prone to limit their de- sire of information. To the mechanical part of and other appakinds of tex- the business. such as the construction of the looms ratus requisite for the production of the tures. GreenougbjPeddiejO'WestmanjYates and Ure. as ignorant of the mode of mounting a ganze spider net. each These of which has a tail. at the same time. as he of Paisley or Glasgow. more intricate ^ and the necessary practical Instructions they have scarcely its alluded in their treatises. by which They should be known to all posterity. . many . is or an Egyptian still shehetz. They only speak of the art in imthe existed in England. These tables appear rather to purpose of facilitating calculation. it present age of improvement. To make some grand discovery. the Manchester weaver is. or figure weaver of our own day. and Scotland in for times long past and hence such books are not calculated Indeed. than for the fancy warper. . as the them. to that to their suhsistence. in general. such a course. as it .

The sculptures in rehef are surprisingly numerous. scenes in the lives of the deceased persons. by US. for the most part. on this plan. and others of various dimensions. some the size of hfe. peculiarly desirable. öi* more leaves of headles. and even great grandson — all that now remains of the distinguished famihes. They are numerous and beautiful beyond conception as fresh and perfect as if finished yesterday ! The pictures and sculptures on the walls of the tombs represent. at every 2d. The eminent German hierologist. (known to the ancients under the cognomen of Tymolus matting^ by the power of compressed * air. make a Court Calendar of the reign of King Cheops. But these subjects will be more fully treated of in another place. without difficulty. that of weaving six and seven ply carpeting. study of the art of weaving will at least afford to an inquisiBesides tive mind. or more of them have thus sunk into oblivion take for example. which five thousand years ago." Another writer has Condensed from following remarks Rosellini.. fish boats. In weaving Marseilles quilting and petticoat robes. 4th. whose wealth in cattle.— : — . The paintings are on back grounds of the finest chalk. in digging and other kinds of labour. or more are elevated or depressed. &c. architects. It is w^ell ascertained by the researches of antiquarians and hierologists. which were known and practised by the ancients. only two shifting harness boards in connection with two. painters. writes as foJlows: With the exception of about twelve. &c. rNTRODÜCTION. into the details of private I life All an insight among I the ancient Egyp- By the help of these inscriptions think could. in by the Prussian government. for want of such records. asironomers. after mentioning the now employed in Eg5rpt many disall hadmade of ancient ruins. are used. of the mortal remains of old King Cheops ! In some instances I have traced the graves of father. since not a pinch of dust is left unturned. to render records of The the State of every art. were erected contemporaneously with. must retum to Egypt to learn the origin of language and writing — of the calendar . tombs. front of the great now employ daily fifty or sixty men. this consideration. 3d.. passage of the shuttle. which belong to a later period. Lepsius. son. have been almost entirely lost. Dr. is ostentatiously displayed before the eye of the spectator. : ö times called harness hoards) which are often made stationary but at other times one. the building of the great pyramid. and represent whole figures. or soon after. these tombs servants. But^ myfriends. coveries he " a recent letter. a source of rational and innocent amusement. the " Philologists. that many useful branches of art. this gives tians. physicians. grandson. many circumstances concur. and a large excavation has been made in Sphynx. chemists. I formed the nobihty of the land. let no monument give you or me hopes. and other hierologists. Perhaps two-thirds. or 6th. and consequently their dates throw an invaluable light on the study of human civiHzation in the most remote period of antiquity.

Egyptian birds designated by them In Persia also. Persepolis. and particularly the Greeks. In Asia Minor a new field for antiquarian researches has been opened. These researches in connection with the labours of Groteford and Lassen. 4 INTRODUCTION. which bids throw much light on the history of several nations." arts. their respective looms art four . and fancy weavers aciively employed at a white smith using that identical form of blow pipe. The researches of the English have chiefly been in ancient Lycia. the progress of his thousand years ago and whether it be a wheel-wright building a chariot a leather cutter using the seif same form of knife of old as is considered the best form now the piain. unsurpassed at the present day. for any distance — of moving single blocks of poHshed syenite. . for the purpose of transporting England such . nine hundred tons by land and water — of building arches round. that the French To this catalogue of Egjrptian . and of giving elasticity to a copper sword — of making glass with the variegated hues of the rainbow in weight. much ethnographic Information has lately been brought to by the architects and artists attached to the French embassy cities in that country. the history of which we know but Httle. who have deciphered the ar- row-headed inscriptions of those cities. at a period. all these and many more evidences of Egypas Shoofd's.. of which we know so Httle. . remains of temples. singing. and of numberless other branches of art. in Egyptian monuments. that many species of fancy manulie neglected for years. &c. and antecedent. with Orders to report on the Geography of those countries— the various native tribes by which they are occupied. . naturalists. Mr. Every craftsman can behold. like some of the present day the tasteful furniture of their houses ßhip building drawings in natural history. to be the most efficient . monuments. their languages. dancing. . Arphaxad^s. with a large to Company and a steamer. &c. by means of them. The French government has lately sent a party to explore the regions between Casbmere and KafFeristan. Babylon. instantly recognized the several species of . names tian priority now require but a glance at the plates of Rosellini. a long addition might be made of monuments descriptive of the goldsmith's and jeweller's work instrumental music. " . Fellows has made some important discoveries of cities. Ctesiphon. He is now on his way there again. Ecbatana. and pointed with masonic precision. The fashion. in many instances. through bilinqular fair to inscriptions found there. light. including children's games. Their Operations embrace ruins of the ancient of Nineveh. by two thousand years before the Dorians are known in history of fresco painting in imperishable colours — and — of practical knowledge of an- atomy. and. &c. and gymnastic exercises. they could arts are so and solar moiion — of the art of cutting granite with a copper chisel. He has also been able to make out the language of the people who erected these edifices. the seal engraver cutting in and Arkite Ghiden Gheabove four thousand three hundred years ago or even the poulterer removing the pip from geese . . inscriptions. are of great importance in elucidating a portion of the world's history. so true to life. factures ornamental much regulated by the prevailing and caprice of mankind. but lately recognized hieroglyphics such len's. where in two difFerent expeditions.

INTRODUCTION.

6

never again be introduced, unless a knowledge of the processes emWhen such knowledge ployed in their production were preserved.
is

only transmitted verbally, and

when
in

it

is

confined to operative

monuments of art as are valuable and
Prussian governments have
scientific

good preservation.

The French and

expeditions besides, in other parts of

Asia Minor.
In Abyssinia are travellers from England, France, and Germany,

who

are

engaged

in scientific explorations of the country.

Their labours will contriregion.

bute greatly to our knowledge of that hitherto

unknown

On

the cite

of ancient Carthage and in the country adjacent, some interesting discoveries

have been made.
Ist.

Among

these the following articles have been found:

A

complete power loom of bronze, of vertical construction, adapted to

weave
2d.

sixteen

webs of
for

cloth at one

and the same Operation,
stuffs,

either piain,

tweeled, or figured, and with from one to thirty-seven Shuttles, &c.

A loom
an

weaving dimity and such
This

with tappet wheel to work

the treadles, and a curious motion to stop the machine
or threads break.
last contrivance consists of

when
parts,

the weft thread

two

one of which

is

very

like

'

Irish gridiron,'

and

is

fixed in the lay in
;

a vertical

position,

about three-fourths of an inch from one end of the reed
bles a

the other part resem-

French four-pronged eating fork, and is made to play into the former at each, and every throw of the Shuttle. But as this motion (with several other valuable contrivances in weaving) was patented by us in England, France, and other countries in the years 1833, 34 and 39, the claims of the Said hierologists to the contrary thereof notwühstanding, no farther notice need be taken of it here and particularly so, as it is now being adapted to common power looms at Paterson, N. J., Troy, N. Y., and at Lowell, Mass., where the curious may see it in füll Operation, and be better able to judge of
;

its

merits for themselves.
3d.

A

spinning machine with two hundred and
it
;

fifty-six spindles,

copper

drums, and India rubber bands to drive
State of preservation
'
;

all

of which are in a tolerable

the whole bearing a very close resemblance to the

Danforth frame.'
4th,

18^ yards of net work
'

'

or lace, figured, similar to that used in the
c/'

decoration of Solomon's Temple, and
in the

which so frequent mention
in

book of Exodus.

This specimen corresponds

shown US by his Hohness, the Pope's antiquarian 1831, and of which we shall have occasion to make further mention hereafter. 5th. 13^ yards of beautiful lace, being composed of gold and silver threads alternately, on which are represented the sun, moon, and stars the crocodile, pelican, heron, and goose and also a man and woman in a state of nudity, eating fruit, which they appear to have plucked from ofF a tree hard by there is also in the same group a likeness of a serpent, very much resembling our modern boa constrictor. 6th. A penknife with 98 blades but this does not so much excite our wonder as the others, because we are well aware of the fact, that immense manufactories of penknives were carried on in ancient Babylon, and other eitles of
;
;

is made many respects to that when at Rome, in April,

;

;

the land of Shinar, long before the Jewish dispensation

;

see also the 36th

chap. of Jeremiah and 23d verse.

t)

INTRODUCTION.
little

tradesmen, employed in the active duties of their vocations,
expectation can be formed of
of such
its

general diffusion.

The

attention

men

is

naturally more directed to their present, than to their
;

lustrate the Instructions

and when it is no longer in their power to ilwhich they may, occasionally, wish to convey to others, by showing them the practical Operation, the task becomes doubly difficult. From the want of proper information on
former employments

such subjects a person
certain machine,

may

possibly think himself the inventor of a
to

which he conceives

be legitimately begotten,

and may succeed in obtaining, from capitahsts, unskilled in the particular art to which it relates, vast sums of money, on the strength of such an impression and still a similar machine may have been
;

in use long before, or even

is

at the present day, without his knoAV-

ledge of the

fact.

Many

a

man

has been deceived in supposing

himself the originator of a certain contrivance, which he might have

found described in some old book, or Irishman's
It

portfolio.

ought

to

be our study to

fix

permanently upon the memory,

some of the extraordinary events that happened in the world thousands of years before we had an existence upon it. We find ourselves inhabitants of one of the numberless planets which are ever
rolling along

through

infinite space, at

a most astonishing rate of
at present

speed.

We have no means

of

knowing

habit, or

what laws govern those

glorious orbs that

what beings inon all sides Sur-

round

US, or how far advanced in the arts their inhabitants may have become, and particularly in that of power loom weaving with mesmeric cams. We have now no communication with other This earth on which worlds, nor with the beings that people them. we live is ours (that's a fact) and it affords ample scope for human The enquiring mind should be anxious to know, who were study. the best manufacturers of figuved and other fabrics that from time

to

time flourished on its vairiegated surface what events, changes, and revolvtions it has undergone, and how many Jacquard looms, and other useful machines, invented by our antediluvian relations, have been engulphed in its bowels, or otherwise knocked into chaos. It is only by reading, by searching the records of the past, by deep
;

confess that we, ourself, are surprised, that a complete power loom of such astounding capacity (including one of our own patent motions) as that just mentioned, together with a Danforth frame,' should be dug up in ihis
'

We

way.
eiastes.

Such

is to

us a

mystery

!

We will

henceforth place implicit conin the Ist chapter of Eccle-

fidence in the

words of the wise man, as recorded

INTRODUCTION.

7

mental application, and above all, by bodily exertion, that we can but, if we can, although only arrive at this profound knowledge
;

partially obtain

some

accoiints of the arts,

and

of
it is

what has hapour duty not to

pened connected with them, in ages far remote,
keep them locked up
forth for the
for

our

own

gratification,

but to bring them

improvement of our fellow-men, and more particularly for the manufacturing portion of our own Community. We are confident that many, and were about to say, the generality, of readers lose more than half the advantage they might otherwise derive, for want of fixing on their minds the dates and
feriods of time most remarkable in the history of such subjects as
the present.
"

To him who reads wilh judging And studies as he should,
Philosophy brings large supplies

eyes,

;

His mind improves,

his pleasures rise.

He

cannot but be great and wise."
visits different

countries to view their varied up the inventions of ingenious men by the way, would experience but little advantage if, when he entered into a zephyr three ply bed quilt manufactory he stood still, and kept his eye fixed on one object only, for example, such as a double or treble shifting cumber board but when he looks around
traveller

The

who

scenery, and, perhaps, to pick

;

him, views the

electric

cams, the mercurial shuttle changers, the

revolving detached shuttle boxes, with Poole
galvanizers, hoUow-cone
respective
glistens

and

Fletcher's patent

warp

dividers,

<fcc.,

as they perform their
;

functions,

both separately and coUectively

his

eye

with gladness and his heart beats with delight. while he

sees that

he

may

handily turn the ingenuity of other

men

to his

own

purposes, without even thanking

them

for

it.

If our traveller

should Chance to be one of those prodigies of nature, to

whom

fate

has given some lucky powers of combination and adaptation, he at

one view can see the mechanism in
Operation,

all

its

various phases of

and he enjoys the scene with
"

exquisite relish.

Unto the soHd beam the warp is tied, While hollow cones the parting threads divide, Through which a thousand Shuttles swiftly play, And for the zephyr weft prepare a ready way." (Metam. VI. O'Roorke's Trans.)

We shall here
several

notice two objections which have been urged by European manufacturers against us, in our undertaking to

publish the present werk.

8

INTRODUCTION.

The
any
practise

first

of these

is,

that

it is

improper to divulge the secrets of

trade, because
it.

it

may
is

operate to the prejudice of those

who

This doctrine

now

so justly,
httle
all

exploded, that

we

shall

occupy very

and almost universally room upon it. It will be
the question of the
secret or legal restric-

Seen at once, without entering at
tions, that the case does
is

into

policy of monopohes, whether preserved

by

not apply to the business of weaving. It absurd to suppose that a trade which employs so many millions of people, and which has existed almost since the creation of the
is,

World, either

or

can be

secret.

Besides, experience

has

suffi-

and unreserved communication between artificers of all descriptions, has always produced good and never evil. Indeed, it is obvious that every man, where this takes place, receives the advantage of the Instruction of many, and gives only his own in return. The balance, therefore, must always be in his favour. With these short remarks we shall dismiss this
ciently proved, that liberal
objection.

The second objection, though it does not appeai to us to stand upon a more solid foundation than the other, may require a little more consideration. The objection is, that by communicating Information upon the art of weaving, a knowledge of that art may
be acquired in other countries. consequently the manufactures

may

become less productive to those engaged in them. Although this proposition were admitted in its füllest extent respecting arts in general, it could have no efFect on that of weaving, which has been entirely imported from the East, into Europe, and has received but little improvement in that quarter of
the globe.

The
ages of

great antiquity of this
its

art,

necessarily involves the earlier
It ts

history in considerable obscurity.
its

very evident,

however, that none of
discovered

branches originated in Europe, or America,

the cotton stuffs worn by the aborigines of this country,

when

by Columbus

excepted.

According to Melik Cassam
first

Mirza of Tebriz,
China, by
in the province of

Persia, the silk

manufacture was

practised in

Ouang Tippo

Ichao,* a native of Tsing

Kiang Fou,
;

Kiang Nau, about the year of the world 1743 and from other sources equally authentic, we learn that the cotton had its origin in India, and the shawl and carpet in Persia.
* This
is undoubtedly the same individual, as appears from the name, to Chinese historians give credit for having invented the most powerful

whom

of all ancient machines, " the gods' eyes puncher."

This machine was of such
clip,

tremendous pressure as actually to

force,

with a single

a hole of 8^ inches

INTRODUCTION.

y
pretensions to

These
teries

facts

sufiiciently prove that

we have no
any

superior knowledge, or exclusive possession of

secrets or

mys-

connected with the art of weaving-.
fabrics correspond to the places

The
all

very names of
first

many

where they were
eastern
:

manii-

factured,

and the foUowing,

for

example, are

Nankeens,

Ballasores, Madrasses, Bengals, Lachores, Bungoes, Trebizonds, (a
lace, Cashmere scarfs, Japan brocades, Pekin brocades, Canton crapcs, Turkey ganze, Grecian net, Damask, &c. AU these, and many more, including dimity and

kind of frizzled net) Bagdad

muslin, are fabrics of eastern mannfactnre.

Cotton
of

stuffs,

properly so called, are

first

mentioned as an
sea.

article

commerce in Arrian's Periplus of the Erythrean

He

in-

forms US that they V7ere imported from India to Aduli, a port on the

Red

Sea, and he specifies as the principal marts of Hindoostan, where the goods were obtained, Barygaza, Barocke, Masalia, and Masuliputam. which was then as it ever since has been, famous He adds that "the tranfor the manufactm-e of cotton goods. sparent gangetic Sindones " were the most highly valued and this superiority of the Bengal muslins continues to the present day. We may remark that the Periplus affords an extraordinary proof of the condition of the arts in India, for the description which Forbes gives of the manufactures of Baroche is very nearly identical with
;

that furnished
at Baroche,"

by Arrian
says, "

sixteen centuries ago.
is

"

The

cotton trade

he

very considerable, and the manufacture

of this valuable plant, from the finest muslin to the coarsest sailcloth,

employs thousands of men, women, and children, in the me-

tropolis

and adjacent

villages.

The

generally reside in the suburbs or

and Spinners, poorahs, of Baroche, which are
cotton clearers

very extensive.
of tamarind and
looms,

The weavers' houses, are mango trees, under which,

mostly near the shade
at sunrise, they fix their

and weave a

variety of cotton cloth, with very fine baftas

in diameter

through a wrought iron plale 1^ inches

thick.

It

appears that the

eyeballs of these idols, were generally
bished,'

made

of cast iron, 'poUshed and fur-

and adapted

to

fit

the sockets with the greatest precision.

A

small

hole about the size of a cent,
tre part of the eyehall, to

was

usually gouged out in the front and cenInto this hole

form the pupil.

a black

stone, or

some other substance of the same colour was inserted, and thus his godship was enabled at a glance to penetrate to the hearts of his worshippers. Every nine gods had a greaser,' whose business it was to cleanse off' the rust
'

{which accumulated in
Operation

damp

weather) from the optics of each god
the
fifth

was always performed on

and this day of tlie new moon each month
;

throughout the year

—leap year excepted.
2

10

INTRODUCTION.
Surat
is

and muslins.
piece goods.

more famous

for its coloured chintzes
to those of

The Baroche

muslins are inferior

and Bengal
222.)

and Madras, nor do the painted chintzes of Guzerat, equal
the Coromandel coast." (Forbes, Oriental Mernoirs, vol.
ii.

those of
p.

no trace of cotton goods imported into Europe before the Fall of the Western Empire but they began to be introduced
;

Wecan find

into Constantinople about the sixth Century, for they are

mentioned

in the tariff of import duties issued

Arabia however, cottons
about the time of

by the emperor Justinian. In and muslins had come into common use
for

Mohammed,

they are frequently mentioned in

the history of the early khaliphs.

The

first

" muslins " so called

from

their

being woven at El Mosel in Mesopotamia

—like the Eng-

lish " cambrics,"

were not composed of cotton, at least not exclusively, for the muslins mentioned by Marco Polo are expressively stated to have been woven of " gold and silk." The conquests of
the Saracens

and

their successors, the

Turks, extended the use of

cottons over a great part of Europe, Asia,
It
is

and

Africa.

a fact (not generally known) that Columbus found the

It was long beby the learned that the ancient Egyptians were acquainted with the manufacture of cotton and that the " white works," mentioned by the prophet Isaiah, were composed of this material.

aborigines of America clothed in cotton fabrics.*
lieved

;

Herodotus, in the
historian, " a

fifth

Century before Christ, distinctly asserts that
"
;

the Indians wore cotton

They

possess likewise," says the
fruit,
;

same

kind of plant, which instead of
better quality

produces wool,
of this mate-

of a finer
rial

and

than that of sheep

and

the Indians manufacture their clothing."

Nearchus, the ad-

miral to

whom

Alexander entrusted the survey of the Indus, men-

tions both the piain cottons,

and the

figured chintzes of the Indians,

and the geographer

Strabo,

who was

cotemporary with the Christian

era, records, that in his da}^, cotton plants

cloth manufactured, in Susiana, a province at the

were grown, and cotton head of the Per-

more than half a Century after the growth of the cotton " The upper part of Egypt," he says, " verging plant in Egypt towards Arabia, produces a shrub which some persons call gossy'pium^ but a greater number Xylon^ and from this the textile fabrics called Xylina are manufactured. It is small and bears a fruit somewhat like a filbert a downy wool found in the interior is
sian gulf.
Strabo,

Pliny,

who

lived rather-

is

the

first
;

writer

who mentions

;

* See Irving's Life of Columbus, (abridged edition,) pages

63—173, and 219.

INTRODUCTION.
spun
into thread
;

11

there are no fabrics to be preferred to these for
;

whiteness or softness

the garments

made

of this material are far

the most acceptable to the Egyptian priests."

The same naturahst,

mentions the " wool beaiing trees" of the Island of Tylus in the Persian gulf, and says that they bear a fruit Hke a gourd, and of
the size of a quince {cotonei mali.)
" In India," says a learned writer, "

women

of all castes prepare

the cotton thread for the weaver, spinning the thread
vvire, or

on a piece of

end

;

a very thin rod of polished iron with a ball of clay at one this they turn round with the left hand, and supply the cotton
right,
(like the

with the
thread
is

ancient inhabitants of Nodville
stick or pole,

;)

the

then wound upon a
;

and

sold to the

mer-

chants or weavers

for

the coarser thread the

women make

use of

a wheel very similar to that of the English spinster, though upon a smaller construction. The mother of a family, in some instances, will procure as much as from $1,75 to $2,25, a month, by spinning cotton. The tanties or weavers are in six divisions, which
have no intercourse with each other, so as to visit or intermarry. They lay the frame of their loom on the ground, and sit with their

hanging down in a hole cut in the earth. coarse cloths worn by the natives are made in almost every At the Dhaku factory some years ago, cloths to the value village. of 80 lacks of rupees were bought by the East India Company in one year at Shantee-pooru the purchases in some years amount at Maldu to nearly the same sum, and at other to 12 or 15 lacks Muslins are there made which seil at places from 6 to 12 lacks. 100 rupees a piece. At two places in Bengal, Sonar-ga and Vicknum-pooru, muslins are made by a few families so exceedingly fine, that four months are required to weave one piece, which sells at from 400 to 500 rupees. When this muslin is laid on the grass, and the dew has fallen upon it, it is no longer discernable, The wool, or rather hair, which grows upon the Bengal sheep is so short and coarse that a warm garment can scarcely be manufactured
feet

"The

:

;

from
"

it."*

Of

the exquisite degree of perfection," says the eloquent histo-

riant of British India, " to

ductions of the loom,

it

modern nation can

vie

which the Hindoos have carried the would be idle to offer any description. in the delicacy and fineness of its cotton

pro-

No
tex-

*

A

View

of the History, &c., of the Hindoos, by William
vol.
iii.

Ward, of Se-

rampore, third edition, 1820, t Forbes.

pp.

125—7.

12
tures with Hindostan.

INTRODUCTION.
It is

observed, at the

same

time,

by

intelli*

gent

travellers, that this is the

only art which the original inhabito

tants of that country
perfection.

have carried
his

any

considerable degree of

To

the skill of the Hindoo in this branch of industry
;

geveral causes contributed

dimate and

soil

conspired to furnish

him with an abundance
is

of the

a sedentary employment, in

raw materials, and its manufacture harmony with the dishke of locomoIt requires patience,
;

tion generated

by the atmospheric temperature.
it

of which he has an inexhaustible fund
exertion, of

requires httle bodily

which he is always exceedingly spai^ing ; and the more slender the force which he is called upon to apply the weak and dehcate frame of the Hindoo, moreover, is accompanied with an acuteness of external sense, particularly of touch, which is altogether unrivalled, and the flexibihty of his
finer the tissue the
;

the band of the Hindoo, therefore, an organ adapted to the finest Operations of the loom, in a degree which is almost or altogether peculiar to himself." " A people," says Orme, " born under a sun too sultry to admit the exercises and fatigues necessary to form a robust nation, will, naturally, from the weakness of their bodies (especially if they have few wants) endeavour to obtain their scanty livelihood by the
fingers
is

equally remarkable

;

constitutes

easiest labours

;

it is

from hence, perhaps, that the manufactures
;

of cloth are so multiplied in Hindostan are the slightest tasks that a

spinning and weaving
to^ (?)

man

can be

set

and the num-

bers that do nothing eise in this country are exceedingly great."

Let US beg our reader's indulgence for these frequent diversions from the thread of our narrative. He will, perchance, bear them more patiently, if he keeps in mind that they are necessary to our design, that our first aim is to inform, not to amuse, and that in

and almost mind and to prepare it If the reader will remember this, we see not for graver pursuits. what should prevent us from travelling on, quietly and happily together, to the end of our journey. With this fair understanding
reading, as in every worthy employment, the highest

only value of amusement,

is

to relieve the

we resume

our narrative where

we

left

it.

Bishop Doane, of

New

Jersey, in

a

letter to

a friend in

this city,

gives a most interesting account of the

remarkable inscriptions

found on sorae ancient monuments near Adon, on the coast of Hadramant (Arabia,) and first deciphered by the Rev. C. Forster, of
Great Britain.
liest

These

records,

it is

said, restore to the

world

its

ear-

written language, and carry us back to the time of Jacob,
flood.

and

within 500 years of the

:

:

;

INTRODUCTION.

13
longest
is

The
at

inscriptions are in three parts.

The

of ten lines,

engraved on a smooth piece of rock forming one side of the terrace

Hisn Ghorab.

Then

there are three shorl Unes, found
hill.

small detached rock on the sumoiit of the hule
also

on a There are

two hnes found near the inscriptions, lower down the terrace. They all relate to one transaction, an incident in Adite history. The tribe of Ad according to Mr. Säle, were descended from Ad the son of Aws or Uz, the son of Aram, the son of Shem, the son of Noah. The event recorded is the route and entire destruction of the sons of Ac, an Arab tribe, by the Aws or tribe of Ad, whom
they invaded.
inscription
;

In Mr. Forster's book fac similes are given of the
;

the Aditie and the Hamyaritie aiphabet
its

and a
its

glos-

sary containing every word in them,
tion
;

derivation,

and

explana-

with notes of copious illustration npon every point which

they involve.

The

first

inscription of ten lines
zananas of

is

thus translated
mansion
;

:

We dwelt,
dition

living long luxuriously in the
froin misfortune

this spacious

our con-

exempt

and adversity.

RoUed

in
;

through our Channel.
our fountains flowed with

The

sea, swelling against our Castle with
fall,
;.

angry surge

munnuring

above

The

lofty

palms

whose keepers planted dry dates

in our Valley date-grounds

;

they

sowed the

arid rice.

We hunted
beguiling

the young mountain-goats and the

young

hares, with gins

and snares

we drew

forth the fishes.
galt, in needle-worJced,
!

We

walked with slow, proud
silks, in

many-coloured silk vestments, in

wJwle

grass-green chequered rohes

Over US presided kings, far removed from baseness, and stern chastisers of reprobate and wicked men. They noted down for us according to the doctrine of Heber, Good judgments, written in books to be kept and we proclaimed our belief in mira;

cles, in the resurrection, in

the return into the nostrils of the breath of
;

life.

Made an

inroad robbers, and would do us violence
stifF

we

rode forth,

we and

our gen-

erous youth, with

and sharp-pointed spears
;

;

rushing onward.

Proud Champions of our families and wives

fighting valiantly

upon coursers with long

necks, dun-coloured, ircn gray, and bright bay.

With

oui swords

still

wounding and piercing our
this refuse of

adversaries, until charging

home,

we

conquered and croshed

mankind.

The

short inscription in three lines reads thus

With

hostile haste, the
;

men

of crime

We
Our

assailed
horses,

onward rushed and trampled them under

foot.

The two
the terrace,

line inscription,
is

which

is

under the long

inscription, in

as follows

:

Divided into parts, and inscribed from right
of triumph, Sarash Dzerahh.

to left,

and marked with points,

this

song

Transpierced, and hunted down, and covered their faces withblackness, Aws the Beni Ac.

On
of his

the subject of these inscriptions, Mr. Forster, in his dedication

book

to the Ajclibishop of

Canterbury, thus remarks

;

14
"

rNTRODUCTION.

What

Job (who, living in the opposite quarter of Arabia, amid

the sands of the great Northern desert, had no lasting material

desired,

within reach on which to perpetuate his thoughts,) so earnestly " Oh that my words were Stands here realized." now
!

written

Oh

that they were pnnted in a book
lost tribe

!

That (Uke

the

Ad) they were graven with an iron pen, and lead, in the rock for ever. (For mine is a better and brighter revelation than theirs.) For I know that my Hedeemer hveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth and thoügh, after my skin, worras destroy this body, yet in the
kindred creed of the
of
;

fiesh shall

I see

God

:

whom

I shall see for myself,

and mine eyes

shall behold,

and not another."
not the antiqnity of these monuments, however high,
;

But which

it

is

constitntes their value

it

is

the precious central triiths of

revealed rehgion which they record

and which they have handed

down from
above

the

first

ages of the post-diluvian world, that raise theni

Viewed in this respect, they strike at the very root of scepticism, and leave not even his own hoilow groimd beneath the feet of the unbehever. For, if what the infidel vainly would
all price.

bring into the question, as originating with Christianity, Stands here
registered

as the primeval faith of

mankind, there
"

is

an end

at

once, to the idle sophistry of unbelief."

The

inscription

on the

rock of Hisn Ghorab, a contemporary witness of the faith of the most ancient of the okl Arabians, changes the State of things,
placing be5^ond the cavils of scepticism
itself,

at once, the fact

and
;

the purity of their belief in the scriptural doctrine of the resurrection

and presenting to the eye this great Gospel truth, (to borrowthe langnage of Mr. Burke), covered with the awfui hoar of innumerable ages. " It appears, says his Holiness Pope Alexander VI. that the world was first indebted to one Arkite Ghiden Ghelen, an extremely ingenious artizan of Nodville,
for

the

first

regularly manufactured
this terrestrial globe

piece of cloth ever produced on the surface of

was akin to what we at this day and generation call matting, and produced by twisting and interlacing leaf stems and fibres together yet the workmanship cannot be surpassed by
and although
it
;

the best manufacturers

of Bolting

Cloths

of the

present

day."

From

this

it

would appear that

bis holiness

had a sample of the
fig leaves

cloth actually in his possession.

Perhaps sewing the
to the

as

mentioned in the book of Genesis has reference
"
liness,

same

process.

An obvious improvement on the garment of leaves, proceeds his Howhich was suggested by twisting the peel of rushes into fine by which means superior textures were produced (See Fig.

«trings

INTRODUCTION.

15

13 ;)butthisimprovement was not adopted generally, in the partof the country of which we speak, tili after the death of Methuselah. It did not escape the notice of the mat weavers, that their work was rendered more flexible and agreeable to the wearer (particularly for under garments,) by the use of a finer fibre, and accordingly we find that numerous trials were actually made, with the fibres of various kinds of plants, such as those of the hemp and flax
species."
It is

Gurions

how the

descendants of our

first

parents obtained the

knowledge of spinning flax into thread. We are credibly infoimed that it was by supernatural agency. We are indeed told by W. Cooke Taylor of Trinity College, Dublin, that a tradition exists in Irelandj which goes far to prove that spinning was first effectually
practised in that country
;

but

we

disregard such testimony, as

we

have found the true and original story, from which the Irish one is evidently copied. This discovery we have made in the collection of Sir Henry Hunlock, and we think it right to give his version, which is as follows. " There were once an old woman and her daughter who lived at the side of a hill, (not under a hill, as the Hibernian would fain have it) in the midst of a forest, near Nodville. They were very poor, and their only support was obtained from selling the thread which the daughter spun with her spindle and distafT. During the long winter when the roads were so bad that merchants of the surrounding nations could not come
daughter,
to

purchase the thread.

The

on earth, worked without cessation, in order that she might have enough of thread when the spring market came to enable her to purchase a cloak for her mother and a scarlet shawl for herseif, in order that they might be properly attired while attending their devotions. (Where these shawls and cloaks were manufactured is a question for hierologists
lovely creatures
to solve.)

who was one of the most

happened that the king of that country, whose name was son, who while out one day deer hunting, went astray in the forest of Akiel, and called at the
"It so

Zannkul K. Euzen, had an only
to enquire the
less

widow's cottage
the
girl's

way.

He was

greatly Struck with

beauty and not

with the numerous hanks of yarn

which lay upon the floor of the cottage, and equally attested her skiU and industry. He asked how it happened that she had collected such an immense pile, and the old woman, whose name was Zabozok, replied that her daughter had spun the whole in a week. " In a week l" exclaimed the astonished prince, " if this be true, I

16
'

INTRODUCTION.

have found ä gaP more worthy of my attachment than any other I will send you a load of flax, and if she in the whole country. has it done by the end of a week, I will, without any other froof but if not, I will have you of her merit, choose her as my bride both cut in pieces and thrown to the cormorants and loons, for de;

ceiving the son of your sovereign."

"On

the very next day a long train of cameis, laden with flax,

stood before the door of the cottage,

loaded them told the

girl

that she

and the drivers having unmust spin this quantity in a week,

or prepare for death.

When
;

they departed her poor heart was

crushed with despair.
ting

She, however,

was unwilling

to

reproach

her mother, even by a look

and sitbegan bitterly to bewail her sad fate. While she was thus weeping and lamenting, a decrepit old man came up and enquired the cause of her tears, and in reply she told him the whole story. " Do not weep, daughter," he said, " I will execute every one of the tasks imposed upon you by the prince, provided that you will either give me your eldest son, when he is twelve months and a day old, or that you shall in the intervening time find out my name." She agreed at once to the terms. The old man, by some mysterious agency, conveyed away the flax, and about an hour before the time appointed for the prince's arrival, {which was halfpastfive o'clock in the morning) returned with the finest and best twisted thread that had ever been seen in Nodbut she went into the
forest,

down under a

tree,

ville.

The

prince, according to his promise, married the girl,

and

conveyed her with her mother to the palace, which stood upon a beautiful rising piece of ground about J of a mile from the city,

and overlooking
talents of gold.)

it.

(This palace must have been a very magnificost rather

cent building, as

it

more than eleven and a quarter

"Every Monday morning hefore sunrise the prince gave out to which he expected to be spun during the week, and every Saturday night the yarn was made ready At length the princess became for him by the mysterious old man. the mother of a beautiful boy, and the thoughts of the bargain she had made almost drove her to distraction. Every effbrt she made to discover the name of the wonderful spinner utterly failed, and he at every visit reminded her that the time was near when he would have the right to claim her child.
his heloved the quantity of flax

"One evening

as she sat oppressed with melancholy, her husband,

who had just
ness, but she

returned from hunting, enquired the cause of her sadto

was unable

answer him a word.

"

Come my love,"

:

;

!

; ;

INTRODUCTION.
said he, " do not be cast

17

down, and

I will entertain

you with an

account of a very surprising incident which occurred to
very day.
I lost

me

this

my way

while pursuing a fine stag which ran
forest.

towards the great rocks beyond the
his lurking place, I

While searching for voice, and foUowing the sound, came to a cave, where I saw an old man, the direction of who did not notice my approach, so deeply was he engaged in a Strange sort of labour he was spinning, not as you do with the distaff, but with wheels which flew round as rapidly as lightning, and gave out thread like water falling from a mountain torrent and all the while he never ceased singing,
thought
I

heard a

human

:

My mistress,
Which

little s?ie

shan't be forgot,

knows which

my name,
shan't be forgot,
I

When
I'll

Of Wallotty
come

a prince as heir to the fortune Trot, Wallotty Trot.
at the

claim

And

young prince, With my whack she goes While nobody knows
take the
!

end of a year and a day, my heir, away.

My

trusty machine,

In this cave unseen

Hera is the spol For Wallotty Trot!

"The

princess

made

her husband repeat the rhymes several times,

until she

was

sure that she could

Avaited with confidence for the return of the old

remember them perfectly, and man. He came at
'

the appointed time,
she,
^

there goes another

and claimed the child. Stop neighbour,' said word to that bargain. I have found out
Wallotty Trot.'
'

your

name

:

It

is

'

You have

indeed detected
;

my

name,' said he,

and

but before I depart

I

my business on earth is well nigh finished am bound to teil you the secrets of my art.'
and
in a

So saying, he went
with his wheels.

into the forest,

few seconds returned

He

then taught the lady their use, showing her

that she could spin a

could accomplish by
after

means

thousand times more with them than she and then vanished of the distaff
;

which he was never again seen in that part of the world. "The prince and princess taught this new brauch of industry to their subjects, Avhich so enriched them that all the surrounding nations regarded them with envy and admiration." These wheels are of similar construction to those introduced into Great Britain by Samuel Crompton, Avhich are known by the
appellation of the
for
'

hall-in-the-wood' machine.

It is

unnecessary

US to give drawings and descriptions of them, Mr. Baines of

3

Fig. and the draughtsman (Alexis Kersivenus of Alexandria) not being a weaver himself. we have sucit. ceeded in procuring a drawing of an ancient parch- ment scroll. having already done so. A. Arkite Ghiden Ghelen. from whom it de- scended to Chao Kong-hi-hi. and The first loom of which particularly in China.. not in every particular like the original. when a lad of about seventy years of age copied from and after having been at great trouble and expense. in their histories of the progress of the cotton manufacture in Great Britain. there is any authentic record still in existence. his successor. Ure of London. &c. Teling Ching Ouang.18 INTRODUCTION. After the death of Methuselah. (who reigned thirty-four years. the art of weaving appears to have made considerable advances in many parts of the East. and Dr. is that invented by .) But from the dilapidated State of the document. and seems have been chiefly applied to the manufacture of plaids . and Persia. founder of the Egyptian dynasty. we fear it is This scroll appears (from indorsements on its back) to have been once in the possession of the emperor of China. is a representation of the to looii. found among the curiosities of JSesac. India. which is of vertical construction. Leeds.

to possess an uncommon share of musical skill. in all probability. We would also add. the one a male and the other a female.INTRODUCTION. The is former of these if is behind the the web. descend. Two persons. it is not surpassed even by Tom Moore's No. for we process find from the perusal of ancient records (imperfect as they certainly The some weavers drew the weft through the Aveb with their and others used an implement somewhat iike a knitting needle. . Between these cloth roUer C. The may be seen at the bottom. . in a standing attitude. acquainted with any instrument analogoiis to the Shuttle. that the various figures composing the border of this drawing. consists merely of two posts. In point of symmetry. and looking as provoked at having spoiled some part of his work. who is playing on the harp. similar to the crook of a shepherd's staff. in front is adjusting. of weaving in this loom must have been very and of course the fabrics produced would be expensive in tedious. how- he ours. most useful instrument. Lepsius. aithough its proper position is evident enough from the manner in which the warp threads DD. The inventor does not appear to have been the same proportion. 1. each 4-^- inches in which are indicated posts the in the figure by the letters BB. yarn and cloth rollers are placed. 19 and chequers the patterns of which were most probably suggested by the interlacing of bark or stripes of broad leaved plants. strument is one of great tone. Indeed the modern plaids so obviously represent this origin of their patterns that no one except the most sceptical can for a moment doubt the correctness of this opinion. in . being far superior to the Irish harp . top is not are empioyed during the Operation. at least until we hear infor- from our friend. is calling for more and the reader must These are only suppositions of solve the vision for himself. The frame work diameter. We almost forgot to mention that young is Teague Ghelen. only 3 J years of age. cannot now be explained. but the yarn roller at the shown in the drawing. Tubal cain. to whom we have written for some mation respecting them. woman ever. aithough His inso young. from a well known author. perhaps. and it does not differ materially in its construction from those made by their originator. which. which doubtless insinuated the first idea of that are) that fingers. and seems. to pacify the old churl weft. We subjoin a few spirited verses. in all its other phases. but having a hook at one end.

The sun. turn to examine some other kinds of weaving in doing so our readers machinery. enchanled. of our grace and clemency did lend unto the said infidel the use of our royal ears. dog from the land of Shinar. at the errors and may rest assured that . . thereby enabling him to approach within nine cubits and a span of our most high Majesty to explain more clearly to our perfect understanding the peculiarities of the animal. . what are our feeble rhymes ? First master of the art of weaving Between two trees thy A loom like . gave thee hght No lamp. unclouded. and which the said allen pronounced in our hearing to * * * * * * be a creature of surprising capacity. And fruits. our beloved subjects. and slept at night /" Through day thou (Bmen Dku O' Farrell) We shall now (fec. grew around. we do not hold ourself responsible for any that may have been made by the respectable historian. " engaged with state * affairs. who called himself Arphaxad. on the ninth day of the month Adar. came unto us begging the loan of our royal ears. our information has been obtained from the most correct sources same first time. web was hung." says bis Majesty. delicious. from to present. sweetly sung. Thy cloth beam nearly touch'd the ground While birds. nor gas to thee was given work'd. Deioces. to the inventor of this simple. an object. while he would describe the nature of a wonderful engine of bis invention. Thou breath'd the freest air of heaven. whom * our correspondent * * * (Alexis Kersivenus of Alexandria) copied the specification and drawing which we are about '•' While. but.20 compliment apparatus " INTRODUCTION. and likely to add to the welfare of We. the king of the Medes. being so desirable at all times disposed to facilitate as much as in us lies. in our royal palace at Ecbatana. but ingenious weaving Great genius of the ancient times thine ! was well worth leaving To thee.

.

.

taken transversely through the lay. whom at the same time we commanded to speak slow. O most noble Deioces ! ! Great monarch of the Medes. O King. tweeled. tion. alter- upwards and downwards. May is it please your Majesty. and which. from one of the warps. one extending across the loom at and the other at the back. either separately. as the nature of the may be. as to have very little in common therewith. during its formation. Figure B. the father of our unfortunate brother Lot. whose laws change not Much to be dreaded ! May it please the King's most excellent majesty. applicable. I. or more pieces of cloth. or conjointly. is to enable me to four. an humble descendent of our great father Noah. * * * ' vertical mat and which loom or contrivance bore the title of Ghelen's But it is unnecessary to enter into a description loom. *. who * once lived in Ur of the Chaldees. consists in improvements on a weaving apparatus. excepting in the ciixumstance of the cloth. all its My invention. which is placed in a horizontal posi- with two reeds B B. The main weave nately. after having experienced sixty-five years of sore toil and anxiety of mind in this vale of tearsj a weaving engine to be driven by the power of compressed air. with suitable and yet my machine contrivances for moving it. each of which warps. in it. arranged. as the looms constructed according to the present improve- ments have such different properties from the said Ghelen's. with case combinations. as dehvered with mechanical monster. the words as recorded. and an extraordinary arrangement of the headles. that no We here give in our most exerrors of judgment might be made. and to copy down verhatim the whole of the Oration. to appear before us. and worked. The arrangement which I propose to eniploy. invented in the days of Haran. I now beg leave to explain. by the said heathen.' of it. While the barbarian was about his to proceed 21 with a description of mighty mandate. fear cellent History. whether piain. is divided into the front. to the manufacture of all sorts of cloth. C C. represents a vertical section of the creature. object of the present improvements . by means of a division in the centre of its reed. to ed .INTRODUCTION. calling upon our trusty scribe and penman. for the good of our well beloved subjects. or more webs at one Operation contains but one lay. Deog. A. or figured. have invented. Each of these reeds is adaptweave two. it And may please the King. extending in a vertical plane. parts and appurtenances. issued our we and trembhng in our royal presence.

.

.

Ol* INTRODUCTION. are now . may it please the King. at the same instant. the weft threads between And. The lay. and every headle has two. it is The fabric as woven is drawn upwards. then into the reeds B B. and each other threads which proceed from them. according to four. at suitable distances apart. are conducted E E. or more of the webs. or more eyes in it. through which Shuttles are to be thrown. the cloth rollers F F. a few spare . are tied across the . for the purpose of weaving more webs at once. and by working them. The sheds are is by a suitable action it of the headles. or are as follows. with after it its reeds. one at the back. all the warps will are to be woven at once be divided. and the other to the back Each headle operates upon two. while the lay ascending. which are to be thrown (with great precision) by a simultaneous motion. divided into two. (which is secured across the dents) extending the entire length of the reed.22 two. which set. for weaving distinct pieces of cloth and for this purpose. and new improvements which are proposed air-looms. and corresponding to the warp The accessaries. the placed at the bottom of the loom. or threads (as the case may be) in each of sheds. which are extended horizontally. to be applied to vertical my invention. or more of these races. and all when reaches its highest Position. The warps of these webs. immediately they have made their exit. are conducted upwards through the headles. or Ist. become exhausted. is divided by means of a long narrow ruler. and wound round rollers. And. it begins to ascend. to receive as many threads of warp. at its lowest descending point. for the passage of as many Shuttles. and the other at the front of the loom. for their re- The warp threads. lers. the surface of the dents of each reed. the reeds knock up the closed warp. are to be wound upon two rollers parallel to D : D. beneath the reeds. is divided into two. so that the surface which the dents present. through the several sheds open ception. The headles loom from front to back. In Order to avoid stopping the motion of the loom when one or more of the weft threads break. one of them belonging to the front warp roller and front reed. while the Shuttles are passing through the sheds but. tlie leaving- a weft thread. more distinct sheds. There are in all four. carrying up with all closed the weft threads. The threads so proceeding from each warp roller. as they come from their respective rol- up through these shuttle races. or more parallel shuttle races. may it please the King. . in the same machine. and opened into sheds. remains stationary. or more series.

INTRODUCTION. being no longer upheld. made some through the back ' machine.' at the lower other convenient place. the point of the shuttle the propeller. which might otherwise occur. and from thence conducted Catcher. then through a hole at the lightest end. a cylinder containing a moderate the shuttle being entered at the bullets are quantity of cornpressed top of the into ' On it fly. that is way to replace some one of has become constantly exhausted. forces back a projection that protrudes through an openmg in the picker : and this projection on being forced back. is with a spring dent 1. and out at the eye 7. is provided 2.) The method by which I accomplish the Operation is this On a weft thread breaking or becoming exhausted. will lie on the bottom of the shuttle elevating the other end. the cop shuttle tender (bobbin winder) tips the speeds its let off. Fig. and over the studs 4 and 5. (exactly in the same way that dropped Perkin's steam gun') descends into the return conductor. may if it please the King. where the end of a rod. nevertheless the loom will stop of own accord : : by which this is efFected is as follows The shuttle. and the Shoulder thus will prevent formed any little mishap of that nature. Shuttles are to be lodged in suitable receptacles. will cause a ranged. the receptacles be not proits That by neglect of the cop the arrangement vided with spare Shuttles. that the change of sliuttle instant aneousl)^. 23 which are so armere breaking of a weft thread. (as the case end of the weaving room. may be) where it is or at is refitted with a ' new air cop or fly. (by the Substitution of a spare one in its stead. into side of the ponding shuttle to the a sluice. C. the weightier end of the detent. through an opening (or eye) end of the detent. which on entering the box or cell. about two-thirds of the nib's length. that may is not be injured by the sudden action of fit hollowed out to the end of the shuttle. and is kept raised by the tension of the weft thread. nearest the cop made heavier than the other. put into what is generally designated Nahor's in which air. not unlike the suction-rod of is one of your it . the end of which. the latter to brought to bear against but. the correswill be jerked out of the lay. And.' quill. The shuttle being thus ' made ready. Thus. on the breaking or failure of the weft thread. tender. Majesty's garden pumps. at the when unbroken which thread passes over the pin 3. passing under the pin 6. and thus a uniform system of Operation kept up. .' its whereupon that fellows.

upon a series of levers. are loaded with only small retaining weights. as there are pairs of spare . attached to the rod I. for the purpose of l^eping the webs of cloth properly extended. means oi any convenient number of headles. 2d. as many times. the pincers advance towards each other.24 acts INTRODUCTION. or more. which moves the lay up and down. and their jaws are again opened. may it please the King. while the sheds of the warp are closing. at each side of the loom. knocked up by the reeds.) Shuttles provided (say eleven times but.) the is whole number has been exhausted. The loo^ also provided with Substitutes for temples. or more webs of piain cloth at once but it admits of introducing a greater number of headles. their places being fiUed by the two adjoining cells. This piece H causes the two rollers shown by the dots. or Shuttle failure. and another change by means of a lever. 4th. may it please the King. if by the neglect of the tender. This Operation is repeated on the breaking. in fact. the jaws of all the pincers are closed by the wedge-like piece H. of which there Af- are four. warp roller. And. (as I before stated. or more pairs. And may is it please the King. containing spare Shuttles. of a weft thread. on the main driving shaft. and the lay is moving up towards the cloth. by 3d. to move towards the right hand side of the ioom. two. ready to grasp their several seivages as before. the mechanism by which they are workeld {with a slight Variation) admits of weaving any kind is And. and two clicks are so connected . of tweeled cloth. during the Operation of weaving : they are a sort of pincers JJ. then. ter the Shuttles are thrown. (applied as in said Ghelen's loom) in order that the friction thereby produced may occasion but a slight resistance to the rota- tion of the rollers. to recede from each other. The warp rollers DD. . which pins keep this shaft attached to the working parts of the loom. so contrived as to be suitable for . draw out the connecting pins from the lay arms. in not replenishing the cells with spare Shuttles. and to close The moment the picks of weft are the pincers upon the seivages. than the two which are requisite for piain weaving and. and as soon as this is accomplished motion will yet required. mounting weaving four. the safety regulator will. The arrangement of the headles or what is called the of the loom. warp is drawn is ofF A ratchet wheel fixed by the gradual Formaupon one end of each with the machinery. the lay descends. which cause the cells containing this and its fellows. as the tion of the cloth. be suspended.

leaving them at liberty to yield and Each of the cloth rollers gathers up two or give ofF more warp. at the top of the loom. By means of other mechanism for changing Shuttles. and bears upon the cloth wound upon it. one from each end of a levers re- 4 . which contain weft of sets of Shuttles ries have as many cells. from the teeth of the ratchet wheels. or receptacles for the reveral Shuttles. . which winds up only one thickness. which in stripes. attached to a lever. taking into the They are turned by the screws or worms the screws or worms receive their motion teeth of the wheels O O from a ratchet wheel N. which may. and thus the cloth continually diminished speed. the lever. may be) suitably arranged in the previous Operation of warping ing cross and longitudinal duced. The mechanism for turning the cloth roller round adapts itself to this circnmstance. different colours.INTRODUCTION. being raised. and consequently it will increase in size faster than said Ghelen's loom. so that as the roller increases the weft. of different colours of weft yarns. or of dif- ferent strength and appearance. will oc- casion like changes in the web. and the warp requires to be opened into shedS. and will turn the warp roller round as much as is necessary to wind it back to a suitable tension but as the lay descends again. : M : : in diameter. as are required . Avill limit the descent of the lever above mentioned. those made machine. boxes being hung. for the reception of the several and they are raised or lowered by means of a These se- of levers. more pieces at once. that as it is rising to knock up and while the sheds are closing. or strength of warp thread. situated one over another. so as to take up the cloth at the same rate when the rollers have become larger. having an ascending and descending motion. suspended on the axis P. each of the clicks will be brought into the teeth of the ratchets. the webs may have cross stripes. be combined with longitudinal stripes of various colours. ing means M. as when they were smaller. by the accumulation of cloth around This is effected by the follow»<hem. rollers will be turned with a 5th. which is parallel with the roller. may it please the King. affixed on the same axis this ratchet wheel is turned by four clicks. so that by combinbe proin Ghelen's chequered patterns may many respects dlffer from. the rest. or threads (as the case . or drivers. For this purpose the several sets of spare Shuttles being charged with different kinds of weft. The Shuttle boxes. also. the said clicks are withdrawn by the machinery. And. so as to produce cross stripes. This motion is regulated by a rest that rises from a rod. which carries tlie lay 25 up and down.

which receives the diversification of its action. the four. from a pattern board X. in order to bring the particular set of Shuttles wanted. which are to be woven at may have ornamental patterns upon them of the nature of what is termed fancy weaving. (at certain intervals of time) durlet fall upon the said carved sursome of them are allowed Those which are sustained by the more to drop lower than others. upon by a revolving miich as barrel. T. thereby producing a great variety of patterns and also. as shown X. or more webs. comes in contact with certain lateral prominences in the needles. at the top of the loom. severally. adapted for figure weaving. by the straight edge. The front extremities of those levers which are not drawn back. until some are drawn back with an endway motion upon their fulcrum. with a new plan of mounting . Each needle is connected with. their front ends form a row across the loom. which levers are placed transversely over the loom. its length and by side in a row. placed horizontally across all the rows edge.26 ceives their motion INTRODUCTION. being propelled through the several 3th And. the parts which are sundry colours being cut doAvn is to different its corresponding depths. or more of the headles are suspendnear to the middle of . are acted upon by a straight edge which straight or rule T. prominent parts of the carving. which rises ed from each of these all levers. may it please the King. D. are hfted up by the edge of a horizontal lifting bar W. from another series wliicli are operated rollers. combined with new figur- ing machinery. by carving on the pating the Operation of the loom. are face. tern-board. Upon the once. .) is This mechanism for raises or loweis the boxes. and by the inequalities of the relief. in lieu of the said figure weaving machinery. to a proper level sheds. ' flat surface of this board the design to exhibit the is carved in relief. I apply a peculiar combination of suitable parts. which stand side by side in vertical positions. at Fig. back ends One. being taken backward when required to act. their bearing upon a fulcrum. its carved sur- face being presented beneath the under extremities of a row of needles or small slides S. These needles. The pattern-board now at placed in Situa- tion at the Upper part of the loom. the levers being thus placed side . acting upon their corresponding needles. just as necessary. or tied to a lever U. placed above the cloth (but not sliown in the dravving. so as to push back all those which are prevented from falling. above described mechanism can be readily altered so as to operate with different Orders of succession. which is shown on a large scale. The the headles. .' Or.

Should the board have only half the pattern intended to be woven. a portion of the carved surface of the pattern-board.) by the pinion Y. and thus the other half is produced. And.INTRODUCTION. and these wheels are turned by drivers.on the pattern-board needles are thus divided into several series. with the same speed that it went forward. by the straight edge T. so on. (see also Genesis. And. returns in an oppo- and To eise produce a Variation in the succession of the changes of the Shuttles. to form the pattern. or for- a slow progressive manner. the sheds of warp are being opened and in rising up those headles which are connected to them. may it please the King. taking in- This pinion to the rack Z. 21. iv. which are acted successively. its first position but. and carved with ternate elevations and depressions. the needles are raised and again. The is pattern-board fastened upon a moveable wards (in table R. as soon as site direction. the organ builder. as soon as that is worked up to its last line or change then. Pat- two similar halves. upwards. for lifting their several elbow . 27 . time the pattern-board moves. if only half first) the pattern Covers then. its motion from tAvo ratchet wheels fastened on the same receives axis. terns consisting of may be carved on the circumwhich is in all respects the same as those formerly constructed by our relation. must be provided. the action is reversed. is efiliey pull when fected. with an instantaneous movement. so as to Each let fall come on a selection different part of the pattern. as soon as the latter it has been once passed . the pattern ference of a cyhnder. 7th. it. which is now worked backward. its As soon as the pattern board has been conducted along board returns carved upon to its first position. alternately.) mounted on a horizontal axis. all the needles are lifted whole ränge. or al- a distinct pattern-board. by which means a proper selection of warp threads. it (the other half being a repetition of the it has made one revolution. transferred to the cloth. attached to the under part of the table. d^r the needles. Jubal. in order to X. need only half the carving of those described in a former instance. may it please the King. If the pattern is exactly the uii- size of the cylinder. and turned Instead of the above. by which means another is effected. bringing the needles on the second hne of the board. which shifted either backwards. the upon produce a change is in the selection of warp threads. round with a slow progressive motion. and the figure up whereupon the . will return to it. By the different depths of carving.

and the levers below. is . of the kind before described. It was before from each lever . in a similar manner to the pattern cylinder before described. figure weaving loom is will be simpler. for . a small cylinder or revolving barrel^ the surface of which is carved into a series of suitable prominences and depressions in order to actuate the needles. I would remark also that when small patterns are to be produced upon the cloth. for other purposes than that to which Ipropose to apply them^ to the invention of to therefore. Iprestated that only one or but. may also be applied for effecting the rais- ing or lowering of the shuttle boxes. in a pro'per inanner to change the Shuttles. and disposed in the two headles were suspended by means of the lams. are united to a few of wood or iron) so that by drawing up one of these a number to of headles may be raised together with one motion. make no claim such barreis. studded with projecting pins. produced by a distinct To effect this. same row. may it please the The mechanism of the King. those that are to form the lams (thin shafts headles which belong to the yarns warp of the piain ground. (for working any reasonable number of leaves of headles) a contriall parts . as the position into which turned and detained. and produce cross stripes the revolving barrel. in the same vertical power loom face of said barreis are carved with different heights and depths. previous to every suc- ceeding pick of weft. instead of the said machinery. The lams are be suspended from horizontal levers at the top of the loom. I use. to And. determines which of the different colours of weft. which are connected with stop detents. cylindrical barreis. . and which 'might be actuated by being dropped upon a suitable part of the surface of the pattern board but. These are provided with needles similar to the others. similar the organ barreis of said Jubal. fer to Substitute instead. shall be thrown. in a similar manner to the levers U. and determining their positions.28 levers. for detaining them. several may be suspended from each of them. may it please the King. at figure my needles and other necessary parts. with weaving four or more webs and also when the surat once. if the piain or tweeled ground of the cloth apparatus. INTRODUCTION. except when the same are applied weaving machinery. Whereas. before The revolving mentioned. And. have been used in different parts I. barrel. of your most gracious Majesty's dominions. as this would only produce a repetition of a simple series of changes. which are to be represented on the cloth with diflference of colouring.

according to the elevations and depressions formed in the wheel. indented grooves are made or purpose. having different shaped grooves. and acts upon vertical rack bars that take into a pinion. agreeably to the command of the tappet wheel. attached to an upright . There are certain vibrating bars connected with the jacks and with the needles. according to the sort of cloth be woven. and a different zigzag groove produced to when required. Avhich are taken hold of by horizontal bars connected to the treadles. to suit cloth. may it please the King. but yet is so essential to the I also claim the hofiour of inventing general well-being thereof. of which Segment pieces. is connected above to the two outer jacks. the when this is combined. which are thrown from side to side by the action of the tappet rod on the racks and pinions and these bars have notches in their edges. hence. and of shifting them where any Variation in the weaving is wanted. that I cannot resist the temptation of explaining it separately^ and claiming it in combination with the former (notwithstanding the claims of the said Ghelen. .INTRODUCTION. And. which has no connection whatever vnfh any part of my machinery already described. tappet wheel revolves. portions of the which raises and depresses the and thereby prevents any under strain. which ble I call 29 a tappet wheel. formed of a suitain the faces cast. and the requisite portions of the warp are raised and depressed to form the sheds. works a crank that is slides the pattern board. for number of segment pieces of iron or smooth stone. The rod which holds the roller that works in the tappet. vance or invention. thereby superseding the necessity of casting or making many wheels.) The leading feature of this improvement consists in the peculiar arrangement and order of working certain parts of looms in general. The rising of the tappet rod. so that a new description of cloth shall be produced or woven and it is more particularly adapted to that class of silk fabrics called . the treadles are worked The Segment pieces are all made to correspond and to fit together in the wheel. any required pattern to be roller woven in the In zigzag groove a works. which connected to the levers or treadles and. so that they may be readily changed. a new arrangement of mechanism. for the purpose of moving or holding back certain warp equally. rod. of producing a zigzag groove round the face of the wheel. and brings the successive lines of the pat: tern under the ends of the levers or needles and a spring intro- duced to ease the action of the pattern frame. as the np and down. and the rack bar. of the needles. as in the ordinary power loom.

of course.30 * INTRODUCTION. both in point of texture and quahty €onsists in its the great novelty of which having a . while the reverse back side of the cloth presents a duU unsightly appearance. by or the aid of my ÜTiprovements. as sides or surfaces. Having now described the nature of my inventions. in the arrangement and order of working the loom. a double cloth. ^ths of the weft. so as to divide or shed' the two. or improve- ments in looms worked by the power of * air. and by introducing a double set of warp tljreads. as it was above And. . to each pick of the weft the face. simply. lifting one headle out of every eight. owing to the absence of the warp threads to the vision. shall rise and fall at certain incerlain ititervals. leaving -Jth part down. threads are to be prepared is The warp as usual . side of the fabric and am enabled also to present. All this I accomplish with the aid of the tappets. (that. . for the upper the cloth. required to have two distinct colours. it appearance were. by threads of weft at which such manufacture is to be effected is entirely dependant upon the peculiar order. Now. as in former plan. to bind the picks. or more colom'ed warps in such a manner that a certain number of threads floating' to cover the weft on each side. one upon each side or surface) then^ the warps must. or any other agent of Klang Nau. the name of a Chinese province. and wound upon a beam but in case the cloth is. perfect or distinct finished surface I on each piece. by the and this may be effected. I am enabled to produce a very extraordinary description of goods. The under may be produced by arranging the tappets so as to hft ^ths of the warp. having two perfect or held together. owing to the brilliancy of the warp threads being thrown up on one side or surface. and also shall always be a proper number of threads. and thus |ths of the weft will be thrown on the under side. Kiang Nau'* the ordinary quality of which has one face highly finished and glossy. brilliancy or without the slightest Variation in otherwise. that the satin or glossy face may be produced. in the upper cloth. and bound The manner in ' ' tervals. one upon each side or surface of the finish. only. or succession of working the treadles. by which means satin face. by weft instead of the warp . satin . two entirely different colours of cloth. as already recorded^ the treadles being worked by them in order to open the proper sheds. be of the colours of the intended satin. will show on instead of |ths cloth of the warp. I would also remark. but being. it may please the King. .

or fail. or Shuttles of the attendant. the said mechanism then Substitutes a spare Shuttle. improvement or improvements. notwithstanding all these precautionary measures. I claim as my invention. various contrivances Shuttles. the loom should not stop when required. i hve in this world. that while which I wish to be considered the honourable inventor of. I when the weft thread breaks or make no claim to the invention of a mo- tion in the shuttle. may it please the King. or otherwise affixed as the nature of the case may require. but only to the mechanism which changes the Shuttles for others containing weft thread. I desire your Majesty to understand that I do not claim as my invention or inventions. as fast as the weft thread. and each of them being divided into two. any other number of webs of cloth at once. (as before described) are which connect the lay to the main driving drawn from the arms shaft of the machine . cut through the back side of the mathe purpose set forth. in a vertical äir loom. or any other number of webs in the same moving frame or lay. procured. 2d. same engine of. Ist. the . viz. for knocking. or conductor. before action of the various parts. of forcing or pitching the Shuttles.) and the headles dividing the warps. is. being adapted for opening the same into four. or threads. combinations. or more separate shuttle races (for weaving half the number of webs. The reeds BB. for the purpose of causing the loom to stop. or otherwise for brought into existence. the linch pins or keys. . in the or verticle power loom. and nation. . in the manner and for over. so as to And. or . for weaving four.INTRODUCTION. first.. or combinations. whereas. 31 which may be or hereafter found out. And. by an instantaneous movement. morehave been before applied in cause the loom to cease Operation. the purpose already described. or more sheds. I also claim the become exhausted. peculiar method before described. O King ! by simultaneous and appurtenances theredescribed and set forth or looms. If by any untoward circumstance. or more weft thread. the mechanism described for changing the Shuttles. combi- whole of said machinery as many parts thereof are of the said Ghelen's invention. of weaving four. When any one. without any act and without stopping the loom. or any other number of webs at once. nature. or into a sluice. in the manner. or pounding up the weft. chine. falls. but what I more particularly mean to confine myself to. and in common use . or threads break. threads break. or wefts such reeds being contained of four. and that too without stopping the loom.

or more figured webs of cloth may ! be woven claim the for and the same Operation . (which weave one piece of cloth at a time) for the purpose of holding such cloth. or chequered patterns of every possible description effecting all figure. of applying and comof move- biningj or otherwise arranging four. of the mode of mount- ing the headles. from a carved pattern board. And. in a vertical power loom. which are woven at once. or appearances. before described. I by the power of air. or vertical niat any other ki?id of loo'm^ the said Ghelen's loom excepted. claim the improvement. I claim the improvement. for the purpose of producing cross . for changes of colouring. this is accomplished. in their claws. or crabs have been applied to ordinary looms. may it please ttie King. suitably for weaving figured patterns. O King I improvement. Ai'ybas (a sojourner in the Cities of the Piain) I to make no claim them . or more webs. And. when 3d. for more webs at once nor do I mean to confine these particulars^ but wiH be governed by the nature of . or any other number to be able pincers or crabs. and. propelled weaving four. whereas. containing cops or quills of different colours. suitably at one for figure weaving. but only to the application of my apparatus to vertical looms. drawing up the headles. And. (as the case may be) to the same width at which the reed leaves it. I claim the improvement. before described. stripes. jaws. for extending. in a vertical power loom. widening or stretching (in breadth) tlie cloth of four. may it please the King. such nippers having been invented by Lemuel P. 4th. or and also. All these arrangements I claim to be of my invention. or any other agent.32 INTRODUCTION. a kind of pincers. as the nature of the case may require. before described. in a vertical. charged with another carriage fuU of Shuttles. after having beaten in the weft. lastly. 5th. or myself to the work to be produced. or from carving on the : circumference of a revolving cyhnder. when all the weft in such Shuttles as are contained in a recepand also that of replacing such retacle. or appearance as are required in ornamental weaving. by which four. ceptacles. of mechanism for changing the shuttle boxes. on a surprising number of webs at once which mechanism derives the diversification of its successive actions on the headles. And. before described. or gums. from one side of the loom to the other. motion will he effectually suspended. has become exhausted . that carving being a repre- . may it please the King. or combination of mechanism.

as copied condescend follows to add in and to be affixed to the deword for word by Deog. And. sentation of tlie 33 with different stages in required pattern. R. the heiglits and depths thereof. may . to the contrary notwithstanding. and in which we made various enquiries respecting the several human figures. and of the said Arybas. the tappet wheel contrivance or apparatus. After hearing the Oration of the said Arphaxad. in testimony set whereof I hereunto. be derived from changing the kinds of weft which are em- ployed and I also claim. Witnesses . &c. the claims of the said Ghelen. represented in the draw- 5 . the claims of the said Arkite Ghiden Ghelen. or of the said Lemuel P. during the natural period of bis .. K. Arybas to the contrary notwithstanding . in relief. improvements. on this tenth day of the month Adar. or materials (as the case may be) the claims of the said Ghelen to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. seal. for working ahle any reason- number of leaves of headles. existence in this world and we commanded a short Document to be drawn out by our scribe. before described. to we ordered him be rewarded with an annual pension of forty-five shekels of gold. qualities. ARPHAXAD. or with other variations in appearance. to be regularly signed by the inventor before witnesses (he being a barbarian) scription of the monster. I also claim the honour of inventing the improvement in looms for weaving in the same piece of cloth. which is as All these arrangements. and combinations of mechanism. in ans wer to one we wrote to that polite gentleman on the 22d January last. as of my invention. my band and E. or fabric having two equally perfect and finished sides or surfaces. either of similar or distinct colours. j^ p^ We have received the foUowing letter from our friend at Alex- andria (Egypt. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ S. may it please the King. or more pieces of imitatioji Kiang Nau satin. I claim as of my invention. in lawful money of these realms. We our History this document. ZiFF Deog. at all the parts wliich are to be woven with as different colours.) who furnished us with the foregoing specification and drawing. two.INTRODUCTIO^.

I received your favour this morning. and from thence into his interior. I last. for the purpose of giving notice to the weavers. of America. this is no business of mine . April 23d. being well versed in such matters. the Operation will be obvious after a ex- . Kersivenus. In answer to your first enquiry as to what the figure No. have the proper spirit to appreciate your exertions to benefit them useful engine amongst them. January place. I entertain no fears of your success. 1842. well knowing that such an enlightened people as the natives of the United States in their manufactures. the truth is. when a weft or warp thread breaks. 1842. is by the introduction of thismost However. a small tube is soldered of sufficient length to reach under extremity of the figure No.) give you an explanation of the various represented in the drawing along with the machine. but of which the historian (we regret to say) gives no account. the contents of which I duly note. my dear for I forgot to do so . 1. 1843. bearing date In the first 22d. as described in by the inventor is before king Deioces. the immense expense levied by his Highness before I was permitted to copy from the original scroll. besides. or cylinder. which I had the pleasure of sending you on the llth August. ing with Arphaxad's machine. that it is not a human being. having 3796 holes of ^ inch in diameter pierced in it . Dear friend. Mr. I would State. m the present letter. friend. now that you have received the drawing. to hear of the safe arrival at am happy New York. and my object at present to answer your I letter. explains nearly all these important omissions. But. placed transversely at the back of the different warps. he is perched upon the top of the loom. and the procurement of which gave me no small trouble. : The manner There is which the loon operates as follows an air cistern. of the drawing of Arphaxad's loom. Alexandria. You enquire the reason why did not (in my letter of llth August. and for what purpose. 1 is. and I now beg pardon hav- ing been guilty of so great an Omission. passing into that part of the machine on which it is seated. in case the other motions fall to perform their respec- üve functions. but only a part of the mechanism called the alarm loo?i. as one might at first sight suppose. which is faithful in every particular.34 INTRODUCTION. human figures Why. This arrangeraent being to the little up clearly understood. to each one of which holes.

to attach midway between tube and the warp thread. and 5 J the valve on the side of the air inches in length. just about linder. Lepsius. the next a small lead of about 2 ounces in weight. 1. the mechanism of the figure No. Should more than one thread break at a time. 35 on the side of There is a small valve or air latch each cy- of these tubes or air conductors. ing. that life almost invariably becomes extinct It appears from the original before they reach the ground at all. and. that in no instance do any of the poor fellows survive a fall from the engine. it is an astonishing fact. and by descending force. which instantly rushes into the figure No. as soon as I hear from our friends. and Mr. loud enough to be heard all over the factory. that out of every 76 persons who met a horrid death through its instrumentality. all lifts his reserve foot. adapts itself to that incident. A similar method is employed with the weft threads. is and by this means a allowed to escape from the general reser. for instance as any of the workmen who are occupied inside of the machine falling through the rigging. that the cylinder lid in main through the the crown of the loon's head. is when weight allowed to drop through a all small hole in a plate. 2^ inches from the it. by giving a corresponding notice should any serious accident occur. disengaged.) There is not the shadow of a doubt on my mind. the tubes from the safety. plaimtion. myself. such. the alarm loon blows five times in rapid succession and in case of two hands falling over-board at the same instant. is its cord. as is represented in the drawfigure. under which fit. kicking his ring hat. elevates the trumpet. Dr. by reason of having made a mis-step. in regard to the rise and progress of this desperately complex machine. As soon its as a thread breaks. Taylor of Dublin. To is each of these latches. 65 were apprentices (or green hands. 1 whereupon that by the aid of a very ingenious piece of mechanism in its inside. of course. and gives a shrill blast. depresses one end of a lever which acts upon the safety valve. to whom I have written on the subject.valves in whereupon the whole of the air escapes and thus the loom is effectually stopped until new hands are provided. indeed. but this I shall explain to you in another letter. . the end of a small cord or wire fast. This done. (corresponding to the thread.) sufficient quantity of air voir. then. records in the possession of his Highness. — . which serves to guide its the weights. and from what I. could decipher from other documents. however.INTRODUCTION. I am credibly informed by his Highness. chain thing made the other end having an eyelet hole in to pass freely to ad- mit a warp thread is through it. the trumpeter oft* blows eleven times.

is just number of these dread- ful accidents. 6. I am of opinion. that you would confer a lasting benefit on mankind. such a question. that 1 shall not venture to give any other opinion about her. my dear sir. but I confess my inability to give you any very definite reply weighed the subject. in all its bearings. could you make either of these improvements. shift bis Position before it begins to open its jaws. at least on those who are called weavers. 3. Now. and to-morrow. from the fact of her wearing three balls to her . not having yet. I that the men w^ould have a sure standing place to work upon say. and 7. and so is his Highness. of bis exit. However. 4. have observed that they are all feglyphics. . no doubt. such as is dead bodies. if not altogether to prevent such occurrences from taking this is In a country like yours^ as valuahle as any other niarCs^ where one maii^s life a matter which relose their lives in this quires your serious consideration. that the mechanism so extensive inside as to . as place in future. my present Impression that cir- the principal cause of these misfortunes may be ascribed to the monopolize nearly all the footing or standing place and as some parts of the machinery require to be operated by the band. Each of them wears on her cap the symbol of her rank in the band. and as this knock most or kick commonly given on the crown of the head. by the Substitution of power or could you make such alterations. You desire me to explain the meaning of the figures 2. so to lessen the you improve tlie internal ar- rangements of the engine. . and others by power. and the section on which he Stands is the next to be operated upon by the air cylinder. in cases. I intend writing to bim on the subject As ^oon as hia answer arrives. it often occurs that the v7orkman. or want of experience. but she is so curious altogether in appearance. &c. for the purpose of away obstructions. he is at once let through the slide^ receiving at the moment figure. male musicians. Perhaps figure 5 is an exception.36 INTRODÜCTION. and should he not is cumstance. Lepsius. life. as you say you are not much skilled in the science of hieroYou will. and all the ingenuity you possess. I took her to be a pawnbroker's wife. will in the course of a short time. horns . I will give you a com- . from inattention. becomes extinct instantly. is a knock from a revolving guard or automaton the platform of the Clearing which placed und er main pattern-board levers. fails in performing bis part of the work within the necessary time. as is. however as I am not so certain of her grade. could you do away with the manual labour. until I hear from our friend Dr. You to ask the reason why so many workmen sufficiently business. At first sight. 5.

it is generaliy supposed. L. that flax tine .INTRODUCTION. the latter for forming the subject of a beautiful allusion in the book of Job : "My They days are slighterthan the weaver's yarn. World in which. vii chap. 6 ver. I will also write W. still. plete to 37 by the same post. Civil Engineer.. beüeve me to be. P. little. we have no hesitation in saying. in the ages of the Jewish dispensation. &c. Had some ****** kisses. we find from the book was very anciently cultivated even in PalesRahab." Althongh Arphaxad lived in a period of the of our . C. knows all about it. concealed the spies under the stalks of flax which she had laid to dry on the house top. a bronze monument (higher than the Colossus at Rhodes) for a narrow stripe of territory. after Chaos has spread his dusky pinions around their once ambitious intellects. having lately turned bis attention to these subjects and. it miglit have saved them many an aching head and broken heart and. Your most obedient servant. L. Taylor. with permission from bis Highness. explan ation of that figure. with a vial of frankincense * * ! . Cleopatra sends yoii her love. ( Wemyss's Trans. where earliest they made great progress. as delivered by himself Median monarch. S. or to have before the greatest scheming-inventors . dyeing. are finished hke the breaking of a thread. of Joshua. and weaving now spread rapidly and Egypt. head piece to their The arts of spinning. men knew comparatively we think that his specification. over various parts of China. doubtless. as he. Indeed.) . this is none of our business. and three embalmed and hopes soon to modern inventors seen this loom. in the meantime. together * * * My family are all well. extending into Palestine. ALEXIS KERSIVENUS. is scarcely to be equalled by our and patent agents of the present day and we would recommend it as a model to all those aspiring spirits who expect to reach the uppermost step of fame's ladder. Hindostan. the harlot of Jericho. ." Job. Spinning and weaving were also practised in Idumea. Persia. D. that it would have effectually shown them how far they had been anticipated by an unpretending individual who never even so much as thought it worth while to secure its benefits to himself by " Letters Patent. However. with its various appurtenances. Homeopathic Physician.

such as we should in the present day call factories of no small magnitude. into a foreign market. This early example of a commercial treaty for is curiously illustrated by the reas we find from them. and commerce and manufacturing in. so that there was not only enough of yarn left for home consumpor fixed duty. my web. enabled terranean. he will finish Isaiah xxxviii chap. equally averse to dustry. ble of Arphaxad's inventions. he would have protected but Solomon was aware that the protection and Spinners would so enhance the price that they could not bring their goods did not establish a monopoly. But. appears that one of the most valuathat of his improved Shuttle . no great it. . to return to our subject. Solomon exerted himself to reform the national habits he established an emporium at Eziongeber. that useful implement in weaving. by which the piece is fastened to the yarn roUer in the loom. which has sadly perplexed commentators. Hebrew flax-growers of yarn to Hebrew weavers. a great injury to the and instead of telling his weavers market. He saw very clearly that every m. But. he endeavoured to open to look exclusively to the home it them as many foreign markets as possible. regulating a tariff of intercourse.38 INTRODUCTION." (LoidWs Trans. the history of Samson. a passage is by the way. when his work is completed : My life is He cut off as by the weaver . progress could ever have been made without Shuttles were . while his connexion with the him to participate in the commerce of the Medi- appears that he entered into a league with the reigning king of Egypt. were practised by the Philistines. seems entirely have been unknown to Ghelen . It seas. and. cent discoveries in Egyptian antiquities that the Pharoahs had very large spinning establishments. to open trading Communications with the eastern Tyrians. but at once explained by the custom of the weaver's cutting away the thrums. tion in the valley of the Nile but also for exportation. Had Solo- mon resembled some modern statesmen. arts of it is evident that the cultivation of and the spinning and weaving. will sever me from the loom In the course of the day. Hebrews were essentially an agricultural. the pastoral people. to receive linen yarn at a stipulated price. is There the same Image in Hezekiah's complaint. 12 ver. was for. as to we have already stated.) From flax.ono'poly is many for for the benefit of the few. for he the spinning industry of Judea by laying a prohibitory duty on the import of foreign yarn to . indeed.

XVII. reminding us of the sorrow of Penelope " Füll opposite before the folding gate. lenged Minerva. indeed. She reAn- Leda." It is narrated that Arachne. ever. Taylor of Dublin. that she chal- invented the . But the sombre aspect of persons thus engaged is easily explained that most of the female Spinners and weavers in Egypt. and hanging herseif in despair. how- English have the hardihood to claim the merit of having "fly shuttle. yet she by Minerva. Asteria. in his " Sketch of the Progress of the Cotton and WooUen Manufactures. to a trial of skill. were captives taken in war. tiope. It will be remembered with what bitterness of feeling Hector forebodes such a fate for his beloved Andromache and. as it ap- when we remember . a woman of Colyphon (daughter of Idmon. the amours of Jupiter with Europa. shows his depth of learning in weaving chronology. Danae. recorded that her Performances were masterly. Lowly she sits in humble State and with dejected view. the other for the hand-loom." (O'Doherty's Trans. 39 made of two sorts. fallen from their former high estate. and were pointed at both ends in a similar way In to those of the present day. Ovid describes the very ungallant use spider by the goddess. or sheds of the warp. &c. opened for their reception. Her injured person from the breast beam hung.INTRODÜCTION. in her contest with Arachne " and although it is was defeated was changed into a to : A great fly shuttle in her hand she took. one for the fly. And more than once Arachne's forehead Struck The unhappy maid. ^ . the goddess of the art. he had good reason to be sorry for his poor gal. a dyer) was so skilful in working tapestry. fleecy threads her wary fingers drew. The The pensive mother sat. which Minerva applied the shuttle. impatient of the wrong. that they might more easily pass through the shed. and Alemene .' if the labour was as hard in actual practice. when he reiterates the silly story which prevails upon the subject among the Ignorant. for one John Kay of Bury. in the year 1738 and even Mr." Odyssey. presented in her designs. and forced to bear the contumely of an imperious mistress. at the time to which we refer.) From the delineations existing on Egyptian monuments. the spite of all this. weaving as a very exhilarating was not regarded instances we can : see signs of sadness employment in several and melancholy on the coun: tenances of those engaged in the task.

is a jackass. the present drawing. however. is its owner. It is shown at Fig. and all possible speed. for his great kindness of pears to be from the annexed Illustration an original . at . who appears to be one of the vanquished. cloth woven in the former. and the person who holds it by the is tail. which is a correct copy drawing taken from the tonib of Hassian and we are indebted to the French Consul at Athens. double the n umher of hands are emploj^ed and unless these coiild produce more than twice the quantity of Perhaps. the subject of it is ' take up' motionsj which.40 INTRODÜCTION. than . we think. so. in procuring it for us. but so far as we can learn. . from natural front. might be advantageously employed on many of our modern carpet power looms. the quality of the fabric was improved by the let off' and ' more some of those at present in use and we would add. no saving would be effected. or from fear of one of the victors. no doubt. It is somewhat indistinct. is the pattern at which the weavers are engaged. stubboi-nness. The scene presented on the border at the bottom of the above drawing. On comparison with Ghelen's loom. a retreat from a battle-field. leaving the all scene of action with in his the same time doing either power to save his ass but it Stands still. E. it will be observed that in . The large quadruped towards the right. who has got in . worked very admirably .

6 . " I Thy woes. carries. are merely fragments of on the field. Andromache. vests. while ihey cheer the eye With glowing purple of the Tyrian dye Or justiy intermixing shades with light. thy grief I dread. Their skilful fingers ply with willing haste. There is also on the left the figure of a person in a kneeling attitude. Pensive she ply'd the melancholy loom. of Hector " Far in the close recesses of the dorne. is another of the con- no doubt. The otlier details Avhich help to the vanquished left compose the design. mighty arch along the heaven displays From whence a thousand diff'rent colours rise. dwelhng not only on the beauty of the which the rivals wove.INTRODUCTION. captive led In Argive* looms our battles to design. pantaloons. but also on the delicacy of shading. Trans. 41 tempt it and * is . or eise to with a stool. the Capital of Argolls in Greece. the head of some person. A gloomy work employ'd her secret hours Confus'dly gay with intermingling flowers.) Homer asserts that the ancients were acquainted with the art of weaving figured patterns of the most splendid kind and he informs US. see thee trembllng. And work with pleasure. Paus. begging and he to the leader of the victorious army for his deliverance. He querors. &c. legs. Ovid gives us the following lively description. As when a shower Its Their colourings insensibly unite transpierced with sunny rays. endeavouring to catch it. to nin so fast. npon a pole. whom he has killed in the fight. weeping. And woes of which so large a pari was thine. soon overtake the ass-driver. This name howeveris used by the poets for the Greeks in general. hel- mets. vi. The man towards the who seems Avill. arms." : (IHad. by which the various colours were made to harmonize together figures : " Then both their mantles button'd to their breast. Whose fine transition cheat the ciearest eyes * Designating whose inhabitants what belongs were called to Argos. Argivi. * * which he has placed upon a three-legged left. such as coats. . who has been taken captive. in triumph. that Andromache was engaged in producing a rieh flowered pattern when she received the melancholy intelligence of the death ." In the contest between Minerva and Arachne.

of Sisera looked out at a is window and cried through a Why his chariot so long in why her. bat in some instances the embroidering needle was used fain instead of the Shuttles shirt needle. to Sisera a prey of divers colours. read in Exodus. these needles were not some of our learned doctors would have but like those used in the manufacture of Gobe- lins tapestry of these we shall have occasion to speak more fully hereafter. verses 1 and 2. Some antic fable in their work disclose. verse 4. xxvi. they not divided the to every man a damsel or two sides." From this we perceive that the web in the read. to herseif. chap. tarry the wheels of his chariots ? Yea. Their threads of gold both artfally dispose. and very Ukely as many as a thousand shades of colour curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits. thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of We iine twined linen. xxv. and from a sister to her brother. which is wider than any piain linen fabrics we manufacture at the present The figures of the cherubims must have been woven Avith day." The loom was patterns being also used as an embroidering frarae. The mother lattice. or reeds must have stood about 7 feet 3-| inches. woven or embroidered. And. of divers colours of needle-work on hoth meet for the necks of them that take the spoil ?" repetition of " divers colours. And only difFers in the last extremes. Vests of ornamental work. A striking allusion is made to their importance in one of the most glowing passages of Deborah's " triumphal hymn. and blue. It appears from Exodus. as the weaving proceeded.42 So like the INTRODUCTION. Surcoats thus ornamented formed no small part of the warrior's pride." in this passäge is The a strong proof of the value that was anciently set on this species of orna- mental work. chap. Coming ? Her wise ladies answered Have they not sped ? have . purple. and purple. . as each part in just proportion rose. The length of one ft. shuttles. intermingled shading seems. " Moreover. and scarlet : wdth cheru- biras of cunning work shalt thou make them. (51 breadth of one curtain four cubits : . that fabrics of blue. she returned answer spoil . as similar to a common it. 1 inch. the figures or worked on the web with small : Shuttles or circles.) and the and every one of the curtains shall have one measure. were manufactured to a great ex- tent in Palestine.work. were favourite presents from a fond wife to her husband. fine linen and goats hair. from a mother to her son. a prey of diverse colours of needle.

it would have taken an age at least in its accomplishment. Paisley. through whicli working through holes in a same way as in must be confessed that this is a most remarkable circumstance. 43 weie ma^le use of. and thou the girdle mitre of fine hnen. See also Exodus.chinery for this gentle- embroidering those beautiful fabrics very expeditiously man also made great improvements on the barrel. chapter xxviii. to was so long before. very complex contrivances must be employed. that it may was be upon the mitre. for even with the best Nottingham machinery of our OAvn day twelve distinct motions are necesare well We sary to complete one mesh. tribe of Dan. Gross of and draw looms. chapter xxxix. xxxv. lifters. verse. precisely the the Jacquard machine. 37. and in purple. like our friend Josue Heilmann's. in Egypt. the Claims of Morton of Kilmarnock. in scarlet. and Bonnar Aholiab of the of Dumfermline to the contrary notwithstanding. which. and of the cunning workman and of the embroiderer in blue. consisted in substituting vertical wires with hooks or wires. indeed. Bezaleel. of by Mulhau- Alsace. France. These two celebrated workmen (Bezaleel and Aholiab) " were filled with wisdom of heart to work all manner of work of the engraver. board. priest be worn by the high shalt Thou make the : " shalt embroider the coat of fine linen.) otherwise. was named " ogizigo . against slips of tin or copper." -and 31. invented ma. to be interwoven with the most precious cloths. It . according to pope Leo X. 35. On we referring to the 28th chapter of Exodus. and." (Exodus. one of Bezaleel's particular friends^ made an improvement on one of his (Bezaleel's) machines. In Exodus. and thou shalt make was of needle-work." this improvement. Had they been done with the embroidering needle on so veiy wide a fabric. verses 21 it is From this evident that the manufacture of lace it then well understood . and of those that devise cunning work." The concluding part of this verse shows most effected decidedly that the principal portion of the fabric machinery (perhaps .sen. and of the weaver even of them that do any work. : an ingenius artizan of the tribe of Judah. " They did beat . we read as follows : " And thou shalt put it on a blue lace.) Moses also makes mention of the preparation of gold in threads. as we shall endeavour show. and in fine linen. aware that in order to manufacture lace. at the 39th to verse. other horizontal ones passed.INTRODUCTION. be made to the girdles beiiig of needle-Avork ? why should such particular reference No doubt. learn how particular were the directions given to Moses regard- ing the preparation of the sacerdotal robes.

" (Exodus xxxix. " Stung to the souI. and We regret that in spite of our endeavours to obtain drawingSj or description of this apparatus unsuccessful. the Chinese made use for ages before the Jewish dispensation (Ure's authority to the be woven into cloth. and in the fine the bliie.) The cutting of gold into Avire. it is for cochineal being a natural production of the its unreasonable to suppose that qualities were hidden from the ancients. to betray The wanton lovers as entwin'd they lay. with a sarcastic. indignant. A Indissolubly strong ! Then instant bears To his immortal dorne the finish'd snares. when. of our cotton yarn of the present day. as well as the mordants. 3. skies Arrived his sinewy arms incessant place The elernal anvil on the massy base. as before contrary notwithstanding. to work it in and in the scaiiet. While this curious specimen was being exhibited to us we asked the showman. in the purple. of it According to Aristotle. also learn the important fact. sneer which we shall never forget. been We refer. To his black forge vindictive through the Vulcan flies. he observed must have been effected by genious contrivance. cut it into wires. a nathe gold into thin plates. tive of Sidon. that in the times to which we l^ril- cochineal was known.44 INTRODUCTION. the meshes of which were so assertion of gods themselves could not was forged by the Lemnian deity on Homer must be a visionary one. as yet. (indeed. was cut by the aid of a very ingenious contrivance invented by one Zurishaddai. it pointed to his Holiness' certificate. to means of an astonishingly inmust have been a very shaving machine) because we know from a sample of the cloth which we saw at Rome (in April 1831) that such wire was nearly as fine as No. wondrous net he labours. or rather wire. But this or eise his godship better understood the blacksmithing business its much than most of Professors in the nineteenth Century. his anvil. remarking. . was used in weavingj which thread or wire it also appears. that if wanted any further proofs of ! its genuineness. . with cunning work. 205. asserts that the delicate gold net fine that the made by Vulcan. and From this paslinen.) sage it is evident that gold thread. they might go to the himself and enquire Homer see them. to give liancy to the dye East. we have. if it was an identical sample of Bezaleel and Aholiab's manufacture. afiixed to heretics it.

around with art bespread 45 The sure enclosure folds the genial bed. Thin as the filmy thread the spider weaves. and which we think no one will be foolish enough to question.INTRODUCTION. he particularly threatens the ßaa. xix. have the To mix the partycoloured trails web at will. skill Others. which were so delicate as to be called woven air.) this Such a is dress Word the term was by the Hebrews called by which Solomon describes the : shehetz. appear to have been lace of a very fine mesh. noblest Tyrian dye." In the description given by Lucan. (see cross weaving. her companions that foUow her. or shall yet give in the course of this work. .) Indeed. she shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needle-work. net. that the Egyptians riebest.) The thin upper dresses worn by Egyptian ladies of noble descent. being in its primary and literal sense a hymeneal ode on bis marriage with that princess." (Isaiah. below. Whose branching gold set off the rieh brocade. the virgins. though it has a secondary and more holy signification. whatever knowledge we possess of lace-making. " The king's daughter is all glorious within her clothing is of wrought gold . Whose texture e'en the search of gods deceives. 14.) . vesture and worn by Pharoah's daughter the 45th Psalm. it is asserted. as Pharian artists. (being only 1-1 6th of an inch in diameter. find that the finest kinds of to the We makes a very near approach In the prophet's denunciation of Divine vengeance against the land of the Pharoahs. With winding of various silks were made.. of the luxuries with which Cleopatra allured Julius Caesar. Above. they that work in fine flax. 13. we are indebted for it to eastern genius. in the preparation of their and most expensive fabrics " In : Twice had they drunk the glowing purple rieh the coverings lie. shall be brought unto thee. 9. after Consulting the proofs we have already given." (Pharsalia X. lace and manufacturers : " Moreover.) Egyptian net or cross work modern lace. united embroidery with weaving. and they that weave net-works shall be confounded. in any shape." (Psalm xlv.

We are assured by our friend.en. which now forms part of the curious collection of his Highness Mehemet Ah. each large mesh is surrounded by ten small ones. for the faithfulness of our reit presentation. Surround one of the large kind. nothing said. the present vice-roy of Egypt. In the Grecian. after three years and five months of unceasing research.' We have.' of which mention so frequently made in the scriptures. known to the ancients is by the appellation of ' open-work.' or ' open-work. and 6. The machinery used in the manufacture of this kind of lace must have been astonishingly complicated. however. Alexis Kersivenus of Alexandria. that we are really surprised that it could ever have been produced at all. 'net-work. the British Consul at Cairo. the smaller ones. than that he copied too upon exactly the same Scale. so that there other respects. is a greater disproportion between the sizes of the meshes than in our specim. This net bears a close resemblance to the Grecian net. for the threads are so miraculously linked. that its and as more need be himself from the original. There are two kinds of meshes in this sample. 3. and Our drawing was made from a piece of cloth 2^ yards in length. crossed. and that genuineness is unquestionable. 2. at last procured the above extraordinary specimen of net-work or lace. 4. but it is on a miniature scale in comparison. by 45f inches in breadth. giving it the appearance of a honey comb. 5. which we have marked 1. There is little difFerence in Through the instrumentality of our old friend. and twisted together.46 INTRÖßUCTION. we have also received another specimen of Eg)^ . EGYPTIAN SHEBETZ.

The use of shebetz or net-work.INTRODUCTION. He when she received Julius Csesar " Amidst the braidings of her flowing hair. scales of metal about sufficient the size of a dollar were attached. The . In the description which the young Amalekite gave David of the circumstances attending the death of Saul. but under their reigns the were chiefly controlled by Grecians. as we see on the Egyptian monuments. proof that the literal interpretation is preferable is to the figurative. would undoubtedly have reached even a higher state of perfection than they didj had they been allowed to continue under such favourable circumstances but after the subjugation of the nation by Cambyses. enables US to explain a passage in which several modern versions. an in the part of this . and in which the Pharoahs took so lively an interest. disappeared. We shall conclude this part of our subject with Lucan's account of the excellence to of female dress. and slay me for come upon me. which they attained in the preparation of articles thus describes the costume of Cleopatra. tiaii netj 47 and which will be described work headed " lace manufacture. by supposing that " a net" was used metaphorically for entanglement. The Egyptians had generated from the knowledge of their ancestors. 525 years before our Saviour. or rather ceased to be indigenous in Egypt. including the English authorised version. the arts and sciences under a foreign of entirely different stamp. have gone astray. which. signifies " this net-work has entangled me. Ptolemies. whose hieroglyphics. encouraged arts The de- them ." (2 The phrase rendered " anguish is come upon me. " said unto He me anguish is Sam. especially as there no instance of the word shebetz being used me- taphorically in any other part of the Bible." The arts which flourished in Egypt previous to the Jewish dispensation. 9. indeed." clearly alluding to his coat of mail. modern Egyptians. they themselves no longer understood. . to the meshes of which. he stated. yoke.) upon me. i. stand. but slight remains or traces of the ancient state of the art of weaving lace. or net-work. for vests and petticoats. ten thousand diamonds deck The comely rising of her graceful neck Of wondrous work a thin transparent lawn O'er each soft breast in decency was drawn. I pray thee. and consequent pain." literally again. are now the to Among be found. spoils of Orient rocks and shells appear: Like midnight stars. was This circumstance is made of net-work. because my life is yet whole in me.

There is one in the British Museum. and so perfumed. where we see The fancy outwork nature : on each side her like smiling Stood pretty dimpled boys Cupids. that The winds were lovesick with them . and yawls seem to have been built espe. As amorous of their strokes. So many mermaids. Her gentlewomen like the Nereides. With diverse coloured fans. And made their bends adornings at the heim : A seeming raermaid steers That yarely* frame the . tended her i'the eyes. she did lie In her pavilion (cloth of gold of tissue) O'er picturing that Venus. To glow the delicate And what they undid whose wind did seem cheeks which they did cool. an eagerness and rivalry In one or two instances. readily. like a burnished throne Burn'd on the water the poop was beaten gold Purple the sails. withdrew. and made . * Dexterously . wives than any other ancient nation. Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke. her air confess The power of female skill exhausted in her dress. we can scarcely accuse Shakespeare of exaggeration in his description of Cleopatra's voyage down the Cnydus " The bärge she sat in. It beggared all description ." (Pharsalia X. in which the ladies at a party are depicted discussing the merits of their earrings. plaited hair. and the arrangement of their which are highly chathe ungallant artists have ex- hibited ladies overcome with wine. the oars were silver.) The Egyptians allowed greater privileges and luxuries to their Nothing can exceed the splendour of their queenss thrones were constmcted for their peculiar use even barges. boats. did. The water which they beat to follow faster. For her own person.48 INTRODUCTION. hands From the bärge A Strange invisible perfume hits the sense Of the adjacent wharfs. skillfully. Her robe. Where still by turns the parting threads And all the panting bosom rose to view. with racteristic." Many of the Egyptian painters display considerable talents for caricature in their representations of entertainments. When we see the magnificence surrounding the Egyptian queens. the silken tackle soft Swell with the touches of those flower ofRce. her every part. . cially for their service. .

in the chief city of employed that district. Such a made of wooUen.INTRODUCTION. mal wool at in his description. Herodotus says. " The Babylonians wear a gown of linen flowing down to the feet over this an Upper wooUen garment. were no where so finely woven. that the knowledge of these fanciful and imaginary beings. such an excess as amongst the ancient Persians. 49 Thoug'h Egypt. yet very extensive in the timeof Joshua. or depicted. that the cotton manufacture was established in Babylon a very early period. from the spoils of Jericho. K. the night-mare in all its and other un natural combinations of form. as we have shown. have rendered it. but were exported into foreign countries. we learn that the woven stuffs of Babylon were not confined to domestic use. ancient Babylon and the machines mostly have been alwere those invented by E." or as our translators ready described. grifiin. the remotest ages. The two chief productions From of the Babylonian looms were carpets and shawls ." was secreted by Achan . made rapid strides in the manufacture of many very beautiful kinds of textile fabrics. and which " A mantle of Shinar. With them not only the floors. representations of those fabulous anirnals. the book of Joshua. one of the principal objects of iuxury in Asia from ing." . especially as we know from other authorities. were found in the land of Shinar^ viz. as already quoted. with which we have become acquainted by It was by means of the Babylonian the ruins of Persepolis. was conveyed to the western world. and hence we may be led to suspect that Herodotus included vegetable and anidress. particularly in summer. and in such rieh colours as at Babylon. must have been too heavy for so warm a climate. particularlyif the white tunic were as the venerable historian seems to intimate. and the houses of the wealthy. manufactures.. were . " A Babylonish garment. but the earliest Greek of them as commonly used for this purpose in the historians speak On the Babypalaces of kings. but far superior in design and colourCarpets. Arphaxad. and the deünquent speaks of it as the most valuable part of his plunder. probably originating in India. the dragon. Foreign nations made use of the Babylonian carpets in the decoration of their hapems and but no where was this species of Iuxury carried to royal saloons . We know not when the fashion of spreading them on was introduced. and Irom them they were transferred to the Greek vases. not such as we manufacture in this country. on a Scale. weaving estabhshments. but even beds and sofas in the houses of the nobles. the varieties. and a white tunic covering the whole. floors lonian carpets were woven.

50

INTRODUCTION.
;

covered with two or three of these carpets
sacred edifices, the

nay, the oldest of their

tomb of Cyrus

at Pasargada,

was ornamented
Sir Gardiner

with a purple carpet of Babylonian workmanship.

Wilkinson, on the authority of Diodoms Siculus, informs us, that carpets were used in Egypt, where they were spread for the sacred animals, and Homer reckons a carpet among the luxuries, with which Menelaus, who visited Egypt, astonished Telemachus, when

he received that Prince in the Palace of Sparta
" The seat of majesty Adraste brings, With art illustrious for the pomp of kings.

To
Of

spread the

pall,

beneath the regal cRair,

softest woolj is bright

AccHpe's care."
.

{Odyssey^ IV.)

A

small piece of carpet, or rüg, has lately been brought from

is now in the possession of lady Hamilton of Amsterdam. It is fifty-six and a half inches long, and thirty-six broad and is made, like Brüssels carpeting, with wooUen warp for the face or pile, and hnen twine for the back. In the middle is the

Egypt, and

;

figure of a fox in scarlet, with a night-owl above

it,

the hierogly-

around which is a upon an orange ground border composed of blue and purple lines the remainder is a ground of light pink, with violet figures of the pelican and curlew above and below, and on each side crimson outhnes with bright yellow Ornaments and the outer borders are made up of white, blue, and green lines about fths of an inch wide, each line having fancy devices projecting from it, with a triangulär summit which
phic of a
'

rogue,'

;

;

;

extends entirely round the edge of the carpet.
Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, also gives

us an account of a small carpet
is

rüg of Egyptian manufacture, which he says
sion of a Mr. Hays.
It

now

in the posses-

does not

differ

very materially from the
of the present day, centre
is

one just noticed.

"

This rüg," says

Sir G.W.,is eleven inches long,

by nine broad. It is made, like many carpets with wooUen threads on linen strings. In the
of a boy in white, with
'

the figure

a goose above,
;

the hieroglyphic of a

upon a green ground around which, is a border composed and blue lines the rest is a ground of yellow, with four white figures above and below, and on each side are blue outlines with red Ornaments the outer border being made up of red, white, and blue lines, with a fancy de vice projecting from it, having a triangulär summit, which extends round the edge of the rüg.
child,'

of red

;

;

Its

date

is

uncertain

;

but fiom the child, the combination of the

INTRODUCTION.
colours,

51

and the ornament

of the border, I

am

inclined to think

it

really Egyptian."

The Babylonian

shawls, like those of Persia, were adorned botli

with gold and variously coloured

Hence, Publius Syrus figures. compared a peacock's tail, to a figured Babylonian mantle enriched with gokL Their magnificent appearance, and exquisite texture,
are celebrated both

by the Greek and Roman writers.

It

was always

deemed

to

be one of the most singular displays of ascetism in the

eider Cato, tliat

he immediately gave

away a

splendid Babylonian

shawl, which some foreign potentate had bequeathed to him. as a
remiineration for political Services.

Next

to the carpets

and shawls, the Babylonian garments
th*e

called

tSindones were held in
tions given of them,
it

highest estimation.

From

the descrip-

would appear that they were in all probability a cotton fabric, though some may have occasionally been made of linen for we find from the Levitical law, that linen had some religious The most costly Sindones, were so highly valued for significance. their fineness of texture, and brilliancy of colour, as to be compared they were even to be to those of Media, and set apart for royal use found at the tomb of Cyrus, which was profusely decorated with every species of furniture in use among the Persian monarchs dur;
;

ing their

lives.

The

superiority of the textile fabrics of Babylonia,

must be ascribed

to their spirit of

commercial freedom.

We

do not

remained a commercial and manufacturing people, any proof that they ever imposed restrictions
find in their history, so long as they

upon the Import of the raw material of manufactures, or that which may be called the raw material of operatives, namely, human food. When the barbarous Chaldeans conquered the country and introduced the spirit of monopoly, the commercial spirit of Babylonia was cankered at the root, and its pre-eminence destroyed. The Tyrians are chiefly known to us in commercial history for
their skill in

dyeing

;

the Tyrian purple formed one of the most
:

general and principal articles of luxury in antiquity
could scarcely have existed without weaving.

but dyeing
for instance,

Homer,

when Hecuba, on the recommendation of the heroic Hector, resolves to make a rieh offering to Minerva, describes her as selecting one
of Sidonian manufacture as the finest

which could be obtained.

" The Phrygian queen to her rieh wardrobe went Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent

There lay the vestures of no vulgär art Sidonian maids embroider'd every part,

52

INTRODUCTION.

Whom from
The

soft

With Helen, touching on

Sidon youthful Paris bore the Tyrian shore.

Here, as the queen revolved with careful eyes
various textures and the various dyes,
veil that

She chose a

shone superior

far,

And

glow'd refulgent as the morning

star."

{Iliad, VI.)

From

the interesting history of bis adventures, which

Eumeus

gives to Ulysses,
their skill in

we

learn that Phenician

weaving, were frequently

women, on account of kidnapped by the pirates of

the Levant, and sold in the Greek islands.
"

Freighted
time

it

seems with toys of every
chanced the palace
a

sort

A

ship of Sidon anchor'd in our port
it

What

entertain'd,

Skill'd in rieh works,

woman

of their land
train,

This nymph, where anchor'd the Phenician To wash her rohes descending to the main,

A

smooth-tongued sailor won her to his mind, (For love deceives the best of woman kind) A sudden trust from sudden hking grew She told her name, her race, and all she knew. from glorious Sidon came, I too,' she cried, My father, Arybas, of wealthy fame But snatch'd by pirates from my native place The Taphians sold me to this man's embrace.' "
' '

;

{Odyssey,

XV.)

Among
up

the ancients, the husband purchased his Avife

by money

or personal Services.
at auction,

The

Assyrians put the marriageable

women

and the price obtained for the more beautiful was as(See Tytler's Ancient Hissigned as a dowry to the more homely. This plan (for anything we see to the contrary,) tory, page 18.) might work well in this country, even at the present time. Heeren has very ably shown the circumstances which tended to foster and develop the woollen manufactures of Tyre, in his admirable " Researches into the Politics and Trade of Ancient Nations." " The wool of the wilderness," says this able writer," was one of the wares supplied by the pastoral tribes, who wandered with their
flocks, as well over the Syrian, as over the

Arabian

deserts.*

The

fleece of their

sheep

is

the finest

known

;

it is

improved by the heat
air,

of the climate, the continual exposure to the open

and the care

that these people bestow upon their flocks,

which

constitute their

*

Ezekiel, xxvii, 18—21.

INTRODUCTION.
only business,
all

53
it

more precious.* The Arabian sheep, distinguished from the European by their immense tails, were known to Herodotus, who has left us a description of "Arabia likewise possesses two extraordinary breeds of them.f One of these has long sheep, neither of which is found elsewhere. and, were they sufFered to drag betails, not less than three cubits hind them, they would beconie sore by rubbing against the ground. The shepherds therefore, make small carriages, and fasten them unThe other kind of sheep have der their tails, to each animal one. broad tails, each an eil in width." Herodotus only errs in taking a mere variety for a distinct species all the other circumstances he here mentions, are known to modern naturalists and travellers. A moment's reflection upon Tyrian manufactures of woven goods and their dyes, will enable the reader at once to perceive the great importance of this branch of commerce. It converted the very wilderness, so far as they were concerned, into an opulent country, which afforded them the finest and most precious raw materials, for their principal manufactures. This circumstance, too, was a means of cementing and preserving a good understanding between them, and those nomad tribes a matter of no inconsiderable importance to the Phenicians, as it was through the nomads, that the rieh produce of the southern regions
of

which help

to render

;

;

;

Game

into their hands.

One

great source of the manufacturing prosperity of

Tyre was

the absence of rest riet Ions on the importation of
as the most ancient
that Palestine

human food.

The

twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel, which Michaelis justly describes

monument

of commercial history, informs us,

was the granary of the Phenicians. Their own mountainous territory was but little adapted for agriculture, and they were too wise to force unproductive soils into cultivation by Palestine, their commercial ally, bounties and protective duties
;

produced corn in

sufficient

abundance,

to

be able
life.

to

supply themis

selves plentifully, with this

first

necessary of

This

expressly

Judah and the land of Israel, they were thy merchants they traded in thy market wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm." (Ezekiel, xxvii. 17.) Heeren has very properly called attention to the marked effect of this commercial intercourse, in preserving the harmony of the two
declared by the prophet
; :

"

*

See Michaelis on the Wandering Shepherds,
i.

in his

Vermischten Schrif-

ten, b.

s. 6.
iii.

tHerod,

113.

54
;

INTRODUCTION.

nations it is, indeed, a memorable example of freedom of trade, becoming the very bond of peace. The fact that Palestine was the granary of the Phenicians, explains in the clearest manner, the good understanding, and lasting peace that prevailed between these two nations. It is a striking feature in the Jewish history, that with all other nations around them, they lived in a state of almost continual warfare and that under David and Solomon, they even became conquerors, and subdued considerable countries, and yet with tlieir nearest neighbours, But if a sense the Phenicians, they never engaged in hostilities. of their weakness prevented them from attacking these mighty cities, the natural policy of the Phenicians, no less on the other hand, restrained from any hostile attempt on a country from which they drew their subsistence to which it may be added, that it seems to have been a maxim among them to avoid all wars and
; :

forcible extension of their

dominion over the continent of Asia.
although the Phenicians were
textile fabrics

We

learn from Ezekiel, that
"

manufacturers themselves, they freely imported
other countries.

from

work from Egpyt was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail purple and scarlet from the isles of Elishah, was that which covered thee." (Ezekiel, The Egyptian manufacturers have been already menxxvii. 7.)
Fine linen with broidered
;

tioned

;

" the isles of Elishah ?"

is

a name given
this

to the islands,
for

and southern peninsula of Greece, and

name was

many

centuries perpetuated in that part of the Peloponnesus called Elis.

This passage affords another singular proof, of the freedom of commerce established among the Tyrians for, though dyeing in pur;

ple

was one of the staple branches of their national industry, we find them freely importing purple stufFs from the Peloponnesus. Only vague and uncertain traditions or allusions in the ancient poets, give us any Information respecting the progress of textile industry in Asia Minor, the lonian colonies, and the islands of the
Egean.

Homer, as we have already

seen, represents the
;

Trojan

ladies as peculiarly devoted to the spindle

and loom and Theocritus in his exquisite Eighteenth Idyll, the Epithalamium of Helen, introduces the Trojan ladies celebrating the skill of Helen in weaving, as not less worthy of praise than her unrivalled charms.
'•

When winter

thus in night no longer lours

And spring is usher'd by the blooming hours, The rising morning, with her radiant eyes,
Salutes the world, and brightens
all

the skies

INTRODUCTION.
So
shines fair Helen,
size,

55
drest,

by the Graces

In face, shape,

superior to the rest

As As

corn the

fields,

as pines the gardens grace,
;

steeds of Thessaly the chariot race

So Helen's beauties bright encomiums

claim,

And beam forth honour on the Spartan name. What nymph can rival Helen at the loom, And make fair art like living nature bloom ?
The blended
Express the
tints, in

sweet proportion
her mind."
{Idyll,

join'd,

soft ideas of

XVIII.)
fine wooUen cloths by the Roman ladies.

Both Horace and Yirgil have celebrated the
of Milctus,

which were held
Idyll,

in high esteem

In another
settled in

Theocritus

incidentally

notices

the

great

supefiority in the textile

manufacture of the Greeks, who had

the eastern countries, over those who had colonized and Southern Italy we allude to the very amusing record Sicily of the gossip between two Syracusan ladies, who had come to Alexandria for the purpose of witnessing the magnificent shows and solemnities, prepared by Arsinoe, the queen of Ptolemy Phila:

delphus, to celebrate the feast of Adonis, revived under her auspices.

ladies

Nothing seems to have excited the wonder of their fair more than the magnificent tapestries which adorned the Greco-Egyptian palace of the Ptolemies, and they express their astonishment very naturally after having elbowed their way through
the crowd.

PRAXmOE.
See how the folks, poor Erinoe, justle Push through the crowd, girl bustle, bustle
"
!
!

Now

we're

all in.

GORGO.

Lo what
!

rieh hangings grace the rooms Sure they were wrought in heavenly looms
!

PRAXINOE.
Gracious

how delicately fine The work how noble the design How true, how happy is the draught The figures seem inform'd with thought
! !

!

No

artist

sure the story

wove
live,

They're real men,

— they
the

they move.
find

From

these
great,

amazing works we

How
Lo
!

how wise
upon a

human mind

stretch'd

silver bed,

(Scarce has the

down

his cheeks o'erspread)

56
Adonis
lies
!

INTRODUCTION.

O

charming show

!

Loved by the

sable powers below

STRANGER.
Hist

your Sicilian prate forbear, Your moutlis extend from ear to ear
!

;

Like

turtles that for ever

moan

You
Sure

stun US with your rustic tone.

GORGO.
!

we may

speak
it,

I

What fellow 's
amiss
?

this 1

And

do you take

sir,

Go, keep Egyptian slaves in awe

Think not

to give Sicilians law."
(Idyll,

XV.)

There
san

is

not a

little

humour

in the gossiping, gadabout Syracu-

ladies,

thus unceremoniously branding the Greek ladies of

Egypt as
to see the

slaves,

because they stayed at

home

to attend to the la-

bours of the spindle and Shuttle, instead of running about the streets

gorgeous spectacles of the

festival, like

many

worthless

ßirts of our

own

day.

The

poet in several other passages, refers

to the domestic industry of the Asiatic Greeks, so different

from the

indolence of the

fair Sicilians.
its

The

Island of Cos very early enjoyed a high reputation for

textile fabricsj

and

their excellent purple dyes.

In the age of Au-

gustus they were esteemed the most becoming Ornaments to ladies,

anxious

to direct attention to their

charms.

Hence Horace,

re-

proaching Lyce, says,
"

Not Coan

purple, nor the blaze

Of jewels, can restore the days, To thee, those days of glory, Which wafted on the wings of time,
E'en from thy birth to beauty's prime Recorded stand in story." {Book IV. Ode XIII)

From

the description which Horace gives of the
first

Coan

robes in

the second satire of his

book, and from the parallel passages in

contemporary

poets, Ave learn that the
it

of transparency, that

worn by women of was usually dyed purple, and sometimes enriched with stripes of gold. It is by some writers supposed to have been made of silk, because, as we learn from Aristotle, silk was at a ver}^ early period spun and woven in Cos, and was the cbief cause of the high ce-

Coan robe had a great degree was remarkably fine, that it was chiefly light character, (nymphs of the pave) that it

INTRODUCTION.
lebrity attained

67
Island.

by the manufactures of that

Hence Tibul-

lus promises bis mistress,
" Since beauty sighs for spoil, for spoil
I'll

fight

In

all

my

plunder Nemesis shall shine.
profit
;

Yours be the

be the

peril mine.
dies,

To

deck your heavenly charms the silkworm
Shuttle flies."

Embroidery labours, and the

{Eleg.

ii.

6.)

In a painting discovered at Pompeii, there is a representation of a lady weaving a tunic of almost perfect transparency, which may probably have been a Coan vest but, so far as we are enabled to judge from such imperfect evidence, we should believe it to be a
;

thin muslin.
dresses were

made

Pliny, however, distinctly asserts, that the Coan " The Grecian women," he says, " unof silk.

ravel the silks imported from Asia,

whence that

fine tissue, of

and then weave them anew, which frequent mention is made in the
of

Roman
totle's

poets under the

name

Coan vestsP

Salmasius has

shown, that Pliny in

this case

misunderstood the passage of Aris-

Natural History, to which he referred. The Greek means nothing more than " females wind off the web of the silk worm,

and then weave the

threads,"

not as Pliny would Interpret

it,

" unravel the texture of the dress

and then weave

it

over again."

weaving in the Island of Scycos, is proved by the which the poets have given öf the occupations of AchilThis tale is prettily les, when concealed there in a female dress. told by Moschus
practice of

The

description

:

" In close disguise his life Achilles led

Among

the daughters of king

Lycomed:

Instead of arms the hero learn'd to cull

The snowy
Like

fleece,

and weave the twisted wool.
fair

theirs, his

cheeks a rosy bloom display'd

Like them, he seem'd a

and lovely maid
veil his

As

soft his air, as

dehcate his tread

Like them, he cover'd with a

head."
{Idyll,

VII)

mechanism as Arphaxad's and the use of several colours, splendid patterns could be produced. Those fabrics " of many colours" were highly valued as dresses in patriarchal ages, and, indeed, have always been regarded in the East as symbols of rank and distinction. Hence we may explain the cause of jealousy to which Joseph was exposed when Jacob presented him with a dress superior to those worn by
It is

obvious that with such a piece of

vertical loom,

8

58
his brethren.

INTRODUCTION.
According
to

Pope Leo X,
city of

this dress

was woven by
sacred hisall his children,

Arphaxad's power loom, in the
torian relates, "

Ninevah.

The

Now

Israel loved

Joseph more than
:

because he was the son of his old age
of

and he made him a coat
and could

many

colours.

And when
all his

his brethren saw, that their father

loved

him more than

brethren, they hated him,

not speak peaceably unto him."

(Gen. xxxvii.

3, 4.)

Their envy

was

excited not only

father's

by the superior beauty of his dress, but by his having apparently invested him with some special dignity

or authority over his brethren, of

was

the outward sign.
office

Even

at this

which the ornamental garment day Eastern potentates, when

upon a favourite, present him with a khelat, or symbol of the rank to which he has been elevated. It appears that the Statement made by his Holiness (Leo X.) about Joseph's coat cannot be relied upon as being correct, as we find it recorded by Basharaboo, a Persian author, that Jacob obthey confer
dress of honour, as a

tained the cloth

''

of

many

colours" from the city of Babylon.
for the practice of

Lesbos was also remarkable
Sappho,

weaving as an
poetess to her
:

important brauch of domestic industry.

Among

the fragments of

we

find part of

an ode addressed by the

mother, as an apology for neglecting the labours of the loom
" Cease, gentle mother, cease

your sharp reproof,

My hands no more
While on

can ply the curious woof

my

And

lovely

mind the flames of Cupid prey, Phaon steals my soul away."
{Frag. IV.)

The
tures

fable of Hercules

and Omphale proves that
;

textile

manufac-

were very early established in Lydia
;

they were patronized

by the kings of the successive dynasties and some of the spinning and weaving establishments were so extensive as to deserve the name of factories. Lydian and Phrygian dresses were largely imported into Italy in the reign of the Cesars
;

St.

Luke mentions
Attalus,

their traffic in purple dyes, in the acts of the Apostles.

one

of the petty sovereigns of Asia Minor,

is

honourably mentioned by

Pliny as a monarch

who

zealously exerted himself to promote
;

manufacturing industry among his subjects

he introduced the

manufacture of gold tissue into his little principality of Pergamus with so much success, that this species of luxurious cloth retained the name of Attahc to the later ages of the Roman empire. In the
western world Carthage appears to have been the principal seat of

manufacturing industry, as
enterprise.
Its

it

unquestionably was of commercial
particularly celebrated,

carpets

and shawls were

INTRODUCTION.

59

and appear
entire

to

have brought as high a

price as those of Lydia.

An

book was written by Polemo " Concerning the shawls of Carthage." But from the time that the fatal ambition of the Barcine family changed Carthage from a commercial to a belhgerent
State, its textile

estabhshments seem

to

have dedined,

for

only faint

traces of their existence

can be found in

Roman

writers.

The weaving

estabhshments of the Medes and Persians were

very extensive, and Persian carpets had as high a
times as at the present day.

name

in ancient

Of the manufactnres
better idea,

of India we can convey to our readers no than by giving Dr. F. Buchanan's description of them,

which we copy from bis second volume of a manuscript account of Behar and Patna, preserved in the iibrary of the honourable East India Company. " A great deal of the cotton is freed from the seed by the women who spin it, and a part of this is also beaten by the same persons but the Dhuniyas, who make a profession of cleaning and beating cotton. separate the seed from some, and beat the greater part. Perhaps one third of them have stock enough to enable them to buy a little cotton, which they clean and then retail the remainder work entirely for hire. A man and his wife can make from three
;

to four

rupees a month.

In country places they are often paid

At Arwäl they are allowed 1^ sers of grain for beating one serof cotton and in one day a manbeats four sers (45 S. W.) equal to about 4-^ Ibs., and of course receives 6f Ibs. of grainin grain.
;

Those who have a
"In every division

little

capital

I procured

may make 4 or 5 rupees a month. an estimate of the proportion of woSuch
estimates are liable to

men who
spins,

spin cotton, of the average quantity of cotton that each of the value of the thread.
objections
;

and numerous

but

it

is

probable

when a number

are taken, that the errors of the one will be nearly corrected

of them by those

of the others, so that the average will not be far from the truth.

Allowing that the women of an age fit to spin are one-fifth of the population, the estimates that I

procured will give for the whole thus employ-

Now by far the greater part of these spin only a few hours in the afternoon and, upon the average estimate, the whole value of the thread that each spins in the year is worth nearly
ed 330,426 spinners.
;

7R. 2A. 8P., giving

for the total

annual value 2,367,277 rupees

and by a
price will

similar average calculation, the

raw

material, at the retail
profit of

amount

to

1,286,272 rupees, leaving a

1,081,005

But there are many w^omen who spin assiduously, and who have no interruptions from
rupees for the spinners, or 3^ rupees for each.

60

INTRODUCTION.
or children,
is

husband

and these make much more,
and that given
to those

especially

where

the thread

fine

;

there being no sort of comparison between the

reward allowed
thread.

for such,

who

spin coarse
for

some much. Another calculation agrees so well with the above that I have little doubt of the general accuracy of both. An estimate was made in each of the divisions of the number of looms employed, of the quantity and value of thread required annually for each, if employed in working at the usual rate, and the most usual kind of goods, and

As the demand,

therefore, for fine goods

has been

years constantly diminishing, the

women have

suffered very

the foUowing

is

the result
cloths, cloths,
-

Cotton thread required for cotton
do.
for

----_

Rupees.

2,229,979

mixed

101,762
37,125

do.
do.

for tape, carpets, tent-ropes, &c.,
for

sewing thread, &c.j

-

2,000
2,370,866

"Some thread
rupees,

is

both exported and imported.

Taking the amount

of the Statements, the excess of that imported will be worth 30,500

which could reduce the demand on the thread of this district to about 2,340,356 rupees in place of 2,367,277 rupees, which I have allowed to be spun but, at Bhagalpur, it was said that 1,450 rupees worth of thread was there imported from Patna and at Puraniya there is imported to the value of 12,000 rupees, of which a half comes probably from the same town, while the merchants here only allowed an export of 3,420 rupees. "The whole thread is spun on the small wheel common in India, and the implements for cleaning and beating the cotton are not different from those that are usual. No rank is considered here as degraded by spinning. "The cotton weavers are numerous. Those of Phatuha are employed in weaving cotton diaper, (khes,) which the natives use as a
; ;

dress

;

but the great

demand

is

for

Europeans,

who

use the

manua

facture for table linen.

By

far the greater proportion of the cotton

weavers

is

employed
is

in

making

coarse cloths for country use, but

good

many make

finer

goods for exportation.

The amount

of

thread required

1,771,379 rupees, and the value of the cloth
profit of

2,438,621 rupees, leaving a
for

667,232 rupees, or 28J rupees

each loom.

It

may be

supposed that the finer qualities of goods

taken

for exportation

and increase the
appear
to

total

would diminish the value of the raw material, value of the commodity, but that would not
Although the quantity of thread
is

be the case.

no doubt

INTRODUCTION.
less,

61
is is

yet as the reward for spinning the fine

much higher than that
perhaps a
Httle

for

spinning the coarse, the actual value
I

higher

and may reduce the average profit to 28 rupees a year for each loom. Each man on becoming bound (asami) to the Company receives 2 rupees, and engages not to work for any person until he has made as much as the Company requires no €ther advance has ever been made by the commercial residents. The agent Orders each man to make a certain number of pieces of such or such goods, and he is paid for each on dehvery according to the price stated in the tables. This shows clearly that the System of advance is totally unnecessary but it is here pursued by
than

have

stated,

;

;

all

the native dealers, as keeping the
little better, if

workmen

in a State of depen-

dence,

so good, as slavery.
;

"The loom is
starch
is

of the imperfect structure usual in India
to facilitate the
It

and where
the root

used

working,

it

is

made from

must be observed that all the Indian weavers who work for common sale, make the woof of one end of the cloth coarser than that of the other, and attempt to seil it to the unwary by the fine end, although every one almost who deals with them is perfectly aware of the circumstance, and although in the course of his life any weaver may not ever have an opportunity of gaining by this means. The same desire of illicit gain induces him almost universally to make the pieces somewhat shorter than the regulär
called kandri.

length.

"The

coarser goods intended for

market

sale are

always sold as

they come from the loom, but those intended
bleached,

for private sale are all

of tradesmen.

and many of them undergo Operations by different classes It must be observed that in this district the weavers were bound to act as porters for conveying the goods of travellers and when any person of rank or authority calls upon the zemindar
;

for such, the

weavers are
they
are,

still

required to perform this

office.

On

some

estates

on

this account,
;

allowed an exemption from
at

ground-rent for their houses

on others they are taxed
parchahkush
is

a higher
to

than usual
put
all

rate.

"At Behar, a
the drawing

class of artists called

employed

the threads in the bleached cloth at equal distances.

(See

marked Fig. A,
is

of Arkite

this delicate Operation

being effected

Ghiden Ghelen's loom, where by the female figure in front.)

The

cloth

made

there being very thin, the Operation of bleaching

brings the threads into Clusters, leaving

many

parts almost in holes.

These workmen place all the threads at equal distances with a wooden comb. In some other places a needle is used. Many fine

62
pieces of cloth are

INTRODUCTION,
ornamented at the ends with the
It is

flattened gold

and

silver

wire called bad-la, which, as the natives use the piecea

entire, looks

very showy.

not

woven

into the cloth, but put in

with a needle.

"In each piece of the mushns of Behar, the pieces of which are two cubits wide, the workmen who perform this Operation stitch from 5 to 7 bands of this bad-la, each consisting of 350 wires. The workmen receive 4 anas for the 100 and a man can daily put in from 50 to 70. AUow that he puts in 60, and works 26 and 32,000 days a-month, he will receive about 4 rupees, (3 ä ) cubits of the wire costing one rupee, he has about 3 i^e rupees a;
;

month

for profit.

"The Chhapagars
very simple process.

put gold and silver flowers on fine muslin by a

They stamp the cloth in the form wished and then apply gold and silver leaf, which adheres to the glue, but rubs off where that has not been applied. Of course this cloth cannot be washed, but is very showy, and used
with

common

glue,

only on high occasions.
"All the blanket weavers are shepherds."

The

progress of

least those fabrics of the finest description,

during the classic

weaving in Greece seems to have been slow at were imported from Asia, ages, at a cheaper rate than they could be pro;

duced in Greece.

There were, however,
hlankets than cloaks.
in these cases the wool

several large manufactories for the weav-

ing of pallia, a word which might be more properly translated

They were

indeed, sometimes coloured, but

were worn in
loom.

was dyed in its raw State, and the palls the very form in which they were taken from the

for cloaks

They were rectangular pieces of cloth, and were used indifferently by day and for coverlets by night we find them also employed as horse-cloths, and even as carpets. Thus in St. Luke's description of Christ's triumphant entry into Jerusalem, we read
;

that the disciples " cast their garments

upon the colt, and they set and as he went, they spread their clothes in the way :" (Luke xix. 35, 36.) This was an oriental form of recognizing Jesus as king, and it is still observed in many eastern
Jesus thereon
:

countries,

during the royal progresses of their monarchs.

The

cumbrous palls were occasionally laid aside when any work was to be done requiring great exertion. Thus we read in the Acts of the Apostles, that those who went to stone the Proto-martyr Stephen,
^'laid

down

their cloaks at the

feet

of Saul."

(Acts,

vii.

58.)

" The wife and husband equally conspire To work by night. shoots ihe ßying Shuttle through the loom. 63 to Thus also Telemachus." (GeorgiCj /. the spinning being usually done by females. In most of the old Grecian and Roman looms the process of weaving was downwards. his glitt'ring And cast his purple mantle sword unbound. with all the apparatus necessary for the manufacture both of flax and wool." (Odyssey. " His girdle loosed. We must regard the spinning and weaving of Greece and . when attempting bend the bow of Ulysses. which was similar to a wooden sword. brings. is the same as that. says. one John Kay of Bury. where the manufacture of coarse blankets formed the staple trade The work was performed by slaves. Thus Virgil in his description of rural em- ployments during winter. household. leaving the upper part of the frame naked phrase. on the ground. in factories. In later times the spatha was superceded by a comb. who wrought of the country. but their productions were chiefly used by the working classes persons of superior rank either used dresses imported from the East. and the weaving by males. the invention of which is claimed by the English. a custom to which the making "bare the arm.) No doubt the " flying shuttle " here referred to. and this is . In a favourite old hymn we "Make bare thine arm. and make the winter fire .INTRODUCTION. He She sharpens torches in the glimmering room. Italy as a purely domestic manufacture house." of such frequent occurrence in the Old Testament obviously find. for their countryman. Thine arm alone salvation There were many establishments for the weaving of blankets and palls both in Greece and Italy but particularly in Megara. . had its spinning and weav- ing rooms. great King of kings. Several factories of the same kind were established in Italy. or those which were wrought in their own . especially in the rural indeed. and the weft was driven home by an Instrument called a spatha. every considerable districts. the pall was gathered close round the body. XXIL) Sometimes. alludes. . however.

life Art's included within nature's bounds So that art seemeth merely natural. Yet art would vie with nature for the grace. The Romans kept their warp yarns parallel by roUing them carefuUy on a cylinder. dales. The mothers taught their daughters. Signifique. pastures. " Arphaxad was a weaver of great skill His four web engines make us wonder still For they do art. for the purpose of keeping the warp yarns in their perpendicular direction. and fishes. now used by the Hindoos. or various pleasant fiction. poesies. In forming shapes so geometrical to the The art of weaving was unknown in Great Britain previous Roman Invasion. rivers. As if it were her sister or the same. and then dividing them into thirty or forty parcels. or farthest. sires their Thus in a line successively it runs For generai profit. they estabhshed a woollen manufactory at chester. Flowers. which unwound and gave out yarn as it was wanted a process which in modern manufactures is called " beaming the Aveb. As we by king Deioces have been told." while the Northern nations were forced to pass the threads of the warp over a transverse rod or plank. Squares.64 the instrument is INTRODUCTION. ovals. beasts. True In all history. and bees. plains. "The art of weaving is exceeding old. In cloths of Babylon IVe often seen Men's figured counterfeits so like have been. rare anagrams. in that country. seas. trees There's nothing near at hand. so like to nature. and for recreation. THE ART OF WEAVING. 'Tis Said that Ghelen weaving first began sons. birds. flies. From generation unto generation. But with these famous air looms may be wrought. frame. mix'd with commixion dimensions. In our looms the process by the reed and hatten. plants. After the Romans had obtained a footing Winarmy . Which hath descended since from man to man. and allowing free play for the stroke effected . That if the party's seif had been in place. of the spatha. skies.sought. rounds. curves. arts' In sundry colours. for clothing their and they also taught the benighted . Moreover. searching sentences from names. Hills. to attach a stone or some heavy weight to each parcel.

1843. for bed-covers. &c. No doubt his document will be interesting to many weavers and manufacturers in this country. which it would be tedious even to name these have. Lepsius and Taylor. and Contents I have just been considering with the greatest at- tention. and am now so far recovered as to be able to keep the children in order.INTRODUCTION. Alexandria. for discoveries. inven- Bandannas) the apphcation of steam. Newbury introduced the manufacture of broad cloth.) promised us some furand ther Information relative to the subjects there spoken about fection. I subjected homeopathic treatment. although I cannot yet undertake any 'professional duties. I regret exceedingly not having been able to give you more correct Information. Dear Friend Your their letters of 9th July and 15th August came to hand. natives the art of weaving-. It will be remembered by the reader. however. 9 . ITth Sept. in his letter of 23d April. among which work are said to have been knotted counterpanes with net~ borders. in not City of am happy to hear in New York. of 24th April. of the safe arrival at the letter which . together with the improvements in cahco printing. the last fifty years raised the cotton manufacture to a state . The Saxons afterwards introduced several kinds of fabrics for domestic purposes. as a moving in weaving piain cloth. the discharging of colours. 65 and the culture of flax. about ten days ago. Kersivenus. which manufacture was afterwards protected and encouraged by king Edward 3d. answering my letters to thera. of the the first place. that Mr. with in of per- which has no parallel in the history of the arts. delay. Ned O'Neal. : after some unavoidable letter to us. on the subject to which you most particularly refer but this delay has been altogether occasioned by the negligence of Messrs. (given at page 34. pantalets. (particularly of Turkey power. a staple article of export. I I had the pleasure of writing you on the 23d of April last. These inventions and red. For the last fortnight my life has been a burthen myself been suffering from a sore disease. to me. In the eaiiy part of the fourteenth Century (1327) Nicholas Grattan. 1843. and Jack R. petticoats. and innumerable other mechanical tions. and this fabric has ever since been Brien Galiagher. as I have which quack doctors generally call to delirium tremens. this gentleman has at length written is another of which the following a correct translation.

instantaneously. 8. Arphaxad's wheel. . is a portrait of the prince of . various observations relative to Arphaxad's inventions. T. contain. T. according to Lepsius. You of will perceive in the drawing. is at least cams and cam-wheels. figures. adapted to weave 30 pieces of cloth at once. enclosing. judging from the equal to the best spinning machinery of the present day.66 INTRODÜCTION. Figure No. nevertheless. I think. come It is to the factory. yourself. Arphaxad himself but this. originally constituted part of the interior mechanism of the engine . lace warp beams by nieans of endand embroidering machinery of various kinds. and I shall now submit to some you the substance of what they state as briefly as possible. From these remains it would seem that Arphaxad's loom was ca- and the same Operation» Indeed. and other over the draw- ing. in the drawings. extent. that a person perfectly skilled in the arts of spinning and figured weaving. nor yet the object for which she represented at Mr. Arybas' nipper or temple. articles scattered The fragments of machinery. these pieces varying in width from 25 to 74 inches. lace. Taylor. fork and grid stop-thread motion. measuring roUers for regulating the giving out of yarn from less screws. although certainly not so satisfactory as I could wish. and forming the most pable of producing various textures at one beautiful textures and patterns imaginable surpassing in splendour of appearance even the most gorgeous tail of the peacock. with a to all appearance. puzzles both the Doctor confess. Lepsius informs me that Arphaxad constructed a machine for Gengis-Khan.. for the purpose of examining some new patterns of shawls. variety of spinning apparatus. which.5 however. On this examining varioiis letters and other documents. you might have seen without any explanation. but have been thrown into their present air cis- State of confusion by a dreadful explosion of the principal tern. no less than E. and dis. for their dresses. which may. to answer your enquiries . who were mere wedding is spectators. two beautiful ladies. Figure No. also^ another from Mr. killing. 5. know what kind is a character she all. (fec. somewhat singular that this frightful catastrophe should have happened on a Sunday . weavers. These documents. suggests from the implements which she she is carries. of and they frankly is. I was extremely delighted to see a communica- tion in the handwriting of our old friend Lepsius. which circumstance an- other proof of the bad effects of working on that day. received by morning's mail. and quilting stuffs. K. Among jaw those many valuable may be traced part tappet Lemuel P. the wr^ck of contrivances used by weavers. that they neither and Mr.

my opinion. or not. This specimen contains 130 shades of colour. to be compared to it in richness of and Regarding the spinning engine of Wallotty Trot. the Doctor it did not differ materially from that demohshed by the explosion.000/. neither Lepsius nor Taylor can decide. taking one web with another. and the cost of the raw material was not over 30 per cent of that sum. Since writing the above. as at No.. of your money. beyond conception as fresh and perfect as if yesterday.331 years old. I shall for ward you in a few days 11| inches of it. nodoubt. part of which is shown at No. working webs. in as much as it turned off 1200 yards daily. but whether Trot used tbinks : rollers. 67 playing a greater variety of colouring than that proud bird can boast of. but. Whether the thread used was is of gold or silver. which I have procured from his Highness at an expense of 90 shekels of gold. The proprietor. Had the thread not been of gold. therefore. that the fragments in the drawing did actually form part of the mechanism of the engine represented. must have realized a handsome profit while the engine was in successful Operation. The pieces of glass cloth which you had the spoke to yet is beautiful kindness colouring to send me. with the assistance of a mere child to superintend it. the cloth being extreraely light. 9. of perfect goods. to say whether this enterprise turned oiit a good speculation for Gengis-Khan. 10. being employed in farnishing the different warps and wefts as required. are not design. finished and is of pure gold. The average price at which the cloth was sold per yard.. as Lepsius is unable it was not less than 140. and of I you in a former letter. was about 7^1. among . as at No. take it how long the loom was in Operation before From shown these/ac^5 we may for granted. although 5. however. The which it specimen of cloth in possession of his Highness. 11. formed an important item. . neither the Doctor or Mr. as it he cannot ascertain hlew up. my son has found another paper. previous to the explosion of the air cistern the spinning machinery. gold endless variety was the material used. or This machine. The original cost of the machine. or flyers.INTRODUCTION. to which the necessary of shades had been previously given by some highly ingenious chemical process. although containing so many webs. and many Shuttles (averaging 30 Shuttles to each of the 30 900 in all) appears to have cost only 1 shekel of silver per so diem for the necessary driving power. the textures could not have been so expensive. Taylor in able to say . owing to the astonishing fineness of the thread used.

4. by means of Each automaton was furnished with which it wound zip itself when run down. who came These to purchase the splendid figures serenaded all . &c. 3. because the will and grid stop thread motion. delighted with the working of your power looms he has to * lately caused them to be set up in his turban factory. in the shape of a beau* * . to The . automaton musicians which were He says stationed. Besides. no difficulty could have been experienced fork . is this extraordinary at this moment a mystery beyond His Highness my is power to solve. I remain. (a fragment of which you perceive in the drawing. at the entrance of the manufactory. ALEXIS KERSIVENUS. figure was possessed of the necessary mechanism. from Doctor Lepsius. friend. for the purpose of serenading ladies and gentlemen productions of Arphaxad's looms. those brought this morning". * no more. and they are now * in successful Operation. there are evident traces of other valuable contrivances for the fect same purpose working of : but whether these were essential to the perloom. in its its inte- according to office in the band. playing of a tune. customers. good when leaving the factory but in no case would they play a single note to such as were shabby in purchasing. Each rior. 45 minutes and there were 140 " to the round. have just learned that öur respected this life ^ Amasis Osirtasen." a suitable key. Homeopathic Physician. and shipped this day on board the Royal Tar. . wbo has elicited some further ideas relative to the figures 2.) would accomplish that object effectually. Civil Engineer. or not. with permission from his Highness. having departed * * theactof # yesterday (Sunday) while in * Hoping the above Information will prove satisfactory. In regard to stopping the engine on the breaking or failure of a weft thread. 6. I is herewith enclose the invoice. they are mechanical or generally.68 INTRODUCTION. and 7. also. Your most obedient servant. He requests me to convey you the expression of I his sincere regard. commonly averaged from 35 tunesj in all.

which are so well known that we think it unnecessary to give drawings of them. to deliver for the made into cloth. WINDING OR SPOOLING. being long and tenacious. PLAIN WEAVING. are so intimately blended. to in- crease firmness. section This process does not come within the compass of the present although the arts of spinning and weaving. it is wound upon bobbins. the raw material. require only to be freed from impmities by means of boiling water. The fibres of the former. This is done. are constructed of different heights and circumferences. according to the particular species of goods for which they are designed. by which means a very great length may be produced in a small compass. and the yarn has been thoroughly dried. or the . To its the latter a certain proportion of flour is added. generally for band looms. or rather a polygon inscribed and the yarn is wound around it in the form of a Spiral or screw. and soap or potash. for hand looms. it will be sufficient to consider yarn in the hank The first process in linen and cotton yarn.SECTION FIRST. and in this State. which form the two great divisions of labour in manufacturing cloth from . by means of the common bobbin wheel. WARPING. Warping mills. and swifts or runners. is boihng in the hank. that hardly art. The warping within a circle. to reel the yarn into hanks. At present State. The common purpose of being ciistom of Spinners is. When these Operations have been performed. it or skeins of a given length. mill for ms a circle. commonly called spools. is any thing analogous to the one entirely foreign to the other.

room which they A plan and elevation of those used in the manufacture of be found in silk. 3 and 5. ciently illustrate the principle of their construction. 3. and their extremities are mortised into the upright Standards which form the circumference of the mill. is The turned about by a trundle F. The is circular piece L is of solid wood with a through it. having a square axis passing in each end of which axis an iron pivot or Journal. the axis being placed perpendicular to the horizon. is The cir- cumference of a mill generally five English ells of 45 inches and is is to each. The divided into 20 equal parts of 11 J inches or J of an eil mill is built upon three horizontal frames. passing around its circumference.70 THE ART OF WEAVING. 3. 4. . and which being exactly 11 J inches nicated to as near to the floor as convenient. one of which represented at mortise A Fig. 4 a profile elevation. cotton. are to occupy. letters refer to corresponding parts in both figures. figs. Fig. B in the centre. The arms or radii (20 in number) are dovetailed into grooves in the centre piece L. and other goods will suffiand these will and 5. The mill lower pivot works in a socket and the upper in a round hole or bush. Figs. from which motion it is commu- by a crossed band H. 3 is a ground plan and Fig. and the same each.

and it is most essential in every stage of the Operation of weaving. distinct from each other. By these means what is called the lease is formed. E is the heck. The steel pins of the heck ought to be very carefuUy polished for the sake of smoothness. as it is usually called. are biit numbered from 1 to 20. and are numbered from 2 to 10.PLAIN WEAVING. for the purpose of showing more dising. 71 asunder. L In Fig. Near the circumference the arms are connected and kept firm by round pieces of wood. . or more. and appear very plainly in Fig. elevation of a part of a heck. 4 nine of the upright Standards are quite visible. (120. tinctly the way of lifting the alternate threads. 4. to preserve the eyes from being worn by the friction of the threads passing through them. as the whole reguFig. 3. The arms .) of steel pins. divide that circumference into 20 equal parts. the Standards at their extremities ap- Fig. 3 pear only as sections. and should be tempered hard. 5 is a front larity of the yarn in the loom depends upon it. and either of them may be raised at pleasure. with a It consists of a number round hole or eye in the upper end of each. as represented in Fig. when required. through which a thread passes in the process of warpThe pins are placed alternately in two frames. from centre to centre.

4. on the upper part of which are fixed a convenient number of pins. to its former place. and carefuUy places the yarn upon the two pins at I. . but that at K is moveable. On the end of the frame D is a as will be hereafter described. and lifts the other. (One half of the threads in the gang or bout passes through each of these guides. This is efFected by means of a cord passing over the puUeys NN. the first passing through the interval kept by his fingers. Two cross pieces of wood. G. These mill. Square box. pass between the upright in each of them which the leases are formed. The cross piece I is fastened to the mill. through the eyes of the heck E. When the mill is turned one way. The warper then. taining the bobbins. on to the is Upper lease pins I. Fig. and the second through that kept by his thumb. Every alternate thread is thus crossed and the lease guide. lifting left half of the frame or thread band through the space formed hetween the threads which are raised and those that remain stationary he then sinks the frame which had been lifted. OPERATION OF WARPING. and also to divide it into portions called half gangs which are useful in the subsequent Operation of heatning. and upon this the warp . which runs freely round. Four small rollers are generally placed in the inside of the box to diminish the friction of the post C. until the top lease pins at I. Fig. is D a frame of wood. through which a perpendicular post C passes. The number the heck. is a horizontal section of the frame for con- upon the or bouts. (see Fig. the cord iin winds and the frame is lowered. of bobbins which are to form the warp are placed bank G.) Into the Space formed by this he inserts his thumb. so that the threads may unwind from the Upper part of them the threads are then passed successively. 3. come nearly opposite in the frame or . passes the forefinger of his .72 THE ART OF WEAVING. when the mill is set in motion. or as it is commonly called the hank. and at equal distances. and the whole being knotted together are fixed to the pin M. Near another pin M. . upon the mill. and upon it the whole frame D slides up or down. and fixed to the end of the axis of the mill. is turned. in a perpendicular direction. I and K. 3. Standards which form the circumference of the mill are too smooth round pins.) The mill is then turned slowly. the cord winds around the axis and raises the frame D when turned the contrary way. Upon each of tliese is a small pulley of hard serve to guide the yarn wood.

and lower lease being is used. Ravels. until he has completed a number of revolutions sufficient to produce the length of the web. (see Fig. be immediately tied. He now divides his yarn into portions. he winds the yarn about it in a Spiral. BEAMING. it Having ascertained the number of half gangs. in order to preserve regularity in the Operation of beaming. forming another lease. or ball. the warper turns the mill in a contrary direction until he arrives again at the top. We now proceed to the next Operation. tili and repeats the he has coUected upon the mill the quantity of former process warp required in the web. The now formed. It is tant part of the duty of a warper to be very careful that an imporany threads that they which may shall be broken in the process. and the breadth of the web. for the purpose of putting the half gangs in their respective places. cuts away his it by tying round one half of the yarn upon each threads. he secures his leases. As soon as this has been effected. have not given any figure of this because it differs in nothing from a reed. excepting that the intervals are much wider. it is produced by crossing the half gangs. may not be crossed over the others. that instead of being formed by the crossing of the individual threads. and drawing the warp gradually into off the mill. and one proper for 10 . his first care is to wind upon the beam in a proper manner. over and under each pin. is 73 formed. by passing every division. or gang of his yarn. This gives him the lease for beaming. are of different dimensions. as nearly as pos- These are kept on the frame D. he passes a small shaft through that formed by the first. pin. Turning the mill gradually and regularly round. which is Beaming. as formerly stated. like reeds. and that the Upper part We may be taken off. links it a succession of loops called a chain. This lease difFers from that formed upon the upper pins only in this respect. In this consists the whole Operation of warping. formed by the descent of the frame D. When the weaver has received his warp.) until he arrives at the lowest lease pins K. and in this state it is delivered to the weaver. Upon these he turns his warp. 3. forms into a bunch.PLAIN WEAVING. separate by passing along different roUers and then half fixes the lower pins at the proper place. and keeps the half gangs distinct. An Instrument or Utensil called a ravel is then to be used. alternately. to form half gangs. sible equal to each other.

the reed is placed in the lay. by cords behind the headles. or two to hold the chain. Two persons are employed to hold the ravel which serves to guide the warp. and the ends of these rods are its the warp being spread out to proper breadth. and to spread it regularly upon the beam one. and the warp is divided into small portions. which are tied to a shaft connected by cords to the cloth beam. as every thread crosses that next to it. are applied. two threads (for piain interval. and one. 6 essential 7. or headles. The beam is then threads to the suspended. is then put on and secured. is next drawn through the reed by an InsleT/ strument called a reed hook or cloth) being generally hook. it is The weaver opens every headle in succession. The warp. the cords or fnounting. the warp hanging who hands in the down perpendicularly. and deliver rods. every half terval to be placed in an in- between two of the pins. The weaver then dressesor sizes a portion of his warp and commences the Operation of weaving. and the business of the other them to be drawn through the open headle.) at a proper degree of tension. proper to devote But before entering into the investigation of this process. DRAWING OR ENTERING. or more to turn the beam. taken through every These Operations being finished. sufficiently elevated to be out of the way of the person weaver. and the warp upon the beam commences. The most in Figs. pins on the warping mill. or chains of the warp. which moves the headles. working parts of this machine are represented and . it may be some attention to the construction of the loom.74 THE ART OF WEAVING. Two rods are now inserted into the lease formed by the upper tied together. The Upper part or cape^ Operation of winding the . The succession in which the threads are to be delivered is easily ascertained by the person to select the threads in their order. after pas- sing through the headles. (there is often more than one chain in the web. gang is the purpose being found.

parts of which are cut away. and cloth. or rather a horizontal section of a common loom.PLAIN WEAVING. Fig. 7. as Fig. . 75 a ground plan. for the purpose of showing in their proper forms other parts of the loom. warp. 6 is they could not be otherwise represented.

as viewed from roll. Fig. may be considered either as a profile elevation. are. and many parts. whilst many parts which are distinctly seen in Fig. THE ART OF WEAVING. are seen very plainly in Fig. 8. 7. concealed or cut away in Fig. the front . 6. 7. S Fig. either partially or totally hid in Fig. or as a profile section of the same loom. of necessity. 7. and all the other parts in front of . 8. 7. the cloth the lay. 6. are represented as they appear to a person Standing at one side of the loom. All the parts in Fig.76 Fig. is a transverse section of the same loom.

in constructing should be taken to the make to it of strength equivalent to the stress of work which is be performed. tion. This hps been done First. loom are marked by the same figures. are taken figure 77 may be seen. which are left out of Fig. Fig. parts of the In all these figures the letters. 9. and so on alternately. must depend entirely upon rails work to be performed wood necessary to give for it will be obvious. different. that the away are distinctly represented in Fig. in best. has been deemed for omit the side and cross frame work. that the quantity sufficient strength to the posts and of a sail cloth or a sheeting loom would prove a useless encumbrance. The rods pass through the which form the lease. 6. the headles. The The the of dimensions also vary according to the nature and breadth of is the work for which the loom intended. that the parts should be ac- curately squared. that it working parts distinctly without many additional drawings.PLAIN WEAVING. prove invariably the The second reason difficult to omitting the fi'ame work is. that is to say. It is sufficient therefore. that care light fabrics of silk or muslin. a thread passes over the first rod. many things would have been concealed by the Intervention of different parts of the frame. because. 8. and that the frame should be well fitted to the working parts. or at which It it would appear when viewed above. is Because the construction of the frames of looms are very and the not often essential to the Opera- but may be varied according to the fancy either of the weaver or loom maker. which will prevent unskillful persons from represent the would have been properly understanding it. The loom : following are the principal working parts of the common A. two reasons. mounting contained in the The lay and reed. must in this. front. If these points are suöi- ciently attained the most simple and least expensive plan of construcfor tion best. of the intervals : By this contrivance every thread is kept distinct from that on . and under the second the next passes under the first and over the second. in most instances. totally to side. as in all other machinery. particular form. strength of the different parts . the joints tight and firm. B the rods which keep the threads warp in their respective places. and add an unnecessary weight to one designed for weaving the frame work. same and thus by one comparing the in every part is shown in the various forms. the yarn beam. and to exhibit only the working or moving parts.

called the lease rod. communicated by the weaver's right hand. and the deficiency will prove injurious in It is therefore proportion to the fineness of the cloth to be Avoven. to explain the nature of their construction. briefly. 6 and 9. vibrating on centres. and their application to the purposes for which they are intended. H. usually called deiit^ two threads pass through the same interval bea close inspection of the hnes which twixt the dents of the reed represent the threads of the this. form the D~ the reed through which also Spaces or sheds to receive the weft. remains in the wood no Operation performed it is Whilst the least moisture upon it cari be trusted. and attached to them by cords. (see Figs.yarn beam loom of a loom should be.) mentioned above. and if brokeiij its true Situation in the warp may and quickly found. both perfectly to straight and round. 1 1 are the boxes for receiving the fiy shuttle. (two threads being drawn through every interval. In constructing be taken to select this part of the apparatus particular care should wood. for : accuracy of the is lease. and thoroughly seasoned.78 either side of THE ART OF WEAVING. of the utraost consequence that the wood should be dry. the warp passes. different parts of the it may be proper to notice. 6. the loom in succession. YARN ROLL OR BEAM. for all the rods are lease and the preservation of the lease is the chief cause of using warp passes. In proportion any deviation from these. the temples for stretching the cloth to a proper is the cloth beam for receiving the cloth when breadth. and the . and them. placed upon the upper rail or cape of the loom. the lay. rods. This is of such importance that too be easily much care cannot be taken to preserve the The third rod divides the warp into what fids or splitfuls. for warp in Fig. 7. are two treawhich are moved by the weaver's feet to open The shuttle is driven through the shed by a motion the sheds. dles NN. and which and sinking one half of the warp alternately. the headles through Avhich the C% by raising : MM woven. perfectly sound. (see Fig. Below the headles. the v/ill be defective. moving along with the lay. al- though improperly.) Before proceeding farther. will serve to illustrate the lines are drawn so as to show the way third rod is in thread passes between the rods. the lay being moved backward and forward by his left. as nearly as possible. The which each commonly.) and which. But absolutely necessary that the. strikes home the weft to form the cloth. it. and KK the drivers for giving motion to it LL.

iron axles driven iiito it 79 is before the beam turned. of a round one end of the degree of tightness by means two or three times yarn beam. may be in a perpendicular direction. of which only can be seen in Fig. the tension of warp will be increased diminished. passing round the beam. it. 6. the end and which does not appear at the beam. is parallel to This lever. and that the turner sliould be very careful in the execution of this part of the work. which may cause many of them to be broken. one side will be heavier than the other. warp by means is The band yarn beam of looms constructed merely rounded at six. fabrics. of course. has iron axles. before. great care ought to be taken to have them returned into their proper places. besides. and oppose greater resistance to the threads of the warp. one end of the bore staff is inserted. This apparatus called a pace. as will be afterwards . and as to. is To the other end of the cord. to prevent them from catch ing. it is still In heavy tighten the Stoff. that This greatly retards the work he may throw . for every operative weaver will be convinced. the other is being drawn upwards by a warp sufficiently tight. lipon this depends. weight moved is nearer the or further from the fulcrum of the or lever. 7. in a great measure. but right side which is called a höre for heavy work. RODS. in hand-loom weaving. a number of holes. trouble. if the beam bends by twisting. 7. the warp gets into confusion. and loss of time ensue. Fig. When this is neglected. the uniform tightness of the warp. of the first consequence to the operative weaver. many picks of weft sooner than The warp is kept in a proper cord U. (see Fig. One end all in of this cord is fixed to a lever Y.PLAIN WEAVING. and should be well smoothed. because. after fixed a weight W.) rolled he can tie one thread of warp. until the are bored. which is con: When venient in the process of dressing the warp. and great The rods are made of hard wood. the principal use of the rods is to preserve any threads of the warp are broken. the breaking the warp third or lease rod is flat. and directly under the back from the lever to the part of so that the cord passing beam. As mentioned the lease. and into one of them. this A heavier weight is X is then hung from the lever Y. the custom. It is. seldom each end and at the . say cord. or the two front ones are of a circular form. to of a stout pin. and broader than the others. the beanty of the cloth. and.

Fig. which would cause unnecessary friction. dlesj* either THE ART OF WEAVING. The rods are kept at a uniform distance from the hea- by tying them together.80 described. and the back ones sunk opening the which the shuttle passes. 1. is better. and are connected together by cords above and below. is shown in Fig. but in fine webs. 10. through . when the rods are kept about 4 * The 3^ to . For piain work clasped headles are chiefly used a representation of which. that hangs over the yarn beam. . 11. composed of 9 Strands. shed. for the pur- how the upper and lower parts cross each other. HE ADLE S. at The Upper edges of these four shafts are C and the sections or ends of them at 5 represented in Fig. 6. one of these is shown in Fig. or by a small cord with a hook at one end. which lays hold of the front rod. and a weight at the other. For this reason four leaves are now universally employed. The cross line shows the direction in which every thread of the warp passes through the headle. the distance at which they are kept separate seldom exceeds 5 inches. Irish linen weavers always have the front rod (or rod No.) from 4 inches from the back headle and in piain cotton goods. C^. except in very coarse work they are made of stout smooth twine. where the front leaves appear raised. than at a greater distance. Fig. They are then stretched on two thin flat shafts piain cloth. and strain the warp. 10. only cessary. the headles are constructed with eyes. upon a large scale. For many kinds of work. The grain of the cloth. to which each headle leaf is fastened. for 7. where the headle twine pose of showing is represented by double lines. that they would be crowded too much together. To weave of wood. the number of headles required would be so great. we know from experience. . two leaves of headles are really newhere many threads are contained in the warp. inches from the back headle.

are suspended by cords . suspended by cords from the under headle shafts. and this end rests in a small notch. These are connected Avith the two marches R. the under shafts are at the same time slackened to ease the warp. 11. is attached to the first and second leaf. From this two levers Z. the second through the second. 7. which move upon joints. and the marches are again connected with the two treadles. of the small cords. Under the headles are two spring staifs Gl. stretching across the loom. and the headles are pushed back by movfirst ing the lay. and the When becomes necessary in the after process. it leaf. apparatus is unnecessary. The cord connecting one end of each jack with the headles. by means raised. is they are distinctly seen. and the construction of the whole dered very apparent. this and thus the headles are When headles with eyes are used. are lifted by small rods. 8. from one end of these levers are hung the jacks F. to the rods. In drawing the warp through the headles. which is an elevated section. or doups. the thread is taken through the fourth or back third through the third. fixed to the side frame of the loom. as seen from the front. and from each end of these jacks pass the cords which connect them with the upper headle shafts. by inspection. The other end of the lever Z is connected by a small cord with the under headle shafts. ren- On the upper side rails of the loom rests the headle bearer S. from the headle bearer headles is Another may at once be hung way of easing the now most generally practised the lower links. back. the fourth through the front. and the jacks S. When the headles are to be pushed . In Fig. and that connecting the other end. which is 81 will also explain. the way in which the twine knotted to form the eye. . their places may be recovered in 11 draw out the foUowing manner . as in Fig.PLAIN WEAVING. from which the whole motion is derived. occasionally. Fig. the levers are relieved from the notches presses the weaver then down the upper shafts. to the third and fourth leaf.

to bring it into a proper working . or imperfectly seen in the plan and profile. By LAY AND REED. are turned round. The extremities of these pieces are nailed to the is back of the swords of the lay. 6 and 7. By these means either end of the lay may be elevated or depressed at pleasure. and diminishes the danger machines are called^yer^. a thin flat piece of wood. tioned. a to it These wooUen cord is stretched between the swords. raising the third and fourth leaves and sinking the first and is given and by reversing this. in which also is a groove. wood with a To each end of this shaft is fixed. and the upper rib of the reed . as reWhen the pins at DD presented more clearly in Figs. By raising the first and third leaves and sinking the second and fourth. second. Figs. taken from the front. as before men. and by these kept in place which are suspended from the rocking tree T. we find that of the first. but a light shaft of is vised. The drivers are moved by the cords EE. is the its top shell. left serving merely as a rest for the weaver's band to work the is lay. tied round both. in which Fig. sliding freely on the polished spindle F it then passes along the race G. is Instead of these cords.82 THE ART OF WEAVING. at right angles. The parts of the lay are as foUow H is the sole or shell of the lay. Position. is which driven from either by puUing forward the driver K. become shorter. by which the derib of the reed is received into may be regulated. and reed. BB are the two swords or supports of the lay. 9 is an elevation of the lay and exhibits very plainly those parts : there is a groove to receive the lower edge of the reed it D^ is . they twist the suspending cords. The boxes 1 1 are constructed of a proper size to receive the fly shuttle. is tied. By this contrivance the reed yields when the weft driven up. which of course. Avhicb certainly a steadier. the upper rib of the reed is not confined in the shell of the lay. which are either concealed. which the weaver moves with his right band. and lodges in the opposite box. In weaving light fabrics of groove cloth. by means of cords CC. though a more expensive plan. and a cord gree of spring this groove. 7 and 9. In lighter goods. of making still the cloth too thick. which Springs easily backward and forward. we obtain the place of the lease rod. with great velocity. screws are sometimes used. fastened to the handle H*^. the place of the second rod . the shell is to and the be used above the vibrating reed.

contained in 24 inches is TEMPLES. or sei- vage of the cloth at either side. and the texture of the cloth impaired. dents ought not to be perfectly to either edge. of cloth shrink considerably in the breadth.PLAIN WEAVING. during the Operation of weaving. at least in the cotton The sidering a yard of cause of this seems to be founded upon con36 inches as a proper Standard. is. is each containing twenty dents. consist of tv70 pieces of hard wood. is carried to a very great ex- a mode of counting is their reeds. of these. 83 the evenness of fre- The regularity of the cloth depends much upon the dents of the reed. . or linen reed. and for cam34 inches and the number of hundreds contained in these . But the shrinking of cloth is very dif- ferent in various fabrics. The length of the Scotch yard is 37 inches. and as most kinds is. but thicker in the midfric- and tapering This not only diminishes the tion on the warp. the additional inch no doubt. universally adopted. or as it is called among weavers. Cloth of a stout. respective lengths is called the set. allowed warp perience. In Lancashire and the adjoining counties. for linen 37 inches. The additional quantity by the manufacturer. by which the cloth is kept extended. chiefly thick fabrics. reed is The divided into hundreds. The 40 and 34 manufacture. but will allow any small knot or lump much easier without breaking the thread. to these difFerent kinds of cloth. tent. and for it jfrohahly bears this Proportion to the English yard of 36 inches a similar reason. and if this is neglected the warp will be quently broken. allowed for this. in proportion to the quality of the web. determined by the number of dents of the reed in a given length. Their reeds are divided into portions of 19 dents each. and this is regulated by Observation and extherefore. and these again into five parts. sidered to be bric A reed for working hoUands con- 40 inches in length. It is probable that these lengths it owed weave their origin to the breadths of which very was customary used. with small sharp points in their ends. difFerent from any of those above mentioned. which called the and the number number of the reed. The dle. The temples. which lay hold of the edge. flat. to pass The is fineness. thick texture requires a much of greater allowance than light goods. inch reeds are is now little and the 37 inch. they call heers^ in use. where the manufacture of cotton goods. the set of a web.

the quill. by a small bar. the use of the fly shuttle but in the linen and silk it is still common to . warp by the weaver's band. er shortened. The and other apparatus used for throwing the end of the bore in * So called from the weaver's depressing one ofF stafF. then shifts back the rods and headles. according to the breadth of the web. Fig. This is called drawing a bore by the Scotch. until the latter hang perpendicular. next to the cloth. escaping from Fig. pieces are connected The by a cord. 12 passes through a small eye of glass. 6 Seen at L. tion of both. 7. passing obliquely through holes or notches in each. in Fig. drivers. spindles. inserted in is the side of the shuttle. By this cord they can be lengthened.) and is then wound on the cloth beam MM. are kept centre. 13. or wood. . When the warp has been wrought up as near to the headles as can be done fast up a prowhich unwinds an equal length of warp. In weaving thick and bulky fabrics of cloth there of is a cross beam wood called the breast beam instead of the small roller. Irish linen weavers. and a sink^* by conveniently. or of apple tree. as as woven. . Fig. a representa- is almost universal In the woollen and cotton manufactures. or ivory. SHUTTLE AND QUILL. and turned very true. drawing yam from the warp beam.84 THE ART OP WEAVING. the weaver shifts forward the temples. Behind the temples is the roUer over which the cloth passes. roUs per quantity of cloth. flat after They . it runs upon two small wheels hung on the weft thread. one end CLOTH ROLL OR BEAM. steel at each end centres . (this roUer should be well seasoned. turning on a Their form will appear very plainly at L. is the cloth is stretched. The Shuttle is made of well seasoned box wood. pass the shuttle through the boxes. and tipped with of iron. and proceeds with his weaving.

in order to avoid breaking the threads. and to render the fabric smooth and glossy. from friction all the ends of the fibres which compose the is by raw which the yarn substance in spun. which drawn gently through it. This Operation is justly esteemed of the first importance in the art weaving warps spun from flax or cotton. It also. Wheat flour. a further preparation to : fit them for the purpose of weaving this is called SIZING. that they are too easily and rapidly affected by the Opetimes potatoes. The Clearing of the warp is generally done with a comb. pare away.PLAIN WEAVING. in giving to the yarn both the smoothness and tenacity required but the great objection to them is. require put into the loom. indeedj be encumbrances. fly Shuttle. occasionally. ration of the atmosphere. and it all the machinery requisite for weaving into cloth has been added. vegetable substances. ^a^ and cotton. The use of this process it is to give to yarn sufficient strength or tenacity. unless care be taken in sizing the warp. it little preparation after being- is only necessary for the weaver. OPERATION OF WEAVING. When dressed yarn is allowed to stand exposed to the air for any considerable time. when any obstrucis tion presents itself. and some- commonly employed for cotton These answer sufficiently well. a pair of small shears is This Operation is equally necessary in warps spun from the used. But they require besides. When a warp has been properly arranged in the loom. and even in fine woolfor it is impossible to produce work of a good quality len fabrics of . are the substances linen. which are animal substances. is simply a mu- cilage of vegetable matter boiled in water. For the Operation of cleaning the warp. tends both to diminish the during the process. the teeth being kept in an oblique direction. and to pick off. which might pre- sent obstructions in passing through the headles or reed. to enable to bear the Operation of weaving. and . before being woven> . to clear his any knots warp behind the rods. and would. than upon manual dexterity. In these or iSilk upon care and and woollen warps. are 85 unnecessary in working by the hand. laying smoothly material. the busin ess of the operative weaver depends more attention. or lumps upon the yarn. The common use for sizing.

We know well that by the common mode such would be impracticable with fine work in this country. so great Variation of the moisture in the air that it appears diöicult. This dry weather. probably because the proportions have not been properly attended of moisture is to. (France. which is of much importance. to fix and so frequent any general. . To counteract and other lias saline substances. has. as Avell as in the lower and ill aired. is conducted in the open and exposed to all the heat of the climate. and we gladly embrace this opportunity of making it publicly known. " sized with such paste as is generally used in this country. wiry. not to say universal It will the quantity to be mixed. that the Indians use a very minute addition of muriate of Urne* to render them retentive. who prepare water of ammonia. rule. Dubue has Sciences of lately read a memoir before the ' ' Academy of RouenJ on the subject of Pastes^ ^c. to prevent the size of the web from drying and hardening. herring. this inconvenience. then tedious and troublesome is to weave. brittle. appear singular to weavers in this country.' in which he shews. and uneven. the weaving even their finest muslins. or absorbent of moisture. are : sometimes mixed in small quantities with the sizing but this not proved completely successful." says he. for if not impossible. trifling Muriate of lime may be obtained at a very expense from those apothecaries. tili lately. after being dressed. or others. * Monsieur Dubue sliould have likewise informed ns where the Indians procured their muriate of Urne. been fortunate enough to procure some account of the substances which the Indian weavers employ for sizing their warps. as we hope the Information will prove an important benefit to the manufacprocess of air. even in an ordinary summer day. turers of this country. We have. M. and the texture of the efFect is chiefly the case in it cloth rough. the is equally prejudicial with a deficiency. or beef brine. It does not appear that this subject. It is it THE ART OP WEAVING. and apparently inflexible. attracted the attention of scientific men nor has it been treated in an accurate or philosophical manner.. . "Webs. when the weavers of fine cloth find indispensibly necessary to have their yarn wrought up as speedily as possible. which is intense.) may be woven in the upper and drier Chambers of a house.86 into cloth. which have a tendency to attract moisture. very recently. and because a superabundance Indeed. that in India. always becomes hard. Weavers are obliged to work in damp shops.

according to Forbes. but completely. make from a root called kandri. The next duty of the weaver is to examine the yarn about to be sized. are drawn out of the warp. has been properly executed by bringing the rods. for the purpose of drying the It is proper in this stage of the Operation. sizing. When the warp is sufficiently dried. in order to prevent any obstruction which might arise by the threads when agitated by the fan. The first Operation is warp with the comb. glue is most commonly used. that room may be allowed to clear the to join the old sizing to the new. use a kind of size which When In the sizing of wooUen warps. the lease rod again placed upon side and cautiously shifted forward to the headles. the weaver again resumes that of forming the only three Ist. over. He then raises the lease rod on one edge to divide the warp." they The Indians also. . one of which he holds in each band. draw one of the brushes lightly over the warp at intervals. and carefuUy to take away every knot. or injure the cloth. lump. a very small quantity of grease (tallow) Isirge fan. by means of two brushes. The Operation of sizing the warp being cloth. and the proof that is. the weaver is obliged to suspend the It Operation of weaving. the warp previously sized has been wrought up. from their working Situation to the beam.PLAIN WEAVING. he proceeds to apply the substance used for which should be rubbed on gently. and the process finished. the two rods nearest to the headles. WEAVING. into the whole warp. by pressing down the treadles with his feet. 87 is The waste whitening steep of the bleacher merely a Solution of muriate of lime. and to prepare a fresh quantity of warp. When this has been done. and the lease rod only remains. alternately. with another brush kept its flat for the purpose. necessary to stop when the sized warp has approached within is two or three inches of the back leaf of the headles. whilst in a wet State. used in succession. cohering. and sets the air in motion by means of a warp which has been sized. The : Operations required are and these are very simple Ojjening the sheds in the warp. from the lease rod to the yarn this Operation beam. successively. as far as can be conveniently done. or sticking to each other. . This being performed. to is rubbed over is it. w^hich might impede his progress. or other obstruction. The other rods are then put again into their respecis tive sheds.

left band alternately. is the resistance. This and by the right and 3d. is every individual thread subjected to all the by the headles and dents of the reed. and by practical experience. Diiving the shuttle through each shed when opened. But the art of spinning has not been. it is necessary to exert greater power to move it and as . tbis siidden application of the pressure of the foot to the treadles. that the body of the yarn must sustain a is nearly equal to the force with which the weaver's foot Besides tbis. and also of the to Now strong.88 THE ART OF WEAVING. It may be useful. applied to the treadle. always nearly as great as the moving power or force which it is necessary to apply. and again pushTbis is done by the left band (as ing it back nearly to the headles. brougbt to such a degree of perfection. is is performed by the right band. and with which they are generally in contact in rising and sinking. proportional increase of the stress friction. Tbis causes them frequently to break. feit The bad in quences attending tbis mistake are particuiariy or weaving weak yarn. even with the greatest attention. neither easy nor necessary. and the defects which inexperienced weavers are and inconveniencies which these oc- casion. and by each band successively in the In describing Operations so simple and uniform it is old way. when the fly shuttle used. those which are tJie weakest. and uiore tinie is lost in tying and rej^lacing them. by mathematical demonstration.) with the fly. and probably never friction occasioned can be. or the tightestj must bear much more tban their equal proportion of the stress. must cause a upon the warp. as in every other branch of mechanics. PulHng forward the lay to strike up the weft. and we wish above apt to all to avoid repetition. 2d. as its to make every It is thread capable of bearing alike confirraed both proportion of the stress equally. tban would . in the common band loom. before stated. or reaction. In the treading of a web most beginners are apt weight or force of the foot to apply the consefine much too suddenly. however. in tlüs place. as yet. between which the threads pass. as it is almost impossible make every thread equally and equally tight. to go much into detail. In weaving. tbis it foUows. From stress. TREADING. to notice the mistakes into fall. that when any body is to be oioved witli increased velocity. the resistance increases in proportion to the power.

must be driven 2400 times across the web to produce one square yard of cloth. has not. we believe. with the former allowance of one fifth part of the time for stopping. Instead. but crossing over. regularly and con- stantly kept going at the above rates. that there a rate of beyond which improper to accelerate the motions of a loom. the nature of the fabric. web. does both. and still the yard of cloth will be completed in 50 minutes. insert we shall here a few calculations of the quantities of work which may be produced by uniform and incessant motion. changing quills. in a 1200 6-4 web. This is. but it is it is equally certain. [even wefted^ let the time of weaving a yard in length^ be computed at the rate of 40 picks per minute In a 4-4 cotton shawl. will be done in one hour and 15 minutes. and the weft 1200. even by the most rapid motions. What it the precise rate of this velocity in band loom weav- ing should be. the skill of must vary considerably. the consequence would be still worse. 89 have been sufficient for weaving a consiclerable length of cloth. or Interrupts the passage of the Shuttle ficiently .PLAIN VVEAVING. will produce is more than usually effected. Yet every cloth experienced weaver Avill be satisfied that looms. But as this is scarcely possible. in prois portion as every motion performed with increased rapidity. either breaks frequentl)?^ it them also. been correctly ascertained. that the shuttle . at rates usually reck- oned slow. time will be lost It is unquestionably true. When a thread has been broken it no ionger retains its parallel Situation to the rest. of giving precise rules of motion. should continue the Operation. it will foUow. if this is done 60 times per minute. too common among conceited or Ignorant weavers. especially the younger part of them. and the strength of the materials. Again. as Indeed. after one. according to the breadth of the the workman. that a greater quantity of cloth will be produced. from inattention. that : by conducting the Operais tions too slowly velocity. supposing no time to be lost. this. No allowance is is made here for the time employed in sizing. and other necessary Operations. the whole will be completed in 40 minutes. let the warp be 1000. These illustrations. beis cause this supposed to be the same whether the weaving per- formed quickly or slowly. therefore. allow one fifth of the time to be occupied in tying threads. But if the weaver. or more threads are broken. The same reasons will suf- prove the error of another opinion. or between those nearest to it. Now. which are confirmed by the 12 practical obser- .

lay the ends of the fibres of the cotton smooth and similar to that of sizing the warp. STRIKING UP THE WEFT. CROSSING THE SHUTTLE. . it is apt to and thus to slacken the thread. This tends parallel. or to unwind it from the stretched. of the beauty of the cloth depends upon the weft being well But if the motion of the shuttle be too rapid. It has also a greater tendency either to break the weft altogether. vation of every experienced weaver. The same wheel fit for used for winding the warp upon bobbins. Shuttle bobbin advise manufacturers of such goods to procure sample machines from these gentlemen. when we come to investi- gate the methods of weaving b^ power. so as to unwdnd freely. should be performed with a regulär and uniform velocity. like the former motion. during the Operation of winding. This. that the lay should be brought forward with the same force every time. The wheel it is so constructed.90 THE ART OF WEAVING. destroy the regularity of is the fabric. and of the best rates of speed adapted for weaving the various kinds of goods to which pow^er can be applied. These machines contain from 12 to 100 bobbins each. will be sufficient for the present. The best shape for those used in the fiy shuttle. which they build in the form of a cone. this regularity must be ac- quired by practice. is that of a cone* and the thread should traverse freely. that the spindles may be easily shifted. "VYe shall then treat of sizing whole webs by the aid of machinery. We would * Messrs. generally woven into the cloth in a wet state. which. quill in doubles. fabrics. make the best flywinding machines in Europe. and particularly for power looms. common Operation of weaving. That In the the cloth may be uniform in thickness it is necessary. to adapt for either purpose. In every kind of weaving. The to weft of muslins and thin cotton goods. if not picked out. Scotland. in the form of a spiral or screw. It only requires a spindle of a little dif- ferent shape. Farquhar and Gunn of Glasgow. where striped or checked goods are woven. is also winding the weft. The subject will be more fully discussed. and especially in thin wiry much recoil. and its elfect is The person who winds it the weft upon the quill or bobbin must be very careful that be Avell built.

By « referring to Fig. When the latter of these is required. the second. and the greater the arc or ränge through its effect in pressing passes. rather line. than would be proper in light work. 91 however. motion similar to that of a pendulum . ferent species of cloth. the motions should be constant and uniform. in the Operation. and. it will be proper to take This is the place where the feil will be vfhen a bore the medium. the half of the warp which to the cloth roller and the half which sinks. is which it For be hung at a greater distance from the point Avhere the weft Struck up.PLAIN WEAVING. (in hand loom weaving) during the Operation. to be drawn perpendicular to the and one drawn perpendicular to the headles. or consequently. mounting of the loom. But as the feil is constantly varying in its Situation. and be equally stretched. therefore. The is point. necessary in the formation of such fabrics. that they should foUow each other in regulär süccession. to mount his loom in such a manner. the weaver must vary his process from that which would be propei in the former. that the ränge of his lay to the thickness of his cloth. 7 it wdll appear. or where the last thread has been Struck up. pass from the yarn beam zontal straight line. But some observations will be necessary to adapt these to difexactly at equal distances from a line : . necessary in the others but by no means to the same extent two aherations are. or swing of the lay. in open goods. that the threads of the warp horirises line. may is be in proportion As the lay swings backward and its forward. upon a level. in up weaving coarse and heavy goods. upon centres placed above. called by 'weavers the feil. The beauty or excellence of some cloth s consists in the closeness of their texture. that in each of the three Operations of weaving. (one pull of the warp) is half wrought up. the less the extremes vary from the medium. From this the following conclusion may also be drawn The hores ought always to be short in weaving liglit goods for. The extreme tightness of the weft is a principal excellence . The first is in the . The result of what has been stated above is. will deviate equally from a straight When this is the case the threads of . It is. The feil. of consequence to the weaver. in general. the more regulär \ni\ be the arc. pivots upon which the lay vibrates ought. that of others in the openness and regularity of the intervals between the threads. the greater will be this reason. the headles should the weft. and between these two lines. and is. to a certain degree.

that longer be in a straight line half of the warp which descends. When the weaver. and form a small scobb. will be drawn considerably tighter than the half which rises. it very frequently crosses between a number of others nearest to it. is practised in thin work. the Order that the weft ble . not picked off.92 THE ART OP WEAVING. will appear warp which pass through the same close together in the cloth with a vacancy between them. tJiat the warp spreads in the cloth. is not regularly interwoven with is the warp. Scobbs are also sometimes produced by the lay being too low or too high. . the weft blotcli. and to expiain the causes from which they When from any cause. Thus each half will be slackened alternately. and the consequence of this is. of course. longer discernable. of the lay is given. from inattention. In weaving thick cotton goods. and give a appearance is to the cloth. and by obstructing the shed in that place. A knot or lump upon the warp. but this is more frequent in weaving struct . which called by weavers a scobb or This may proceed from several causes. will often ob- two or three threads. in may be Struck up as tight or as stretched as possibut in weaving thick goods. the warp Avhen at rest. and the if weft at that place is not at all interwoven with the warp. the shed is closed before thestroke lay is this. the weft State. It inserted in a wet when the fabric is wanted to appear very close. will no and when the shed is opened. will cause a large scobb. the When the weft has been thrown across the warp. occur in the weaving of cloth. the Shuttle. which is obstructed. the most frequent is it some from obstruction in the warp. continues to weave after a thread of warp has been broken. slacken the weft. them dents in the reed. interval in the reed. rising or sinking regularly which prevents any portion of when the shed is formed . In consequence of the threads of the wai-p. brought vp rather before the shed is closed. to a certain close degree. The former of these ways of placing the loom latter in thick. a deficiency must happen in the cloth. may now be proper to notice the defects which most commonly arise. if the fabric is thin. and those which vacancy is caused by the intervention of the But if the yarn beam is raised considerably above the level of the headles. instead of passing fairly passes either over or under the portion between the threads of the warp. and the intervals caused by the dent of the reed are wo next to .

PLAIN WEAVING. of the web. /or no Instruction can altogether swpply the want of skills which is only to he ohtained by practical cxperience. In many kinds of cloth. In order to produce this. than a tight uniform seivage. hung paral- If the loom is correctly made and mountedj the fault must he with the weaver. jisping will be unavoidable. 93 In this case the scobbs are always near the list or seivage of the cloth. Of loom. This frec[uent in light fabrics. however. Having to finished the foregoing general account of the nature it and process of weaving. There is nothing that adds more to the beauty of cloth of every and about which good weavers are more solicitous. for if the reed is injured. and this is only to be surmounted by attention and practice. to the The tightness of the weft. It is unnecessary to enumerate further. fancy goods. carefully attend to this. If threads are inaccurately drawn through either the headles or the reed. and when the webs wrought in them are of one breadth. If either the yarn beam or cloth beam be not turned very true. of brass or steel. the defect will be apparent in the cloth. the warp must be sized even with greater care than what is necessary in the middle description. occasioned by any particular of weft not being Struck up so close as the rest. draw two threads through each headle. and also being drawn more towards the middle of the web by the weft. also. A second fault in cloth is is known among weavers by most thread the name and is of a jisp or shire. many descriptions are woven in the common . ndw becomes necessary to pay some attention the fancy and ornamental department of the business. the beams. with the hand shuttle than witli the fly. the intervals of the reed through which they pass. beauty of the seivage. the same The the other faults in cloth generally proceed from inattention in management of the warp or weft. A weaver should are apt to be worn much sooner than the others. Jisps are very frequently occasioned by de- fects either in the construction or mounting of the loom. When cane reeds are used. the work cannot be good. to to draw the threads which form the seivage double. or lel to if either the headles or the lay be not defect will ensue. the defects which may occur in the weaving of cloth. the common practice is That is. The threads which form the warp of the seivage being coarser than the rest. it is very common to make those dents between which the warp of the seivages passes. contributes materially It is sometimes customary to warp a few dentfuls at each sei vage with coarser yarn than the body of the web.

and with any. two. these is practised the goods are called STRIPES. Checks. where the stripes are to be formed. and the Variation in the operative part of the process so smallj that it rnay be introduced under the description of piain weaving. Stripes are formed upon cloth either is by the warp. that if yarns of different degrees of fineness same web. Yarns of different colours may also be introduced. and the in the fabric. The patterns of checks weft. may be is either similar. or thirdly. the stripes are stripes and their distances relied from each other will be uniform. if without any additional apparatus. require no fur- and as they contain. where the colour the same. most frequently. The it extent to which this object of very great is manufacture is carried. Variation from the process of weaving piain species of cloths. or more headlefuls may be different fineness. the Variation of pro- chiefly the business of the warper. which formed by the difference cannot be always weft. a mixture of colours. or more threads. two distinct and that the appearance of these will be different when the web is finished. or three.94 THE ART OF WEAVING. than upon that of the . or by the it is weft. and when either of are introduced at regulär intervals into the textures. former the most prevalent. it is com- mon to form the stripes in the warping. or drawn through is to the same interval of the reed. portion As the thickness of the texture of piain cloth depends upon the prowhich the fineness of the yarn bears to the measure or sei it of the reed. may be drawn through the same headle eye. both these ways may be adopted. upon where the is In warp is stripes. CHECKS. or dissimilar in the warp and The . if the stripe be very thick. renders an importance. with little violation of arrangement. When the cess is former of these ways practised. their beauty depends more upon the taste and fancy of the manufacturer and the skill of the dyer. will be produced. little. foUows. in the latter case that of the weaver. where large quantities of striped goods of the same description are to be made. because in this case. For example. the effect may be produced either by using yarns of by drawing a greater quantity of warp through agiven number of headles or intervals of the leed. In extensive manufactories. or qualities of cloth. being merely combinations of the two methods of ther description striping.

so number of dents in a stripe. When or is the patterns of checks diflfer from the middle bosom of the web. if four. To compose a pattern if it is &c. and you quantity of dents in the web. weaver.PLAIN WEAVING. and as 80 threads is a porter you will thus find the number of porters. two by the weft. for a striped web. we may find the number 100 10 of patterns or repeats thus dents in the stripe repeats or stripes 1000 3 dents in the web threads per dent 80)3000(37 (Porters) 240 Threads in the web 600 560 40 threads over porters. w^hich will give the stripe. the different materials. take the fourth of 8 threads. especially or cotton. It common to weave these with borders only. you must begin by then take half that it counting the number of threads in one number. Measure the width of the it is as to ascertain how many have the times be repeated in the breadth of the web. the bosoms being in this case the check work is only at the corners. Multiply the will numentire ber of times by the dents in the stripe. and very . By this we see that 3000 threads give 37^ 40 threads being half a poiter. to ^. two by the warp.. at the borders silk. . The following example will explain this : Suppose that one in each. Stripes and checks are manufactured in great quantities from all from wooUen. the left piain rast of the four borders appearing as stripes. they are called shawls or handkerchiefs. WARPING OF STRIPED WEBS. Divide the number of threads in the ^ web by 80. stripe. whose huslness is merely to quality^ 95 make the cloth qf a good and insert his weft according to the pattern. stripe contains 100 dents with three threads and that there are 10 stripes in the whole breadth of the web. if two threads per dent. <fec.

Fig. which is referred to as a specimen of piain cloth. that every thread of the warp and of the weft cross each other at right and are tacked together alternately. that thread or portiofi is of threads said to he flushed. In Fig. (fcc. cloth. as in piain weaving. This touaille^ species of weaving derives its name from it the French word and is generally confined to thick fabrics. different kinds. fourth. In analyzing the texture of piain angles. which is denominated the füll salin tweel. 13. . or 8 threads. sixth. whether of warp or weft. and some silk stufFs the crossing does not take place until the 16th interval. 13. is not regularly interthe cloth. Tweeled cloths are pro- duced of thread is many In the coarsest species every third called the hlanket tweel^ in crossed. branch of weaving only the threads cross each other. as it would appear when viewed through a microscope. this will be more clearly illustrated. and this is commonly finer fabrics they intersect each in other at intervals of 4. in tweehng. the intersections of the threads are evidently alternate. When any thread or portion. 7.SECTION SECOND TWEELINa TWEELED CLOTH. Before proceeding further it may be proper to explain what ig known among weavers by woven in the appellation offlushing. has been shown. 6. This is not the case third. for in this fifth. By referring to the following Figs. 5.

to may be necessary in enquire into the causes piain. 14. that strength will be rather diminished than in- creased. This fig. thickness. strength this place is the general object. Sometimes it is employed for the sake of strength. in the cotton It it is In the woollen. upon the same principle that Fig. ber of leaves which are requisite in weaving them. equal to the number of threads contained in the interval be- tween each is intersection. were this cloth turned upside down. applied to the weaving of which require a great portion of strength. 13 represents plain. if every sixth thread. 97 ^ ^ w w H~p: w H H p w-k: Fig. the same appearance would take place in the warp. will show that the same thread of weft remains flushed or disengaged from the warp while passing over three threads. in many instances. when every . when compared is with piain cloth.TWEELING. In the silk manufacture tweeling is very common. will also convince the reader. Thus. and durability. inclusive. the different species of tweels are distinguished by the numfive. 14 is a four leaf cloths Tweeling is. For this reason. and is tacked down by That is passing under the fourth. Now. but more frequently for the display of colour. For in the texture of piain cloth 13 every thread alter nately interwoven. containing an equal quantity of similar materials. both of the regulär intervals. third thread to be interwoven. as a four. warp and weft. tweel. which render tweeled the difference. &c. An inspection of the Fig. that the threads. Ficr. and most commonly the same. every fourth thread of the warp would be interwoven with the weft and the remaining three threads would be flushed. 14 may be considered as a representation of tweeled cloth. while in that of tweels they . three leaves are required . The specimen in Fig. six leaves will be necessary and so of all the others. to say. are interwoven at To produce these eßects a number of leaves of headles are re- quired. or six leaf tweel. cloths stronger than and to ascertain In so far as the strength of tweeled cloths depends solely on the mode of weaving.

but in the facility of combining a greater quantity of materials in the this same trated either space. will is given. resistance to the decay of cloth. latter case. every thread of warp. But if by strength^ we understand that property which opposes the most effectual and most continued : . and therefore. except at and that part of them must depend entirely on the strength of the individual threads. opposes its portion of resistance whereas. there- be inversely. flushed The following inference will naturally arise from this let two webs of equal length. although word strength when applied to the and. and partly upon It is not. the same space than could be done the above in piain weaving. quantity. and the sum of all these will be the total amount of resistance. attached to the . those of the warp being flushed upon one side. from common wearing. will oppose a certain resistance to the Operation of the reed in driving the weft thread home. its strength. friction same for . iiniversally true. which mode of look for superior strength or durability. From bility of we may safely deduce. in tlie are only interwoven at intervals. above or below the thread of weft. supposing each to be of equal strength and quality. and their strength ought to be the same. depends partly upon bility. be woven let the first be piain and the second tweeled. every thread is alternately interwoven. miich more warp may be crowded into In the warp the proportion . the tweeled web (if equally used) would be in tatters long before the piain one is the idea commonly. and those of the weft upon the other. Now. the threads can derive no mutual support from each other. that we are to This may be easily illus- when the shed of any web is opened. that the strength or duraless a tweeled web. and fineness of yarn. the above remark will not be found would be materially texture of cloth injured. indeed. whicli is the intervals where they are interwoven. in piain weaving. as before stated. This inaccurately. in a four leof tweel every fourth thread only is intersected. Now. : weaving aflfbrds. in the effect of the mechanical Operation. instead of changing its place every time the weft thread crosses. and . of course.in proportion to the number of leaves of headles in the tweel. in the each warp thread. . on the reed will be diminished. for the durability of cloth exposed only to common its flexi- wearing. less resistance fore. The ratio of resistance. changes only once every four times consequently.98 THE ART OF WEAVING. will be somewhat it than the proportion of materials contains will be to that of a piain web. therefore. breadth.

in order to cross each other alternately. of course. tweeled cloth possesses another advantage over piain in point of diirability. in the weavraising and sinking of every thread is alternate. that the mounting of the loom should be adapted to the purpose for which it is intended. and the flexibility of the cloth. at FF. 15. as the chiefly observable in stout linens. such as flax and the defect is But in tweeled cloth. . chiefly. whereas. the number of leaves is generally greater. The same general remarks which have been given in the first apply almost equally well to the Operations of the section. the desired effect. as the nature of the case may require. and the apparatus In weaving piain cloth. 99 But when the fabric is very close. . so as to enable the weaver to MOUNTING OF LOOMS FOR TWEELING. much greater. and from which its motion is derived. must deviate very considerably from a straight line. Fig. by many skilful weavers. and as the succession of working the headles by means of the treadles may frequently vary. because the But. and these are to be raised and sunk successively. the deviation from the straight line is much less. the mounting which connects every leaf with the treadle. especially when composed of hard and comparatively inflexible materials. in the modes of arranging the loom. ing of tweels and many other kinds of ornamental and fancy cloth. It is therefore necessary. when woven they become Serpentine. and the weft driven very closely up. the threads. must be such that the leaf may be raised or sunk independent of all the others. 8. Order As almost every variety of fancy weaving is produced by the and succession in which the weft is interwoven with the warp. threads only cross at intervals. answer the purpose sufficiently well. the jacks represented in for moving them. The varieties consist. A representation of the mechanism used for this purpose. the principal difference in niounting the looms is in the number and arrangement of the leaves of the headles. When the warp of piain cloth is very much crowded in the reed. or not. weaver produce in all descriptions of work. This renders the cloth very liable to be easily cut or chafed. will be found in Fig.TWEELING.

each short march is connected with the lower shaft of the leaf of the headles to which it is to give motion.100 4 3 AB 1 2 In at B. to the But the motion communicated from the long marches shafts is reversed at the centre of the top levers . a leaf of the : headles suspended by the two oblique placed cords these cords meeting below the lever. are moveable at the centres F and I. moviiig upon centres From one end is of each of tliese levers at A. form a direct when it is considered that the cords below loioer connexion between the headle shafts and the latter is pulled short marches. as each of these marches is connected with one leaf of the headles. and are then made fast to two sets of niarches or levers. tinguished by the letter E. with which is connected. that if a long march is puUed down. Of course. it follows. consisting of four each. for when the end . This will be apparent. continue as a single cord to pass through a groove in are its end. connected with the end of the corresponding top levers if a short is puUed down. this figure four leaves of the headles are represented at C. Each of the four long marches is at D. Below the headles which The long marches are disit. the leaf will sink. the leaf will rise . Avhen one of the it down^ upper those of the former. must sink also. Now. perpendicularly above which are four levers. the short by G.

for the purpose of raising to this rule some and sinking the . in order that the pull may be uniformly perpendicular. the connection of each treadle with the marches may be easily distinguished by comparing the lines which represent the cords. the end A will rise. the ranges of the different mechanics. is D by the name of coupers. occasio7ially introduced. The distance of the centre from the end D is. may be calculated by the same rules which apply to all other motions communicated by means of levers. manner proper for weaving a web which may be tweeled This kind of mounting is often used for cloths in which the ground is woven piain. agreeably intended to move. and stripes tweeled hy the weft. and a connect each with the marches which it is It is common rule in fancy weaving. If greater accuracy and the ratio which they bear to each other. 101 puUed down. generally. which contain the grooves for be Segments of a the radius of which equal to the distance of the groove from the centre of motion at B. when the cases to which they relate are being inves- The connecting cords between the marches and treadles are ap- plied in the or piain. treadle should be connected with all the leaves of the headles. in almost every ornamental work. When to the connections between the headles to the to and marches have it is been formed. If the figure is carefully examined. and of applying the cords by which these headles are to be worked these plans are generally called the . although very simple. for otherwise the long marches would communicate too great a ränge of motion to the rising headles. But previous to this. it may be useful to explain the mode of drawing plans upon paper to direct the weaver in drawing bis warp through the headles. above description. that every individual rest. The arrangement to of this apparatus. levers.TWEELING. tigated. ought to is at A. made twice as great as that from B A to is B. and will be particu- larly noticed. for species of is very generally used. Some exceptions however. ought be carefully studied by those it who are not conversant with the practice of weaving. only necessary arrange the treadles. . occur but these are few. circle. and these are explained in almost every elementary treatise upon wanted. with the description which will be afterwards given. and the corresponding headle These top levers are known among weavers leaf will be pulled up. The ends of the top levers or coupers the suspending cords.

white warp appears Now. as they are designed to give an accurate representation of the intersections of the threads. excepting that the upper side would then be flushed by the weft. If we suppose that the warp of a tweeled is web is and that the weft black. draught. Figs. of white yarn. . for the purpose of showing the headles and treadles. were three leaves to rise and one to sink when each treadle is pressed down. for the sake of easier reference from the one to the other. 17. figures We shall upon many kinds of tweeled cloth depends. 16 and the under by the warp. DRAUGHT AND CORDING. that is to say. have occasion to treat of this hereafter. upon the paper. they. 16 the black weft is flushed. will convey a clear idea of its appearance. 16 and 17. which may be effected by Fig. the effect would be quite the same. as in Fig. woven . 17 the the under side of the same web appearance of flushed. and in Fig. Ficr. were the cording reversed. it is directly under the heaor usual to represent them at one side. on a large scale. Fig. Fig. every fourth and Fig. 16. as in This reversing of the flushing. 17. are representations of tweels of four leaves.102 THE ART OP WEAVING. 16 will convey a correct idea of the appearance of the upper side of a web when loom mounted with four leaves of headles. is and as being the fabric of tweeled cloth generally thick and close. Although the treadles of a loom are placed dles. is the principle upon which the ornamental in a . Plans of this description may be considered as horizontal sections of a loom. additional mounting. 17 will represent the leaf being raised and three sunk for in Fig.

4. or this is practicable. In cession in feet. This naturally leads us to comand to place the succeeding treadles alternately upon each side.TWEELING. 18. as well as the whole weight of his body. But when the is sufficient. Fig. 5 4 3 2 1 . 15. 18 Fiff. the weaver will frequently be apt to mistake the treadle and press down a wrong one. the one foot. when this case it is common to place the treadles in regulär succession from right to left. In all the plans given it is to be understood that when two treadles are applied for the purpose of working the web piain. and the placing of these numbers gives the order in which the treadles ought to be In Fig. without crossing weaver. it fabric is lighter. as 5—3—1—2—4—6. and two for working the web piain. 15. In foot. When a great number of treadles are necessary be obviously the best to produce any effect. All treadles for the fancy part are distinguished by numbers. mence our succession at the centre. 3. as 6—5— 4— 3—2—1. this case the treadles 1. four treadles are required for the tweel wrought. For if some regulär order be not adopted. and the treadles 2. 103 ARRANGEMENT OF TREADLES. When this is the case. the weaver is generally obliged to use both his feet on the same treadle. it will way to arrange them in the suc- which they are to be pressed down by the weaver's foot. regulär order adopted in the elevation Fig. while treading with each other. and 5 will be wrought by the left and 6 by the right and by applying the treadles from 1 to 6 will be wrought in the . the latter by the letters AB. has sufficient time to shift the other to the next treadle. these treadles are always distinguished by the letters AB. where great power must be applied. In heavy fabrics. will be left foot and when the pressure of one foot more convenient to arrange the treadles so that the right and may be applied alternately. the feet alternately. The former are distinguished by numbers. without impeding the Operation.

kind are called by weavers herring bones. if the explanations We have hitherto considered all the cloth. by reversis drawn through the headles. from their resemblance to the back bone of that native of the deep. The draught and cording will appear by inspection. and the treasame Order. The drawing of the in the number of the leaves warp through the headles pro- same regulär succession from right to left. 19. 20. working a The only difference be- tween this and the four leaf tweel is and treadles. five of the lines which represent the threads of the warp are connected by each Gross line. ing the order in which the warp a kind of ornamental tweel. Fig. 19 Fig. 19. the sake of ren- dering the general principle of tweeling more obvious to those jpreviously unacquainted with this brauch of weaving. but used.104 THE ART OF WEAVING. 18. mounted tweel consisting of five leaves of headles. represents Fig. merely. In Fig. The plan for drawing and cording a web of this description will be found by referring to Fig. already given are fuUy understood. a kind of alternate suc« is esteemed preferable this is called by weavers . 20 is the cording of a tweeled where the tweehng is re- versed in the draught. 20. 54321 Fig. When tweels do not exceed four leaves. as threads of for warp in tweeled interwoven in progressive succession. produced. this arrangement is when a cession greater is number of leaves : always adopted. in a Stripes of this way similar to that shown in Fig. 1 23 45 67 stripe. five threads therefore are to be drawn through each inceeds in the dles are arranged in the terval of the reed. for shows the draught and cording of a loom.

the rise successively. when piain. that portion which is to form the ground or intervals. Fig. The draught of the warp through the is reed. 3 and 4 are pressed 1. Two treadles are added.TWEELING. The same mounting by which a regulär tweel is wrought. the the mode of applying the cording will evince that when the treadles 1. ßut this would derange the order of the treadles. (as many kinds of French fancy vestings) and the fabric very un- To obviate this inconvenience. 3 and 4 contain that portion of the warp which is to form the tweeling or stripes. for of the former four threads pass through each interval. An example of each of these foUows Fig. 2. the grounds of which are be and the tweeled by the warp. tweeling leaves leaves 3 and 4 will and the piain A B alternately. In this plan. 14 . An examination of to enable the weaver If not required. and. the broken tweel is used. while the effect of the broken tweel is : at the same time produced. if necessary. down in the order of the numbers. it is requisite to stripes weave webs. will also equal. so as to produce both piain tweeled cloth at the same time. as mentioned before. Such plans are generally adopted. here adapted to the purpose of rendering the tweeled stripes more close and compact than the piain ground . 2. the leaves 1. that the intervals between the points which they are interwoven would necessarily be very flimsy. 2. two piain treadles A B may be omitted. 21. The rnn 4 3 2 1 is AB 1 2 3 456 and to a plan for mounting a loom. ihe flushi7ig of both warp and weft would be in so great. 21. work a broken tweel by treading in different succession. 105 BREAKING THE TWEEL. be preserved. the leaves A B. When at a tweel consists of many leaves. as denoted by the cross lines. might be productive of many mistakes. to work the whole fabric piain. Weavers therefore prefer placing the cording so that the regulär succession of the treadles may first.

to produce either the regulär. 23 is its draught and cording. . as they are more hke design paper. occasionally. between the to . 4321 Fig. each interval Numbers are used lines denotes a leaf of the headles. Fig. is expressed by the numbers annexed to each. piain. show the order and succession in which the threads are drawn. the entire Fig. 25 is the same tweel broken and the succession of the treading. restores in Fig. 18. 24. 22 both the headles and reed. Fig. is a plan of a piain and tweeled stripe. the same as Fig. 25. or broken tweel. Fig.106 THE ART OF WEAVING. 1 2345 67 24 is a regulär five leaf tweel. and of the only two. Fig. 22. and Fig. 25. . Fig. 24. latter But if the whole is to be wrought warp should be equally drawn through This case very rarely occurs. regularity In these. and the following examples. The same succession of its treading which breaks the tweel in Fig. and the dark Squares denote the raising cords which Squares we prefer to use instead of cyphers. 1 2 3 g 1 1 m \ 2 3 4 4 S R B m mm B 6 4. 2 3 4 5 1 of tweelsolely to 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 2 4: 1 3 2 1 R whole 3 5 2 4 The ing : above example will also that the sufficiently show the two ways is and difference in the cording preserve a regulär order in the treadles. 23.

will show the manner of forming the alternate It is to be observed that the cording may be adapted in various ways. '~~~ Broken. 28. passing one leaf between each until you come equal intervals. 27. When the number of the succession should be made. as viewed on the side where the warp is flushed. 26. 3 2 5 3 P^ 3 2 4 5 6 R. and seven leaves are drawn and mounted. Regulär. 1 r ^ m 4 5 6 2 3 m 1 m B.) all the leaves to the sixth treadle. Fig. 28. 6 5 4 4 2 3 2 3 5 5 4 1 1 SEVEN LEAF TWEELS. 30. 6 6 J m m 4 2 . Fig. Regulär. (shown in Fig. R. tweels of six. according to the discretion of the weaver. Fis.. 29. Broken. For example. and the tweel broken in several places. The foUowing are examples of each : SIX LEAF TWEELS. in the broken tweel of ought to foUow each other in succession. 107 E IS a specimen of the effect and appearance of a five leaf tweel..TWEELING. as nearly as six leaves. 6 B. broken in this way. Fig. Fig. leaves will admit of possiblcj at it. In the same way. 1 1 ^ B m M^ 6 7 4 2 3 2 ^ 6 7 3 4 5 5 These examples or broken tweel. but as the fiist treadle immediately follows the .

the tweel is said to be but imperfect when the number of leaves does not admit arrangement. 1 ^ 2 S 5 6 7 3 4 ^ Broken. Fig. and others are imperfect. The lowest tweel that can be broken is that When or tervals of one. however. that some are perfect in respect to the intervals at which the leaves can be raised. 1^ig. also an interval by the third and This.lOS THE ART OF WEAVING. and disposes the warp at intervals more perfectly than any tweel that can be formed by a smaller number of leaves. because proceeds exactly like those already given regulär tweehng is . which is usually called the satinett tweel. ought to be avoided in practice. besides. all the first treadle succeeds the eighth at the same interval as It is to the others. although given as an illustration. perfect . cannot be avoided in working with six leaves . though much used. two of this of four leaves. By examin- ing this cordin g is will appear. with so many leaves. therefore. is that . The last specimen of common tweels which we shall give. 31. as will be seen by the foUowing example. no interval there is . while all the rest give that of a broken tweel. The five leaf tweel also. 31. it seldom used. that the intervals for by which the tweel broken are perfectly regulär. EIGHT LEAF DAMASK TWEEL. the succession in breaking the is difFerent. but in the eight leaf tweel two leaves are omitted. When tweel eight leaves are employed. the interval is formed by passing one leaf between every two until the whole are corded. this number. sixth in repeating the operatiorij there will be and the effect of these two leaves will be that of a regulär tweel. There of two leaves between the intersection produced fourth treadles. In all the former. 8 8 6 It is unnecessary to give further explanation of the eight leaf it tweel. the leaves can be raised regularly at inmore from each other. Regulär. be observed of satin tweels. OR HALF SATIN. and the third has the raising cord applied. has an interval of two leaves between the third and fourth treadle.

by the application of this principle. for the present. 32. Italian. Stripes upon tweeled cloth differ from those upon piain in the following respects tweeled stripes may be formed without any dis: tinction in the fineness of the warp . the flushing upon tweeled one side the warp isflushed. on this part of our subject. it is to be drawn either through the headles or the only requisite toflush the for the warp and weft alternately. and of the machineiy reobject is weaving the various kinds. which it is susceptible. our next to investi- gate the means by which looms are adapted to the weaving of TWEELED In the references to Figs. and given such examples as appear necessary to consufficient of the varieties of quisite for knowledge of the principles of common tweeling. nor do they require super- numerary threads reed. on the Most kinds of fancy tweeled stripes are produced other the weft. broken by omitting four leaves and cording the SIXTEEN LEAF. . On 16 and 17. French and English silk fabrics. necessary to illustrate this are upon the scale of a same principle will apply to any number of leaves used for tweeling. is Here the tweel fifth.TWEELING. The examples five leaf tweel . cloth has been explained. of sixteen leaves. 109 and is only to be found in some of the very fine Chinese. Fi g. OR FÜLL SATIN TWEEL. 1 1 ^ ta 2 3 4 m m s^ 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 16 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Having vey a finished our observations. STRIPES.

The foUow- ing exampie will be sufficient * When is one headle is lifted out of every five. the five. according to the pattern of the stripe. and so on which may be regulated It is by fancy. four . in regulär succession. of the weft show on the upper side of the eloth and. above is a specimen of a the stripe upon ten the weft. the front set cords 18 (which see .110 THE ART OP WEAVING. and by the blanks. and. as indicated sink one leaf successively. In the former case. The stripe is formed by drawing a portion of the warp through one set of leaves.* m M ^ . set. number of Fig. consisting of five The cording is exactly the same as the regu- lär five leaf tweel. it is tweel said to be regulär . the leaves are corded exactly as in common tweeling. which set. This explanation we give merely as an exampie. If a broken tweel is preferred. while all the rest sink. for these terms are applied to tweels of any leaves. ßve of whichflush stripe is warp andfive is produced by two of the back set sets of leaves. which raise there are also five sinking cords. one set rising. four fiflhs of the warp. Regulär and Reversed. in the back set there are five raising one leaf successively. leaves of headles. and the front leaves will sink in an inverted succession from 5 to 1. then another portion through the other alternately. STRIPE. . 33. =L ^ ^m 1 1 1 222 333 444 555 1 1 1 ^M 2 2 2 ^^3^„^ ^^^^ I 333 44 55 5 4 1 5 4|3 2 The This each.) that of the same reversed. the leaves of the two sets treadles are will be obvious. 33. for it usual in this species of tweeling to invert the order of raising . that when the worked in the order from right to left. in the latter. tlie other sinking. FIVE LEAF TWEEL Fig. while all the rest rise as in the front By this arrangement the back set flushes the weft. the back leaves will rise in succession from one to five. shows the tweel regulär and reversed. when four are lifted out of every fifths called reversed. the other the warp. already described in Fig.

in respect to the is number : of leaves.TWEELING. the dimity cord. woven in one stripe the reverse of the other. therefore. STRIPE. which will be explained in their proper places. that four fifths of the weft will appear on the Upper side of the cloth and four fifths of the warp below. In other. that a piece of cloth were to be tweeled stripes. it will foUow. as in common tweeling. 34. a plan of which both for cording and treading subjoined. four fifths of the warp would be thrown on the upper side and of the weft below. and the plans of cording on the treadles would also be the reverse of each other. But. were the plan of this cording reversed. is which merely the three leaf tweel turned. particularly in dimity. Suppose. may be varied almost TURNED OK REVERSED TWEELING. Any The warp to patterns depend entirely upon the succession of drawing the through the leaves of the headles. H • 1111 22 22 33 3 3 44 4 4 M 'M 5 5555 M ^^ 4 3 H 5 5 1 1111 2222 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 55 2 All tweeled stripes are mounted upon the same principle. is The first of these tweels. for and four sunk. . diaper. all the regulär is and broken tweels the one side of the cloth. 16 and 17) and is of very extensive application in different branches of weaving. and infinity. Broken and Reversed. (see Figs. number of leaves may be adopted. Changing the appearance of the weft from one side of the cloth to the other in this manner is called turning^ or reversing the tweel. if the warp were one colour and the weft another^ and as there is always one leaf raised In a five leaf tweel. greatest proportion of the weft thrown to and of the warp to the example. and damask. two sets of tweeling leaves would be necessary. 111 FIVE LEAF TWEEL Fig.

This branch of weaving was of table linens. Fig. and on the front leaves to throw up the warp. were manufactured in considerable some time ago. and in general with a tweel of five : leaves are called diaper. it of late that has been applied to certain species of shawls. DIMITY CORD. of diflerent colours. Cording. in the cotton manufacture. Under the Word cording-. The coarser sets of table linens.112 THE ART OF WEAVING. Fig. tili chiefly confined to the manufacture. In the above plan the set of leaves. 36. in general. at the village of Dornock. the warp and weft of which are. in the north of Scotland. 36. and which require the least mounting. ~ M 1 1 Treading 1 1 1 222 33 1 3 M J 3 1 1 ^^ 1 222 3 3 3 ^ ^ 6 ^M r^ ^B 4 2 5 3 1 1 2 1 first nine threads of warp are drawn on the and the other nine on the front set. 35. leaf tweel. . having only a four quantities. whence the name Dornic but the finer kinds which are usually woven by a more extensive apparatus. is the damboard or checker shown in DAMBOARD OR CHECKER. back DORNIG AND DIAPER. The most as simple pattern of this kind Fig. the raising marks are so placed on the back leaves as to flush or float the weft on the upper side of the cloth.

The folFig. 37. Fig. from the examples given under the article tweehng. is is the draught and cording common it pattern in this brauch of weaving. 38. When two or more sets of tweehng leaves are thus employed. 38. as is observed in the draught. instead of forming Squares. which is effected by following the same order of succession in treading. 37. the mounting is said to consist of two or more divisions. and woven either by the regulär or broken method of treading. regulär tweel. ~ 11 iiiiiiu 22222222 33333333 n] 22 3.DORNIG AND DIAPER. an endless diversity of figures be produced. or any other sucinto cession may which fancy may suggest. and the which produces represented on design paper in Fig.j 22 33 44 11111111 11 44444444 11 44 33333333 44444444 33 44 33 44 M a m ^ 2 8 8 2 2 2 A B which may be taken of a very figure for an example. Fig. the cording being the This draught and plan of cording are adapted to the four leaf same as the checker (Fig. 113 But such draughts. that the same figure may be produced by a tweel of any other number of leaves. and when the whole of this variety contained in one set of the pattern is woven Square. may be broken an indefinite number of parts of various dimensions. (each division generally contain four leaves of headles) and the draught and cord15 . lowing plan. merely by two sets of tweehng leaves. 36 :) but it will be obvious.

) with the corresponding draught and cording on two divisions. and the weft white. the weaver works twice over the treadles A. These are succeeded by eight draughts on the set A. eight treadles A. respectively.114 THE ART OF WEAVING. ings of such mountings are usually for marked on one leaf and treadle which are sufficient to exhibit all the design. because these reverse the tweel in such parts of the pattern as are represented on the back division. then 2 over the fore set B. tili the figure be square. In weaving this pattern. The spaces by the weft hkewise contain a corresponding number of picks. whatever number of divisions they contain. When dornic or diaper patterns are drawn on design paper. and brings all that is essential in the pattern into a small compass so that the weaver has only to Substitute one set of tweeling leaves and treadlesj whatever number may be employed. the same is to be observed with respect to the leaves all and treadles those plans marked B (Fig. and by following the succes- times sion of the draught. that all patterns formed by the warp are produced by the raising cords. This will be apparent by comparing the preceding draught and cording (Fig. on the binding plan m. for each leaf and each set or division . or iSneness of the reed. A. which binding plan denotes is usually 10 by 10. as it were. the greatest portion of raising marks is is placed. treadle in this plan. 37. and sometimes five threads. the several divisions together which are at any time to be raised. those parts of the pattern . then the dark shaded flushing Spaces in the figure will represent the pattern as formed by the warp above. he goes twice over the treadles B. or that division : said to be raised in order to reverse the tweel a raising mark is therefore placed in the corresponding square of the binding plan on the treadle marked a. and eight on the set B down in figures. two on the set A. 37. m. let the warp in this example be supposed blue. so sometimes four. which are marked 2. or once over the set of headles. that on the back set of the leaves A. there are two draughts. in which it will be observed.) and this takes place in which are given in the contracted form. and so on. Where the four treadles A cross the leaves or divisions marked . Keeping still in mind the general rule. This is called the hinding plan^ because it binds. according as it is mtended for dornic or diaper. two on the set all of which are set B. each black square in the that each of these spaces may contain one Space by the warp. and the white spaces. after which over the the same succession is repeated. (each of which represent four leaves) marked.

agreeably to the dißerent arrange- ments of the raising cords upon the binding plan. either to exto suit pand their dimension or them to any desirable 3. but are cast separately. Fiff. the headles are not. spaced like common power loom. ~ p ^m 1 1 1 m 1 113 1 12 112 2 2 3 1 13312 111 d c 14 11 11 112 1 13 b 14a 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 Binding Plan and Treading. set of reed . the next two Spaces those that are produced by the treadles B the treadles A. by which the weaver can adapt them. and so on with any other variety that may occur. that comparatively small scale. as in the finer kinds of fancy mountings. Fig. to any pattern he may have occasion to weave. 39. so as to run upon the backing or inuddUng cord. and is so of any other pattern. 38. 3 d li a . thus wereall the figures on the plan. not always be confined to their original draughts. m. also. 3 4-c. again being wrought eight times over from the large Squares of eight Spaces each way. brauch. without any regard It to the number of tweeling leaves in the division. weave a variety of patterns. or other headles. the must be increased as in the other branches of number of weaving as these mountings.DORNIC AND DIAPER. can only be augmented by adding complete sets of the tweel. drawn upon a in applying such patterns to they may be enlarged in any given proportion. peculiar to diaper will produced. wliere the 115 at the bot- warp is underneath. however. multiplied by the draught would stand three times the size it now is. When divisions a still greater variety of pattern required. at pleasure. is in a great measure compensaied by the ingenious diversity which is usually observed in weaving is the succession of the draught. 39. the varieties arising from an increase of leaves in this. and thus practice. and the succesand that diaper mountings may sion of working over the treadles . must be more limited than in almost any other This disadvantage however. by means of which a style of pattern The same draught. this pattern is must be observed however. The following plan.) will represent those parts of the figure which are produced by working twice over the treadles A. Hence the two Spaces tom of the design (Fig. in general. .

In Order to render this species of ble. Were the two back leaves constantly raised and the two front ones raised alternately. and formed a diversity of figures. will give the reader an idea of the manner in which a variety of patterns cords may be obtained from the same draught and succession of treading.) into weaving as perspicuous as possiwarp of any piain fabric one thread of which is blue and the other white. alternately. a corresponding check 2d. so long ones raised alternately.116 THE ART OP WEAVING. the whole fabric. warp would be woven into a uniformly blue fabric. If the two fore leaves were constantly sunk and the back it is piain. a white fabric would be produced by throwing in white weft. merely by a different position of the raising upon the treadles. and white weft thrown across. if one shuttle only were employed for both webs. which is on a scale of four divisions. all the blue . that by throwing in blue weft. leaving the white warp unwoven below. leaving out the blue warp above. for saving room. WEAVING DOUBLE CLOTH. and let us suppose this warp to be drawn through a common four leaf set of These headles might be worked piain headles in the usual way. The next variety of weaving that claims our attention. This is the method usually practised in ingrain carpet weaving (which see. for exaraple. is is thatof double cloth. which for the most part composed of two similar fabrics (generally piain) interwoven at various intervals. in alternately. SECTION THIRD. let US take. 3d. will be formed into very small blue if and white and a pick of blue and a pick of white be thrown will be produced. the to produce the Ist. foUowing changes of fabric : When which stripes. the two back leaves are raised and sunk alternately with the two fore ones. and only a four leaf tweel. agreeably to the design of the pattern to be produced. is piain cloth. Hence.

one leaf in regulär succession until three picks of weft be thrown into the web. or both warps. emperor of China. It was likewise on this principle that Julius Cesar's great coat was woven.) manufactured hempen pipes. will be obvious. especially in the manufacture of shawls. take six leaves. It was in this manner that Ichao he-he-hi-ho Ouang (nephew to Teling Ouang. enter orange warp in the back and red warp in the front three. to the fire engine. a red fabric will be produced. . for conducting water to his uncle's flower gardens. cloth of that colour will be produced. entirely independent of the red warp in the front leaves. two set. yet as there is great room here for a display of ingenuity. have been lately adapted. Again. and thus a variety of colours may be all red. however. these two webs be made to pass provided the ueft be red . TWEELING DOUBLE CLOTH.) This mounting makes one web entirely orange and the other but if the two colours of weft be different from the warp. are required to weave double cloth of the piain texture. or inward. can likewise be effected on For example. It is evident that if the back set be worked. <fec. and also as wicks for the patent lamps. each If. require a great number of leaves of headles. except at the seivages. however extensively it may be otherwise employed. therefore. for has been already observed that four leaves of headles. 117 as the weaver continued to work upon one set of treadles. one it set of tweeling leaves be substituted for each set of piain ones.. by working the front leaves exclusively of the back ones. Pipes. and if through each other at different in- tervals. Although tweeling. various devices and patterns may be produced.DOUBLE CLOTH. the two webs would still be distinct. As it would. and thus. plaids. who reigned 1079 years before Christ. a three leaf tweel can be produced by lifting three. supposing the weft to be orange. is seldom applied to double cloth. then we may throw the greater proportion of either one. where they would be united by the weft. bed Covers. that every variety of pattern that can be produced on the piain the tweeled one. outward. in France. it will be necessary to show how the several varieties of this kind of texture It may be produced. texture. displayed. (See in- grain carpeting. woven in the same way.

and two threads of the face and one of the back are drawn into the same interval or split of the reed. a No. monly called Marseilles quiltings. under which head the subject of tweeling double cloth will be furthis style of ther illustrated. with the Royal Arms em- . The face.118 THE ART OP WEAVING.* Q. and tliese produce variety of figure in the design. This species of double cloth is chiefly confined to quütings. and wrist gussets. Damask Manufacturer. Mr. and printed for vestings. 36 reed that is 36 beers in 24|^ inches. as in other branches of ornamental weaving. Glasgow. ^ ^^""P^" back In weaving these stitches the fabrics. for example. 36. &c. two picks of the fine and two thrown this is of the coarse weft thrown in alternately. other coarse pick goes into one of the sheds that work the back. consists of a set of piain headles. and one of the coarse fabrics. wove frill. The mounting of a quilt four for the face. double stitched neck. usually and a number of stitching leaves proportionate to all the ränge of the pattern for the back. buttons. or until the application of the draw loom becomes necessary. The . and the ränge of pattern. be enlarged beyond the power of leaves. 26. button holes. although they may may be made to produce any other fancy figure at pleasure. the The stitching leaves are frequently adapted to diagonal and diamond patterns. For the back face 46. in between the back and the face clear of both and called the wadding. David Anderson. there are wefts.which are also commanufactured in considerable quantities in Great Britain. pretty good quilt the warps and wefts as noted below will make a ^ For the face No. If we take. treadles to and weave but a very limited pattern on this principle. four go to the into the two for wadding. One pick of the fine is back and face together. Shoulder straps. work seems to be peculiaiiy adapted to the draw-loom. 36. THE JUNCTION OF TWO UNEaUAL FABRICS. The following plan (Fig. late a ehirt with a fine bands also blazoned on the breast. and two are thrown two alternate sheds of the back. which contain a certain number of beers or porters The warp and weft of the face are considerably in 24J inches.uiltings are generally woven in reeds of the Manchester and Bolton count. so that when eight picks of weft are thrown. 40) will * show the construction of a quilt mounting. üner than those of the back.

The fifth and sixth picks are fine. in order to render the principles of this species of weaving as perspicuous as it weaver will find very awkward to shift bis right foot from each is of the stitching treadles to the wadding one. which open the other shed of the face and at the same time raise each of the back or The treadles. /. a. g. and the order in which they are raised. and c. X. . by which arrangement the succession of treading for the right foot will be in a regulär or progressive . Vj A and B all are the two leaves for the face. raised. which are wrought into the face. back. x. are thrown raised. while his left en- gaged with a different succession with the others. the former goes for wad- and the latter forms the second pick of the back : and thus any pattern may be woven at pleasure. according to the succession of the draught on the stitching leaves. opens one this trea- shed of the face. Fiff. the stitching or back leaves. by which the back is again stitched to the face. • ^ 1 • 1 • X • 1 •l-l- A B • ••!• 3 12 7 4 13 9 5 1 11 15 a b c d e / ^ h In the above plan 0. and w. The treadle. d. opens the shed wadding. open the two sheds of the stitching leaves. while at the same time they raise all the warp of the for the face above the Shuttle. w. and woiks alternately with the treadles. Although the preceding plan of is given in the most concise form possible. by raising the face and sinking the back. and fourth picks are coarse. a wadding treadle with the same cording is usually placed alternately with a stitching one. The ding. of the back. yet in practice the which it is susceptible. which are fine. into the face. h.^0.DOUBLE CLOTH. seventh and eighth picks are coarse. the The treadle 6. To obviate this. is third The by which the back and face are tacked together. the former goes for wadding and the latter is the first shot of the back. 1 ^ ^m m M ^m M m ^ 8 2 16 6 16 m ^ mm ^ 1 1 1 . and sinks dle warp e. it By will tracing over the figures that point out the order of treading first be found that the and second picks. but at the first tread the stitching leaf. but the former has the back leaf. 119 DIAGONAL aUILT.

Fig. 43. 41. ^ — - ^ ^ — ^3 ^S ^m ^m ^m ^ ^ ^ ^a HW 8 ^ ^ ^ ^m 1 2 4 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 16 16 12 25 24 10 20 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 32 14 28 40 18 36 48 23 44 26 30 34 38 43 46 . common : in practice.i .120 THE ART OP WEAVING. Fig. 42.1 11 9 4 7 5 3 6 12 13 34 10 20 15 17 19 21 23 14 18 8 16 2 1 22 WAVED aUILT. 42 43. 1 .. .!!. . 1 1 . : . Fig. ?^^ CORDING OP . This arrangement is Order over the treadles. 1 . I 1 m -4- . 1 1 . DIAMOND aUILT. Fig.-:-! _a= ^^ m ^ J J ^W .1 -1 .1. ^ T—r^. ^ .i . 44. 1 ( -1 .!! AND FIGS. .1.1 ^mm ^m m . 41 a DIAMOND aUILT. is and is therefore adopted in the foUowing examples Fig. [ ..

three for the blue and three for the scarlet. and the In weaving these shawls two picks of blue and two of scarlet weft are thrown in alternately. six front leaves... Fig. X X M ^ X X 1 n m X X 9 7 X 2 X 3 1 5^ 2 «•5 m X 12 10 8 3 1 6 4 2 11 5 3 FOUR LEAF TWEEL. . Fig. would be necessary. however. cording of these mountings treadles : THREE LEAF TWEEL. the two latter on the back warp. A four would require eight leaves of headles and only The foUowing plans will show the draught and eight treadles. and 16 . would be required to make the treading alternate. X represent sinking cords. the two former on the fore warp.. Having already expläined the principle on which double cloth is it only remains for us to show how that principle is extended to the draw loom.DOUBLE CLOTH. . 46. the pattern of which is scarlet and the groimd blue. the warp of course will be composed of a blue and scarlet thread alternately and suppose two threads of each colour to be drawn through each mail of the harness.. 45. Suppose we take a shawl for example. X X X ^ 2 3 1 X X 4 1 ^ U m 6 4 X H X 4 1 X 2 3 2 7 5 3 In these plans the crosses black Squares raising cords. 121 DOUBLE CLOTH HARNESS. the texture to be that of a three leaf tweel. and twelve leaf tweel. Were woven.

the ground The of the other three treadles are for theflashing. 5. being the alternate the succession of treading same when both feet are as 3. F^ 6 m 4 2 5 3 1 ^ 3 ta 6 1 5 2 4 If we examine first this plan we will find that the treadle marked 1.* Fig. in the draught. is added merely to keep the treads employed on the treadles. considerable ingenuity is displayed in the production of patterns. This species of America. or draw loom. as in some other branches of fancy weaving. a jean or Genoa back. In these. are two picks will be found. 1. v/hich in is afterwards cut iip to form the ridges or the pile. or the in the order of treading. or in other words. these two wrought produce piain cloth. perhaps. is The * pattern. that there for flushing thrown in 2. as it is generally termed. and the treadle . an example of a When figures are to be formed on velvets. 47. In the form er it is called a tabby or piain back. Fig. Fig 48. case sometimes piain. according as they The flushing^ are woven in a three or fom' leaf tweel mounting. 6. See Gil- roy's loom mountings. will raise all the odd threads 3. marked 4 treadles will raise all the altern ately even ones v/ill consequently. and sometimes tweeled. and in the latter. in each pick of the ground. 3.122 THE ART OF WEAVING. This is will be obvious from a perusal of the specimens sub- joined to these descriptions. agreeably to any particular recourse must be had to the Jacquard. where consequently coimt of it manufacture having never been introduced into it can be but little known. . which in general exhibit a variety of llushing or floating peculiar to themselves. or bac'i. and the jeans are single or double. some ac- will not. VELVETS. is and interwoven with the gronnd depends all at various intervals. 47 a PLAIN OR TABBY-BACK VELVET. The groimd. thrown and upon is this the diversity of patterns which we see in these fabrics. which are marked the treadle 6. be uninteresting to the reader. following plan. they will work or back. it By tracing over the treading of this figure. 5. A few examples will illustrate these observations.

sets of tweehng leaves are necessary in order to extend the draught to that In the present example we also find. is On this principle woven that fabric of which hats are made. 3. Fig. and the Operation is reThe pile w^arp is commonly made peated tili the piece is finished. . are for weaving the back. 1 w= M 3 4 5 -=^=\ 2 ^ 8 6 10 6 4 2 5 3 11 1 12 14 13 16 l 9 In this plan the treadles on which the figures 1. principle sonaething different from any of the preceding called the silk. of two warps. In each of these wires is a groove. which is drawn on a separate leaf from the ground. picks of flushing Aveft thrown in for six of the back. and into this shed he introduces a wire which is longer than the breadth of the cloth a few picks of the ground are woven (generally two) and another wire introduced. 48. one which is coramonly made of hard warp. or three biit as each pick of the flushing weft floats over five leaf tweel . and the surface of the shag is afterwards cut evenly and smooth raises the . and PLUSH VELVET. it being the smgle jean. Plush velvet. and so on with a third wire. or of a fine kind of goat's hair. and relieves the wires in succession. and these ten picks are interwoven with the warp threads 3 and 4 in the draught. main warp or ground. of softer silk than the main warp. is woven on a fabrics. W^hen the heading or end of the piece is woven. or a revolving spiral knife. 123 SIMPLE JEAN BLACK VELVET CORD. pile and the oiher the rollers. and the flushed space afterwards cut up by the plough or lance. two . and 6 are marked. with a pair of shears. that there are ten ränge. is only interwoven with the sixth.VELVETS. threads of warp. which cuts the pile. the weaver pile warp. or shag. These warps are beamed on It consists separate the latter being placed below the former. along which the weaver runs the point of a sharp Instrument called a trivet.

) calls "a most luminovs workP We suppose that this pufFentitled him to copy indiscriminately from Father Murphy." commencing at page 264. WEAVING CROSSED WARPS. how- may be accounted when we know. it certainly has been . however. The textures. ufacture of " textile fabrics" to perfection.SECTION FOURTH. we " shall No further seek his merits to disclose. as with these makers upon the subject. we derived our first knowledge of cross weaving from the East but. Roberts Co. Surely it could not have diminished the Doctor's fame. is & the best in use. much improved. without exception. of the Doctor's remarks on weaving. which he (the Dr. must acknowledge that they are entirely Ignorant of the real principles of weaving. On another occasion. which is not very honorable to this weaving son of Galen. These sweeping assertions. with drawings and specifications of their celebrated loom. who could be no Irishman. species of ornamental weaving which we have now to in- vestigate. But at present. from whose books he extracted whatever little Information he furnishes to the IgnoHe does not even allude to the work of the rant. unless he made some sacrifice in return for such blamey. that Sharp. but who we doubtnot. by the invention and ingenuity of European weavers. Nearly all the rest tise. which was published at Glasgow. no doubt expecting that he would give it a first rate notice." Or draw ." We have observed one fact. Ure of London. that these mechanics furnished the Dr. late Mr. are " the greatest power loom builders in the world. contained in the second volume of his " Cotton ManuWe refer the reader to Duncan's treafactures. Dr. although he had given to the public the names of those authors." for. Sharp. is well acquainted with "Mason on Self-Knowledge. But we in this country. and every experienced weaver Messrs. John Duncan of Glasgow.* * Of coarse we include amongst these ingenious men.. are far inferior to many show in the course of this work. and any practical weaver we shall who has conversed others. a man who has not all its only studied the manalso. in bearings." and that " their patent loom ever. particularly upon weaving. his frailties from their dread abode. he has adapted from Murphy's bed-quilt book. Roberts in England know. the worthy Doctor says. with regard to the Doctor. that the power looms of & Co. is exclusively adapted to the slightest and most flimsy Like the other branches of the art. our very learned brother weaver. from Avhich he has taken most of the obaervations on weaving. and a considerable variety of nets have been added. in the year 1807.

and withoiit ganze weaving. Open Shed. and a section of the web ganze weaving will is shown under the GAUZE MOUNTING. But in pass between the parallel state gives the reversed crossing. remain always parallel to each other. 49.* Fig. the threads of the warp. A. and of whicli is the otliers are only varieties. effect. 125 all The lirst branch of cross weaving. and each pick of weft preTo produce this serves the twine which the warp has received. In all the branches of weaving which we have hitherto con- sidered. Wßt c-\jt>\k Fig. or at intervals.GROSS WEAVING. the right and to the left. and twined like a cord at every tread. 50. COMMON GAUZE. 49. A representation same figure at A. alteinately. for its return from the crossed to the open or Crossing. whether raised or sunk. Fig. 49 represents two threads of warp opened to form the shed. the two threads of warp which same dents of the reed. are crossed over each They are twined to other. and Fig. it is only necessary that the warp should really be crossed at every second pick. alternately.* of a mounting peculiar to be found in Fig. where the warp is not crossed. .

49) the cross shed by the leaves 1 and 2. It is necessary to observe. 1 Stcmdarä N. top levers or coupers. constructed The mounting of a ganze loom conHke common clasped headles. 52. leaves are raised The and marches. 49.L the shed where sists it is crossed. The opened shed of the ganze is formed by the leaves 3 and 4. (see Fig. in forming die . and sunk. and the half leaves pass through them. 51 and 52. and by the half leaves. as represented aj ganze A* under Fig. and of two half leaves. by means of m the same way as in most other ornamental looms. Fig. Fig. of four leaves. that in order to produce the twine or twist. 51. 50.126 THE ART OP WEAVING. The leaves 1 arid 2 are called Standards. as is represented more clearly in Figs. Crossed Shed. exactly Fig.

as will appear more plainly in Fig. 49. . In both sheds the thread . as X^ is In the linder manner doup the thread B. 49 and 50. Fig. The it. B passes.11. 49. as in Fig. the shaft of the upper half B% appears as hung between the Standards 1 and 2. thread A is drawn through through the like the third leaf. 49) and through the upper half leaf connected with the Standard 2. The one hung 51. it is not taken clasp. (see Fig. of the fourth leaf as at is drawn through Y^ Figs.1 1 n H i 1 l' which is a horizontal or ground plan. u b ^^" ^Rr a. Through the thread A is the under half leaf connected with the Standard 1. drawn. it only remains to cross and draw the warp through the fore mountOf the half leaves. By examining these two figures (49 and 50. but above at. In Figs. the threads are not crossed. 53. the thread A crossed under the thread B. -- ^T ^^^^^. Fig. and that from below through the UpThis will appear very piain in Fig. from below.GROSS WEAVING. nor at intervals as in tweeling. A is and the thread B sunk but in the open shed. per doup of the Standard 1. the threads do not rise 127 as in piain weav- and fall alternately.) the way of drawing the warp through the headies will become apparent. they are. sheds. which always sinks. but as it always rises. or eye. 53. through what Fig. 50. but this is not the usual practice for it is found more convenient to place the two Standards to. and one rises ing. from above passes through the lower doup of the leaf or Standard 2. 49 and 50. and this is an alvvays raised important part of every branch of cross weaving. and in the cross shed. Fig. ing. the weavers usually call the Upper doup. After being drawn through these two leaves. one is hung frora above. the thread 49. of the headle. When this has been done. which are generally called the back mounting.

These are moved by two treadles.128 gether. . the third the second Standard the fifth 2. the fourth the upper half B% the sixth the second back leaf 4 (see Fig. The novelty of the subject. Thus. 49. evident Utility^ should we succeed in our explanation. To render we the mode of mounting a ganze loom as piain as possible. as in other looms. rise and leave room for work in an the warp to cross and sink in the space between the Standards. 51 the half leaves and Standards are crossed as in Fig. for in the open shed (Fig. The two back leaves and the two Standards are raised. 50. 49 and they are kept tight by weights in the cross shed 50. and in Fig. the first A% and the second the front Standard leaf. or sunk. crossed. 1. as the case may require. These weights must. B% behind the Standard 51 and 52. 49. therefore. and its will. 51 and 52. by connecting cords with the marches and treadles. shall enter into a more detailed account of the mounting than appears necessary in those kinds of weaving where the horizontal plans of the draught and cording have been long practised and understood by professional men. under half leaf. first is in regulär succession from the front. 1. two back stated. thai the ganze mounting consists of two Standards.) the half leaves opposite direction to the Standards. The half leaves have no connection with any treadle. has been already leaves.) In Fig. It we hope. which the weights are applied to operate and then to explain the way upon the half leaves: . where sections of the threads are represented by round dots. the Tracing the headles the under half leaf. when the warp is direct. five long. This will plainly by carefully tracing the threads A and B in Figs. while in the shed (Fig. and force one thread of warp across the other. the half leaves are crossed. screen us from the charge of unnecessary prolixity. thus (®. By is nieans of the half leaves the alternate crossing of the warp effected . A% in front of the Standard 2. 49 and 50. and sunk by the warp. operate upon the half leaves in the cross shed. and also in Figs. and the Upper half. 50) the half leaves rise and sink with their respective Standards. in the open shed Fig. the THE ART OP WEAVING. but are lifted. The intermediate levers are five top levers or coupers. It will be proper to trace the connections of the leaves with the first coupers and marches in the in place. and five short marches. as in Figs. as in Fig. 49.) back leaf 3. 52 the Standard 1 is sunk and the Standard 2 raised the mounting will be direct and the warp . is and when the appear mounting is direct. and must be relieved in the open. and two half leaves. the warp crossed.

ir only remains to apply the . Fig. half B. attached by oblique cords couper. to . (see Fig. The first Standard . second Standard.) is attached by a cord helow to the 2d. Standard The connected helow with the second short march. to W^ to the the couper ahove is the the first long march. to the third couper ahove the couper. 3d. . to the it short march These connections being formed. march the leaf 1 to the fourth short leaf. : march . first short is march : it has no connection above. to .GROSS WEAVING. helow. 54. to the second couper above . The Upper 3. 5th. The back leaf the fourth couper ahove the couper. The lower half first leaf. A. the Standard. . march . the couper. 54. 129 Ist. to the second long helow. march below. to the fifth long march the leaf. to the third short leaf. The second back the fifth couper ahove fifth the couper. to the third long first march no connection helow. 4th. to the fourth long 6th.

(See Fig. and passes upon both sides sawed or cut spool.) therefore as foUows : The application of the weights is From the first short march two either side of the is first cords descend. for the raising and sinking are entirely produced by the back leaves (marked 3 and 4. similar to those employed to il- lustrate other branches of weaving. lifts the weight. on the left side of the thread. the Standards and half leaves merely sink. The Upper halfleaf andfrom thence with the third long march. 49. In the mean time.) is connected with the mar eh. this raises the first long march. 53.) From these explanations. 51. and 52. which consequently . 49.130 weights to THE ART OP WEAVING. 49. ß% is thus allowed to In forming this shed. 54. common of the third long march. for the upper half leaf.) B. as the cording of a common ganze is exactly the same as that of a whip net. connections with the treadles will be found by examining which is a horizontal plan. 54. A'^ (see Fig.) drawn through the upper doup of the first back leaf 3. Above the long march the from a each end of a piece of wood. yield to the warp. the general principle of weaving ganze . and from this the other weight is suspended. (see Fig. 54. and to connect the other marches with the The mode figure is of applying the weights will appear in Fig. Another piece of the same kind. and allows the under half leaf.) is distinguished by a black oblong mark. Z. raises the third short march. 50. Fig. with the third couper above.) generally suspended. The lower leaf first Short A% (as seen in Fig. on the right . This a transverse section of the front pari of the mounting of a whip net^ of which it will be necessary to treat afterwards. is fixed below. : may be The Fig. particularly damask^ (of which we The warp thread A. marches. 54. a piece by which they are kept asunder to prevent them from rubbing on the long march which works between them. 53. (See Fig. The same apparatus is applied to the third short march. which is shall treat in its proper place. and relieves the pressure of the weight from the third long march the upper half leaf. 49.) to rise at the same time time the second Standard is raised this. The thread B. Y. which is drawn through the under doup of the leaf 4. pretty well understood. When the open shed is made. the first Standard is pulled down . and from a careful examination of the Figs. of course. is distinguished by a white oblong mark. it will serve to illustrate that part of the mounting. one passing on long march. and from these cords the weight cords are attached to (see Fig. their respective treadles.

From the descriptions now given of gauze weaving. * without any other ground. that we have already the valuable or " luminous" informa- which they contained about the manufacture of " textüe fcdtrics. a. 53. the . is also denoted by a white oblong of the thread B. name from the warp being wholly of whip. When its the principle of gauze weaving is thoroughly understood. 131 The . and those sinking them. side of the thread. but a few which form the the rest. will find little difiiculty in mounting a gauze ioom for himself. The principal reason why we are thus restricted all extracted from the works of othcrs tion is. to use the words of a certain learned doctor of bookto making notoriety. treadle 2."* WHIP NET. we hope that any weaver of even common perception. The alternate motion necessary for leaves. and. left all of which will be evident by examining the extreme (Fig. piain cloth. the back leaves remaining stationary in shed. when he finds is it convenient." .) of the plan Where no connection from the marches to the treadles mark X is used. draught of the warp thread A through the Upper half leaf. " the limits Work." and " History of the Cotton manufactures. will groundwork of principle . The term wkip is used by weavers to of warp rolled upon a separate beam to form fancy its In this net the whole warp is of this description . to enable the weaver to Avork piain cloth as well as gauze. As the half leaves are raised and sunk by the warp. mark on the right side of the thread and the that through the front half leaf." See " Ure's Dictionary. to keep the half leaves tight raised. of net work are used. no mark is used for the cording of them. entirely performed by the Standards and half this. This net takes denote a species patterns.GROSS WEAVING. will not admit of more which it is necessary to restrict this particular details. as well as in the cross But in this shed it is necessary to connect the marches with the piain treadle. by a black oblong mark on for raising the left The connections back leaves and Standards are indicated by black for Squares . 6. The open shed is formed by pressing down the treadle 1. who will study them with care and attention. the cross shed by the treadle 2 the treadle 3 merely reverses the motion of the is necessary. by white Squares or blanks. application to the varieties Many weaving of fancy nets may be easily acquired. all be sufficient to elucidate the general and. the fore when the weights are mounting in the piain shed being exactly in the same Situation as in the open shed.

and when it is dropped. and these mountings weave dropped as well as piain nets. (see Figs. is here 50. Let the dots on the leaves C and D represent sections of the twine of which the headles the other two parts . like that of the common gauze. betvi^een the race board and the reed. two Standards. But as glass beads are frequently also. A and and B 1 are the two back leaves. the back headles are usually divided into four leaves by which the friction is avoided that would be occasioned by the beads being too used instead of eyes in the back leaves are generally constructed to . is a plan of the whip net mounting. the half leaves or bead lams.132 therefore. 55. and the bread lams with tlieir Standards are placed in front of the lay. 49 and 50. which shows also the position of the lay.) consists of two back leaves. as already described. as formerly mentioned. each of which being divided into . only THE ART OF WEAVING. The mounting of the whip net. (see Figs. Fig. much crowded together. with a specimen of the cloth annexed. corresponding with the doups and Standards of the füll ganze mounting. 49 and The reed.) Seen between the back and front mountings. marked 1 and 2 C and D are the Standards and 2. both when it is woven piain. and two head lams or half leaves. one beam or roll is required. The two back leaves are placed behind the reed in the usual way.

the bead lams assume the position represented in Fig. the beads being in front at v .) common ganze. as in the cross shed of the 1 in Fig. 55. 56. crosses in front of a Standard on the shaft D. The Upper bead lams with their beads. Again. 133 and they will point out the position of the Standards.) while the Standard D is raised. and rises on the left of the bead lam V. will then appear as passing through the headles or Standards on the leaf C. as in the piain ganze. When the open shed is formed. 55. Fig. is drawn back to the under . while the bead lam v. are made. 56. in forming the cross shed. that is. (this shed marked by the pick whip are effected. 55. as in Fig. is drawn close to its Standard at u. through which the whip threads are drawn. crossing below the others towards the front at x. Here the upper bead lam shaft is marked 1. and v. and is C sunk. The marks on the treadles will point out the raising and sinking cords. (see Fig. and thus the crossings of the . 56. and sinks on the right of x : the threads passing through these two beads. the bead lam x. this forms the open shed 2 in Fig. being on the same interval of the which is pointed out by the pick reed. and its Standard C lam 2. But the manner in which the bead lams cross in front of the Standards will appear to more advantage in Fig.GROSS WEAVING. on the shaft 2. its Standard at a. and the bead x. on the shaft 1. crosses in front of a Standard on the shaft C. and its Standard D. 56 at X. and the under bead lams will be seen as if rising through their Standards on the leaf D. the bead v.

It is therefore necessary that the whip should be slackened more in the cross shed than any other kind of warp. piain that n. end of the couper. 57. merely by shifting the fulcrum or centre of motion farther from. from the end a. sinks the long march and consequently the turn the by which the other end o. t. and its axis by the cord L By this means the whip is slackened. In nets. other nets. which o. march n. the corresponding crossit is ing of the whip takes place in front of the Standards. 57. where forced nearly into a vertical position. a. Fig. roll round on . is again connected is a:. '^^ u is a couper suspended from the ceiling of the weaving room. and a greater or smaller ränge is given to it. to suit any given pattern. it Now. or strap of leather used for which goes round the it and a it is little chalk rubbed upon to prevent from slipping. that part it Sometimes a thong roll. to the cross tied the cord To after the other end of the lever or couper roll which taking tw^o turns round the whip suspends the is pace weight u. of the couper. The method usually employed for this purpose. warp may have sufficient room to twist between them in opening the cross shed. is as follows : Fiff. so as otherwise to yield freely to the pressure of the cross treadles it would be almost impossible to obtain a shed. when the cross 1. of which a cord descends to the end of a long treadle i. or nearer to the end o. however. the ganze are placed at about three that the If was formerly observed that the back and front mountings of and a half or four inches apart. both for this and the a o. or from the top of the loom. is pressed down.134 THE ART OP WEAVING. will be raised.

without any sudden jerks. the treadle gentle way. By means of these bridles the pleases. in Fig. while the shed is opening. uniform. It may be further observed of nets in general. The shuttle is driven through the sheds with equal caution. is relieved in the of the cloth. from tumhling^ as freely. as re- respective Standard. they would weights allowed to be drawn so tight or close to their Standards. is among the bead lams or Standards. that the weaving motions should be very slow. or the cross shed from opening fric- On the other band. while the lay is brought forward with the same steady motion to the face has been thrown into the shed. at. the tion occasioned by the tumbling of the beads would soon prove de- structive to the Standards. the mounting is stationary. it is termed .GROSS WEAVING. each other without any especially if the . so as to pass weh he properly mounted. After the pick same which the weights have sufficient time to act upon by the bead lams. about a through their Standards. each bead lam shaft of its connected at each end to the opposite shaft piece of twine called a bridle. the bead lams project beyond their opposite Standards and. along which the shuttle runs. In the whip net. opened by a gradual pressure of the foot steady motion. and steady. In the ganze mounting the two threads of each dent of the reed rise and sink between their respective Standards and in the cross shed the manufacture of doups or half leaves are drawn tight by the weights. see Fig. however. presented m. . by which method the bridles In general the bead lams project are kept clear of the shuttle. 56. w. besides being liable to get frequently en- tangled among the warp. however. for tweeling. is To by a prevent both of these inconveniences. were the act upon them with their whole force. in a great measure prevented by pins of brass wire driven into the lay. were the bead lams too slack. . and in a short time At the same time. that does not occur in ganze. The sheds are upon the treadles. immediately behind the race board. tangled lest it should dip or get enThis. 135 There in the is another circumstance which requires particular attention nets. which would cut the whip. and keep them in a uniform degree of tension. therefore. the same as those on the treadle cords of looms Sometimes the under bead lam shaft is bridled to the end of the couper of the front Standard. when quarter of an inch but every weaver tempers his bridles to such a degree of tension as may best suit the State of his mounting. instead of the reed as in other kinds of weaving. as to prevent the beads friction . the lay is worked with a ruin the mounting. as weaver can temper the front mounting as he they are made with snitches. 56.

by which he gains the whole of the lever power. (Fig.) Either of the methods for reducing the plained. number . . perly tempered all the cordings be prowhich. SPIDER AND MAIL NETS. with due attention. which is here called the ground. The ganze part of the mounting. These two nets are woven in the same mounting. of the greatest importance that . as in the preceding mounting. combined with that of the whip net. the treadles are placed below the warp roll.136 It is also THE ART OF WEAVING. one for the ground and the other for the whip. The Spider net is woven with two treadles texture of piain ganze. 58. with which the ground is interwoven. interwoven with the quires only the addition of a piain treadle which produce the whip the mail net reon which every fourth : pick of weft is thrown. and the two bead lams and their Standare placed behind the reed . * This is merely a modification of the sKp knot.* which must be well known in net to every As the Crossing of the whip weaving necessarily produces is considerable friction. The mounting is merely that of the common ganze. and the back leaves of the net. while either of the former methods require two for the ground. ards are before it. and have the same relation to each other as the ganze and lino. a greater power requisite to be exerted on : the cross treadle than in any other species of light fabrics for this reason. snitch knot. that one-half of the warp may yield a little more than the other may be adopted for the : ground although the füll ing is generally preferred for. known to Irishmen under the name of O^Doherty^s. formerly ex- füll mountmounting only two warp rolls are necessary. will be easily effected by means of the practical weaver. 55. and the weaver works on the ends towards him. or the hangman's noose. with the while the cross shed is forming. of leaves. as in Fig.

with specimens of the different crossings of the varieties it pro- ground and whip may be easily traced. By comparing plan with those of the gauze (Figs. in which the reed as formerly noticed. and these are all behind the duces. v and x^ (see Fig. bead lam these with respect shafts to the threads of warp. side of little its lams appear in the as if a slackened by the open shed. one on each fig. the Standards A and B. 49 and 50) and whip net (Fig.) is The when the open shed fully formed. wiU gauze warp being in the position of the v and x. v and x. 55) considered separately.GROSS WEAVING. whip threads passing through the beads crossing of the bead lams. between the race board and the reed. pointed out by dots on the respective . C and D. The position of the is whip Standards. the process of taking the warp through the headles and tying up the treadles will be obvious. 58. 56. exhibit the crossing each other in front of the at. and can require no further explanation . The back leaves of the gauze are marked 1 and The back 2. 137 is a plan of this mounting. and the doups. a and c. for each of the 18 . leaves of the net are marked 3 and 4. are placed the whip Standards tive C and D. with their respec- bead lams. the threads cf letters. In the front. appear to more advantage this in Fig. and Standards.

as one half of the whip is occasionally crossed while the other half is straight and parallel. as net. OR NIGHT THOUGHT. like the preceding. do not work up equally with the other warp. this net involves greater variety it than any of those already explained. Either the mounting or one of the contracted methods may be employed for the gauze part. tight. These last are necessary. tied to the treadles in the same order as if they had separately. being woven piain without any twist. are also necessary in this drawn too mounting. Some add another roll for the seivages. When the gauze part is woven either with the bead lam shaft. This. Standard. however.) The apparatus for slackening the whip in the cross shed. and consequently each half must be slackened independently of the other. as in the present example. but when the gauze part is mounted with the bead lam and . at the and the slack end of the piece. consists of Two sets of . (See Fig. and net. as well as the bridles for preventing the bead lams from being close to their Standards. a gauze ground intermounting are therefore requisite. and the whip requires two back leaves. each treadle will produce similar sheds in both mountings that is to say. When the füll gauze mounting is employed three warp roUs are requisite. it is necessary to cord the treadles so as to produce the cross open shed of the gauze along with the shed of the whip otherwise the whip would not run in between the threads of gauze warp to form the net distinctly as represented in the specimen. It may be necessary to observe. either both open or both cross. or when the back doup and Standard are omitted. however. and suspending a small weight roll to each below the keep them moderately cloth. . which. part taken in at the face of the when necessary. two rolls are also necessary for the ground. one for the ground and two for the whip. is commonly avoided by beaming the seivages on requires four treadles to füll the to same is roll with the ground. and two bead lams and their Standards. are applied in the very same manner as in the whip PATENT NET. the ground and the other for the whip or net part but. 58. that when the füll gauze mounting is employed. This one for woven with whip. work one set of the pattern. or by omitting the upper doup and Standard. as formerly described.138 mountings are been mounted THE ART OP WEAVING.

e. is a plan of the night thought mounting. as in the other the bead lams and their Standard which are before the threads are marked. The shafts marked 1 and 2 are the back leaves for the ganze part. i. the back leaves for the whip being marked 3 and 4. with a specimen of the examples. o. 6. Fig. a. 5. 7 and 8 are the doups and Standards of the ground mounting. 139 PATENT NET.CROSS WEAVING. which in this example is a Ml mounting cloth. 59. . and are placed exactly in the same position as in the other mountings for net weaving. OR NIGHT THOUGHT.

is a front elevation of the bead lams and their Standards. where they are raised (see Fig.) 59) draws both the upper and under lams tight to their Standards.140 THE ART OF WEAVING. by which the former are sunk and the latter raised at the same time the ground forms the open shed. the upper lams cross from their Standards at m. and fore Standards respectively. 60. (see Fig. the former are sunk and the latter raised by the whip which is now acted upon entirely by the back of the Upper bead lams. 59) both the Upper and under lams are slack. . is the shaft . and o. the ground forming the cross shed. In the shed here exhibited. This net is woven in a mounting the very same as that of Night Thought. c. and after crossin g two dents of ganze and one of whip. to c. ßut as these are distinctly marked on the plan Fig. Fig. the interval . In the shed formed by treadle 1. 60. that of the under ones leaves. while the under ones are slaek and raised by the whip. the upper lams are tight and sunk by their Standards. PRINCESS ROYAL NET. is. but with a small difference in the order of taking the whip through the headles and tying up the treadles. and i. 61. . which is opened by the treadle marked 4. All this will plainly appear by an attentive perusal of the two Figs. 59 and 60 That a:. where they are sunk The treadle 2 (see Fig. to and the under ones from d. represent. ing their position are the back when the open sheds are formed a.

.GROSS WEAVING. Fig. 62 shows the crossing of the bead lams in the open shed in the same manner as in the preceding net. 141 they can require no furtlier explanation. Fig. 61. 62. Fiff.

The whip and mail nets are frequently ornamented with a variety of figures. considerable variety may be produced in these fabrics. and to show that by changing the Order of the draught. for one or more picks of weft. for that purpose. which leaves open spaces in the ground larger than the common meshes of the net . this may be effected either by prevent- ing part of the upper bead lam whip from sinking. or of the under bead lam whip from rising. .142 THE ART OF WEAVING. DROPPED NETS. by means of additional sufficient to explain the back leaves applied These examples. Avhich are formed on the cloth merely by preventin^ the crossings of certain portions of the whip. in the open shed. it is presumed. cording and treading. will be nature and process of net weaving.

Having ples of tions. AA is rests called the carriage. now devolves upon us to show how these principles may be extended beyond the scope of leaves of headles. Cj r iO 9 8 7 e tit^'Wd'sYß 's 4 3 2 i ioQ 87 6 6 4 3 2 l' 10 9 8 7 6 5 '43 ^T] | Q is a front elevation of the from common draw loom. We've heard of labyrinths and gordian knots. FIGURED WEAVING. And To other things which try your for men of skill But here we a time shall turn our thoughts something even more complicated still. described in the preceding sections the elementary princi- weaving. which the top of this frame is fixed the puUey box are seen in section at E*^ A^A^ On which contains the . and developed some of their most useful combinaillustrations to with the necessary it make them perfectly under- stood. DRAW LOOM.SECTION FIFTH. The frame . DESCRIPTION OF THE Fig. by aid of the draw loom. 63. its iise in supportin g the harness and on the capes of the loom.

which the tail cords run when any is part of the harness raised to form a shed. which are the Substitutes for the eyes of headles. the sleepers. 65. is placed in a slanting position sufficient to allow the tail cords BB to sink in opening the sheds. or sheds. g'iven in Fig. and ending at DD. 65 Fig. 5. knots at mails at EE DD . without obstruction from the frame or pulleys below. 4. 8. through which the warp threads are drawn. the neck twines. to the . The harness is composed of the following parts namely. 3. 64.* which connect the neck twines with the . 6.144 pulleys over is THE ART OF WEAVING. * The name usually given to that part of the cords or mountings which passes through the board the mails CC. the maus. 64. 9 and 10. . which extend from the neck of the harness. a more distinct view will be found in Fig. and of which . 7. a horizontal view of which Fig. as pointed out by the figures of reference 1. 2. commencing at the knots EE. This box.

* through which the sleepers pass and this regulates the distance of the face of this board is maus and the fineness of the harness. but the words holy and righteous often call by the name of . It may be observed. : from the circum- stance of being would prefer the much encumbered with strings. a clearer view of which it will be had . 66. we shall excuse these hroad Scotchmen. 66. for our part. the left empty at regulär intervals and method foUowed by weavers in set- supernumerary holes must be in complete rows. harness board. however. into which the harness is tied begins always is with a complete row of the harness board. that the maus may have sufficient room to stand directly opposite to their respective intervals of the reed. that although the sets of reeds in America be calculated on 37 inches. CC The is the hole board._no doubt. a very holy people. &c. to sink the LOOM. be such parts as are not multiples of empty at the ends of Thus were the harness to left such parts as 100. Among Yorkshiremen. for instance. must be of the same set or fineness or should a harness board of a finer than the reed be at any time employed. 66." being pierced with a great number Scotch weavers in Fig. we . that connect the called hangers. Yankee name of " harness board. 145 maus and leads or weights at XX. yet the sets of the harness board are comprised in 36. 110. 105. this addition made as an allowance be tied into for any holes that may five. with- out being too therefore. A in which it will be observed that the holes for the harness twines run in oblique Hnes. mails. we think the latter of these terms quite as applicable as the former however. as in the ting their headles. 115. every part would exactly fill a certain number of rows in the harness board when there were five in each row but in a tie of 102. the shed or sheds.'* 19 but. much crowded together. set The reed and . maus after they have been raised to form . represented in Fig. the appellation of " cumber boord" its is used for this part of the loom. " holy brod being almost synonymous.DRAW th^ twines. Fig. so that in 37 inches of the harness board there will be the number of dents contained in one inch of any given set As each part or division more than in the same breadth of the reed. : * Called hole board from the fact of its of holes . as they are. (fcc.

and are made to with a noose on the gut cord L.* From these observations it will evidently appear. that tail were a harness be tied in one part only. It is to the floor at Z. together with Our friend. or as they are termed collectively the simple. of No. at pleasure. down are fastened. and in French shawl looms even sometimes to thirty-two. yet in dent .) row (in . make what is denominated a jpart. where a greater number of maus must necessarily occupy the same Space. it is usual to divide the harness into such may be most suitable to that species of goods on which it is to be employed.146 there THE ART OF would be three holes were it WEAVIiSfG. which is number appro- and füll harnesses. where they is draw loom that the pattern twines at 1 1 1 are read on from the design paper. Paris. although in the present example there are only holes in each oblique row in the board. at the left empty end of each part It . the greater will be the number to for of simple cords. (as shown in Fig. which run or cord to be opened from those that remain stationary NNN are the heads to slide which the lashes are attached. would reed. From the tail at W descends the simple on this part of the cords F F. Monsieur Dioudonnat. which. so that the greater the ränge of the pattern. that two mails mll stand opposite to one interval of the reed in a füll harness one in a split or dent harness and in a four thread harness. consequently. make the harness considerably broader than the not for the above allowance. or the tie of the harness and KK . The number of mails necessary to produce one set of a pattern. Maur. But as patterns of tent are not very common. lashes. the number of holes in each row is extended to ten. 12 St. . and these parts are repeated to make up the füll width. draw them down in succession as they are wanted by the draw boy. The termed the and are necessary is for separating the simples of any shed . which being connected with the lashes at equal distances. may the be further refive marked. there would be a and simple cord this ex- each mail in the width of the web. that.) parallel to the simple. the Space of two dents or splits of the reed. as every mail in one part must rise independently of the others. 63. a number of parts as By * this means the number of tail and simple Rue cords. each must have its respective cord both in the tail and simple . The gut commonly extends from the roof of the shop to the floor. one mail wiU occupy priated to four thread harnesses. are the bridles. Hence it is evident. (France) generaliy pierces his harness boards with thirty-two holes in the breadth.

that as in a given harness are increased. 67. the means of its tail cord. by tlie ing mail in each part. is In the upper edge of the slab is a groove into which the under ends of the mails are inserted during the process of mounting stock. a frame. the inside of the loom. When such as a harness is to be constructed. MOUNTING THE LOOM. 147 be diminished in propoition as the number of parts It is also obvious. to suit the position of must be procured . which the harness is afterwards to occupy. Fig. to a correspondpattern which is produced will be merely same group of figures.DRAW tlie pxilleys. and may be fixed with small bolts at any given height. repeated as often as there are parts in the harness or mounting. 67. which somewhat rounded. The cross bar of wood or slab stock A' A% slides up and down in grooves cut in these side pieces. AA are fastened to and in the very same position between the cloth and the warp rolls. as it is termed. is represented in Fig. the maus after the harness is tied. . each simple cord is connected. will LOOM. the harness. one on each side. and the two upright sides.

. . they must be proportionably lighter. This frame being thus adjusted. one on each side. and the contrary. harnesses. to knot them together. however. however. . but for gathered borders. . which have double the number of threads attached to each simple cord. The bosom to the body leads are from fifty to sixty in the pound. so as to be clear of the warp when the sheds are opened the distance between the mail and the lead being about nine inches. they are from twenty or to twenty-five in the pound. it is evident that the more lashes there are on the simple. provided the borders are not gathered . the Operator proceeds to hang them to their respective maus. . the four thread. through the under hole of the mail. being. This is effected by taking one end of the harness twine. governed according to the number of parts into which the harness is tied for the greater the number of and thereparts. and the knot shpped down to the top of the lead. made of flaxen yarn. the borders of shawls in the cotton manu- and those The weight of leads for a for the bosom or body from eight to ten. one on each side. reduced to the re- after the manner is of drawing other metaUic wires. and must be well slips. or connect and again through the which both ends of the twine are stretched down below the slabstock. The harness leads are long Square quisite sizc made by cutting a piece of sheet lead into and afterwards drawing them through circular tili holes of different diameters in a steel plate. . for estimated by the number in a pound. . in general. and of the same length as the fourteen to the pound. where they are knotted. if intended for shawls the bosoms. is to take both ends of the twine through the hole of the lead. twines or hangers are laid together. the greater will be the friction on the simple cords in passing through them and consequently the Füll leads must be heavier to sink the mails after being raised. require leads from eighty to a hundred in the pound for the bodies of shawls. They are afterwards cut off to the proper lengths and the weight of these pieces suitable for any harness Thus. the more leads will be attached to each simple cord The fore. Upper end of the lead after. but if the parts into which they are . . according number of parts in a given breadth of the harness and the number of lashes requisite for the pattern for. cut of the proper the leads. and then turning them backward. These length. A more durable method of hanging the leads. from three to nine ends twisted. . leads for the borders of a two thread shawl are the same as those of facture the leads are from fourteen to sixteen inches long.148 THE ART OF WEAVING. four thread harness will be about fourteen in the pound for the and from forty-five to fifty-five for borders.

(flat- tened by passing their eyes. a pressure harness must stand further ployed. if a left hand to the Changing the efFected position of this hole from the front back row merely by turning up the if other face of the harness board. . which are made of the same twine as the hangers. 50. all of which process be re- When the the harness sleepers are taken through the upper holes of their spective mails they are divided into the parts or portions in is which to be tied. if a right hand harness^ but in the backmost row on the . leave one hole empty at the end of each. of the is oblique rows are set off for each part respectively but if . six. Situation in exactly in the same which it is afterwards to remain. about 15^ loom will depend in a which it is to be emThus. from the mails inches. When all hung. to the knots above the harness board. the part be composed of seven. commencing with the hole nearest the right hand seivage harness. or allowing any portion of the maus to rise higher will than the others while tying the neck apparent by referring to Fig. Then. The then tied firmly to the slabstock with pieces of strong twine.) inserted in the grooves of the slabstock. is about twenty- two inches and a füll harness eighteen inches and of a seeding harness. the part not divisible by five. than a füll harness from the breast-beam which is that wooden bar over which the cloth passes to the receiving roll. will be in the front. . board. ten. <fec. 35. 66 is which. as which will was formerly observed. as at Fig. which in general is placed before the ground leaves about . as 30. as for example the number 64 then. The board is next fixed very firmly in the centre of the loom. twelve inches. and the under ends of the maus roUers. a piece of strong wire. about in the an inch below the breast-beam . the leads are sometimes used as Kght as a hunthe leads are dred and ten. are in length. The sleepers are now taken up through the harness board in regulär succession. and at the height of about 8 J inches above the mails. it between a reed maker's all is run through by means of which they are wire is kept at the same uniform height. distance of a pressure harness from the breast-beam .DRAW tied LOOM. The sleepers. (fec. The common position of the harness in the The great measure on the nature of the work in . . there must be thirteen oblique rows appropriated to each part. any number of fives. 149 be numerous. 67. The holes in the harness board are then counted off for each part or pattern. for example. at such distances as are sufficient to prevent the wire from bending. three-fourths of The height of the mails in a level of the fall harness is .

a quality which prevents it from untwisting after it is tied to the neck twines of the harness. (see Fig. through which the two ends of the sleeper are taken and knotted in the usual way. that may be . into which the two ends of the neck twine are inserted. which are intended for stouter fabrics. and this is commonly about eighteen though some tails are now made as short as fourteen. which commonly the case for light fabrics. cords at the neck. however. a ^ lease. for a harness fifty-four inches wide. the neck twines may be five feet six inches long. 3. and four tliread harness the this level. unlaid twine. may have tighter tied than the others is and this is effected when been slacker or the neck twines are single. and each those of the second on the other. For example. These neck twines. to prevent them from slipping. from This process of three These neck twines are made ends of flax yarn^ well twisted. This part of the draw loom is made of what is termed by the Spinners of this article. When the requisite number of tail cords. the sleepers of the first part are laid over the edge of the harness board on one side. which must always he equal to the numher of maus that are to rise independently of each other are thus laid together. com- . tail. by it Casting a loop knot on one end and forming into a snitch. Before the Operator can proceed further. and afterwards knotted. kept distinct from the others then the twine or sleeper knotted to its attached to each mail. &c. live : employed In the process of beeting the harness the snitch knot used on the treadle cords in tweeling. and the loops cut at the other at the lease end the loops are separated into small parcels. Section Ist. and weigh from two and a half to and a half ounces per hank of four cuts the coarse twine being for those harnesses which are divided into the fewest parts. and formed into a snitch. however. is mostly employed. In some harnesses. as in warping. maus should stand about one inch to these respective heights the and a quarter below harness board must be accurately The maus being now divided and adjusted.150 split THE ART OF WEAVING. being now tail double. to ehable the weaver to adjust any of the twines that . fixed in the wall of a house at a distance from each other equal to the whole length of the feet . .) is formed at one end. on is alternately. the tail must be warped which is effected by winding the twine round two nails or pins. into parts. respective neck twine is which must be cut of a length sufficient to reach these knöts to the ends of the called heeting the harness. part and so . the neck twines are taken double through the hole board in which case the two ends of the sleeper are tied together. will vary in length according to the width of the harness.

as the extent of the harness may reness board. into snitches. 7. quire. must again commence at the bottom of the box. that when the first ten tail cords are tied which complete the first row of is pulleys. the harness is then ready for tying. as already mentioned. 63. (See Fig. or that which passes over up the band them to the perright band twine of pulley in the box. the Operator first. 64. occupy one half of the box. tail cords to be numbered 1. that there is numbered on the edge of the harness board. then. . which the Operator ties to the second tail cord marked which. 5. 4. 2. be remembered. LOOM. 64. there are only sixteen oblique rows. the harness may be calculated upon fifty mails for each part. always commencing each. The tail cords are taken through the pulley box. indicating that the harness of ten mails each. 9 and from the bottom of the back row at first A to the top at B. as at The knot here employed formed by taking the four neck tail twines in one hand and the end of the cord in the other . in the following Order : supposing the 10. to save room in the representation. In the plan of a harness Fig. which is tied repeated four times. By is the time this is tied the second twine of eax^h part in succession ready to be handed up. however. the second ten cords over the pulleys 11 to 20 : the third ten over 21 to 30 and so on. which. though. in this ex2. with the assistance of a small hook. who ties all these the tail cord numbered 1. will be sufficient to explain the principles upon which the draw loom is mounted. are stationed at the side of the harness board. to keep the cords equally tight and at the proper angle.) It must still . tail 151 and formed by which tliey are fastened at equal distances round the stick so that they may stand neaiiy equal to the breadth of the or tail stick is fastened to the ceiling other ends of the This piece of wood of the shop where the tail tertail. row of pulleys at the lower part of the box A. minates." All these arrangements being made. selected each part the first four twines to In this example the and given to the Operator. Either one or more assistants. 6. and a wooden frame called mounters or justers. and son who ties is the neck. (see Fig. and so on with the others tili the fifty be tied ample. 8. 10 respectively .) then the ten cords will pass over the puUeys from 1 to . to take twines in the order in which they occur. 66. is fixed to the cape of the loom and over the tail at W. which supposes only one in four parts row of holes in the harBut as there are five such holes in the board Fig. such as that employed in mounting leaves with coupers. are ten mails it will be observed.DRAW monly five in each. though still on a limited scale. 3.

Before the tying commences. between these board. according lower : to the height of the shop . but in every other respect . same with the ends of the neck twines. when required this merely temporary. with the in his hand then another knot round the . to which the centre of the harness is accurately adjusted or. The Operator time be recovered however. On same fectly scale are marked which the ends of the cords should descend vertically. in the drawing Fig. in a line with one edge of which he ties his knots is . in the position ü O. which is prethough only its about six feet ten inches or feet long. 8. is . and the other over the sixth puUey. which dis- tinguishes from that of the tail. that the the tail. 3. being retained no longer than from which it can at any simple is tying to the tail while the when it again becomes necessary. ac- number is of cords which is contains. two leads are suspended. In order. latter. that the twines from the different parts be equally tight. 7.152 THE ART OP WEAVING. has also a lease. or that immediately above the figures 1. neck is. 5. which is more accurate. knots of the simple cording to the may not be too much crowded on it the simple cords are usually tied in two. will be the position of the centre of the harness is to The next process warp and apply the seven it simple. one over the fifth. less or more. a lead is suspended by a piece of twine from the centre of the puUey box E. The simple it made of what termed laid twine. pared in every respect in the same manner as the tail. and the tail this scale he shifts forward as each row of cords the distances at tied. however. To assist the Operator in this. laying the former over the he takes the turn of a knot on the Upper part of the tail cord. formed at end. as represented at W in the Fig. 6. or three. and that the knots be all in The principal care to be taken in tying the the to prevent their same horizontal line. 63) each of the cords being readily found in succession its respective place in the lease. 2. for the convenience of selecting the cords lease. sufficiently far below the pulleys Coming in contact when any part of the harness is raised to form the shed or sheds. 63. part which he holds 9 and 10. counting from the bottom. now from ties each cord of the simple to its corresponding tail cord at W. he places a rule or scale along the inside of the carriage. at the centre of the box. or more rows. however. so that the harness may hang per- loom after it is completed. and half the distance plumb in the . and weighs from twenty it to is twenty-seven hanks in the pound. 4. (see Fig.

The lashes III are formed certain portions of the simple cords as explained under the reading or lashing the pattern. are made of snitch twine. The head is taken through a snitch formed by the loops of the lash. of tacks requisite for one shed constitute a Lash twine is now commonly made . from eight to twelve inches. and are commonly from nine to thirteen inches between the heads the longer ones being necessary where the draw bridles . 163 same as the tau twine formerly described. as well as to afford the draw boy sufficient room work. or draw boy's progress. The twine comnumber of ends is chiefly employed for stout few^ lashes are requisite for the pattern is . of cotton yarn. for example. the length in the double State will be from four to four and a half inches. 70. is The for length of the lashes. to occupy to less space. 20 . commonly . and the whole number lash. when is only but the more lashes there are on the simple the finer the kind of twine which applied. consequently one hank will produce tvventy simple cords seven feet long. as formerly noticed. These heads are made of foot twine when only few lashes are necessary. connect the lashes together they are and the gut cord on which up or down at pleasure each lash having its respective head. according to the breadth of the simple were short lashes. The length of twine requisite for each head is from nine to ten inches and when the two ends are laid together and knotted. and is prevented from slipping by the knot on the end. and consequently form a very gulär shed. and which. : cords. The heads NNN are small pieces of twine. as formerly observed. On the loop end is formed a noose which runs on the gut made to slide . The K K. about No. much twist causes the twine to curl and on and obstruct the posed of the greater fabrics. serve to select the cords of each particular shed. exclusive of the heads. and from six moderately twisted the simple for too to eighteen plies laid together. by taking the lash twine around head of Fig. which are tied to the heads for the purpose of draw^ing the lashes down or up in regulär succession. the simple cords on each side would be tion drawn into an oblique posi- by the draw boy's hand. Each turn of the lash twine round any part of the simple is called a tack. boy employs what is termed a dog or devil.DRAW the LOOM. water twisted. but of snitch twine when they are more numerous. which. to be employed on a broad simple. 48. before they could be brought to act irre- along with those in the centre.

gut cord The L whicli extends froni the floor to the ceiling of tail. which require only a few lashes. or generally composed of more smaller cords. 69. placed at the distance of eleven or thirteen inches from each other. and the heads are attached to them alternately. is tlie shop. 69. Moreover. laid together without any Those made of cotton are preferred to those made of flax or hemp. on account of its softness. or at least to the height of the three. more gut cords would be necessary. however. 68. and X are A two gut cords. . five. 68. to E or from on which they can be shifted distance of one inch from each other . four. it is employ only two. to • Fig. When four or now common cross bridles. two ends laid together. one for each Cover or colour. in which W. as represented in Fig. all covered work requires additional gut cords. the lashes become more numerous it is customary to have two. at the tend horizontally from cords. at pleasure. fally sufficient but when Fig. those at the end being about two inches from their respective gut cords. For the smaller sized one gut cord is patterns. . and to put on the lashes with These will be easily understood by referring to Fig.154 THE ART OP WEAVING. according to the of Covers or variety of colours in the pattern : number the cross bridles ex- D to O between the two gut up and down by the draw boy They are made of seine twine. and a knot tied for fixing the head of each colouring lash. the heads of the lashes. as represented in Fig. 69. and having less tendency to cut twist.

dark blue. two the rows of 8. but in cases wholly impervious to the shuttle. on which there are lashes for all the five colours. 2 for the dark blue. at 3 for red. 21. both with respect height of the mails and their distance from the yarn differ roll The process of and breast-beam. a shaft or rod must be introduced into the place of the slabstock before it is taken out by which means the mails will come to the Aveaver's band in regulär succession as he has occasion for them in entering bis warp. 1. By this means all the harness twines. without the necessity of having re. 31 and 32 (which see :) always drawing the . and at 5 for light blue. By referring again to Fig. one fixed on each side of the carriage at U O. at : it with the one marked AE : but on this the lash 1. and the ends of these rollers turn on two pieces of wood. one on each side of a row. for the yellow is wanting. cords at the neck. for the green. 30. 3. 18. But in Order to preserve the progressive order of the mails for draw- ing in the warp. all its When the harness and appendages are completed. beginning with the lash 1 for the green.DRAW by the were Figs. 6. and whicli he draws in succession. being that much niore oblique than when any portion of the all those near the centre . The harness should now retain the very same position to the which it occupied while fixed in the frame. 63 it will be observed. it is dis- engaged from the frarae in which it was built the frame of wood removed the wire or justers which was fixed above the tail at drawn out of the mails and the slabstock taken out of the hangers. respectively. 3. . when the draw boy takes down the cross bridle D O. and light blue. succession on this bridle. Thus. course to the harness board. . 2. there- the sheds thus formed w411 be not only very irregulär. to simple cords is drawn down . especially if broad harnesses. 2. 27. or at the knots 9 and 10. tail wooden rollers are placed in each space between 1. and consequently all the same uniform height in opening the sheds. then. 3 for the red. many To obviate this in- convenience. 5. 4. 7. that as the twines inchne from the harness board to the neck in very different angles. 4 for the yellow. LOOM. 155 5. W . and replaces the light blue for green. will rise vertically between the mails will be raised to the rollers. at 4 and 2 for dark bkie. the mails cannot rise to the same elevation and. of reference. it will follow. 25. drawing the warp through a harness does not from that formerly explained under tweehng. 28. if the lash at 1 4 for yellow. Figs. 24. 2. 4. fore. and 5 for he then shifts down this cross bridle. 29. form a shed. so that he has only the lashes 3 and 5 to draw in red. however obHque. those towards the seivages.

and that a border of fifty mails were to be added. . This is the case alvvays in shawls. and repeating the Operation until warp be entered. and the others in regulär order from the out- this would be denominated a gathered and would produce this efFect. and continued in regulär succession tili finished. loom to require it to be tied on the opposite side of the shop. were the Situation of the . thread on the back leaf. they would stand reversed on the other two or. then be denominated a left hand harness all the tail it would and simple cords would retain their relative positions and connections. from the rods behind. 63) to be taken for the bosom of a shawl. After the warp is taken through the harness. In harnesses toward the centre. it is termed a right hand harness but. of this kind. the tail When of a harness extends across the shop on the weaver's right band.156 first THE ART OF WEAVING. while on bis seat. . harness . a new lease must be forced the whole through the eyes or mails. damask. which prevents the appearance of teething. for example. that in Fig. if stripes were to run diagonally from the right side in the former two. This ties the most cpmmon form of the harness.* Again. It may be again observed. A double point. . and those numbered 10 in the two parts on the left. 63. been tied to the first tail cord or that marked sides 1 at the neck. were the same example (Fig. and the right hand side of the simple in the present case would become the left. under the head of reading or lashing patterns. however. though other varie- are occasionally adopted. 63 the tying of the harness commenced at one side. as in the example Fig. or at the figure 1 in the harness board in each is part. and meet in the centre of the web. it is obvious that an additional tail and simple of fifty cords each would be requisite w^hich would exactly fiU the pulley box repre. it will always be found advantageous to ter- minate the tying with an odd mail in the centre. only what is here the top of the pulley box would become the bottom. This distinction must be particularly attended to in reading the pattern on the simple which will be further explained . so on to the front until the leaves of headles have been gone over beginning again at the back leaf and drawing towards the front. however. and . they would change their direction in the two latter. taking it for the purpose of through the ground leaves. the mails num- bered 1 in the two parts on the right. and many other kinds of weaving. Had. that whatever positions the patterns assumed in the two right hand parts.

which would have continued inward to the centre. patterns. (fcc but. : regularly to the other. . counting and in this case the harness twines nearest the fi-om the front Hence it is evident. the process would first have begun with the rnethod. 70. the borders the right hand mail on one side. as fornierly directed. and the left hand mail on the other. the the counting from the two seivages. LOOM. is either with the border or body. tie of the harness would be said to be border and fifty In this case the fifty pulleys in the back part of the box at A. a very correct representation of which given in Fig. and consequently the border will end the body begins with the tail cord which passes over the fifty-first pulley or the first in the body part.) The tili second tail cord is tied to the second neck twine of each border. plained. at C. from the complexity of the cessity of accuracy. 64 fifty . observing. in the same manner as the borders. tail he begin with the cord which passes over the first puUey. 64. to the second tail cord. D. This Operation. 157 and the body. and proceeds in every respect as has been already exAfter the border is tied.DRAW sented in Fig. . the Operator If may commence border the Fig. in the body the tying of each part always commences at one side and proceeds . requires close attention. or outward to READING OR LASHING PATTERNS. the seivages. 66. except in the case of a gathered harness. C. and the ne- The is lower end of the simples A is fastened to the cross bar B in the reading or lashing frame. or that which was last in the preceding and proceeded on in the contrary direction tili finished and then the border would begin with that tail cord which passes over the first pulley at the left band in the sixth row. In tying a harness for shawls of this kind. Had the tying commenced with tail the body. D. to when ten cords in the pulley box are commence the second ten at the bottom of the box. number 1 in tied at the first neck twine of each border or those at the extremities of the harness board at A and E (Fig. fifty C. would be appropriated to the border. F. and so on with the others borders be tied first . cord which passes over the puliey at the corner of the box. that tied. E. are connected to the first tail cord the second of each in succession. B. that in tying seivages would be the last tied. and the remaining to the body.

We have not slavishly followed . * We have been at great pains to make this machine (as well as to all the others Jescribed in this work) worthy the attention of the manufacturers of this country . .* the reed and each simple cord is afterwards placed in a separate interval of C C which is open at one side so as to resemble a comb.158 THE ART OF WEAVING. and we doribt not that our endeavors please them in this parin the ticular will be properly appreciated. Fig 70.

of the simple into one tack or loop of the twine for. bringing the loop of the twine over the pin cords that are to be taken. 70. of Sterling utihty. The lasher. for the purpose of fastening to the head. phed whatever be the kind of design paper used. he takes a turn of the lash twine round the parcel of simple cords that are to be taken for the lash. close to the pin G . of small and as there are six colours in we shall suppose cross bridles to be employed. 70. counts off 30 cords at track of our predecessors totally by copying verbatim the matter furnished by man have spared neither expense nor labour in endeavouring to make this Work. and again bringing the over the pin G taking care at and so on. come together they must be divided into different After the not exceeding either of these numbers in each. in all respects. and thus to distin- guish more easily the terminaüon of each design. with allowance for one empty interval of the reed at the end of each design. 8 by 8. * It is customary to have 9 dents in the reed or comb. the Operator fastens one end of the lash twine round the pin G. 159 This reed must be rnade of such a fineness that each cord of the simple A may to stand directly opposite to that space of the design it paper which correspoiids in the pattern. after fastening one end of his twine to the pin G. This enables the reader or lasher of the incompetent to the task. and the E E fixed first above the space of the design paper that represents the such a manner that he can disengage after lash. the pattern J J would require a consists of that number it. and we rest our case in the hands of praclical weavers and manufacturers. as shown in the Fig. as Squares in the breadth . H H. of cords lash has been applied in this mann er. G . and the loop that it has formed twisted round it and made into is a snitch. until the lash be completed the same time. w^hich is now taken out. it make room for another. counting off such spaces at the if left of the design as are to be first omitted. is the two ends of the lash twine are knotted together. but this does not appear in the drawing (Fig. . to The lash now pushed down behind the board simple containing 38 cords. when a greater number tacks. It is placed in the frame and adjusted to the simple. never to take above six or seven cords . C C on tlie same space as one of the designs. and over the straight edge EE is made to shde up and down in grooves cut in the sides of the frame at F F. straight edge These arrangements being made. In the example given in Fig. alternately. in it again at pleasure . then. We pattern to leave every ninth interval of the reed empty. any. The same principle is ap- .DRAW LOOM. then round the next parcel of loop of the twine . as already mentioned.)" The pattern it is now placed above the reed.

and. as being just above the twelfth line. they are likeare black passed and the lash. being completed. By looking over the pattern will be noticed that there are two cords of green on the fourth line from the bottom. by passing 19 cords to the left and taking the twentieth he passes the next 8 and takes 5 w^hich and as the last 5 on the line are blank. every colour must have a lash exclusively to all he and they must drawn it draw hoy. so that there must be three lashes on the correspond- On the fourth line there must be four. the lasher again proceeds with the black . which are to- blank. as there only one colour in the first line. first head of the second line is bridle. the Operator will use as many as he has covers or colours in his pattern. the lash put lipon the (Fig. he attaches it to the wise . then takes a . He fastens the red lash . in addition to the black and red. bearing always in mind. same now to be formed. as formerly. there will be six The ruler E E is represented in the drawing lashes on the bridle. to be knotted G taken out . Fig. teenth line. The red lash on the cords. red and black. The pink begins on the seven as it contains two cords of yellow. line. The second line contains two colours.) which bridle being thus finished. The two the pin ends of the lash twine are now . as all the colours are upon it. which was taken to the in the previous lash. comes in extra upon it and on the sixth line five will be required. as bein regulär order by the fore observed.160 the left side THE ART OF WEAVING. 69 only five heads are represented on the cross bridles. except the black. or that marked is 69 . and after the straight edge has been shifted to its proper position for this line. so on the pattern be finished . which are black the loop over the pin brings G . although . . is then put behind the board H H. turn of the twine round the next 5 cords. . as the blue bridle. althongh first ones require and 1. . He all passes three and takes 2 red ones. corresponding to the 30 blank spaces or first ground on the line of the pattern at the bottom .* ing . there are six colours in the pattern. or that marked 2 on the second bridle bridle he puts behind the board tili H H. second head. of course. of the simple. green. as the rest of it and is this finishes the second line ground. 70 but. gether . which only contains black and and consequently but two lashes will be necessary for this * In Fig. which follow of the pattern. the loop twisted all larger (it is unnecessary it) to twist a lash of one tack. and passes the 3 last cords. head of the bridle. that itself. as he did the first which and .

it is found necessary to employ from two to ten. and the flower It is of the cross borders which is thrown up by the weft for in the one . tail. and consequently is raises that part of the harness which attached to the latter the weaver then works until a change of the pattern be. and pass the painted parts.DRAW LOOM. 21 . as before the weaver proceeds to work until another change is reand so on to the end of his pattern. absolutely necessary. when it is they are heavier to draw than and in others. which merits our attention that invented by the late ingenious James Cross of Paisley (Scot- * In this case these form what is generally called a bastard tweel. especially the ground . equal portion of the cordage is conducted over each. that simple cords are spread round it. yet in some cases to the it is of advantage weaver to take the ground simples or the blanks. that the cross bar or board the lashes H H in when the the frame. length from the simples to the pin G moveable in the side pieces at 1 1. taken. boxes of pulfor. and an convenient size. : by puUing the simples of the lash. is worked by two persons. : . so may be all of an equal The board H H should be that it may be regulated ac. comes necessary the draw-boy slacks those cords of the simple which he last pulled. were the whole number of pulleys. and in the otlier the ground. For the ordinary quality of damasks live leaves are commonly usedj* as at K K Fig. and pulls the simple cords of the second lash. as in shawls for instance. of course. should be somewhat circular at the back. it would be extended to a very inThese are placed parallel to each other. The and the person who pulls the lashes draws the first iirst bridle down then. cording to the intended length of the lashes. in order. same in every respect as in damask weaving. equal to one set of the tweel. or more. 65 but many of the finest are wrought with The loom lashes . and as many draw-boys leys placed in one box or frame. to 161 take Although. and the other manages the The ground mounting is exactly the treadles. (which see. eight. the pattern of the side borders of by the warp. . in these examples. one of whom pulls the and simples to form the pattern.) and the number of leaves is. the Instructions are given the painted parts of the clesign. SCOTCH COUNTERPOISE HARNESS. quired When the mounting of the draw loom is very extensive. may be here observed. Shuttles and lay. The is next weaving machine.

this object has long been a desideratum which the draw loom is and many at. and evident Utility. the former called the Suspension board (the top board e) its bearing the weight of the harness and leads. u. v. (brother to . or at have been confined to particular branches of the manufacture. The other are called trap boards. about a quarter of an inch in diameter. both in detail and in combination. already explained. 71. in many respects. which are let into frame from ( AA . where the counterpoise apparatus commences. boards w. and in remodeling the description of it. as in the common draw loom. The harness F is in all recommon draw loom. late Lord Mayor of London. . d. .162 land. tempts have been made. This machine consists of three distinct parts. have their holes of a sufficient size. from the original account given in the Edinburgh Encyclopoedia and we trust that these will enable the reader to comprehend with ease its various parts. to allow the knots on the cords o. but nearly least all of them have either proved abortive. equal to the tie of the harness or size of the simple. which on the capes of the loom. a front elevation of these three parts connected together as they stand in the loom spects like that of the when it is at rest. side next the simple. there is a saw draught.) even Cross's machine seems to have gone out of use but from its great ingenuity. In the frame A A are four boards e. i. and the latter it i ) the neck. as answers the purpose of rollers. towards its accom- phshment. which are perforated with a supported by the carriage number of corresponding holes. . and the third. m achine into England by Samuel Wilson. (the top and bottom ones) the upright are mortised into the cross rails d. tili it is reaches the neck. The rests principal part of this apparatus is contained in the upright frame AA. to Harness In the various branches of figured work apphcable. is Since the introduction of the Jacquard Stephen Wilson. 72.) poise THE ART OF WEAVING. an apparatus for preparing the lashes. to pass freely through them and at the as well as keeps the cords at regulär distances. but in Fig. we have neither spared trouble nor expense in preparing new drawings. The two boards e. or cut in the edge of to support the knots as represented each hole. two and are mortised into the moveable bars m. or directing board. a treading machine. and the whole E E. i. nty called the arms of the trap boards. v. especially in Scotland. Fig." and its object is to supersede the use of draw boys. another. This machine is known by the name of " Cross's Counter. one properly called the counterpoise harness. to admit the cords.

71. 72. Fig. 163 Fig.DRAW LOOM. IW H' 11 |ii||H|lllll|||l|||| iiliiliiiiliiiliii il iiiii 1 1 IHIiti iiPi H i liiil^^^^i i iiÄil 1 iil ll|jiiiifBi| 8 Äiil iiiiiil iltiiiiiilliiiiiiilliiilii .

according to the alternate motion of the rotators. each simple being . that run through to the opposite side of the frame E. 71. &c. L is a bar of wood. with a corresponding one at the other side of the frame. and the knot cords of another lash into the other trap board. The connecting arm or rod is placed just above the rotators. are small bars or arms of wood. G the headles.) In the Fig. the simple r.164: THE ART OP WEAVINÖ. which is effected . K are two circular pieces of wood. where they are tied to the harness. trary Avay. «. and 6. and which connect the trap board arnis to the rotators on each side of the frame E. as from a. which takes a turn round each of the rotators. by means of the and are taken down through both of the trap boards to the neck i. and thus a uniformity of action is constantly kept up. to prevent confusion. and the other rows follow in succession always beginning each row at the same side of the board at w^hich the tying commenced. The into the next part of the mach ine is that for drawing the knot cords saw cuts. e. called pushers. . marches. on which the axles of the rotators revolve. one Spotting shed would he rising while the preceding one would be sinking . and their height is regulated by the nuts and screws y. Conse- drawn into the sawdraughts of one trap board for one lash. holes They are fastened to made for that K . The process of tying the counterpoise is the same as in the common draw loom for the workman commences tying at the back row of the holes in the neck board i. the first and last of each row. The rotators K K are connected together by means of an arm or rod (one on each side of the carriage) and a small leather belt or strap at each end of it. z. were a portion of the knot cords principle of the counterpoise harness. and works in a guide. the motion of the trap boards will be reversed. if it commenced at a. it is instantaneously transmitted to the other. called rotators.) this apparatus. to ö. extended tied to horizontally at the top of the frame AB. where other rotators are sunilarly fixed. z. and this is the quently. it is evident. is the harness board. the Suspension or top board purpose. and In is chiefly contained in the frame between is A and B (Fig. so that whatever motion is communicated to any one of these. r. as in the puUey box of the draw loom (Fig 64. the pushers z^ will raise the upper trap board u^ and sink the under trap board v and when the rotators are turned the conto the right. y. z. and c. Now. which revolve on iron axles. which allows it to slide to the right or left. 71 there are only two of the knot cords tied to their harness twines F. z. a. that when the rotators KK are turned round by means of a cord connected to a treadle.

each Cover or colour. 75. the heads of the lashes. Fig. The position of the hooks a^ as seen in Fig. 75. driver moves. gy are iron pins which drive the lashes to their proper place for the draught or opening of the shed. The dots at a. 74. or rather tappets will be seen at Fig. 73. are is the small castors on which the lash the lash. for drawing the lashes is pointed out at d (see Fig. and on the axle of which are a number of eccentric pnlleys. S^ is the and R the shaft which communicates the motion from the pulley T. but shut again by their in the Fig. cross bridles. 71) the frame in which .) g. as pulled down. 74. one attached to each cord. h the lashes. 75 a view of one of the tum- blers or levers. are opened are in the position to by cords connected to the treadles when they catch the head of the lash. 7^^ Fig. respective knot cord above the neck by the addition of other pieces of twine to q^ where it is supported by a half leaf of headles. and e. before the lash levers for is own is gravity. a board with holes in for it for regulating their distances. for 5. 74 is a front view of the lash driver . as seen in Fig. There is one of these each cover or colour. for gaining power in the preparation of the The form of these puUeys. g^ g. one for lash driver cross-piece. are gut cords keeping the heads of the bridles open the hooks. Fig. lashes. simple. where the ends are fastened. : 165 afterwards it is continued. h. and cross bridles are connected. Fig. Fig. 73. manner in which the lashes. to recover the knot cords after the draught. h. represent the ends of the simple. P (Fig. showing likewise the c. and again to the wall or shop window.DRAW its LOOM. At p are leads. and Z. 5. in which is fastened the hook a^ for pulling down The two parts a^ and b. which is operated upon by a treadle.

as in the ordinary way of mounting fancy where leys i. In the hook presser are wires fixed that press on the under part of These different parts are put in motion by means of the hooks. 71. to recover the levers after the lash is drawn. h (Fig. 71) is a roUer flattened on one side. The which treading machine is is next to be explained . string connected to the escapement and another to the hook presser. 1.166 THE ART OF WEAVING. but the several parts are more distinctly Fig. at Fig. (Fig. 76. 71) is the escapement for opening the hooks. and which will be seen to these levers are placed. 77. 76. and the small pulhave cords running over them. are the ends of the levers. Q. 3 and 4. illlllü^^ . looms. the frame of seen at H. Fig. to allow the This roUer has a levers to play when the machine is working. 77. more advantage Fig. 2. treadles and marches. <^l|lll|lll!l||lll|l|||ll|lll||||l|||lllllll|liP|||l|lllliP represented at Fig. and allowing one set of lashes to escape and another to enter.

i. 8 is a weight for recovering the machine. Fig. a working the drawing machine. : 167 a knee shaft . o. w. e. short . 78.DRAW marches. Fig. c. (see Fig. Fig. the principal of which are as foUow for 1. 5 is one of the wheels each leaf of the ground harness or headles . 77. and 7 are mails attached to them. 10. 79. . a long march for : or pulleys of the trap boards. are boards pierced with holes balancing the mounting. for conducting the raising .) for conducting the knot cords. 77. are the ends of the treadles a is for opening a flowering or counterpoise shed. and 9 are weights is for 10. couper for turning the trap board 5 4. a cord for conducting the preseing knot cords y. a. 79. one LOOM.) on the raising and sinking cords. 78. c. c. 6 are the knots (see Fig. is 2. one of which seen at 10. represented at Fig. 3. are weights for balancing the conducting cords .

) and attached to the mails 7. where the knot cords play. that French fabrics. the pulley 5 is turned round. This nature and this taste pursues. figures of reference. 77 and 79. As o and e two treadles for the ground. a side view of the machine. stated House of Commons. Esq." Du Mr.168 knot cordsj THE ART OF WEAVING. (see Figs. " Learn hence to paint the parts that meet the view In spheriod forms. they often spoil them deviation from the regulär established and we know and fixed quite well that rules to any any harmonize . and opens a shed. z^ weights is for keeping the knot cords tight. 79. 77. and couper. in doing which. presented in Fig. reFig. one of the principal silk Fresnoy.. each with their holes and saw draughts. a knowledge of colours. (see Fig. secretary to the Board of Trusencouragement of manufactures in Scotland.) Fig. and a. 6. if they introduce . The the tweehng cords are tied to the marches brought down through board 10. " It appears to me that one thing in which the British manufacturer is most deficient is. marches. a view of the trap board. 3 and 4. These cords are arplan of the tweel to be woven. 77^ with the same 2. tees for the James Skene. Lost and confused progressively they fade. lose. and obtained public favour solely on acin his evidence before a committee of the in fancy silks the superiority of the patterns in . and is of the pressing board. The working outlines Not fall take a fainter dye. &c. three-fourths of those sold were of French manufacture. occasioned the sales to be in the proportion of one half or more over the English that in fancy ribbands. of Rubislaw. 78) are the DESIGN AND COLOURING. 1. merchants in London. Studious in gradual gloom her lights to The various whole with softening tints to fill. in which are the ends of the shafts. alteration. when either of them is pressed down. says. At present. 78. and while one foot is tread. of light and equal hue While from the light receding or the eye. the other prepares the knot cords for the next change of pattern to be woven. which guide the knot cords into the saw draughts. to the ranged according (see Fig. count of superior design. as far as my acquaintance with manufactures goes. precipitate from light to shade dictates. Smith. I believe they copy their pat- terns entirely from France . 2. As if one single head employed her skill.

improve the perception and taste of . Charles Toplis. than to leave their humble artists. assorting. in placing our manufactures or sic from the fancy goods. to see how very httle those rules. a nation. consider their studies as merely intended to improve them in the useful arts to which they may be bred. for the purpose of arranging. says. the the highest to the lowest grades of society : this is. that room papers are superior in accuracy of drawing to those of the Enghsh and that the colours are arranged lipon some fixed principle by the French artisan while in Great Britain. labours more at random until he obtains the effect he wishes. a designer of paper hangings in London. calling. " whatever partakes of the nature of ornament. '' Many important branches of manufacture call for careful cultivation of the eye. industrious young man. from however. the designs of the French states. the workmen. lect. and contrasting colours . which as an affair of taste. as it is characterised by grace and elegance of design . in course of time. will only be appreciated in a refined eye. calls for some portion of a painter's education. which are exceedingly simple. and by deli- cacy and precision of execution." Mr. that the cultivation of the fine arts will. as any deviation in muharmony of notes and." It is no doubt true. They almost always imbibe the idea of rising into a higher sphere. 22 . but possess- ing sufficient to have raised him to the head of ornamental paint- we have known from this to sacrifice himself to a life of penury and neg- vain idea. Crabb.. and seem to have no other ulterior object in their studies. and one of the directors of the Museum of National Manu: : factures. 169 same effect to the eye.DRAW colours. as from the want of opportunities afforded for study. of ordinary talent. are attended to in the English copies. work of ages but the present state of our American manufactures demands an immediate improvement in this particular. produces the LOOM. at the conclusion of their apprenticeship. We believe this want of ornamental designers to arise as much from the nature of the Instruction given." And he adds. and become We speak from particular servation. It is seldom that the young men who are admitted to our drawing academies. facts which have come under onr Ob- Many an ing. and this may be as often wrong as right. not being sufficiently instructed. : it has often Struck me as a remarkable circumstance. Esq. along with French fancy articles of the same natiire. a vice president of the London Mechanics' Institute.

but in servile imitation to to some populär dignity than he seems be by common consent raised to the of artist.000 francs per an- government establishment of the school of arts. for in the Academy of the Fine Arts at Yenice there are distinct professors in the foUowing departments of art Architecture. in " Arnold's Library of the Fine Arts. Perspective. those branches of the fine arts that are applica- manufacture and other departments of useful industry. a gentleman and many others. no eye In to nature. Painting. and dash off upon canvass something like a landscape. but foliage. brauch the pupils are so numerous Their examples are not fruit. may be assigned for the prevalence of this mania the among young men who have had : opportunities of studying the art : the flattery of their friends injudicious patronage . or how much study or knowledge may have been required to produce it. and. often with painter. no sooner does the youth lay aside bis usefttl implements. of all any kind applicable to manufactures. No matter how supe- an ornamental design may be. him one step in the scale of society he is only a mechanic in the eyes of the public. and : Ornament^ and that in this latter that the professor requires an assistant. Sculpture. to which they are fairly entitled. which takes Charge of every youth who shows an aptitude for drawing or imitative design. advance ment and preference are bestowed. cannot . of the eminent painters. writer states that " the it A learned num to the town of Lyons is so conscious of the value of such studies that contributes 20. The case is different in Italy.170 Yarious reasons of drawing THE ART OP WEAVING. over which no national institution can have any desire to become. ble to short. control. even botanists and Aorists Lyons. according to merits. still the production of such." . become eventually associated with the staple trade. On the other band. flowers and ori- Every fifteen days they are each required to make an ginal design." all others in directing The their Chinese seem to surpass the studies of youth writer distinctly to their ulterior object. do not obtain in the United States that relative Situation to the more intellectual and higher branches. seems to be. Engraving. A on painting. however. and devote to it their happiest conceptions. sculptors. by the quiekest and easiest means. The rior niost prominent cause. only the best ornamental modeis of antiquity. precautions being its taken to prevent deception . that nothing is reckoned a work of art unless it be a picture. although raise it may increase the wealth of the individual. Hence. within a given number of hours.

national institutions. where real genius was discovered the facilities for encouraging it would be much greater and we should have less of that misapplied and often mental to that : race taken from a river. may probably find way into these quarters. which. be directed from that selfish sort of patronage which fosters ordinary talent until it is fic- titiously raised to where it cannot stand. that there is a want in the art of drawing where it would be of most the populous manufacturing districts and as . where merit alone will receive patronage. this book. being adapted its to the improvement of manufactures. and they procure the early attempts of such for a mere pittance. sequently become highly valuable. for of we know that they are often actuated . in must be admitted. a which at present seems to be all flowing into one Channel. They cannot bring their minds to encourage those who have really proved themselves to possess the qualities which constitute the real artist the works of such are too expansive. other cii'cumstances. Art would not suffer from this. to return to our subject. separate and in groups. . it of proper Instruction . conto We have attributed selfishness art. in the progressive examples. like those of such great men. all highly picturesque and adds. We feel quite assured that were a simiiar course foUowed in our sufficient portion of that genius American Academies. and be honoured by the approbation of those its who are most capable to be judges. — notwithstanding the superabun- dance of mediocre Service artists. and that their early productions will. But. below own natural some of these pretended patrons by that feeling. we shall add a few hints . are giveri in perfect detail and to these were added implements of various kinds. like a mill which is merely ornawhich is essentially useful and beneficial to the coimtry. Their proteges are the undeveloped. because their real value is known. . we mean such as really deserve the name hence the necessity of . that the objects of all these preparatory studies of the pupil was to enable him to paint a fan^ which was the last example given. They calculate that these embryo artists are all to be Rubenses in their day. mentions having seen. sustained in a Situation injurious to true This is well known and much lamented among artists themselves.DRAV/ LOOM. and fall far is then by the desertion its of such injudicious patrons allowed to level. namely. In many cases too injudicious patronage is the means is of fostering mediocrity. 171 city of Pekin. with figures. would. rock and foliage. assisted by art. on the contrary. a drawing book with where the separate character of land and water.

even those in the of easy acquire- most humble situations of through whicli pretend to do her lessons. octagons. INSTRUCTIONS IN ORNAMENTAL DRAWING.172 for tlie assistance of THE ART OP WEAVING. such as wish to commence this pleasing and and who may not have had any previous Instructions. regulär vmdulations. and when you are pretty perfect at these. circular and flattened volutes. without any guide to your band. The is best kind of study to begin with. by your circular and oval lines. circles and ovals. next to reading and writing. upon the proper combinations of which depends all linear harmony. if When they are perfect in that brauch. is The all. Therefore. so thorough for a similar reason that we have given in an analysis of piain weaving) and this want of knowledge of the ßr st eleme7its generally sticks to life . for those who intend to direct their attention merely to ornamental designs they please. for all that we can to point out to them a practica. useful study. and other figures which arise out of their variGUS combinations first making an accurate copy of each figure by . of from two to three feet Square and with white chalk practice the drawing of Make Squares. A and essential knowledge of drawing brauch of education is. to every one a source of enjoyment. by attempting before they are capable of drawing a Single correct line. you may practice in the same way triangles. that of flowers and foUage. and on as large a scale as you can conveniently adopt. course of study we are about to point out within the reach of life. them through in very few instances do those who neglect the attainment of such knowledge at the outset ever descend to the drudgery of doinof so afterwards. copies of these figures by the ordinary rules. this work for. will lead They to will find it ment. let your attempts be of the most simple kind. for manufactures. in the improved it medium them view the most ordinary produc- tions of Nature. you may form crescents. . begin by procuring a black painted board or slate. It is they may then soar higher difficult subjects (it is the fault of most students of drawing to begin at the wrong end of their studies. hexagons. Next.l mode of receiving In the first place. is She shall be their instructor. . an for the manufacturer and mechanic. and such other figures as arise from the various combinations of the straight line. and a source of continued enjoyment.

such as a hoop. as if a stick.DRAW measurementj and continuing the eye with perfect ease. A knowledge of this simple fact is all that you require of perspective in the mean time. but it will pave the way to your being able to draw the most complex groups of flowers and foliage that can be placed beYou may now hang before you a smoil brauch of any fore you. were hanging before you. . for a great deal depends upon it. and leaves nothing but a dark Fix line. . instead of a hoop. and you will observe the same change Make an outline of its shape while in its figure as it turns round. Take your outline and within it draw the principal fibres as you see them. To gain anything like a tolerable accuracy in this. you have become expert in this kind of practice we would recommend you at once to draw from nature. its principal fibres. at LOOM. varying their shape according to their perspective. 173 to practice until you can form it by a time : do each line. . it in various positions. Before endeavouring to draw more than one leaf at a time you must know a little of perspective. the simple fact of a circular object telligent Irishman so unaware of altering its shape by being seen obhquely. The most simple mode by which you will obtain such knowledge of this art as will be useful for your present purpose. until you find you can do them all with ease. he found by actual measurement that thej were not like those upon his coat. tree with a few leaves upon it. To do this properly will require a great deal of practice. and you will find that as one side of it retires and the other comes forward. You may take for your first subject a pumpkin leaf. that he returned his portrait to have all the buttons made quite round for although they appeared so at a little distance. then bring it from between you its front is half turned from you and the light and place it where the light will fall upon it with its face half turned from you. by one sweep of the band. and persevere in copying it füll size until you can represent it accurately When in outline with tice. as when it hung between you and the window. the larger the leaves are the better. the iarger the better. and draw from it. is to hang a circular object. the first stage . as already described be particular on We once knew an inthis point. and endeavour to make outlines of them. and observe that the least movement changes its form. You may then vary your prac- by adopting other simple subjects of a similar kind. . between you and the wdndow set it moving gently round recede a little from it. the circle which it describes becomes more and more elliptical until it disappears altogether. You may now hang up your pumpkin leaf. Avoid forming your figures by little bits as much as possible. .

may occupy from four to six months . and Indian ink. that any inaccuracy may be easily brushed off. for freedom of your work wül depend upon the wholesale much way in of the whicli your shades are washed in. that is. We are aware that this course of study would be useless to many. Your next your charcoal practice should be light to and shade. subject lightly with charcoal. it by sketching your and when with your black you have got your lead pencil. Commence. We cannot lead you further : you or must go water to a drawing master to attain a knowledge of using oil But should your patterns be adapted for damasks only. manufacture to continue in fashion . Continue this practice for six months before attempting smaller subjects than those we have laid before described. sheet of your cartridge paper upon your board. bat flowers are your best practice. touch your copy with your chalk. go over Ruh down plenty of the Indian ink. must be pasted all over the quill hair provide yourself with a black lead pencil. Place before you a cab- and it will be more picturesque Copy these carefuUy in outline. You may now self lay aside your chalk and slate. We need not here remind you of what suggested the any such large vegetable. outlines quite correct. riebest of pure architectural Ornaments. the Corinthian Capital. Bruise a bit of powder. with a few sheets of .174 of your lessons. using your charcoal gently. You will now find little difficulty in copying the best examples of either ancient or modern ornament that can be you . and where it appears lightest tint. for many of these designs are . instead of being merely fixed at the corners. it as formerly. is and provide yourand some pieces Stretch a whole it of charcoal that made from lime tree the best. a swan pencil. leaving the clean cartridge paper intermedially as a middle Persevere in this sort of practice for some months. as is more easily erased. and make fast by a wafer or a bage. THE ART OP WEAVING. or Httle paste at each corner. take a piece of any kind of cloth upon the it point of your finger. you will have no use for this. unless for your amusement. if the leaves are hanging loose. may now edge : For the coarse paper upon which you have hitherto practiced you Substitute what is called drawing cartridge. common cartridge paper. sup- pose you only practice at leisure hours. a basket with a weed growing round it. which. were the present style of patterns in their particular branches of colours. dip into the powder and ruh it upon such parts of your outlined sketch as receive the direct light you observe in the original do not of the window.

in our opinion. 175 Improvement. They are continually suggesting new and Hence. a jumble of forms of ihe most nondescript nature. into existence in every quarter of this vast which are now springing such a course of study as not only country. or the gratification they would derive from the study and practice of horticulture. of real Utility as objects of study than the Contents of the Louvre. may derive from studying works of this description. (which see. Among the weavers of that those of the other great cities well as among is of France) any way connected with Weavers may be seen in the beautiful either in figure or colour. by those engaged more in design- ing ornamental patterns. but lead them The youth in searching for the most and picturesque plants in nature's most profuse and wildest productions. In those pro- ductions of nature they will find most exquisite beauty and ele- gance of form. (as in lar attention. and who have had such Instructions in the use of water colours as may enable them to copy individual flowers with ease. And.DRAW LOOM. The productions of a well managed flower garden to such would be. would augment their sources of innocent pleasure. however. he would then have some interest in the enquiry. we would recommend the acquiring of a thorough knowledge of harmonious colouring. it may easily be imagined with what avidity the more advanced would add to their knowledge of that pleasing science. being copied from nature with All these the improvement of our fancy manufactures. and especially the artist. study. are within the reach of the most humble. patterns. to other instructive pursuits. designs to their employers. The pursuit of we have endeavoured to point out.) The modes city. from incongruities. the French facilities for are thus the fruitful source of elegant flower patterns are remarkably free scientific precision. which taste is cultivated at Lyons deserve particuand imitation. We are aware that the eye has . would be naturally led to commence the study of botany for. is loudly called for. To those who have gained a facility for copying the beautiful forms that prevail in the vegetable kingdom. In saying that the study of such subjects is of more Utility to the ornamental designer than that of those great works of art which have been the admiration of ages. their holiday leisure gathering flowers and grouping them in the much attention devoted to anything in most engaging combinations. graceful It isscarcely necessaiy for us to point out the advantages to be derived from the cultivation of flowers. we do not mean to undervalue the benefit that any one.

which compose the comfundamental colours. the mon all chord or harmonic triad and that they are the foundation of harmony. have been proved by Field in the most satisfactory manner to be in numerical proportional power as foUows : yellow three. an habitual and elegant. ary colour of a distinct kind is produced distinct and as only one absolutely from a combination of the is denomination of colour can arise three primär ies. and G. and answers Being. white produced. harmony or system. It is well known to all who have . has ample scope for the production of originality and beauty. So there are. in music to voices and instruments his art is The colourist. red When State. C. there- with the same provisions to the guish true impressions from finest impressions. in the various combinations and arrangements of his materials. This its characteristic of . and blue. that it acquires. the füll number of really distinct colours seven. any opaque body in They are then in an active but each neutralized by the relative efiect that the others have . as it is alone. these three colours are reflected from is these proportions. notwithstanding the extreme simplicity of the fundamental principles upon which founded. five. that there are three fundamental notes.176 its THE ART OF WEAVING. corresponding to the seven notes in the complete scale of the musi- Each of these colours is capable of forming an archus or key for an arrangement to which all the other colours introduced must refer subordinately. Harmonious arrangements of colours are such combinations as by certain principles of our nature produce an efFect on the eye similar to that which is produced by harmonious music on the ear and a remarkable conformity exists between the science of colour and that of sound in their fundamental principles. tone but. it versed in the works of the best masters false. The three homogenious colours. This reference and Subordination to one particular colour. E. red. as well as in their . and blue eight. soon learns to distinaffectation. three lowest number capable of uniting in variety. as is the case in regard to the key note in musical cian. like the musician. with what is principle of correspondence beautiful delicacy. and fore. By the combination of any two of these primary colours a second. viz. effects. also. composition. studied music. and grace from HARMONIOUS COLOURING. yellow. like the ear. gives a character to the whole. this tone is an arrangement of colour is generally called more applicable to individual lines.

citron from the mixture of orange and purple and russet from the mixture of green and orange. secondaries are between two primaries. therefore concords in the musical relation of fourths. and are orange. from the mixture of the purple and green . the yellow is melodized by the orange on the one side and the green on the other. and neutral: izing each other integrally as 32. Besides this relation of contrast in Opposition. which tion of three and five composed of yellow and red in the propor- purple. however. but in the and in the second impalpable or From the combination of the primary colours the secondary arise. These three colours. marone. proportion will be found to be in the and russet to green and their same accordance. however. in an incalculable gradation. These tertiaries. olive to orange. as they are all formed by a mixture of the same ingredients. To all of these the same ruies of con- trast are equally applicable. This melody or harmony is of succession is found in the natural phenomena of colour. which is their all melody. composed of yellow and blue in the proportion of three and eight. citron to purple. in the proportion of five . olive. same. effect is the When transmitted first through any transparent body the case they are materiai or inherent. stand in the same relation to the secondaries that the secondaries do to the prima- ries. the mean between black and white. the They are purple with the yellow. Each colour on the prismatic spectrum and in the rainbow it melo- dized by the two Compounds which primaries. in the same manner in which it is effected in music by accompaniment. the orange with the blue. LOOM. slate. From the combination of these secondaries also three in which are number. transient. until they arrive in perfect neutrality in black. like the Compounds produced by their admixture. arise the tertiaries. and black is the result. as any of the . is which is composed of red and blue and eight and green. the blue by the green and 23 . which always less or more neutralize each other in triunity the most neutral of them all being grey. Out a of the tertiaries arise a series of other colours. 177 When they are absorbed in the same proportions they are in a passive State.DRAW «pon it. such as brown. may be reckoned under the general denomination of neutral hues. &c. forms Avith the other two For instance. neutrahzing each other at sixteen. as foUows: . the three primaries. colours have a relation in series. These are called the accidental or contrasting colours to the primaries with which they produce harmony in Opposition. and the green with the red. . it may appropriately be termed the seventh colour.

in which he has accommodated the chromatic scale of the colourist to the diatonic scale of the musician showing that the concords and discords are also singularly lent essay . while the calyx or cup. that colouring. the order in which nature commonly disposes them. By D. agreeably to the principles of which we have been treating. and flower garden. DESIGN PAPER.178 purple. while the bright hues and detail. represent the threads of warp and * The Laws of Harmonious Colouring. Hke acwill sound in music or poetry. THE ART OF WEAVING. the pattern drawer will have an extensive field for the display of bis judgment and taste. and heighten the effect of the pattern. for example. Orr. in the selection and arrangement of the harmonizing and contrasting colours. By keeping these observations in view. S. These comes tints. 1838. in the centre of a red rose he will find a yellow tint blended witb the orange hue of the stamens. of the violet. we are indebted to Mr. the deep tones of indigo tints and brown predominate. Field. the wall flower. which in contact with the petals. it consists of straight lines running at right angles the spaces between weft. in bis excelon the " Analogy and Harmony of Colours. as well as the other parts of the shrub are green. lively. especially if he examines attentively. Thus. . An eminent writer on the fine arts observes. Patterns require to be painted on design paper before they can be lashed. plate It is commonly printed frora : an engraved copper which lines or steel upon stout white paper ." has shown these coincidences by a diagram. Examples of the contrasting colours on flowers will be found in some species many other productions of the In the finest specimens of Persian and Turkish carpets. coincident. and the red by the purple and orange. and one which to the only appear in professional man and to the Student is indispensable. should be an echo be gay. the natural contrasting colour of red. Hay : W. sombre or solemn. Hay's work on colour* the best and cheapest practical work on the subject. while the petals or leaves of the flower are red. R. and it cording to the general sentiment the subject should inspire. are harmonizing colours . to the sense . For the majority of the foregoing observations on design and colouring.

the lashes. DESIGNING PATTERNS. like the poet and the painter. 8 by 14. that it has eight white spaces both for ways terns. at least with those branches with which he sites. knockneed night the pattern drawer as in the manafacturer improved by a little . 11. LOOM. as for instance. 8 by 16. and the variable numbers &c. crook-necked cormorants (fec. in the design. as the name implies. and to be able to cipal effect of bis designs. cloth. ought to possess a strong and lively Imagination. may edge of the principles of weaving. for it is on a judicious se- and extensive variety of patterns. artificial. 9. 8 by 12. is more immediately connected. In some cases. 10. and it will be observed.. This lection is perhaps the most important as well as the most delicate process connected with figured weaving . which adds consideraSee page 507. bly to the number of varieties above specified. though no designer himself. the variable figures represent the simple cords and 8 the lashes . In using these varieties draw loom pat- 8 is commonly considered the simples or mails in a design. is such as coloured shawls. combined with economy in the disposal of colours. 179 use are. The manufacturer.DRAW The 9. or at least of sketching. however. so that every object and colour . or imaginary. and 10 by 10. therefore. and to make a tasteful selection from the productions of others. tliat the greatest chances of success de- pend. 70. as necessary in and this will be greatly knowledge of geometry. varieties of design paper in common 8 by 8 by 10. straight-legged curlews. A specimen of 8 by 8 is shown in Fig. owls. whether combined with a thorough knowlitself. vestings and furniture easily effected This by laying a sheet of transparent paper over the pattern to be copied. Pattern drawers have frequent occasion to copy extensive patterns from the stuffs. so as to be able to communicate bis ideas to the pattern drawer. particularly symmetry and Proportion for nothing can be more offensive to a person of genuine taste than a pattern crowded with an incongruous assemblage of distorted objects. are indispensable requi- The pattern drawer. to be deeply impressed with prin- the beauties of nature. draw from thence the is A chaste taste also . dwarfs. 8 by 13. should possess a knowledge of drawing. 8 by 11. A facility in sketching or delineating any object that natural. The qualifications of a pattern drawer who would present excel in bis profession are by no means of a superficial nature. to adapt the pattern either to the quantity of weft on the ground or the number of picks on each lash. 8 by 8.

be distinctly traced through it with a black lead pencil. and coloured To make transparent paper. will sometimes become dim by exposure to the air. and add . and when But. in the by means of tracing paper. a sheet of silk or tissue paper may be brushed over with sweet oil. Laughlin. by substituting a comb or combs.) and add to it one pound of the best Canada baisam set it in a gentle band heat tili it is quite mixed. until it be thoroughly wet. and let it stand twenty-four hours .) Ireland. of course. instead of trap boards. and a same manner as the original. Dr. a quarter of an ounce of sugar of lead. then pour it off (throwing away the sediment. they can scarcely be called improvements. In the . FigSl After the introduction of Cross's machine among the Paisley alterations manufacturers.180 THE ART OF WEAVING. when it will be fit for brushing over the paper. (county Donegal. which were used in the original. . finely powdered shake up. Laughlin Mc. COMB DRAW LOOM. steel point. the foUowing receipt is recommended : Take one to it it quart of the best rectified spirits of turpentine. of Ballyshannon. The may afterwards be transferred to a sheet of clean drawing may pattern paper. as this paper it has been ailowed to dry it will be fit for use. (for made some süght upon it.) in the mode of lifting the cords of the harness.

82) its from which useful family lever no doubt. and of an equal height and they do not differ from those marked O O in Cross's machine.DRAW Doctor's modification. arm or down raises have been drawn into them. On the side of this board. all of which knots are in a straight line. the tail is LOOM. (Avhich is precisely like that and is fastened shown in Fig. a plan view of this board is given in Fig 81. instead of by a draw boy. upon suitable bearings. one edge of which j is indented so as to resemble the teeth of a Utensil. A little above the point where the simple cords are connected to the perpendicular or neck cords. ^ FtgS^ ^lo / gD The treadle wire or chain J (see Fig 80) connects the arm for H with the K. nailed a long H (see Figs. opposite to the teeth. it has derived name. as represented at A in Fig. 80.) board C. a flat board F. a simple cord B extends horizontally over the weaver's head. each having a hob D ready to be pulled by the weaver's band. which is screwed or nailed to the top of the machine. comb is (see Fig. the indented side or teeth 82 and 84) which when pulled and consequently the knot cords which .) the to the lashes hanging below. there is a knot E on each of the perpendicular cords. Below these knots and above the simple is placed. moving upon pivots at G G. 80 cut short. which treadle is distinct from those used working the . 81. 181 and the ends of the cords are tied perpendicularly in a board or frame. as Pa^83 is represented at I Fig. 82. (the position of which will be evident enough from the section of his leg seen in the figure. From each of these perpendicular cords.

but the harness does not construction from that represented in Figs. BARREL LOOM. for preventing the weight to its resting place every time the treadle M M sinking the to greater comb F too low under the knot E : all this will be seen advantage in the enlarged section Fig. all the perpendicular cords E pass. that in Fig. thereby drawing the knot cords atit. is is that of the barrel or cylinder loom. through which tern. lead T are shown. from also another knot P on this cord. by means of the weight There ig ses into the comb F and is made fast by a knot at O. BARREL OR CYUNDER LOOM. The next improvement in weaving that merits our attention. and it is in all respects like that marked A Fig. This improveon the surface of which. 84. which.182 ground. when any shed is to be opened. 63 and 85. of Kilmarnock. The comb F is recovered or counterbalanced weaver lifts his foot from off the and cord N. is the figure or pattern to be produced in the cloth precisely in the arranged in re- same way as tunes are disposed on the barrel of the common organ. tached to between the teeth of the comb F. a more is view of which given in Fig. We would remark. or on that of a musical box. keeping it pressed he has worked over the ground treadles. Scotland. 81. and of course. as before stated . perfect is slipped have each a knot. 80. ment consists in using a lief. the weaver pulls down the corresponding lash. by inserting wire . barrel or cylinder. he then presses down the treadle until K with his left foot. with his right foot. 83. which cord pasK. SECTION SIXTH. As many of the simple cords B are connected to each of the bob cords as are required to form one lash or change of the pattern. to avoid confusion differ in only one mail S and one . when the bob is pdled under a saw cut or groove in the board Gl. there must be as many bobs as there are changes in the figure. The cords of the lash bobs D down. marked L. and given the proper number of picks for that change of the patThere is also another guide board. the invention of which claimed by one Thomas Morton. Hence.

A is the barrel . B a spur wheel fastened to . as it appears when its the shed is formed. ^ Kg. Staples or 183 wooden is pins. 85 represents a front view of this loom.87 K[g92 i^P-P-^^^ Fig. the pattern upon the top of and thus formed upon the cloth.THE ART OP WEAVING. and the barrel being placed the loom. these staples actuate other suitable mechanism.

which holes may be seen at in the slide frame K Fig. 86 . The tail or neck cords are all tied to their respective harness twines :) immediately above the two wooden roUers keep the seivage in the centre of the M (see Fig. as is in the slide shown in Figs. and one is taken for No 6 one line is missed. . being ground. having a few of the pattern :) Staples driven into (by way of example these staples are of the various sizes or lengths to suit the number of changes required in the different parts of the pattern. to be lifted three times in regulär succession the two lines which follow this staple. 85 same height these warp threads of the is as those web when the shed formed. as represented in Fig. it is fastened at each side by the proper place.0. . and five are taken for No. their respective lead weights. or Jength. and their position is indicated by the rollers dotted line L. of warp thread or threads which it governs. thereto. and and mails are precisely of the same form as those * This cause. 4 four lines are missed. as indicated by the sprig D. by means of proper catches end by the screws C C and other machinery.0.) and each passes through a suitable hole in one of the slides E. in Fig. bolts or screws which hold it. it in its 92 is an end view. . and six are taken for No. and a plan of J J. 85. both these leads and 0. . : this wheel. . . governs the rotation of the barrel A. which figure shows a plan of the barrel A. and G the slide roUer . Fig. 2 3 one line is missed. staple No. 86. 86. and four are taken for No. (similarly to those of Dr. for the staple No. 7 one line is missed. driving against it in the working of the loom. will cause the . if is the greatest number. of the barrel A. an end view of which frame is given in Fig. and one is taken for No. be- more were owing to the slides E wouid be liable to bend in its middle. Fig 92) contains three lines. in order that the cords F may be fast- ened 85. which is supported by the framing of the loom at OO PPPP are mails. Fig. NN is the har- ness board. and one is taken for No. ever taken for one staple taken. 5 one line is missed. blank. 85 and 86. and ten lines* are taken two lines are missed. being ground or 86. McLaughlin's machine. the staple . 1 (see The course. in section.0.184 THE ART OF WEAVING. equal to one Hne of the design paper. . . The neck cords are arranged in a row. The slides E work frame 1 1. . to be hereinafter described. so as to give out a hne on its surface at each change of the pattern. with the pattern or sprig D drawn upon its surface E is the slides F the latter having a the connecting cords. and. are missed. 8 and the two last lines on the right band side are missed. Fig. : leather strap H nailed to it it.

shown in Fig. 86. always beginning the rows as at first. to hole in the frame 1 1. we have nurabered these five slides in regulär succession. he connects those four cords to the or front tail cord. which will. while a to revolve. or five holes. and so on until the row be completed. The pattern must be read off frorn the design paper on to the cords of the second barrel A. Fig. but. and then proceeds to the second. and if it is to in Fig. as represented in Fig. 85 there are four tail harness cords. and without which preparatory Operation. connected to the first cord at S. and proceeding regularly over them until all the harness is tied. could not be moved along from hole ceeded. may be supposed tie to represent five of the E. and so on to slide No. of the 185 draw loom (shown in Fig. 86. the Operator. the Operator again commences at the front of the harness side of board. 86. in order that the slides may afterwards strike faij-ly on the staples.) In Fig. ment scription. as represented at T. if they were. one row. 1 1 until the barrel A has been chequered as shown in the figure because. previous to this process. as first of each repeat or part . its however. and so on to the fifth or back hole to the tail in bis harness board. in proceeding to Now. it is necessary to line off" the barrel. so as to give surface the appearance of design paper. 66. be connected cord belonging to the fifth For the sake of illustration. The harness NN is in every respect like that of the draAV loom. the pointed slide T. a mark made round its surface. It may be observed. No. of course. 5.BARREL OR CYLINDER LOOM. When one row is finished. in which slides figure five holes are shown in the breadth of the board . the pattern could not be read effected in the following to on properly slides : this lining is manner : — One of the E is is sharpened a point. 86 . by which means. which point kept pressed second person causes the barrel or line is by the finger of the principal Operator against the barrel A. which shows that tie in this example. 85. there are four repeats or parts in the whole of the harness. Fig. tying the row of each repeat to the tail cord passing through the sixth slide. as the marking or scoring pro- Each of the lines thus made round the barrel A must be directly opposite to the centre of a slide. 24 . like those shown in Fig. R R R R. on the right four first band each of the first rows. 1 being the first in front and corresponding to the front hole in the harness board N N. therefore. just above the board roilers M. Avhich corresponds to the last or fifth hole at the back of the harness board. takes the first front hole of the up a harness of this deboard at the commencecontain four repeats. that none of the shdes E are inserted in the frame . slide. 63.

85 and 88) to is it. by laying a axis . . the pulley G^ having the spring catch H^ screwed will cause the pellet F' to turn to the right. and perfectly level frame 1 1.* the over the pulleys He affixes to the W X latter of these weights being sufficiently heavy to draw round the barrel A one line of the pattern every time one of the catches is YY (one of which seen in Fig 89) is elevated from the side of one of are fixed in the stand . is 85 and 90. and attached to the weights and X. when the weaver lifts his (left) the weight R^ will recover the pulley G' to in Fig. 85 in this stand the catches are kept in the proper position. and a small spring catch H^ is screwed to it. 88.) the cogs of the spur wheel B. of the knot 88 is kept in proper position by means L^ The that at it spring M^ bears against the tumbler shaft in such a manner whatsoever point or place the spring catch H' leaves the will there pellet F^. tumbler shaft affixed a small pellet F^. Y Y during the Operation of the The knot N' (see Fig. catch works against each of the points of the pellet F^ alternately (see Fig. The recovering weight back to its C^ of each catch merely serves former position in the spur wheel B after it has been hfted by the arms D^ D^ of the tumbler E' is this tumbler On one end of the which works in a gougedout pulley G^ (see Fig. and. and this distinctly represented in Figs. as before stated. by means of a wire pin B' passing through these catches with in Fig. as in off this treadle. 88) holds the cord in the throat of the pulley G'.) The Operation of these parts is as foUows : Every time the barrel treadle cord P (see Figs. change The cord I^ being connected below to the barrel foot its treadle J'. if the treadle cord I' be of the proper length. each alternately. passing W. Operator The left) now proceeds to cross-line his barrel (from right to it.186 THE ART OF WEAVING. he Hfts the catches Y Y.) which pulley is loose on the end of the tumbler shaft. or Support Z. When the Operator proceeds to line off or score his barrel length- wise. the two points of the pellet F^ will expositions. the spring catch from former shown its H shpping over one of the points of the pellet F^ The whole of the apparatus in Fig. position. to bring it its them a clearer view of one of and recovering weight pin B^ will be had . These catches which is bolted to the frame at A^ A^ (see Fig. C . ruler or straight-edge along the length of par- allel to its the ends of which ruler rest on each side of the witli the slide frame of the machine. end of the barrel A a throated pulley U (See Fig 85.) around which is adjusted the rope or cord Y V. and this prevents any part of the apparatus from interfering with the catches loom. 88. depressed. as Fig 85. remain . 89. 88.

X* drawing the barrel against the other catch before the the second had time to interfere by dropping into the place from which was moved thus the giadual motion is communicated : to the barrel A. Now. the staples or pins of the barrel in the Operation of unless the slides strike correctly on the centres of the weaving lines for. suppose the catch (which v^ated. but to avoid this Y Y. if each catch fitted between two of the weight it the teeth. as the comb will tail miss the knots of the described hereafter. parallel to axis. for. such as is shown by the sprig D. every time he lifts one of the catches off. or until stopt by soine other means. The sprig D is given. catch would recover its former the weight first by dropping into a new interval towards the left band side. and each of the catches thus spoil the Operation. both ways. it barrel A to be pulled by the weight X* towards the right. one tooth being in the centre between them. that the cross lines in come directly strike a ränge with the centre of the slides E. although one of the catches were lifted. until the entire circumference of the barrel be lined Particular care should be taken. still X* fast could not : move the barrel A.BARREL LOOM. instead of the right first . The Operator draws a line or score along the face its of the barrel. and consequently each of the catches dents of the spur wheel YY only be half the thickness of one interval between the teeth or B . score for every time The must weight X"^ causes the barrel A to move half a tooth or interval to each hne only. the evil. as before observed. Y Y. side bears against the inside of that the one to the band one and the other to the right bears against the inside of another tooth.) It is cords (which part of the apparatus will be necessary to of the design or pattern to be mark upon the barrel A a correct representation woven in the cloth. so that these may correctly on . 85. and draws a line or 187 a catch is lifted. as in Fig. the pattern will be imperfect. such as the floor of weaving room. thus leaving half a space enipty inside of each catch. this weight would instantly run down as far as the cord would permit. tween the teeth tooth is only half the thickness of the space be- or dents of the left wheel B. by bringing the right band catcli against the left band side of the tooth. in Fig 86. as the other catch would hold and if both catches were elevated at once. the tuinbler shaft E^ causing the inside the tooth left band is barrel A to and bearing against it) to be elewas evident that the weight X* would directly cause the move half a tooth. and they are so arranged. and during these movements the Position. for the sake of .

awl. by bringing edge Q. as at Q. Fig. the Operator uses the punch 60. like the sprig or marked in the centres of the D. . driven until face touches the barrel project with the by same height these all means the staples are made to over the barrel. pattern. with the small Squares . for instance. 87. Fig. as the depth of to this saw cut is exactly the same as the height barrel. after they are driven into the barrel strike fairly rect . he takes a bradserted. is left straight. that in all our des- ofmachinery and apparatus given in this Work. THE ART OF WEAVING. filled up. which indicates by the dots the difFerent corners or crossings where the staples are to be inßefore the Operator drives in the staples. the ends being perpendicular as at R' R\ When the Stapler has driven iron. otherwise. a left. &c. (which at 50. to strike it to its proper position. against it barrel. from the surface of the its which the staples must project the punch is. therefore. therefore. to avoid this evil. a left hand for a right. he brings the guage until one of the ends R' R^ comes in contact with and if the staple be crooked or inclined to one side. . with shown holes for the reception of the points of wire of : is generally No. at P^. of about ^ of an inch thick. as aforesaid. The bradawl 50 is held in the left band.^. 87. as patterns are painted on design paper but it is evident that the slides E could not strike the centres of those Squares.* he then turns the guage iron. which has a saw cut in its face sufficiently wide to admit the staple wire. we make no allowance whatever for that portion of the human family (male or female) who are so unfortunate as to have the most essential (in weaving) their bodies misplaced for . would be its upon the cloth but. : this where the lines cross each other at right angles a specimen of marking is given at O. is a small piece of sheet edges. and the mallet 70 in the right and as soon as a staple has been driven to nearly its proper depth in the barrel. hollowed out at one of to fit exactly the circumference of the barrel A. a staple into the 87. as shown Fig. and the opposite edge to it. such as that which he pierces small which the staples are formed.188 Illustration. It is also neces- sary that the staples should stand perfectly straight or plumb. so that the pattern . he uses the small hammer or mallet 70 in its his right hand. 13 or 14:) and. holding the guage iron in his left . 86.^ in contact with the barrel * Perhaps criptions it is necessary for the reader to bear in mind. instead of being The Squares. their points being directly opposite to the lines which run round the circumference of the barrel A. iron. must be marked on the corners of them. it. members of a right foot as. the slides E would not incor- upon their centres. Fig.

serving as an which turns round. as represented on the barrel A. so that these knots may be thrown into them to form the knot. about 16 inches. 85 and 91) it a wooden roUer of about 4^ inches in diameter. longitudinally. 189 and proceeds to straighten the staple on the other sides also. the comb roller U' is represented with the shed formed. Fig. that each tail or of the knot cord shall stand directly opposite the interval between two teeth. not of the comb. pattern. and after de- scending about 8 inches.BARREL LOOM. a knot it is is made upon it. Fig 91. of the dove-tail form. 91) is cut out of the roller U' lengthwise. On one end of this roller is affixed a throated pulley (hke that marked strong cord U in Fig. so as to aliow the X* to turn round the barrel half a tooth or interval each . as at S'. 85 then passed through a hole in the guideboard T' about 8 inches this knot. The teeth of the comb or roller U^ stand generally about f of an inch under the knots S' when the loom is at rest. We weight shall now describe the face manner in which the slides E to are drawn away from the of the barrel A. if necessary. made fast. as : formerly stated. and the dotted Hne shows the position of the knots S^ when not lifted. The knot cords against whose slides the staples strike. 85. On the is another cord Z^ with a stop and with a weight A^ which weight recovers the comb roller U' to its proper position when the weaver lifts his foot from off the barrel treadle J'. 86. being thrown into the teeth and the remainder. so that the is from whole distance from the slides E to the board T^ tally. U' (see Figs. generally turned of that talkative httle creature is down- wards. i\ The knots stand in a row. are lifted. . and the teeth must be formed at such distances apart from each other. that these teeth given at Y^. This comb must be made of good smooth hardwood. (whereas. and may they are turned similarly to a parrot's the bill bill. and thus they serve to form the ground of the fabric. are omitted. passes through one of the slides E. A small groove X' (see Fig. cords We shall now consider the mode or method of lifting the harness R R R R by their respective tail cords — Each tail cord. is A side it view of the form of be observed. without inlerfering with them. In Fig.) so that they may more effectually prevent the is knot cords from dropping when the weaver reverse side of the throated pulley opening the shed. but upwards. its having suitable iron gudgeons driven into axis on ends. and into this groove the back comb which lifts the knot cords is inserted.) in its which a is W^ passing over three fourths of circumference. horizon- and are of is an inch or thereabout from each other.

the spur wheel it B to contain 400 teeth in its whole circumference. which remain stationary and.B^ Fig. the same line change of the patwould be worked twice which would occasion a defect in the cloth. and the other end of this cord is made fast to a leather strap H which strap is nailed to the roller G and this roUer has a throated pulley C^ on one end a cord D*^ works in . that the barrel treadle J^ be depressed.190 THE ART OF WEAVING. therefore. the weight rel A . the throat of this pulley in a similar way to that of the I' comb in roiler U' and it is connected to the treadle cord if as shown Fig 85. . the cord D~ is longer than the cord W^ which turns the comb roller ü^ and. the weaver the weight X* from cord to that . . . will give is 800 is different changes of patsoon tern in the cloth. it is evident. 86. the draw the slides E away from the surface of the barrel A bat this must not be done until the comb roller U^ has taken hold of those knots which were thrown into its teeth b)^ the staples. otherwise. he depresses the barrel treadle once without throwing in any weft. to the barrel treadle cord I^ in the shown in Fig 88. If we suppose. in consequence of the staples Coming in contact with the points of the slides. although one X* could not draw the bar- round. to effect this. instead of a proper change of the pattern. : change of the pattern A small cord F is attached to each slide. and continues the Operation otherwise as before. it will be perceived. and its such that does not slides begin to operate upon either of the catch es Y Y until the E have been drawn back from the barrel of these catches were lifted. : teeth. marked X. then. it would lift the whole of the harness.) were this not done. Now. roller . same way as those length is is connected of the it comb U' and slide roller G. The tumbler cord of the roller pulley G'. called a double he throws in weft for the next line of the barrel. as which shifts consists of two halves exactly to the last its as one half has been woven up change of the barrel. as at B. Thus. pattern. (to prevent a repetition of the last line or tern over. until the comb has been raised to this position if the comb roller U' remained at rest until the slides E were drawn back. If the design what termed a point or centre alike. — . which now turns in an opposite direction from what it formerly did. and then came into action. for example. and begins to puts the latter in the place of the former when he again work. that a barrel with a spur wheel containing 400 teeth or intervals will point . and has lifted them a little above the other knots. because all the knot cords would be thrown into the G will . does not begin to draw away the slides E from the barrel A.

and they are numbered from 1 to 8 the front leaves of headles are not shown.) and as many treadles.) our be fully enabled for themselves. on a spur wheel of only 400 teeth. Morton. E. if 8 leaves of headles be used. with we refer to the pellet F^ the puUey G. and should be made of well-seasoned wood. (See Introduction. on a subject of no practical utihty to either weaver or manufacturer. catches Y Y. Morton.) . for example. this description of the barrel We trust that is from machine. the damask weaving. to understand its manufacturing friends will mechanism. while he works over (with bis right foot) the 8 ground treadles. . through which the cords cords pass. constructed by Mr. instead of one. so that they may not cut the tail the slide roUer G. seems to have been thoroughly acquainted with the barrel machine. We think it superfluous to give any details regarding this screw contrivance of Mr.' thetumbler shaft arms D^ D^. 4J inches apart the wire 8. is generally about 2i^d inches in diameter. allowing one pick of weft for each as in : but. weaver may keep down bis barrel treadie J'. used by Mr. K.BARREL LOOM. 88. and the holes in them . con- sequently. 89 and 90. This combination we have found from experience to be far superior to the endless screw or worm. A at once. for working the spur wheel B because the screw is its . as sometimes liable to give out more than one the barrel . 191 producc a pattern on the cloth of 1600 changes. must be countersunk both above and below. 85. then. for would be 8 picks o*" weft. Morton's as it would only be wasting the reader's. 12800 threads of weft may be given with 8 leaves of headles for the ground. and well pohshed. and to construct it of our The apparatus represented in Figs. of any either in this country or in Europe. there former case. as in the every change of the pattern on the barrel A thusy . and the minor parts with which they are connected. the pattern is injured. (which see. The Position of the ground treadles may be seen in Fig. each respectively . line of the pattern on and at other times it does not give out so much in either of which cases. (which practical Utility. at each change of throwing in a pick of weft to the pattern. the only one ever given to the public. The of sides of the slide frame is I I are which the sUdes are tail made about No. as appears from bis Oration delivered before the Median monarch. King Deioces. . Arphaxad.) . but they are in all respects the same as those used in damask weaving (see Gilroy's damask power looms. and our own valuahle time. is own invention E'.

the imperfection of some of the movements of the machine which its ingenious inventor appears to have been unable to Although M. so as to form an endless chain. was. Esq. Kilmarnock in America. showing the cylinder. the general perfection of such a con- must be ascribed to other scientific and among whom we practical weavers. or which presents itself to the weaver when seated on his loom and Fig. from the East. the Opposition of interested parties (weavers) they would be injured by its who erroneously feared that introduction among them the second . : — . 93. another very ingenious apparatusj invented by M. a loom mounted with this mach ine has neither tail. . as represented in Fig. H. Jacquard. renders it an object well worthy the attention of both weavers and manufacturers. no less than its acknowledged Utility. a native of Lyons. obviate. Paisley. in England. silk manufacturer. Thomas Morton of Kilmarnock. Ichabod Hook. Stephen Wilson. by Mr. the progress of this machine was not near so rapid as its merits might have and this may be traced to two causes the first . still. . as it appears when at rest. as now in use. and Thomas Morton. Crawford.) and its peculiar mechanism. 124 Wood Street. late Lord Mayor of London . Lowell. would mention the foUowing Bosquillon. taken transversely through the machine. (brother to Samuel Wilson. parallel rows of needles. pierced with holes. Mass. Lee and Edward Wilson. 97. nor lashes and the pattern is cut out on pieces of pasteboard. was smuggled from France into England. M. and J. of which was. for carrying . and John Dove (foreman to Messrs. Cheapside) London Wilson. showing the back board or wire guage for supporting the ends of the needles and keeping them in their proper places it round the endless chain of pattern cards that part . silk manufacin Scotland.) which are connected together. James Morrison.) Shortly after the introduction of the barrel machine. by Mr. Esq. .192 THE ART OP WEAVING. The hartrivance. a front elevation of the Jacquard machine. 94 is an end view. . . (or sheet tin. led us to suppose. Like many other great inventions. simple. But to proceed to our subject." is Fig. Stephen Wilson. Claude turers. ness is constructed very similarly to " Cross's counterpoise harness. Jacquard justly deserves the honour of having first constructed a machine with which the pattern was produced by means of pierced cards or pasteboard strips working against itself. both in Europe and America In France. 95 is a vertical section. Fig. Paris. JACaUARD MACHINE (FRENCH. Dioudonnat and M.

in describing the drawings just al- the same letters of reference indicate similar parts in all of is them. Fig. the frame of the machine. 93. that to. by suitable cross bars at BBBB the two upright posts C C. connected . one at 25 .JACaUARD MACHINE. A A. Fig. also 193 shows the two leather straps and their pulleys for lifting the griff frame. 95. We luded would here remark.

194 THE ART OF WEAVING. 93 which are fastened by itfeans of the thumb screws G G these : . into these are inserted the pointed screws in Fig. support the cylinder frame firmly held in their places D D. 94. being brought againet the cross pieces EE after the screw poiots . being by two cross pieces or bars E E. and the ends of both Fig. 94. each end of the machine. are shown F F. one of which cross pieces is very visible in Fig.

on each side of the cylinder. in or steel bushes on the sides which bushes these screw points work while. that the holes shall fit shown in Fig. 94 screwed to the middle of the two cross bars which connect the sides of the cylinder frame mortised. for example. in order that each card. so that the : cyhnder 1 1 may be brought fairly against the needles. A Jacquard containing 600 pattern needles have 12 holes in the breadih of the cylinder. J is a bent piece of side iron. in depth. driven into ends. 93 and 95. and a view of it given in Fig. as in the former example. as D D. 96. containing 400 needles for the pattern. independently of those which work the pattern. besides 2 rows for the seivages. on an enlarged scale. The cylinder 1 1 merely a its Square axis it is movable upon two iron pivots. The knobs are so OOOOOO is of the pattern cards. represented in Fig. four at each end. one on each and these are used for working the seivages. at KK Fig. and one of these screws arranged. 195 H H have been inserted into small brass of the cylinder frame . 93 : those on the right of brass . In a machine. as represented in Fig. and these bars are is shown . 96 at one row is left blank. the frame D D vibrates or swings upon them this frame is adjusted by the screws F F. and 50 in length. there are 8 holes in breadth and 52 : in length. Fig. and square with it. The cylinder 1 1 has 8 knobs M. and 6 of these may band end are made of boxthe latter are riveted into wood. The four sides faces of the cyhnder are pierced with holes of from |^th to Jth of an inch in diameter. d . 97) to each side of the cylinder. tion of the cards In the successive applicaopposite to those PPP (see Fig.JACQUARD MACHINE. at the same time. be seen in Fig. or and it occupies the lower part of the frame D D. the holes OO in each card must always fall directly pierced in the other cards throughout the whole series which compose in regulär the pattern. next when brought upon that side of the cyhnder which dles. as seen from the side of the machine. as L will Figs. is seen in front of the machine Fig. It is the general custom to have 2 spare rows of side of the centre. and the left band ones is small pieces of iron. 93 and 94. 94. 97 them he loosely. or horizontal wires. to present itself to the neeit : may perfectly flat or level against the screws N serve as regulators or adjusters for this purpose.) each about Jth of an inch succession during the Operation of weaving. so that the knobs M may carry them round Near the right band end of the cylinder. numbered at their points from 1 to 8. there are two Square plates of sheet iron Q. 93 this iron piece is . A is complete row of these needles. needles. 93. which are fastened to the cylinder by the screws N. (see Figs. DD . that are to play into the holes on its sides or faces.

as . The catches S S are hung upon suitable centres inside of the frame. Shuttles) * Thirty colours (and as many her Majesty. the cylinder head. 93. in which it formerly did one half of the ligure is exactly the same as the other half: in such a case. and to diminish the friction of the catches S S.196 thick. when required. . to be passed.) and thence descends to a convenient place for the weaver's hand. A small roller is placed on each pin. and then reversing the action of his cylinder. in the latter of which fancy articles. on which the weaver lays hold when he finds it necessary to bring the under catch S into action. (which very often happens where forty or fifty are necessary to form the pattern. such as is produced either by the breaking of warp or weft threads. THE ART OF WEAVING. perhaps ever manufactured in Europe. into a saw cut or notch.*) he brings the under catch S into play against their centres. Fig. der 1 1 turns round backward. at their corners. but also more terrible specimens of deslgn than any shirt. and are kept in their places by the Square part of the gudgeon of the cyhnder which passes through Four small pins or studs R R R R connect these plates shown in Fig. to prevent them from being worn. or in a contrary direction from what and this is often the case in point patterns. with a distance between them of from 1 Jth to 1|^ inches . in consequence of some defect. they are parallel to each other. as before described. each suffering under some speciesof torture different from any of the others and thus the night shirt of his Holiness contained not only a greater variety of colouring. there is a small wooden hob attached to the cord. or by using a wrong colour. the weaver. again form- were used in the manufacture of and 276 were employed in the production of Pope Boniface's night shirt. which turn the cylinder round upon its axis. and two of them are represented in Fig. where a knot is made upon it. and either of them may be brought into action by means of the cord T which cord passes over a pulley U at the upper part of the machine (see Fig. Q. like those in the trap boards of Cross's machine. by working regularly over his cards up to the last one.ueen Victoria's coronation dress . 93. these colours were so arranged and blended together. : . by which the pick of weft nearest the reed was thrown in and. and slips the knot When this is done the cylininto the saw cut. 94. as to display correct likenesses of 276 heretics. in order to find the particular card . 72 below the knot. saves half the Cards that would be required were he to continue turning the cyhnder one way until the pattern was completed. . When the weaver reqiiires to unravel part of the cloth which he has just woven. for the purpose of making the chain of cards move back ward.

Fig. The centre piece E ^ helps through each of which a suitable mortise is and the end pieces G' G' connect the sides cut to fit tightly into it of the frame Y Y by being dove tailed into them. in perspective. W It is evident that while the cylinder is being turned round for the purpose of presenting a Springs WW will give its new way card of the pattern to the needles. W YY by their is is the griff frame for elevating the perpendicular wires : Z Z. . prevent the pieces into these holes. Y V. the recover their former position. and their straight-edged the B' B^ B^ in same Fig.JACaUARD MACHINE. two of these pins Coming under them every time the cylinder is brought into contact with the needles. passes through the centre of the back cross bar Y. as at C^ C^. . so as to press the pieces V V downward against the pins R R R R in the cylinder head.) are two pieces of wood. The piece of iron I'. A bent piece of iron I'. adjusted at its back end by a nut and screw J'. which are also Square . keep the cylinder 1 1 perfectly on a ränge with the needles which play into it. 94. and have spiral Springs WW them the Upper end of these Springs bear against the under side of the top cross bar of the frame D D. passes through a Square hole in the front cross bar Y and to prevent these bars from being worn. each rowof hooks in the ma- and these pieces are inserted into the ends of the frame. which may be seen in Fig. 96. hooks at the top to the lower ends of these wires the har- ness connected. V V. as at A' A'. 96. Figs. where they pass from turning round coiled loosely about those parts of these pieces which pass through the upper cross bar are round. will immediately and at the same time bring the cylinand all this takes place during der 1 1 on a ränge with the needles the outward motion of the frame D D. for The griff frame contains one straight-edged piece of iron B' chine. ing the shed by it. by means of the Springs W. as shown at H' H' Fig. 93 and 95. one of the catches S then operating upon the cylinder head. a small iron plate K' is fastened upon each by the screws L' L'. until the defective part of the cloth entirely unraveled. and its other end. 93. . so as to allow the cylinder to turn past cross pieces centre and when this is accomplished. the or . are shown . which is square. after havto Support the lifters. 197 and thus he proceeds he withdraws the pick is . VV teeth. be compressed. A side view of one row of hooks lifters is given at D' D^ Fig. each shaped hke a rake (without and its stem or shank passes up through the cross bars of : the frame it DD the under one of these bars has a Square hole in to at each end. by pressing down upon the Shoulders of the pieces V V at X X. so that the Springs W.

198 THE ART OF WEAVING. and these spindles are kept in their places at of heads wiiich are made upon them which two iron by means end and screw nuts at one is the other. the right is hand end the sliaft O' O'. throwsout the cylinder frame D D gradually. is ing passed through the said square holes. so that this hang in the centre of the little friction may be lifted with as as of possible in the Operation of weaving. causes the cylinder to turn round another side. afiixed a pulley S' with a strong strap or band T^ nailed three-fourths of Straps its and taking a turn round direction to the it circumferencCy in an opposite d' Q. : Ufting of the griff frame accompKshed by the following it —There and on is a shaft O' O^. and this fast : made takes a turn round three fourths of the pulley the other ends of these Straps have holes R^ R' in them. is The means turns .' Gl'. the friction roller M'. and brings one of the catches S in contract with one of the pins R on the cylinder head the griff frame continuing to ascend. by the pulley S^. with the pulleys P^ P' and frame Y Y. which works : in the curvihnear space N'. the cylinder strikes. represents one complete their points which Fig. running across the frame of the machine. by means of the friction roller M' working against the inclined partof . and resting on suitable bearings at each end. of the curved iron J a side view of these parts is given in Fig. that by working the strap or band T' (see Fig.^ Q. and with it those perpeninto the holes of the pattern dicular wires whose needles are entered cards and cylinder. The proper position of the straps Q. as numbered at row which pass through the front board U^. shown 96 . 94. of the iron J. to lift the griff means of 0^0'. bringing with foot it a new card of the pattern . causes the shaft Straps Q. and the pulleys P^ P^ should be of sufficient diameter to permit the straps to griff frame..^ Q. and. according to the figure to be produced in the and while the griff frame is rising.^. When the weaver depresses this treadle.\ in the centre bet ween the cross pieces YY frame . (see Fig. through spindles pass. 94. to which is connected. when the weaver lifts bis from lifters off the cylinder treadle. On to it. by ^vorking in the curvilinear space N'.' thence down to a treadle. the griff frame descends. on which this shaft there are is P^ P'. being cloth affixed to the end of the bent iron I'. side. : the iron J.) It will now be perceived. to each of which two wooden pulleys attached a leather strap Q. the strap T'. for the bent to the right hand purpose of receiving the Motion roUer M^. against which in Fig. of needles. and outside of the frame. leaving the B' B^ in the position before stated. 95) in the manner .

95. just stated.UARD MACHINE. so as to bring a new card against the needles every .JACQ. and thus the cards of the endless in action regulär succession. one after Fig. time the weaver depresses his treadle chain are brought into another. . the cylinder I I will be turned 199 round upon its axis.

and are inserted into another cross piece W^. Y : The tough give perpendicular wires of No. The use of and the rods Y^ Y^. and into the loops thus formed small rods or are inserted. . 71 and 72. spiral spring and each of these holes. ZZ . and the shed in the warp was 3^ inches deep these proportions work very well. 98 : the needle represented in Fig. pierced with into called the spring box (see Figs. and the ends of these The in Figs. 96 and at C^ Fig. of the wires Z. through which the rods Y^ Y^ pass.200 THE ART OF WEAVING.) in length. slips of wood V^ one rod passing through each row of needles. 96 . 93 and 95) which prevents them from turning are fastened . 94 and as many holes as there are needles in the machine. by small nails or brads the Fom* small cords X^ X^ connect the : to the under side of the grifi'frame. Jacquard in Fig. 1 in Fig. to prevent the hooks D^ the frame W^ from turning round. as at B^ B^ Fig. from which we made these drawings. but knot cords and trap boards hke those shown at Fiffs. that M. . these rods would be lifted out of the loops when the griff frame was raised. the rods Y^ In the their former position on the descent of the griff frame. and they are made of No. 96. as shown in the and they are adjusted by the slip knots Y^ Y'. y rods at one side of the machine.) A^ A^ is inserted (see which Springs are generally If inches elastic.) ZMs which a wooden box. while at Lyons. and the needles to 14 both of which must be sufficiently stiff stand the process of bending and also in the Operation of weaving. did not employ per- pendicular wires like those marked D D ^ ^ in the first raachines which he constructed. or from being thrown out of their proper posiThe loops or turned up part tion during the Operation of the loom. and 28 wire (which should be very Each of these Springs bears against the back end of a needle. nearly M. should be made of No. 96. is. the loops or turned up part of the wires Z were 4^ inches long. enough not is to way Z^ 96. frame Figs. 12 wire. are dove-tailed into a cross piece W^ (see Figs. are usually one inch longer than the intended depth of the shed in the warp were this precaution not used. a small brass Fig. W : . French mach ine. so that the hooks D^ would have nothing to prevent them from turning round and should any of could not recover them get out of their proper place. their ends at the other side are round. wires Z Z are turned up at their lower ends.* 98. where they fit rods loosely in the needles. corresponds to that marked No. W^ W^. * It is not perhaps generally known. as represented 94 and 96.ths of an inch in diameter. from side to side of the machine.

as at 1= We may here remark. with many others which belong to us. 96. G= G^ (see Figs. at the back ends of the . has a wire pin needles. as well as the distance between the rows of needles. Fig. 26 . sity of that we ourself. and the black dots indicate the position of the perpendiciilar wires D= D^. : that this view in perspective. The spring box Z^ Z' its is 1=^ bored to Fig.JACaUARD MACHINE. as shown in Fig. it Each row of needles. 201 D= D" passed through and the ends of these pins are inserted into the cross rail E^ above the needles. to proceed. and the points of the needles which are actuated by the cards project this is cylinder 1 1 plays board beyond it about Iths of an inch. and into the cross rail F= below them which pins serve to keep the needles in their proper position. have superseded the necesusing the spring box altogether. particularly in a new method of governing the griff frame. The holes A^ as they stand is in the H^ H^ show the position of the box Z' Z^ it must be observed. by which a saving of power to the amount of 50 per cent is effected these improvements. within aboLit abont i of an inch from bottom. Support the Springs needles. the needles pass through what is called the needle board : U' U'. 96. 96.) But. The rails E' and F^ are drawn in perspective. are fuUy described under the head : of " Gilroy's patents" (see Index. 95 and 96) are the cross wires which in depth. and also made several other improvements upon the Jacquard machine. against which the about f ths of an inch thick.

now evident. 00o^o o _.) Each B^ B^ B'. and are kept from dropping out by small pieces of wood M^ M^. and the hooks D^ must also be reversed or turned round the weaver may work on otherwise as before. the position of the lifters to inchne in an opposite direction. 96. instead of on the upper side. To effect this. swer the points of the needles they push against the under side of small brass bearings. - Q O «'OCO 00 oo o nco o o U /^ o o oooo ooOo° o o o o o '°H. 94 and 96. to miss the hooks connected with those needles which enter It is the holes of the cards. (see Fig. as seen in Figs. the hooks D^ of these wires be missed by the lifters raised. The screws L'^ L^ (see 93 and 94) are used in adjusting the cylinder.auüO >OOOoO/~i ooooooojo oooVJ _i o - Oo t o oo'o'o' o o oooo oo^ ooo^o o O oooS O O ooo o O O ooooO o o <J "JJO o Fig. serve to keep the spring box Z' ZMn its proper place at the ends of the needles. particularly when the pattern is heavy. except that the pattern will appear on the under side of it. The thumb screws J^ and bolts K^ at each side of the machine. 98. will throw back the wires will ZZ which pass through thera. and there will be no dif- B^ B' B' must be reversed. 97. 93.0 OOOaoOO r~\ \JC' Oo OOOr. Figs. as seen in The screws L^ L^ when the cylinder has been adjusted by them. T> O. which are Fig. and lift the others. so that when the weaver elevates the griff frame. when the Cards have been cut in the usual way.202 It is THE ART OF WEAVING.o »-0o oooo g ooo ö o dato Joooo300o(? o f~\ Ooo o 030 9 oo O <) oo o o oocne ooo o o o O o oqco occ o o o o oo iO o 0000 o oo 5 o oo oooo o . O <3 oao o 3 o w o^ O ooo O oo c o o "o O o O OOOOo--.O00_ o OO oeo o ci (V^O O'O o o ooooOo O o oo O O O 030 oo O oooooooo W u OOaO00 oo Oo. and all the others will be card represents one hne of the design paper. that those needles or which are pressed back by the blank uncut parts of the card (represented in Fig. sometimes of advantage. dove-tailed into the sides of the cylinder frame.) Fig 97. so as to an. and by all the cards being worked over in regulär succession is one after another the pattern formed upon the cloth. when the cylinder is brought against the needle board U^ U'. so as : ference in his cloth. in which the pivots or gudgeons of the cyhnder work these bearings are let into the wood of the cylinder frame : D D. are secured firom turning round by means of the nuts N^ .

" instead of the weights. not the inventor of this contrivance) a new. one greater ground and the other for the figure . He commences the description of his apparatus in the following strain " I. 93 to 98. and when a number of colours are used. cards &c. 95. to matters not. &c. 203 which are brought to bear tightly against the under ends of the frame D D (See Figs. For weaving füll satin. Alexander Calderhead. 16 leaves of headles and as weaver many treadles are necessary but the may produce either an 8 or a 16 thread point. series of perpendicular wires or arranged in the harness board in rows. that in patterns which require one pick : of weft only to a point. 1841. Pa. 93 and 94. from 2 to 16 picks of weft are usually given to each card In shawl weaving. to Alexander Calderhead. succeeding card. whether the weaver changes his cards every 4 or 8 picks so long as he continues to work his treadles in regulär succession. there must be 5000 cards likewise but in fabrics where leaves of headles are used to produce the ground. it is customary to use 8 leaves of headles for the ground. C.) frame in its descent (see Fig 94 the sides of the upright pieces C C.. and substituting a needles. " an improvement upon the French machine. In damask weaving. easy. and if only 4 are thrown in for one card. composing the mounting . weft are employed.JACQUARD MACHINE. A patent was granted in this country. twines. the tweel other- would be broken. and shown at Figs. into R^ R^ are brass sUdes in which the Square rods S^ S" are screwed to the ends of the griff frame. one card also will be required for each pick thus. mails. for a pattern of : 5000 picks.. O^ is a bar to support the to ease the middle of the neck board grijfT P^ P^ are pieces of leather . there must be distinct cards for each.) Lastly. of the Jacquard machine. it the 4 treadles used in working must not be used It in working the . in raising and lowering the threads of the warp with what he calls " independent metallic headles. two picks of weft are given for the for each card. N*^. but the other 4 treadles must be employed wise. first.) . have invented is (it will be seen in the sequel that Mr. and cheap method of weaving all Jcinds of figured cloth." This method consists. each needle representing one of the twines or sleepers of the harness and these alterations the patentee calls. underparallel neath the warp." as described by us. when two colours of or change of the pattern. with the screws T=^ T^. of the city of Philadelphia. by working over the half or the whole of his treadles to each card. for placing the cylinder. T~ T^ (See Fig. . we would observe. bearing date February 3d. then. the weaver throwing in either 4 or 8 picks of weft for each card regularly .

heylds for headles. and apron or pattern web for pattern cards or chain of must be new to most weavers. . uses several terms here which we do not recoUect of hav. both. of No. what shall be the sheed.) make the heylds or perpendicular wires. ing Seen applied before to anything in the Avay of weaving for cylinder. as in Jacquard and draw looms. trunk sheed or shire for shed. so as to to directly the said headles or wires. perhaps. ping the hooks or knot cords to and pattern by trapping or untrapbe drawn up. 99. the length of which heylds is 24 inches. for treadle. " I (A. " in constructing the cy linder and lift pattern cards or apron.204 of the THE ART OP WEAVING. 99) Fig.* or. Section First. these terms form the principal part of the invention. (in weaving. foot board Cards. secondly. and." Mr. C. A head A (see Fig. in constructing a trunk web. o «%®© %% •©*©*« % VA® o I u * For the meaning of the word shire.) see Piain Weaving. 13 wire. of this Work. and. C. for a Scotch imperial three-ply carpet. form the sheed or shire to direct . draw loom .

direct the point of each needle respectively throughout the I (A. these loom by the hangers 1 two of these can be seen in the nected to the board H H are suspended. 66.) so that the back hole of one row shall be nearly square w^ith the front one of another row this prevents the warp threads from crowding each other. is 205 made on each is of the said wires the wire flattened. draw loom. 11 and the holes of the trunk and pattern apron. say for No. .. (each or long we suppose. work on the shdes E E. 100 on the ends or axis of the trunk B is a 4 toothed wheel trunk B. (Fig. which passes through the slides EE these slides are 60 inches long.) series or ränge of the web into the holes of the trunk B. hy their heads A the board D serves as a guide to . and boards must be of the breadth of the web (curious Jargon this !) and the trunk B is hoUowed out the breadth of the boards contains twelve holes . where an eye is punched or bored . and these eyes are substituted for mails. and 4 feet in length. 25 above point where the axle or centre of the trunk and 35 below from the B passes through them.) the board C suspends or hangs them. in it. in and all these rows are slanted (see Fig.) Each row . (as shown in two at the back. (Only Figs. and keep place. for the purpose of raising C when required. The slides or guides E E are kept in their proper positions by the brackets F F. C and D depth of the sheed. pattern web. The trunk may be cast. I make \ of an enough to bore the holes in the said boards . brazed together. which is P (see Fig.UARD MACHINE.) C and D large enough to admit wires aboiit 2 numbers coarser than that actually nsed. not beams.) I (A. on which the apron or pattern Aveb works. or made of sheet brass. C. in its proper The under :) extremities of the slides EE may are attached to the also be seen at B*^ ends of the lever or cross bar R. (we suppose that in making the holes of this size. The trunk B. ??.) The rods H H are conFig two at the front and and depressing the board rods. work in two boards C and D (Fig.JACQ. (which Fig. . are metallic board C.) to C tz. as at M and 14 inches below this head M.) for the purpose of turning the * Jacks. and to their ends 4 rods top framing of the LL . and fixed or screwed on blocks or end pieces it and : turns on an axle or centre. 101. which pass through the 99. 99. C.) b\ inches broad. and are screwed or otherwise secured the board it D : the ends Q. Gl of these rods guide the board D. 99 . The wires or heylds. make the boards C and D one inch thick. inch in diameter. and they are connected by suitable straps to heams* beams are supported at the 1. allowance is given for atmospheric variations.

in order in the slides E E. of course.) ZZ (Fig.) The Operation of The foot board or treadle O (see Fig. 101. the trunk B revolve. which work K." (Every alter- . 101 THE ART OF WEAVING. 102. (Fig. one at each side of the machine. Fig. raises up the slides E E. 102. 99. Jacquards) the levers more clearly shown at u'^. by being pressed down with the foot. being so like the paratus used for a similar purpose in W W are make common ic'^. and the guide board D. and lowers the rest board C this : allows the heylds or wires to pass into the trunk B wherever holes are cut or punched out on the pattern card or cards. 99) are two slides.) attached to the frame of the loom at WW pressed are levers. the trunk B.206 Fig. by Springs is K S S. 99) of the lever or bar R. and are ap- bring and keep the trunk Square (as well understood. which pass the so as or forward (a hooks to T T from one side of the toothed wheels P to the other. either will : backward view of one of these levers the machine " is Z as foUows — be had in Fig. caught in its descent by the hooks TT to (see Fig.

MM Hfts his foot from off the foot board or treadle O.) there could only be 1296 needles. 101. Mr. and these hooks cause the trunk to turn one-fourth part of a (One of the hooks T may be seen at F^ Fig. and B^ that of the slides E E. kinds of flow- The patentee. such as that represented in manufacture all Figs.000 threads principle.000. 101. instead of 1800. the wheels PP (see Fig. and. in length . But.) cause the . 99. and the pattern cards and cylinder B would require to be 36 inches each." or He also claims. or 20. (as stated by the i?itelligent patentee and after making the necessary allowance for the metal left . so that in the . perhaps 3 holes might be got on an inch are 12 holes in the row across the cylinder B. some kinds of figured goods contain from 400 to 650 threads of warp per inch and it it. from seivage to seivage. nate wire 207 is represented in Fig. suppose a carpet 36 inches in breadth. there would be 36 holes in one inch of the length of inch across the web and likewise 36 needles on one whole breadth of the web. as being raised. in it. If he he appears to as Ignorant of mechanics as be of the proper names not be astonished of the different parts of the common loom. " the jprincijple of lifting the sheed shue (not county) with metallic heylds^ directly by the pattern apron and tnmk (not portmanteau) roll or receiver. and this would to be raised warp threads passing thiough their eyes wires were raised and depressed alternately with and if these also " When the weaver the others. of course. that a machine. claims. R^ indicates the position of the lever or bar R. and 102. but. in order that our may judge correctly of his pretensions as a weaver. the said A. . (36 inches. for raising and depressing the cylinder B. C. " the exclusive revolution. 100 in Fig. piain cloth might be produced. 101." : right to make the above specified machine. often happens that a web has as many as 16.) The enlightened patentee. speaks of making " a Scotch imperial how he could accomphsh this In the first place." teils us.JACCIUARD MACHINE. or hy lowering the heylds into the same^ as describedP We readers is have quoted above.) be :^ of an inch in diameter. the same number of threads. and containing 1800 threads of warp from seivage to seivage in this case 1800 needles or headles would be required. to suit all kinds of flowered cloth. as there the holes. uncut between then. so that on the above 16. 100.000 . and the cyhnder treadle O is distinctly shown at O'^ Fig. 100. are caught by the hooks T T. three-ply carpet" with his : machine .) on the axis of the trunk B. 99. let us see — . Calderhead. C's own words. suppose each of the holes in the cylinder B to . we need " will although he ered cloth.

work.000 threads and the weft and the manufacture. 101. null and We may Webb. and 102 Webb would be glad to furnish any number of them to Order. as and. are cut (in small estabUsh- . Petit &> Co. of the firm James Jacquier & Co. at least. we would state. appHcabihty of the " heylds. this is our opinion. Morrison's late conversa- zione given to the members of the Institute of British Architects. A. Calderhead. of Bury Street. 60 or 70 might be found somewhat difficult to manage. weaving. worthily entitled " Hommage ä J. ers.) The pattern cards PPP Fig. of the London Journal of Arts and Sciences. C's patent is. Fig.) void. (see vol. difFering in no respect from that con- by Mr. Perhaps machines of this description might be found of advantage in the manufacture of horse-blankets. 97. in the year 1836. and represented in Figs.000 cards were used in to receive 1. 15. showed us a machine.. merchant. C..000 Cards to produce the pattern. ourself.050 holes. per- was exhibited at Mr. M. It was a Portrait of Jacquard. Mary ingrain carpeting Axe. 99. as far back as Jan. Introduction. that one of the most extraordinary specimens of haps. each card large enough . structed and. in London. to conclude. St. (See Arkite Ghiden Ghelen's loom. in each Square inch (French. to whom we would recommend those of our friends who want such articles to make application forthwith. 1 Wood St. also remark. or 20. Before dismissing this subject we would silk mention. no doubt. and would require from : IGjOOO to 20. 1833. We to question the webs of this be made of wire.. moreover. for the year 1840. trunk'^ and " aprori^^ description. There were 1. Mr.000 needlesj and the same number of holes in tlie cylinder would be required in such a case besides. that a friend of ours.208 THE ART OF WEAVING. unless the needles could . Spitalfields.) same principle as that claimed by Mr. cards 80 or 120 inches long fine as No. representing that extraordinary man in bis Workshop surrounded by bis implements. 100. for the Information of our readthe that we. ever executed. Conjoined Series. But. in the city of London. its incr eased perfection. Jacquard^"^ This was woven with such truth and delicacy as it to resemble a fine line engraving was executed by Didier. William of Esq.) in both the Avarp 24. pages 286 and 287. a web of this kind is very frequently 80 or 120 inches broad. bearing date 9th April 1833 . returns this testimony to the genius of inventor. which now. so that Mr. and planning the in its construction of that beautiful machinery. made a machine on . No. in point of fact. at least. facturing common granted to (for manuand a patent for which was Claude Marie Heiaire Molinard.

93 and 94 C C are hinges holes to fit on the knobs which connect the plates. as well as the packing or boxing of its the whole and carriage to at least. with the assistance of a boy. OOOOOOCOOOOoOOOIOOOOOOo D m ^^ Sk^ oooo Oonodoo oo oo o ooo o -»-^ ooooobooo oooooooooooco jj.^ Ä -|-j f\ ll Fig. ments) between two steel plates. to the upper plate. that on this cription of it in this place. No. in the same time. like those represented in Figs. Paris. that we need give no further desWe would state. raises or when he wishes to take out or put in a card the large BB correspond to those marked Fig. 103. by which the Operator .) he can cut from 2500 to 3000. Maur. B B (Figs. so that the shown in Figs. 103 and 104) are large in Figs. DD are handles attached lowers holes it.JACaUARD MACHINE.. plan. o Fig. this includes the this kind. when it is placed between them .oo COOOOOOOoOQO OOOOOOoOOOO ooooocooooorocnoocooo o o ooooooooooooooonooooo ooooooocooooooooooooooo The der holes A A. f-X™. that most perfect State. however. Havre for shipment. 97. in its try. be sufficient to cut cards for a manufactory contain- 27 . an active man can only cut fiom 100 to 150 cards per day whereas. ^S. plates may present no inipediraent to the punching of the paste- board or card paper. ing 300 looms. may be purchased from our 2400 francs . Dioudonnat. The method of cutting cards in these plates. correspond to those of the cylin- 93 or 99. is so well known to all persons having the least knowledge of figured weaving. the simples and all the other necessary apparatus. M. ooo Oooooooo/Vooooooooo '^ oocü cooooool^ooooooooo (^ coo ocoooocoooooooooooo yß Kjß 003 00000 0000000000000 O0O0 0OO0l-"C!DO0OO000 00OCO 0O03O30"D0O0ÜO0OC0C0O ocooooooooooooooooooooo ooooDO^oooooooot'oor. for copying and stamping machines. (to which the reader is referred. and they must be well fitted. 12 Rue St.* * We would here mention for the benefit of the manufacturers of this couna card-cutting machine of friend. from the design paper or pattern. MM . in these plates. 104. One of these splendid machines would. 209 103 and 104. on the great French card-cutting apparatus or machine..

of the warp and weft. red warp must be traversed by red weft these colours can be immediately concealed by sending the threads to the other web. the secondary embellishments being almost matters of chance. first nothing appears observer is from an ordinary web its and a at a imagine by what means variety of colours can be proit duced. that one of them can scarcely without giving rise to and receiving support from others. appears that : the designer has laboured under considerable difficulties for in where purity of colour would have been advantageous. In the superficial texture of the to distinguish loss to it common . if woven singly. CARPETING. The progress of almost civilization. and has lately made important advances. A still closer examination explains at ingrain or double car- once the source of these imperfections. has received improvements at every hand. : One set of coloured stripes is thus imposed upon another and in designing the colours of the pattern. found to consist of : being partly coloured in the weft. may be safely taken as an index of The indeed. are so intimately interflourish is . hke the other branches of weaving. carpet. This particularly the case in regard to the manufacture of carpets which. The number of füll colours is thus very limited and these can only be obtained where To bring up then a the weft traverses warp of the same colour. while scarcely any gradual shading of the tints depending on the nature of the figure is many to be seen. but were they to remain long there. It is therefore extremely difiicult to avoid a strong tendency to striping in the colours. the colours can hardly be well managed. intermingled with pet each other in such a manner as to produce the pattern each of these webs. . SECTION SEVENTH. part of the figure füll red. a mixed colour. except in the principal part of the figure.210 THE ART OP WEAVING. both webs . no selection beyond what is afforded by the judicious arrangement of these stripes can be made. On places examining the figure more narrowly. is The two contiguous webs. would have a striped appearance. only is to be found. and. The very fact of the existence of such a manufacture speaks volumes as to the increase of our domestic comforts. would become monotonous. any of the arts arts. woven.

to hold them 4^ firm at suitable distances apart these posts are generally 6 feet roller. in the usual way on one of these ends a ratchet wheel E is fastened. The invention of the triple carpet^ claimed by Mr. has almost removed these produce the pattern. web * in its proper place when wound upon who the roller by the weaver. superior beauty of the triple carpet over the common its ingrain or two-ply is at once acknowledged : it possesses almost all the freedom in colouring of the floor-cloth or paper-hanging. while great thick- ness and comparative cheapness bring it into competition with the more expensive kinds of carpeting. and .* Kilmarnock. third web. D is the cloth . in the face of all 211 these difficulties. of an imperial of the Scotch carpet loom. but he at is hampered by the restriction in figure. since is of the under must depend on on the upper that of the upper threads may be needed from the under web side. v/ith an iron gudgeon of f ths of an inch in diameter driven into each end of it. . Fig. appears to This carpet is coraposed of three webs. with capes B B. to produce what still wanted webs. the skill of the designer is most severely exercised on the wrong of materials is side of the carpet. After the principal figure has been determined on. 105 is a correct representation. M. His choice then indeed as great as with the common carpet.CARPETING. sides of the carpet are necessarily counterparts to each figiire To a certain extent the side. may produce efifects that could not before have been obtained. which interchange their threads in order to The primary object in the introduction of the have been the obtaining of greater variety and . The frame loom consists of four perpendicular posts A A A A. and can only be entirely The ease opposite a piece of piain texture on the other side. brilliancy of colouring but another curious effect has followed. Mr. which must be made of wellseasoned wood of 5^ inches in diameter. is one of those sanguine mortals believe. which is operated upon by two clicks F F. that the two other. patterns of great beauty are being continually formed on the carpet loom. in perspective. of difficulties. Yet. cross rails CCC C. that if it a man could prodace a machine which would generale the power by which he would become a creator Oui ! ! was worked. for the purpose of holding the inches in height . in the chief pattern but there remains the choice of an interchange of threads inferior It is between the two striping obvious that the tendency to must be much less on this than on the common carpet. and that the designer having a far greater choice of colours. Morton.

) to L the harness. section Ist (which see. 7. Fig 105. which connects the lay swords GG above. O treadle cords or iifters. under . the lay or batten . 9. in Fig. P harness board . as . in a similar manner to that formerly described in section Ist . and held its place or dog Sj as in Fig.212 THE ART OF WEAVING. similarly in :) fixed to that of the cloth roller D. K the rockin g tree or cross bar. section Ist (which see T the by the catch warp yarn as . Gl the warp roiler. H tlie reed sill I the lipper shell to hold the reed J the under shell or of the lay . connected in their proper places each of the Jacquard machines M the treadles N a rack or guide which serves to keep the treadles . its wkes which connect in the usual the the treadles to their respective levers or way . with ratchet wheel R. the head of piain weaving GG is . . with double necking.

The at- softness of the turf tained. mere its dormitories. side of the loom. that in the nursing of the idea. is of linen. but. two picks being given before the Insertion and these picks are called binders. between the body of the warp and the previously These threads descend and are fixed by the weft. A feit .) The introducer of this texture (Mr. Brüssels carpet pile. as advances are made it in wealth. 93. and in the drawings Figs.CARPETING. Morton) has conferred on us the pulley Y. mounted on the top of the loom in the usual way the pattern cards. desire for something in the interior of to the soft clothing of the external world. On one of these (the ingrain) we have already reported an immense to describe improvement. and on to the cloth roller W a strong hand D V . . D^ D' two w^ooden boxes into which they drop when delivered from the cybnders. it 213 proceeds from the warp roller it through the harness L. more intense than tades likely to be experienced by any of the multia dwelling analogous who will enjoy the fruits of his abilities. is he must have feit a pleasure mucr. . passing over and attached to the loom frame at Z. seems to be generally for in all states of society attempts are floor. on the right and convenient to the weaver's band on this cord a small wooden hob A^ is fixed. and 98 (which see. C a very great benefit : he has furnished us with a higher embellishour dwellings. 96. as represented more clearly in the description formerly given of the Jacquard machine. and proceed a no less striking improve- ment on another. the cloth cord. made to remove the hardness and unseemliness of the these attempts are confined to the Among the poorer nations. . the mat and caipet begin to appear. and from is thence into the reed H. wheie over the breast woven into cloth. fastened to the catch or dog- S at X. and more than smöothness having been embeliishments : was natural to imitate also its for this purpose several distinct kinds of carpet texture have been contrived. the common one by figures pile is raised having a raised inserting a wire and by the circumstance that the colours are entirely produced from the warp. and the carrying of into effect. 97. then passes beam U. and he winds the saine length of cloth lipon the cloth roller that he draws of warp from off the warp roller B^ B^ Jacquard machines of the common C' descripdon. and. The and by raised colouring threads. and presented to us another ment for the interior of evidence of the active benevolence and social disposition of man. 95. is The distinguished from. 94. and after a few . And it is agreeable it to reflect. which of each vv^ire. which the weaver pulis when he finds it necessary to draw bis bore or sink.

that the pile longer. the striped appearance is almost broken up. expeditious method of manufacturing common velvets has lately been M. a steel rod about 2 feet long and ^ths of an inch thick. containing five colours. taking care drawn out too near the face of the cloth otherwise the looped warp would become stretched.. pile. To prevent the point of the knife from turning downwards and injuring the cloth. as fast as woven. The operative grasps the handle and insinuating the projecting point of the guide under the weft. for cutting the piles of various kinds of fabrics. London. all these may be visible. Five colours are commonly used in the manufacture of Brüssels carpel : if a . No. the figure would be given in rehef. its ingenious inventor. of course. In a pattern. Still. by the mere Operation of the loom the cut. be introduced with great advantage in this country the necessary apparatus may be obtained. t Called Covers on account of all the colours vent : which shows on the face of the cloth. the weaving of two webs or pieces of velvet at once. Spitalfields. the pile of each turning inward. having a the other end is tapered away to ablade as thin as . its under side is covered by a guide. each if it is made someWere the coloured the web would have sinipiy a striped appearance were raised only at still intervals. by recovering the Position in which it was before the wires were inserted. into Their number is generally five. so that. however. and these constitute what is called five Covers. by applying to the inventor. ter is. exceptone. for instance. we think.t however. and the sum of all the parts of the coloured yarns which appear on the face. and the webs being An introduced by our respected friend. edge of a razor. the repetitions of the process wires are withdrawn.214 THE ART OF WEAVING. but only one will show at any particular point. as well as to prevent its under edge from cutting the fabric Square handle at one end the during the Operation of guttering out the in his right hand. connected together by the tory cutter or knife. the one above the other. but would be merely In Order to produce a properly coloured pattern.) Tliis process is repeated upon every hne of the pile throughout the web. may be raised. of Lyons. This excellent mode of manufacturing velver. the * The knife or cutter is used in England. Tannias Falson. James Jacquier & Co. which serves to stifFen it. pushes the knife smartly forward through the whole breadth of the pile (from seivage to sei vage. raised into pile at .* stroke. and cut in the manner and of velvet. striped. There are tvv^o principal features of novelty in this method. by their irregulär ascent to the surface. pile itself The second feature consists of a vibra- which passes between the two pieces of velvet and cuts them asunder. several coloured yarns are arranged. that the wires be not The what Wilton carpet differs only in this. will be only one fifth of the whole of the coloured yarns employed. being covered or hid. 1 Wood Street. or to Messrs. so that any one of them pile. might. the first of which is. set from the face of the cloth at a sufficient distance to pre- its cutting too near the reed. at Lyons. warp.

as already described. of coloured worsteds tied on. for. while only one would be raised. On account of the very different rates at which the coloured threads are taken up. After another coating of coloured stripes be laid on. and though the designer be not neaiiy is hampered as in the Kidderminster texture. it is clear. a thread of that colour nviist traverse the whole pattern . — carpet texture. . same time almost unlimited in the choice of colours. to produce a pattern. but have to be placed each upon a bobbin by itself. these cannot be wound upon one beam. would have a much more dense and velvety appearance. he yet seriously in- commoded in his choice. and that immewe commence to tie on every thread of the warp a small bunch of coloured worsted yarns. by scraping away the difFerent coats. of Edinburgh. but this one could not fully conceal the others. Could one-half or two-thirds of the coloured that the fabric show on the face of the cloth. to all the advantages of the Tur- number were employed. let coloured stripes. contrived a method of partially dying the yarns but we cannot fuUy understand the value of the contrivance tili we have glanced at another kind of . common loom. difficulties encountered by the carpet designer. threads be brought to . It is clear that in this way we : could is produce any pattern. let two or and well driven up and then another row . This completed.CARPETING. Richard Whytock. 215 so web is essentially striped. we would not be compelled Here we have every excepting this important one. by band. But in order to produce the smallest there is another annoyance speck of oMy particular colour. then nine of them would always remain below. the cloth would have a flimsy appearSuppose ten colours to be used. the colours being put on to reiterate the pattern at each stated distance. and that no more of any particular colour wanted than is sufficient to produce the required effect nay more. Let US suppose ourselves seated at a diately after having thrown a pick. ra- advantage that we can wish pid ity of formation. so that the pattern on the cloth would be indistinct. To remedy the incgnyenience of this texture (the Brüssels carpet) Mr. instead of five. Let us suppose a board painted in minute these have dried. vary- ing the colour according to our fancy. each differing from the preceding : the painter may now form an idea of the let him set to work. three picks be thrown. and so on for five coats. The Turkey and at the carpet is is the simplest in its texture of all carpets. Whytock's method supplies greater ance. and that thread may displace some other which would have heen advantageously hrought in elsewhere.

) for and brightening up the tili colours. Yet a that almost every improver has been jack of a good many trades nay. For this and small white purposely left in the dying. run in rows as in all the be produced at any point. a rapidity of weaving greater than that : of the Brüssels fabric. This drum is grada- ated so that the dyeing roller can be passed across the yarn at required place. fs and the so proceeds the whole colouring completed. need hardly be added. The thread. this has The coloured spots can the advantages of the Turkey carpet. and so on difficult the whole warp is.* exists against those who is turn their attenfact. tion to several branches of the arts. of which the circuraference equal to the length quired for one copy or length of the pattern. tioned A it strong prejudice. The second thread is then dyed. velvet. Whytock uses the grooved wires. extended on the ordinary ruled paper. and work it The only dhfijculty would then be in the dying to warp threads^l In Order dye the threads." . one yarn is wound on is the surface of re- a large drum. upon the beam. any enables the lar colour is The design. and submitted to fixing processes (steaming &c. he changes the colour box. Before concluding this imperfect notice of these two improvements (Morton's and Whytock's) we would draw attention to a subject of great importance to society in general. is then taken off the drum. ture meets with deserved encouragement. pile upon every successive wire. enable the the coloured parts properly opposite each other. . all we wouid be as a simple of the able to dispense with the apparatus for producing the pattern. make the web with only one body. and cuts the pile in the manner of Excepting the necessity all for the recurrence of the pattern. that greatly admired patand that the manufacterns have been produced by this method It . wound upon separate bobbins. sanc- by an old proverb. and need not other carpets. THE ART OF WEAVING.216 key carpet. and the weaving proceeds rapidly. The next and most part of the Operation to place all these yarns side by side purpose they are spots. an ac- * "Jack of all trades and master of none. carefnlly rolled workman to arrange They are then each thread being brought into the the Wilton carpet. His method may be described thus carpet If for the five coloured yarns of the Brüssels we could Substitute one yarn dyed of the could requisite colour at different places. workman to discover all the places at which a particuto be applied tili : that done. being now dyed. is finished. upon the beam.

no one not intimately versed in these could having conceived. who are interested in the carpet trade. velvet pile. Whytock's for : very ingenious machinery the Statements just colouring carpet yarns. into effect. on different Brüssels. we have. May we be allowed one of those generahzations so often found in and that its inventor appears to have extended his stiidies far beyond the subject of carpet weaving. 28 . that new discoveries is a matter of chance. For the expense. at and we were assisted in Tournay in Belgium making them by Judge Shinimigin of Brüssels. for instance. and some appear (we judge from imagine that the less their conduct) more likely are swordsman trusts to Once in a that very circumstance for outwitting his antagonist. that these drawings were made from one of Mr. . one man among seven hundred and fifty-nine milbut the great lions may find. according to pocket several this matter. and although we have been out of hundred doUars more than we at first anticipated in made still. by chance. and passing them by such low trickery. benefit of the manufacturers in the United States. which the production of regulär figures or patterns. whereas. by colouring the threads or yarns which are be * As. . at very great trouble and made correct drawings and specifications of Mr. the stealing of other off for our own.CARPETING. and very often prodigious improvements are eflfected by the simple transference of a process from one art to another. they thus not only out. directed exertion must earn its bread in the sweat of its brow. some valuable process mass of our current inventions are the fruits of assiduous and welland the mind. even more truly than the body. white in Operation. but also out of the honour which they f justly deserve. die for it want of the common necessaries of We think proper to mention. weaving . Whytock's carpet. they of a subject the as a bad they to alight on something know new . and scheming have conceived. we regret it not. in It often occurs that schemers. to We have made all the drawings a scale. the ingenious persons s windle whom hfe. could have carried the idea the happening upon Another idea to exists. quaintance with a variety of Operations of is 217 essential to the invention new ones . Century. for or. again. men's inventions. fabrics.* to hint. bears on the face of it the necessity for a knowledge of the arts of dyeing.of their bread. that the triple carpet is scientific researches. Wilton and to Turkey carpets. particularly velvets.t This invention facilitates consists of a new method and or manufacture. Whytock's machines. suc- ceed acquiring large fortunes. indeed. believing that our exertions will meet with an adequate reward.

hereinafter described. Whytock's. in order the said suitable arrangement keep up unchanged during the process of piain weaving. being used. commonly used for weaving without any Jacquard or other figuring machinery after the said thereon. such as ciouded. by submitting the whole hanks or skeins to a dying process and also. have been heretofore rendered party-coloured. speckled. with a suitable succession of colours. (and after the same are suitably arranged in the loom certain precautionto ary measures. . IjOuIs Schwabe of Manchester) such yarns have been rendered party-coloured by printing' them whilst they are in skeins or hanks and the yarns so rendered party-coloured. marbled and spotted patterns. by virtue of the variegated colours which were previously applied on the yarns by this improved method. in diverse colours. and afterwards arranging them in the loom so as to produce a fabric with a variegated pattern by piain This improved weaving of the party-coloured arranged yarns. vious. . used in weaving such with a succession of different coloiirs applied at different portions of the lengtli of each yarn. whether by dying or by printing. so as to give to the fabric which is woven therein. for performing the process of rendering the yarns party-coloured. and will be repeated with sufficient accuracy at regulär distances aloug the length of the woven fabric. by tying up free of colour part of the hanks or skeins in order to preserve them when tlie other parts are coloured. of Mr. in a simple loom.218 THE ART OF WEAVING. and yarns have been woven. fabrics. ac- cording to a suitable and peculiarly regulated order of succession of colours. are after wards arranged in the loom. patterns. by the ordinary manipulations of piain weaving. such as piain cloth.) will facilitate the pioduction of regulär figures or which will correspond with sufficient accuracy to a pre^ and intended design. by a more recent process (practised by Mr. the cloth shall exhibit the appearance of a pattern or design. according to such a pecuHarly regulated order of succession of yarns (so colours. so as to exhibit the same appearance as is usual in the regularly . particularly into any of the fabrics aforesaid. as aforesaid. And although certain yarns which are intended for weaving pat- terned fabrics by piain weaving. mottled. and interrupted striped patterns it is to be understood that this improved method or manufacture. by virtue of certain mechanical combinations and arrange. the appearance of certain irregulär and ill-defined patterns in single or party-colours. ments. as that after the rendered party coloured) have been suitably aris ranged. method. is founded on the same principle of previously rencicring the yarns party-coloured. hereinafter described.

and the printing afterwards performed thereon. by which the impressions Avere printed on the warp. and the yarns of their printed : warps other (or so many thereof as must are to formx the patterned or figured part of the fabric) retain the same positions in relation to each when they are in the woven fabrics. or in printing the yarns in the hanks or skeins in the old methods. tied up. by piain weaving. which is also the case in the common plan of dyeing the yarns in the hanks or skeins. Ilses for rendering yarns party-coloured. or carved blocks. but woven vvhich regularity and accuracy of patterns have not been hitherto obtained by the ordinary lianks or skeins. that yarns prepared for weaving into figured fabrics. figured or patterned fabrics. suitable for the production of one kind of regulär figures or patterns on the woven or fabric. also. in the manner by the practised by calico printers. will be the is same in respect to design as that which engraved or carved on the surfaces or blocks.CARPETING. for the yains receive their printed impressions whilst they are arranged in the same order side by side as that which they . with the same mechanical combination and printing implements which he pattern which will be exhibited . which are 219 in figured looms. according to which raethod of printing warps. the pattern which will be afterwards exhibited fabric its woven out of such printed warps. he can. render yarns party-coloured suitably for the production of an unlimited variety of different regulär figures patterns by only varying the regulated order of succession. mode of dying or printing yarns in the We are aware of tbe fact. yarns^ when they are arranged in a . with bis . the warp or chain is formed first. the warp or chain is formed in preparation for weaving after the yarns are rendered party-coloured. chanical combinations and printing implements meand according to which improved method. Whytock's improved tlie method. and passed through reeds like those of the loora which is intended to be used for weaving the same. as aforesaid. whereby he applies the different colours to the yarns. except in as much as the design may be contracted in length by the gathering up of the warp in the process of weaving. in diverse colours by printing suitable impressions in- npon them to form the chain or warp of the tended web. that they had during the printing. are not printed nor does he make use of en- graved surfaces. It is to be understood. warp in prepa- ration for weaving. with any figured design or pattern thereon which bears the least reserablance to the figured design or by the woven fabric but. that according to Mr. the said impressions being obtained from engraved metal sarfaces or from carved blocks.

In Order to render yarns party-coloured by Whytock's improved method. such as printing.) is is appropriate colbur for used by calico printers applied horizontally across the breadth of the cylinder. the fill thereof should be continued until they up close to the side of the which was made by the next adjoining yarn. being disposed regularly and closely side makes around the said by side. surfaces. and an impression being calico printersy given across the yarn or yarns by the printing surface or edge of the ruler. which oiled cloth cover. the colour so applied will colour as many different places along the length of each and those places will be exactly at equal distances apart along the length of the yarn. with the addition of an der or drum. feit. several circumvolutions around the cyhnder. and then.- parallel to the axis thereof. viz. equal to the along so much of the length thereof as . breadth of the printing surface of the rulers and as the yarns or each yarn makes yarn. or a small number of yarns or threads. in the it same manner as would be done by is will apply colour to each circumvolution of the yarn or yarns. must be wound or coiled is aroimd the circumference of a large cylin- mounted on a horizontal axis in a frame^ in the manner of a grindstone^ and the circumference of the cylinder being covered with a blanket. plied by means of long narrow sticks or rulers. if the pattern requires a change of .220 are to bave THE ART OF W EAVING. such as is used hj calico printersto Cover over their tables for block printing. to coils keep the blanket clean. to This distinction being made. And if coils^ more than one yarn first coil wound round the cylinder at once. so as to cover all the circumference of the cjdinder with circumvolutions of the yarn or several yarns around the same. thus disposed in coils The yarn or yarns being around the cylinder. the circumvolutions or or each of the yarns which the yarn is cylinder. are covered with and are used as printing that is ner of calico printing blocks. so as to cross over the coils of the yarn or yarns w^hich Surround the cylinder . we shall now proceed manufacture in all its essential explain the improved method or details. when arranged in the loom. hut without the said edges or printing surfaces . in the manany carved pattern on to say. the feit its edge of block one of the said rulers being furnished with (from a colour seive. one yarn or thread. After one impression is is thus yarn or yarns. they are prepared for receiving the colours. the cyhnder turned round just as made on the much as will move its circumference a space equal to the breadth of the impres- sion left by the ruler. and the ends fastened which are apthe edges of which thereto. at distances apart equal to the circumference of the cylinder.

for each yarn or small number of yarns yarns requisite for and when the whole of the the warp (or for the figured or patterned portion . the order of succes- varied as the pattern . or their turn. after which the cyhnder again turned round as much as the breadth of the impression for left by the last ruler. the same ruler anew with its own proper used to make the second impression. is first used. until a complete series of such impressions has been made. and when again dried. according as the pattern requires a colour. or. by successive impressions of the different with repetition of the same colours. or a change from one colour to another. in preparation laying another impression. must be taken off the cyhnder. reaching all round coils the cylinder sions. subjected to the action of steam. or of the of yarns. accoi'ding as the pattern requires. change of colour. may require. another yarn. repetitions of the When colouring same colour are frequently required. or eise with a different ruler furnished with a different colour. and so on until the whole number of yarns which are required for the formation of the warp or chain of the intended fabric. either with the same ruler which last was used refurhished with its own proper colour. rendered party coloured. to be afterwards. colour. it. and. in preparation for forming it or them into a warp and tern they are intended to produce in the yarn.CARPETING. suc- ceeding each other in due order of succession. if the pattern does not reqiiire a change of colours. according to the pat- woven fabric. and then washed. are rendered party coloured . to fix the colours. to be wound on a bobbin. is number coiled figured or patterned portion thereof. or on bobbins. or one small . will ] and which series. by joining up to the first impres- complete the colouring of the whole length of the of yarn around the cylinder with their required party colours. When one number of yarns. ap- plied across the yarns. or another small upon the cylinder to be in its. or a continuance of the same on the next succeeding portion of the length of each yarn. may be expedited by using a broader which will print double or treble the space of the ruler before mentioned. instead of a different is ruler . so as to make another Impression thereon adjoining to the former . being furnished same colour. as soon as the cylinder is at liberty. in applying the colours to each yarn or small number of yarns which are wound each time round the sion of the different colours is cylinder. or they. has been thus rendered party coloured. the ruler. but the repetition of the which was colour. when dried. this In way the colouring of the yarns proceeds along all parts which require to be coloured colours. furnished 221 is with a suitable colour. another similar ruler. by a similar series of manipulations.

to the circumference of the and those repetitions of the order of succession in the warp will produce repetitions of the figured pattern in the length of the piece of the fabric when is it is woven. Yf herefore. as tbe yarns are required for tbe said party coloured yarns are form the warp bobbins on to in tbe weaving. suitably variegated with colours. whether Order to to it be by degrees as the weaving in the loom requires. without any of the trouhlesome manipulations which are Jiecessary for what is called figure weaving. or in the w^arp upon the yarn beam side. and gathered on their separate bobbins. are those wherein the surface of the fabric which exhibits the pattern is composed chiefly by gathering up the Avarp into loops. before a repetition of for the pattern commences. the several party coloured threads must be arranged side by each in its proper place across the breadth of the warp. The warp being thus composed of party-coloured yarns. as a preparation for weaving . the length of the circumference of the cylinder raust be adapted to the length over which the pattern required to exten d. suitably for the place it is required to occupy in pattern. and arranged in suitable order in the warp. or fabric over eise the may be tvvice or thrice the length of the yarn required to produce that length of the which the pattern is required to extend before a repetition commences. owing to the circurastance of each yarn making several cir- cumvolutions around the cylinder when the colours are applied thereon. and which v/ire may be either drawn out is in Order to leave loops for the face of the fabric. The fabrics for which Whytock's improved mode is most particularly adapted. according as each yarn has been previously rendered partycoloured. and will produce a fabric with a figured pattern in colours. according to the intended pattern. And. allowing the contraction of length which results from the gathering up of the w^arp in the process of circumference of the cylinder weaving. or eise the yarns are collected from tbe said separate the yarn beam of the loom beaming. either drawn off from tbe bobbins to the looni by degrees. if it is intended to .222 tliereof) are finisbed THE ART OF WEAVING. by interlaying a wire during the Operation of weaving across the warp in the direction of the shoot or weft. the is weaving to be conducted in the usual manner of what is called piain weaving. as the case in Bruxelles carpets. as herein before described. or the wire may be cut out. the order of the succession of the party-colours on each yarn will be exactly repeated at intervals along the length of each yarn equal cylinder. by the usual process called and in so collecting the party coloured yarns from off their different bobbins into a warp. beam of the loom previous the weaving.

will furnish all the Variation of colouring necessary for forming the successive tufts which he will require in his work. those successive tufts will change their colour according to the intended order of succession of colours which order as they will be wanted. —Note. by those parts of the yarns which are back of the fa- afterwards to be looped or knotted around the yarns of the warp. as hereto- but only occasional reference thereto.CARPETING. which. by this mode of party-colouring the yarns. and foUowing each other in due he works up the skein or clew of party-coloured yarn by putting in tuft after tuft. and the waste of coloured yarn . and then another. of weaving Turkey carpets. and cutting off the yarn each time. velvet carpets. and Wilton carpets and. require to use only one skein or clew of yarn. he will. and which parts will therefore appear only at the . being rendered partycoloured in due order of succession of colours. which will be is occasioned by such mistakes and also. the According to the weaver must have a skein or to suit his many different skeins or clews of different colours as the variegation in his pattern requires. 223 or divided loops piles. whereby waste of material in cutting off too long perfections in the face of the may be avoided. as to Turkey which are a different description of fabric from the others above mentioned. and without the same liability to mistake in so selecting. being formed by knotting tufts of coloured worsted yarn around the yarns of the warp. according to this improved mode. according to this improved mode. with discretion pattern . the joinings of the patches of colour which were applied the yarn is successively. mode . as well as im- work by cutting off too short. 'perpetiial reference to the pattern. and must select first clew of one colour. pile. by enabling the Operator to render the skein of yarn which each weaver is to use for forming those knotted tufts party-coloured. Whytock's improved mode facihtates the production of regulär figures or patterns thereon. and likewise. yarns A saving of colouring material may be made in rendering the for Turkey carpets party-coloured. omitting to apply any colour to by an improved method. as is the case in velvets. and the cut form that . form a will pile for the face of the fabric. exactly according to the order of succession of colours in which the weaver must introduce ordinary in use as tufts of different colours. with the different colours succeeding each other. the number of ends remaining from the number of skeins which must be used much diminished by rendering the yarns party-coloured. without any trouble of selecting colours and changing skeins with fore. will indicate the exact place where to be cut off as the tufts are introduced. as And the pattern requires.

by setting" out the pattern so that those parts of the yarns will be known when places they are wound round the cylinder. its when the latter turned round in order to wind them around Figs. has a puUey e. the screw d d^ will be turned . many bobbins a a. . for colouring at one Operation. by opposing a slight friction to the yarn or yarns when drawn ?". in a truly horizontal position. CCEL K K L Figs. will cause the yarn or 5^arns to be extended with a proper tension when drawn afterwards by the cylinder A A. bric. are furnished to the cylinder AA as fast as they are wanted. After passing under the third rod or wire k. and will consequently require no colour these omissions can be easily made in their proper places along the party-coloured yarns. fixed on the extreme end of it. each of the several . in order to turn it round by means of an endless band or strap// (see Fig. 113 . then over another such rod or wire and beneath a third fixed rod or wire k . which is fixed across the width of the cylinder. (see the Figures 107 and 109) is a guide screw. GG (see Fig. 107) a conductor yarns.224 THE ART OF WEAVING. and niay be passed over without applying any colouring matter thereon. . and the same is letters of reference are used to de- Fig. when the latter The rack or frame B B (Fig. across the rods or wires. yarn 6.) the screw d d. and serves to place the rulers by which note the same parts in all the figures. 113 and 114) are upright Standards to support a horizontal shelf or rest F. which three rods or wires. together a. is conducted beneath which — a fixed horizontal rod or wire A. which is mounted horizontally in bearings notched out in each of the upright Standards E L (see Fig. (see Figs. and so that each ruler will be presented to the cylinder A A at the same height thereon d c?. round with a motion corresponding to that is wherewith the cylinder for the AA is turned is fitted . The tufts which are so left uncoloured in the yarns will be extremely uspful as indications to the weaver of the places where the are to loop and knot around the yarns of the warp. from each of the several bobbins a a. so as to be moved gradually along thereby across the width of the cylinder A A.) from another puUey g^ which is fixed on the extreme end of the axis D of the large cylinder A A wherefore. and 113 also repre- sent the cylinder. 114 and 115 the EL the colour is to be applied to the yarns. as herein before mentioned. 106 represents the cylinder A A in perspective. on the guide screw d c?. 113. Fig. and wooden frame for supporting the axis D of the cyhnder AA. as the number of yarns which it is intended to wind around the cylinder A A. 112 circum- ference. 112. 106) contains as is turned round. the rack BB is containing the bobbins a with from which the yarns Z>.

of the pincers to grasp the screw d d between their and fitted jaws. then. in order to urge them apart from each other. their spring Gp. is formed in two parts G p. 108. 107. 114 and 115 represent the cylinder as part it appears when a H H of its circumference is folded inwards towards the axis. so that the successive coils moving it will which that yarn makes around the circumference of the cylinder will fall close and. 106. in the manner of a pair of pincers. can be overcome open the two pincers. 107. and cause the other parts s s. 106. by clasping the two handles together in the hands. of each of the conductors to r. 113 and 114) a fixed rest or guide for the tails of the conductor GG to bear against. A more simple guide or conductor for coiling the Aj as represented in Figs. 106 and 107) which is fixed therefrom as (see to reach near to the circumference of the cyUnder. and as it carries the conductor G G hterally across the width of the so cyhnder AA in the manner before stated. may be used and as every manufacturer of cotton goods in the United States is well acquainted with the A common on iraverse or spooling motion. in order to move the whole back from one end of the screw to the other. without the trouble and de- lay of turning the screw round backwards after one set of yarns has been wound round the cylinder. and 108) and. : (the velvet pile) destined ere long to receive vast improvements all we would not be at surprised to see from 25 to 30 yards of it manufactur^d 29 . * Two portions H H of the circumference are yarns on the cylinder . no difficulty can be experienced by them indeed. and each part which is so fitted on the screw d d. neighbouring yarn. and in guide each of the yarns. in order to prepare for winding on another set. yarns is 225 passed through a distinct eye in a wire guide z z^ (see upon the top cross rail R of the conductor G G (see Figs. We are is confident that the manufacture of this kind of carpet. —The conductor GG is made upon the screw d d. if that coiling is continued until to each other side by side the last coil made by one yarn joins up to the first coil made by the . each of the yarns is passed through a wire loop m. which is interposed between the handles G p. when the screw d d^ is turned round. (see Figs. 107 and 108) and projects so far out Figs. in it order to admit of taking off the yarn from after it has been ren- dered party-coloured. near to each end thereof. to grasp the screw d d. by the action of the spring r.* Figs. the two conductors G G being united by two wooden rails R S. and 109) which are jointed together at q. of the two parts. which is fixed in the top cross rail R (see Figs. is n^ Figs. this head. finally. and then both the conductors G G become detached from the threads of the screw d d. double.CARPETING. 107 and 108. the whole surface of the cylinder will be covered with the several yarns.

and secured thereto by pins. that on them. and the outside circumference being formed to a true cylinder. so as to admit of folding those portions of the rims and arms down out of their proper places. made to turn its down in the manand^ ner shown it is in Fig. in order that they may be removed or doffed from off the same. and removed from the cylinder along with the yarns when they are doffed.226 THE ART OF WEAVING. per day. a great measure. a portion 1 1 of each and arms of the cylinder is attached to their central naves on the axis by hinges. the weight of the cylinder must be suspended as shown in Fig. which also attached by a hinge it end to the cross of the frame. attached to the remaining portion of the circumference by hinges manner of a pair of folding doors also. it is retained at its by an lowest M. in a machine of comparatively simple construction. nation. will slacken and set the yarn free upon the cylinder. by which of the frame . being deeply impressed with the idea. The cyUnder is framed with two sets of arms. 113. but the said oiled cloth cover handUng in doffing. the side K K L of the wooden frame is which Supports one end of the axis D. The yarns are wound round the covering of oiled cloth in order to is unpinned. applied in an obUque direction between the arms of the cylinder from a support at the ceiling of the room. upon the two ends of the axis. And. by a tackle of pulleys N. as oblique strut is is shown in Fig. and two circular rims on those arms as shown on the drawings. about hinges at lowest part. 114) hanks of yarn. when the side of the frame to be turned down. cloth is —A covering of spread evenly over the blanket. The circumference is composed of boards fixed across the edges (as in the construction ^of card drums) of the two rims parallel to the axis of the cylinder. and then the two portions H H of the circumference by dropping in towards the axis. AA KKL is before that side so turned down. so that can be turned down out of the way in the is manner shown in Fig. depends our prosperity as a . in order to preserve them from blurring their colours by receive their colour. —Note. and reaching to the end of the axis D of the cylinder. are always wiiling to do our ut- We most in advancing the manufactures of in this country. 115. 115. of 12 working hours. superintended by one person only. is covered with a printer's oiled or varnished blanket strained tight and sewed. hinges attached to one of the ground sills when the side KKL sill is placed upright in a proper position to Support the cylinder. 115. in order admit of so doffing the yarns from the cylinder. of the rims ner as a common yarn real is doffed to when it becomes covered with (Fig. in like manin the .

CARPETING. 227 .

Fig.228 THE ART OF WEAVING. . 110. 107. 109. Fiss. 108.

-' ... or leaving any of them broken or imperfect. ___:.1. -----_ n _ n : 1 -. " ' Light Blue. sign paper which are to be reduced.± - ~ ^'_^ " " - __. should endeavour to acquire a dexterity in filling up these little spaces on the ways design paper.::n: -^ " __ _ . if on being moderately . 1 229 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 2. . if necessary.CARPETING. .::' _" ::: --_.-^ --T-' _:._ . I :... _ t - '- _ .! :. :_. I.. Note._ ±:: _ . Dark Bitte 52 . _ :: ----- — -- - - --: :. _ Green." IU_.::::::_"":_::":: - " ----_--^-. :__ . - . T. before he attempts designing of patterns. jj_ J . :. " " — "' . ". . " " ji "" : "i"" -::".. .-. The penpoint. .. .-_-. should be adapted as nearly as possible to the size of the small spaces or Squares on the design paper on which they are to be employed.:: 18::": ::::'"::_ -. they spring again into their form after being bent.-_. without allowing the paint to spread beyond boundaries.-- X " Green. A learner in this department._ _::::".!_ . I.. ± ----.". ..._. iT'"ir .. . -. ' """ ... . __---_.. It-IIIII -.: _ .." ."^ :~:::-~::: „ _~ 24 X-. ' _ .:_.:_:::_: : 14" ^g_ X : - 5 _ :::_:: ::::_:_:: ' : ' -.. . . ^ 56 ss 60 _ :_:... wet.'__ ' ZI._-. ":~ --.Li :_. — _ - .— The above is species of painting or of transferring patterns to the de- performed with camel hair pencils.X-----zjiz - jL'. — _.. with a good spring and which qualities may be discovered by drawing them gently through the mouth.- — — . (on the nail. to a semi-transparent state. X. ~ . -- -. and pressing them on the thumb nail when. 48 '"-'---'-'- 50 ~I'i"~ 1 ^7-r>."" . whether they run in straight or curved hnes ._ " "" _-__ ~ 38_ 40" " -__ __ ' - _j_ _ '":"_: ' 42" 44" 46 "Z"._ : " " - .. .: ±_ :::: ":_:: :~::":_:_:: _. ±:_::±: _: -": ':_. _ _ _ .. ... taking care altheir to fill them exactly.-. The points of the pencils too. 64---+ gg_- .JQ-72 ._ .-. 26 22. that the designer may be able to fill any individual space with only one touch of the pencil.-.--.) it is a sure indication of these qualities. and appropriate pigments. .— - ö 10 12 __ _ _ . both of cils should be chosen of a middle size.:. Fig 111.. ----^----^ 30 32 34 36 z •:* .

Fig.230 THE ART OF WEAVING. 113. .

231 .CARPETING.

and which pattern to be repeated : thereon at regulär intervals along the length of the piece and. present a figure to fill may either re- the breadth of the intended fabric. 111.) or the double or the treble that . Operator must be carefui not to apply light pink. design paper used by weavers for figured weaving. Squares. from the commencement to the end of the pattern. which represents the design or figured pattern intended be produced by piain weaving of the party-coloured yarns. where it will join to the preceding. as at 1 1^ around the (see Fig. light yellow. 113) and fasten- ing it with pins to the blanket cover. it is figure of the pattern w^hich in- tended to produce in the fabric. Fig. and of determining the proper order of succession for the different colows thereon. 111. and succeeding repetition of the pattern. the said dye being chosen of such a nature that it will readily give place tQ the stronger party-colours which are to be applied. The to succession of colours must be determined by means of a de- sign paper. the whole of the yarns may be dyed with that colour previously to applying the party-colours.isto be represented. blue. or French white on a black or dark bottom. sky pea green. according as the texture of the fabric is to be fine or coarse. as none of these delicale tints would appear to advantage on such a surface. is to be all of one uniform tint. and each square may either represent a single yarn or a number of yarns. Whatever number of Squares the length of the (for design paper occupies. number.) the circuminto must be divided a like number. Description of the manner of applying the party-colours on the yarns. It is similar to See the a specimen of such a design paper Fig. taking into consideration the contraction of the length of the warp which will result from the gathering up of the yarn in weaving. as the printer has the succession and order of the different colours. * The . lll.232 THE ART OF WEAVING. sup- posing that the ground whereon the pattern. being ruied with and it which are numbered must contain the entire across the top and down the is length. or one which is to be repeated several times side by side in the breadth. The design paper should be to distinguish readily It laid out in large Squares. is the cyhn- large in proportion to the pattern which easily it done by applying a tape painted with suitable divisions upon circumference of the cylinder.* size of the cylinder The AA must be so chosen that its circumference will be equal to the length of yarn which the warp to the will take up for weaving. as in Fig. ference of the cylinder instance 72. and which contraction varies very greatly in different kinds of fabrics. if (of 72 equal parts der is .

will lay each of the six yarns in regulär coils dose side by side on the cylinder. to produce the pattern Fig. must be used. Fig. from of yarns in the 1 to 43 in Fig. Repetitions of the 233 same figure in the breadth will admit of several aftercoils yarns being coloured alike at one Operation. viz.) represent the different sets warp which are to be rendered party-coloured to- gether by one Operation. 111. that case 6 bobbins a a. then gives to the conductor G G. (Fig. and as many yarns must be wound together round the oiled cloth covering of the cylinder A A. This being done. 111. in the whole warp. will be determined by the num- made in the whole piece of the fabric which is intended to be woven for one warp and when the required length of yarns is wound on. the successive coils made by each yarn will cover up the space allotted for it on ber of repetitions of the pattern required to be the breadth of the cylinder.CARPETING. whereby the whole surface of the cylinder will be cov- which being done. ered with coils : off The cylinder is turned round until the division its 1 of the tape 1 1. 106. 111. The number of circumvolutions wound upon must be thus the cylinder. The tra versing motion which the screw d c?. The niimbers along the top border of the design paper. and the trouble of wards separating these yarns may be avoided by keeping the of the different yarns distinct from each other upon the cylinder. and the other 112. 113) around circumference is brought to an index mark. in the manner herein before described and it only remains to explain how the proper order of succession of colours is determined by aid of the design paper. and then those yarns are ready to receive the party-colours from the printing rulers or sticks. 111. and finding that the four first sets of yarns at the border pose. six yarns of the warp. that fill it will take by side. and finds thereby that the 30 . which is jointed to the fixed frame at one end. end formed with a sharp hooked point to stick into the wood of the cyhnder. Fig. the printer refers to the design paper. so that the succeeding coils of each yarn will just touch one of each yarn w^hich another. and then turning the cylinder round by a suitable crank. the ends of the yarns are cut and secured to the oiled cloth covering of the cylinder with pins. 111. for instance. that will be 6 tiraes 43 or 258 5^arns. side by side. Fig. which is made on any suitable part of the fixed frame for that purand the cylinder is fastened there by means of a stop x^ Fig. Fig. to each of the Squares across In the breadth of the fabric. by attaching their ends thereto with pins. (for instance. so as to join to the space allotted for the next yarn. he proceeds to the number 5 along the top margin thereof. side Suppose. of the w^arp do not require to be party-coloured.

of the Squares in number 5 at top. and laying that ruler upon the shelf F. he finds by referring to bis design paper and proceeding downwards (still under number 5 at top) that no more party-colours are required on the fifth set of yarns until the 48th Square. . . turns the cylinder round to division 23. (still under number 5 at top. after which he turns the cylinder round to division 24. if the before mentioned. to the whereof the number corresponds the pattern paper.. lastly. he number 22 down the margin. proper for the intended ground on which the pattern to be represented.) he finds that square to be also green. yarns have not been previously dyed. (unless the ground is to be white. as herein- And. with an uniform is colour. which being done. another reference to bis design paper shows bim. he presses towards the cylinder and makes the first Impression across the yarns upon the cylinder. forward as far as its 48th division. will be completed and rendered party-coloured at every part of their length where the pattern requires them be so coloured. (beneath there filled number viz.) the ground colour must be applied to the yarns by making successive impressions thereon with a printing ruler furnished with pression the said ground colour. and also knows he it that is to take a printing ruler furnished with green colour. These four being done. six yarns which he is going to colour will be the fifth set in the intended warp. unless the cylinder is so large as to require the pattern to be repeated twice or thrice in going round it. reckoning from the border of the warp. in which case he repeats the Operation accordingly. he finds it again to indicate another Impression of green colour. then wound on to the cylinder.) with the said ground colour. that he must again turn the cylinder forward to its 53d division. and fastening it there makes an Impression with a ruler furnished with a light blue colour. then. therefore. and therefore he knows that he is to make another Impression with the same printing stick. making such an imwhenever the cylinder is detained at one of its divisions. note. he turns the cylinder round. he finds the first coloured Square in the pattern the Said square 22 is is painted green. at division 25. and after that another repetition thereof. and there apply an Impression in dark blue colour and. and by reference to bis design paper. and there apply a green Impression after which the said . fifth set of yarns. which Squares are the Squares numbered . which is a light blue colour therefore. and looking to square after refurnishing it with green colour . then proceeding downwards under that number 5. that he must again turn the cylinder forward to its 5Sth division.234 THE ART OF WEAVING. He then number 23 down the raargin of bis design paper.

in this instance. according to the order is by tracing the design paper Fig. and 54 to 57. when the design re- paper indicates that impressions of tbe sarae colour are to be peated in succession. . from the square numbered 6 at top mixed up. Respecting the weaving of figured fabrics out of yarns which have been rendered party coloured. of fifth set 6 yarns in number) being now rendered party-coloured. the cylinder are folded inwards. in 235 49 to 52. And. as before mentioned. downwards through all the Each set of yarns which is removed Squares beneath the same. In forming the warp by drawing at once off the yarns from the said bobbins. is kept extended over two sticks unti] the colours become dry. and after being dried. bins in readiness for forming them into a warp for for the In forming which warp. and the manipulations may be the same of the like fabrics to those on which figured patterns as those for piain it weaving is intended to produce by using party coloured yarns. and submitted to steam by the üsual process of steam printing. and the yarns are then washed in water. note. by Whytock's method. and as before described. in readiness. each their proper place in set of party-coloured yarns must take the breadth of the warp which they were originally intended when they were coloured with the succession of colours which is indicated by the design paper. in the 114 and 115. hereinbefore described. in order to fix the colours. and 59 to 72. And.CARPETING. those repetitions may The be expedited by using of yarns (con- printing rulers of double or treble the usual breadth of one division on the circumference of the cyhnder. and another clean oil . the moveable portions H H of manner the circumference of represented in Figs. as fast as the Operation of weaving requires. to be drawn off there-from. roller of beamed on the yarn from the loom. the yarns are wound ofF upon bobloom. or the may either be yarns may proceed it their bobbins to the loom. from the cylinder along with the oil cloth coverin g thereof. 1 to 21. that the loom may be such as is commonly used for piain weaving. cloth is applied thereon. without any of the apparatus required for figure weaving. suitably for that purpose. Fig 111. it is only necessary to remark. to remove the gum or paste with which the colours were which indicated 111. for receiving the next set of to yarns which are of succession be rendered party-coloured. and then the Squares numbered 26 to 47. in order to slacken and set the yarns loose thereon and then the oiled cloth cover with the yarns upon it is removed from the circumference of the cyhnder. which is immediately put together again. sisting. on this head. and then the yarns are made up into a large hank or bündle.

236 it THE ART OF WEAVING. To ensure this condition. composed of two straight rulers draw the edges of the two rulers edges are covered with cloth. W X. as a common . the clamp Fig. when the cylinder Stands at its mnst be of such a decided character. and for all the sets of yarns which decided cir- Impression. will be repeated at every place along the length of each yarn. near to the place where the said marks must ränge in a straight line. a straight line. when place the cylinder Stands at for all its division 1. formed by the party colours of the yarns that is and all the precaution is required during the progress of the weaving. v. the weaving must be suspended. which is which their adjacent This clamp applied across the warp. to the next succeeding marks and. v. whilst the screws v. and there the clamp is fast- ened by edges of its its screws v. of the clamp are loosened. the said marks will indicate the junctions of the successive repetitions of the pattern those across and if the yarns are all adjusted so that marks on each yarn will ränge in a straight line. . square across the warp. so as to hold all the yarns fast between the rulers X. make around the cylinder. As the weaving proceeds. 110 advances along with the yarn and when the length of the pattern has been woven. In when the party coloured yarns are afterwards formed into a warp. during the weaving. which division first or the last of is made. to only remains tlie explain a piecaationaiy measure which is used during progress of the weaving. if those marks do not ränge in two W tive positions . then a correct pattern will be . starting the yarns. every yarn can always be distinguished with certainty or. v. and it is then taken back along with them. to set it free on the yarns. is v. from one end of the piece to the other. . shall continue to ränge in straight lines. or narrow black Impression. either the the impressions. where the are intended to begin and to end. and square across. a narrow black Impression may be made across every set of the yarns. that its place on 1. at every succeeding repetition of the pattern. in order to confine them to their relaend ways in respect to each other. in consequence of the cumvolutions which the yarns repetitions of the pattern short. similar to that represented in Fig. and square across the warp as they ought to do. with one of its rulers above the yarns and the other below them. square . . all others to keep all the yarns so adjusted in length. the breadth of the warp. united by screws WX and together. In ap- plying the colour to each set of yarns. a is clamp. that of the said marks. viz. without any alteration thereof. 110 used. to ensure that all the several yarns of the warp shall preserve their proper relative positions in the direction of their length.

after which the clamp is again shifted to the next succeeding set of marks and so on until the weaving of the whole piece is completed. then the clamp Fig. except being the reverse one to the other. is only requisite in case the yarns are drawn off at once from the bobbins to form the warp in the loom as the weaving goes on. would require to be repeated twice over. of example. into two halves will be by side. before the impressions would reach of the cylinder. This method of working vvith the clamp Fig. after the manner all herein before described. one half of them is taken in the Operation of warp- . or more times. and that the pattern on each of those precisely similar side hereinbefore described. but he finds it prefera- 144 parts. along the middle of the breadth of the piece. may it be expedited in case the pattern of such a na- ture that will admit of being divided or split down by a central line. without using a yarn beam to the loom but. 111. and then the clamp is to be again screwed fast on the yarns. those yarns 237 which are too forward must be puUed back or stretched until the marks are made to ränge. by way Fig. round the circumference Note is also. of the cylinder is to be divided also into 72 parts but this supposes a pattern of small extent. stated that the design. in in applying the party colours to each set of the yarns. but on a large cylinder a small pattern might be repeated two. but it will not be afterwards required during the weaving of the warp which has been so formed from the yarn beam. as would be applied for a single pattern. in the manner halves. that the Operation hereinbefore described.CARPETING. and after the double set of yarns have been rendered party coloured. The cylinders which the inventor uses in rendering yarns party coloured for a velvet pile carpet. 110 must be used in : the raanner above described during the Operation of beaming. three. to confine them in their true relative positions. of rendering the yarns party coloured. and that the circumference . if the warp is formed and gathered on a yarn beam by a previous Operation to the weaving. whilst another length of pattern is woven . Note. 110 during the progress of the weaving. the width of the cyhnder being suitably pro- pordoned . In such case twice as many yarns may be applied at once upon the cylinder. and then 144 go succes- sive impressions of the printing rulers will be required to all round the circumference length. as the pattern would be to its reflection in a looking glass. like that in : which case a small pattern of 72 Squares in Fig. and a small cylinder. It has been. 111. are 6 yards in circumference ble to divide the circumference into . contains 72 Squares in length. A large pattern would require a large cylinder.

any portion thereof. Fig. But whether the whole pattern be repeated in reverse or not. being on the same ränge in Fig. at a proper rate of progress to lay the succes- sive convolutions of the yarns properly side by side around the sort of cir- cumference of the cylinder are to be . breadth of the intended is to and in hke manner for patmore times side by side in the For instance. left ing and weaving to the band of the centre of the breadth of . the 12 yarns are to be separated into 2 sets of 6 yarns each. to turn quicker. and 109) across the width of the cyhnder. patterns. ] 06) should be properly adapted to the size of the large pulley g^ (see Fig. the crowding each other or leaving intervals bepuUey e. a smaller pulley d c?.238 THE ART OP WEAVING. then. therefore. according to the fineness of the threads of the screw d d. such as Fig. without tween the yarns either . in order after those 12 yarns may be coloured together. The colouring will in cases be better performed when the coils of yarns around the circumference of the cylinder are laid close side by side. warp for such a fabric would contain 86 sets of yarns of 6 each. and the other to the right terns which are to repeat three or fabric. but the reader.* cylinder at once varies. e. any repetition side by side which conis used for the right for the left tinues through all the length of the pattern will afford the opportunity of colouring an increased number all of threads at once. that the screw will carry the conductor GG or (see Figs. in order to contain to two figured other. and the other set band breadth thereof. e. . 112 will easily understand their relative positions. der D A in order that the screw may be turned with such a speed in respect to the speed of the cylinder. on the end of the screw d d. and also on. when a coarser yarns wound it . for the reasons herein before stated. on referring to Fig. 111. on. 112) on the end of the axis of the cylinA. In this case a double set containing 12 yarns rnay be that all wound on the cyhnder at once. 107. 113. 108. when a finer sort of yarns are to be wound must be fixed on the end of the screw The number of yarns to be wound about the to turn it slower. and one of those sets band half breadth of the piece. to constitute only and g-. a larger pulley * The pulley s e. and being so coloured and finished ready for forming into a warp. must be applied on the scrcAv and give the conductor G G a more rapid Progression and. but reversed each and the disposed by side in the breadth of the fabric. therefore. vice versa. the warp. side 111. would appear one pulley. (see Fig. 516 yarns in the whole warp. be hereinbefore made double the width supposed. if the fabric which be woven to exhibit the pattern.

each long yarn might be divided into number of hands to be employed. as it will preserve to be wound around : those changes. tying its ends together. they must be coloured by the same method herein before with the Order of succession of colours according perpendicular rows of Squares thereon terns described. ordinary method : the tuft with . In rendering the yarns party-coloured for Turkey carpets. which guide the yarns. or if the yarn has been coloured for equal portions. and to the length of the yarns it it is necessary to adapt the machinery to which purpose the wire eyes z^ which are stuck into the two wooden rails R S of the conductor G G. before they are taken off from the cylinder.CARPETING. In the before mentioned. the nature and objects of Mr. instead of according . but by looping and knotting in detached tufts upon the ground warp. whereby there would be less risk of mistakes than in the which one person would leave off would answer to the commencing colour of the next portion. the because the figures or pat- on Turkey carpets are not formed as in the other fabrics herein by gathering up the warp threads. under and over them alternately. around the cyUnder. but to the horizontal to rows of Squares across the design paper. may be very numerous in a row. the 239 number of convolutions of each yarn around the cylinder varies according to the size of the cyhnder. carpet manufacturer. so as is to correspond to the work. and distributed amongst the a very extensive pattern. Huddersfield. • the portions given to to each of the workers must be coloured. by suitable drawings and description. and the yarns may be conducted through those eyes which suit best. and which he is to fiU In using the party-coloured yarns part of the figure he for these tufts. Whytock's invention and the manner of carrying the same into effect. In Order to preserve as much as possible the form and regularity of the several coils made by each yarn and set of yarns. as aforesaid. Mr. England. we shall now proceed to describe some alterations made upon it by a relation of ours. cer- him. 106. Edward Henshall. it is proper to pass a small cord of worsted amongst the convolutions. for m the yarns from entanglement. each of tain portions allotted to them having with tufts. different individuals are generally employed on one piece of carpet. Having explained and set forth. 107 and 108) and the loops m. (see Figs. This interlacing of a cord across the several coils may be applied at two different places of each set of coils. ordinary mode of fabricating such carpets. and during the processes of steaming and washing them. and it will facilitate the winding afterwards upon bobbins. after they are taken off therefrom.

or the Whytock carpet could be woven in one power loom per day. Squares. no doubt. «or stripes. in order to clear. consist. some features of novelty or difference in the latter individual's . washed. . that they may. we think the old method might then be conand after its disappearance sidered as on the high road to Texas actual Operation . Operation. after being so printed upon the table. or fix the colours. reader will.) Secondly. and thus preparing the threads for a two or three-thread warp. flat sur- whereby. as well as the pecu- are to constitute warp threads. trouble . or length of the * This threads or yarns. . and laying two. and removed be steamed. in different colours. make mag- Henshall's improvements in manufacturing carpets. —In the application and use of a peculiar and to constitute the novel arrangement of apparatus. that each spot. there The are most of the ground claimed by Henshall. that Whytock's description Covers but. we will not grudge all that we have thus sacrificed. from all civilized society. arrangements worthy of attention and from this consideration we have been led to make proper drawings* of his machinery while in in which undertaking we have been at much and expense however. or velvet piled. across a collection or number of yarns or reel into threads so arranged. If even 25 or 30 yards of Brüssels. may be printed upon a face or table. as the portion we did in August 1840. —The invention consists in an improved construction of apparatus. according to the pattern required. of 10 working hours. square. and hearth rugs. Firstly. (same as in Whytock's. may be any breadth of the block. indeed. and dried. nevertheless. or stripe. as in the ordinary process of printing woollen yarns. or and hearth-rugs. more threads. It printed or stamped of must be observed. velvet pile. if by any means the machinery and processes of Whytock and Henshall shall be so amalgamated as to enable some of our brethren to supersede the present tedious system of manufacturing carpets. before they are placed in the loom for weaving.240 THE ART OF WEAVING. or other similar carpets three. raise. if the parties who survived the grand catastro- phe (particularly nificent fortunes. by means of an ordinary block or type printing appa- ratus. velvet. designed for the purpose of wind- ing the threads of yarns which are warp threads of Brüssels. Wilton. liar and a novel mode of arrangement of the yarns which spots. from separate hanks of yarn. high-tarif-men) would. be wound again upon a to hanks. perceive. and taken off the reel. side by side. as if in tapes or bands upon one bobbin.

When the threads or yarns have been so printed.CARPETING. or warp throughout its whole length. the warp. is to operate upon a number of threads or yarns. if is 241 intended to form one or more : when thrown up by the weaving that is to say. in the ordinary manner of block printing. by means of which. the threads or yarns must sufficient space of the length. in succession. to form the pattern of the carpet. over a to form these two or more loops . patterns or designs may be printed upon its surface. stamped. practised under the patented inventions of Messrs. be printed or coloured at once. form the warps carpets. direct from the bobbins after printing or colouring. or colouring the yarns collectively. and ready to be woven in the loom. and wind them at once direct from the separate hanks. and apparatus connected therewith. wound on a cyhnder. 111 and type of the required breadth or length for two or more loops in the cloth. this may be done with a block or (See Fig. . as before this is named . can be woven into a slight gauze-work. in contra-distinction to printing.—-These alterations on Whytock's plans consist of an arrangement of machinery. hereafter more particiilarly explained. as hereafter described. upon 31 . After the warp-yarn has been thus prepared. its explanation. when subsequently arranged. This part of the invention also comprises the arrangement of the threads. two or more loops. or threads. and produce the printed.) The greater object of this part of the invention. or striped yarns. or hearth-rugs. either before or after the latter. as hitherto stamping. either beaming . Schwabe. Woodcroft. of the yarn so printed or stamped loops of the fabric. . or producing the colours by dyeing the said yarns. having weft threads put in at distances of about an inch asunder and this is done during the Operation of beaming the warp direct from the bobbins. the patter n-blocks must be elongated intended for when Brüssels or similar carpets or hearth-rugs. spotted. they are pro- perly arranged. to printing table into ration. In printing the gauze. yarn. or . all of which is done at one Ope- These warps. threads of the carpets . in order to form the warp and hearth-rugs they are then woven in an ordinary carpet loom. are required to be of the same colour. with a pattern or device complete upon the surface of such warp. Whytock. Thirdly. and printing on yarns. and accomplished by providing the block. of as many when arranged in the form of a warp. and Whytock and Clink the first two persons printing or dyeing the intended pattern or device complete upon the perfect or arranged warp.

the extra three-fifths of printed ganze. either in white or grey yarn. as may be found requisite. . intended as the ground of the pattern and afterwards printing upon the said piain goods. The carpet is then distended. and woven in an ordinary piain carpet loom. is removed to be steamedj washed.242 which the pattern THE ART OF WEAVING. about three-fifths longer than the finished pattern will require. in the ordinary printing . consist in weaving. is manner of wooUen re-beamed. or any colour. the colour parts of which may be raised. piain. in — The improvements a common simple loom. when printed. Brüssels or similar carpets. being removed as the Fourthly. cloth is woven. is wrought. washed. after which. when the cloth is completed. and the back stiffened with size or other suitable matter. as Wilton or velvet piled carpets and hearth-rugs. as the Operation of weaving will weave. or loop up. and dried. or looped fabrics. the preparatory weft threads of the ganze. The it ganze. any pattern or de vice. in the ordinary manner of block or machine printing. and dried in the usual way.

6. 118 as Seen from above. doubling from hanks. shaft d^ a series of wooden drums /. a. . will be sufficient to illustrate two viz. or separate bobbins. 116 and 118) upon which is keyed Upon this the pulley e^. constituting the first part of the improvements is an improved winding apFig. 116 represents a front elevation of paratus. c. c. These . a. d^ (see Figs.243 Fig. The machine consists of a slight frame a. an end view a plan or horizontal view of the same. (see Figs. and Fig. 6. and the other the bobbin s. are also mounted. methods of carrying the frame this part of the invention into effect. the upper part of which Supports the reels 6. or skeins. to which driving power is to be applied. which revolve with it and drive. Figs. m./. by friction of contact. the bobbins g^g and 7?i. 116 and 117) containing the hanks of yarn c. The lower part of the framing supports the driving shaft c?. 117 is ./. as one side of is represented having the hanks or skeins.

It will be observed. c*. (see Figs. 116 and 117. A*. or more threads (ac- . on the traversing guide-rail (see Figs. from ofF bobbins n. a*. will readily unwind from the bobbins. side by side. or stamping. two.244 THE ART OF WEAVING. by the drawing. intended to be woven into carpets or rugs. mounted the boards as a creel. namely.118 The apparatus necessary to perform the second part of the imreel- provements. or through the eyes thence through i*. c. c. The c. (either vertically or in Any number upon spindles 6^. are traversed to and fro. three. or hanks c. the friction guide rollers any other manner) in which are passed between and one. and thus always preserve an uniformity. the yarns from c*. so that the two. two. by means of the lever k. ^*. yarns or threads heing taken separately from the hanks more of them are brought together. 7i. of bobbins containing the yarns.) Kfr. 116 and 117) geared with the other end of the driving shaft. that a sirailar arrangement is represented upon the other side of the machine. in order to lay the yarn evenly upon the surfaces of the bobbins. c. in the stationary guide-rail i. at the same speed. i . the eyes or hooks A*. (see Figs. three. 119. are placed at a'. printing. the arranging. being moved by the heart or excentric motion /. The guide-rails i*. or more. and passed A. 117 and 118) instead of the reels b. and ing of the threads or yarns. in length and tension. c. except that the three threads are being wound together upon the bobbin m. b. is shewn in longitudinal elevation at Fig. These threads are then wound upon one of the bobbins g.

CARPETING. 245 .

the or ruled paper. as in nary figure weaving or stamped. as they are passed over the table. h'^^ Fig. is then left in the reed . of about the same width as the band of eacli Space of the wires in the sley or reed e . and again. and form a band a space or blank. by passing over the heated cy linder waymarkß or hieroglyphics used thence they * Inptead of the by Whytock. when woven. and the for one. types. It will . one type or block must be placed it. according as the pattern paper directs. taking one or more colours from a party -coloured sieve. cording to the quality of the carpet required) are drawn through . has been printed or stamped. Operation of ordinary block-printing or stamping. which must be governed by the pattern paper. . if the pattern directs one loop should be printed or to print or stamped black. 119. now to be per- form ed. When the entire bands or lengths of the warp threads have been printed or stamped. at the same dip. are added. has which corresponds with each two or and after the . two. — thus. and applying it direct to the yarns. lying at one time upon the surface of the table /r. 119) and are afterwards com- pletely dried. the breadth of the band öf threads. is formed the whole being screwed together or a single block may be used. as in Fig. be necessary to have an ordinary squared or plaid pattern paper. like those used for marking Shirts. been carefully coloured lipon the design paper. until one band block of a convenient length. to be produced. . of threads and spaces are all left alternately. every square or plaid of three threads of the intended carpet. a similar is number fiUed. or Squares. they must be each distinguished by a number or letter.246 THE ART OP WEAVING. stamp and then the number of blanks and printing types which foUow. stripes. 111 pattern. and screwed up into a small band block. are to be printed and not any regulär fancy pattern or device. Ä~. The printed or stamped threads are hung upon wooden l^ . say ten or twenty of such threads are passed through the reed. spots. until the reed The The ordi- ends of ^^5 the threads are then to be confined in a nipper or clasp tightly across the printing or and drawn stamping table is A^. side by side. yarns. in order tu printed and allow another length of the yarns drawn over the printing table. roUers to partially dry (as shown in Fig. by examining the workman or printer must be governed Small blocks or length required or directed in printing or colouring the yarn. or more loops of the carpet.* After the length of threads. must be provided. the nipper or clasp closed g\ is tobe on to the threads remove the length to be just which pass over the table A". only.

printing. with thread No. the same numbers being of course employed. carpets or rugs. as pieviously marked in the printing they may then be steamed. Figs. when taken off wound into hank forming only one Avarp thread. 120. The hanks must also be carefuUy numbered. shown in and passing Figs.CARPETING. When are these hanks are required to form the warp threads of bobbins. which numbered the same as the hanks. bobbins a a. space of the sley and so on for the entire width then the füll warp is to be bearaed on the roUer for the loom (see Fig. beginning first through the . or otherwise treated. 116. as we have already explained in the account of Whytock's carpet. they are to be wound again upon The 6^. as in wooUen the reels. are now to be placed as just described. 121) direct from the bobbins. Fig. are rails 247 m^ and being there separated by upright hanks upon the reels n n. The bobbins should then be taken in their numbered order. proceed over guide wires. 121 and 122 represent a plan and side view of a slight . the beam of warp may be leraoved to a common piain cloth loom (like that shown in Fig. washed and dried. which being done. the entire length of the piece. each — . 1. — pp 120) to be woven. it upon spindles and boards 117 and 120. and in sufRcient quantities to make a füll warp. or reed e.

instead of bearaing them at once for the loom. temporary loom. according to the quaUty of the intended fabric . I'igl21 I%122 A similar creel of bobbins a^ a* a^ to those before described. in order to warp thread or yarns into a preparatory gauze-work. (see Figs. or treble. in which the third part of these improvements effected.248 THE ART OF WEAVING. they are passed over guide or friction roUers c* c* through the headles d^ d^ and reed or sley e. . a weft thread o^ convert the thrown. 121 and 122) and at is every inch or more of space. but. double. are placed upon the boards and spindles ö^ ö^ and contain the warp threadsj either single.

has lately differs so been discovered. This method is. RUGS. by and sley e the gauze is then drawn ofF the beam/2/2. ö. sidered under the head of any brauch of weaving at as likely to supersede it will. Fig. which much from thos. properly speaking. without giving an account of it. means of the headles d^ d^ 122. without weaving any positive or permanent fabric or cloth partial . 249 thus a o^. however. upon the principle of it. 6. in 1838 and several machines are now in Operation. 123. We efforts may prove beneficial to many of our friends. to have a füll explanation of it. hearth-rugs &c.) MANUFACTURE OP CARPETS. &c. . be conall .CARPETING. time of This remarkable invention attracted considerable notice at the its first introduction. hearth-rugs <fcc. by means of the tooth gearing g^^ and winch or handle A^. 120 and is weaving effected with the temporary cross threads . A method and at the of manufacturing carpets. BY CEMENTING A NAP OR PILE ON PLAIN CLOTH. it is many of their present processes. while at work in the latter country and hope that our . and is then ready for printing. 123. in England and Belgium. be interesting to both weavers and manufacturers. .. represents a perspective view of a machine a. that we think our Work would be incomplete. is suitable for carrying out the first part of the invention. indeed. have made the annexed drawings and description from a machine. so unhke the ordinary modes of manufacturing carpets.e already described. that it cannot.. same time possesses so much merit. take out the work. a a quadrangular frame having the guides affixed by screws to or other suitable meansj allowing of their being readily removed Fig. (See Figs.

a groove or space between the the object of which will be hereafter fully which is a roUer or beam (see Figs. On the under side of each of the guides guide and the frame explained. and the warp. and he Springs or bends the second strip in such a manner as to allow of the two 6. the yarns or threads strips of composing the warp will be so arranged between the metal . 123) and guides 6. a. as if the be woven into a ordinary way of same weaving with warp and weft. and the sides of the frame a. h. The workman and draws it first places one of the strips of metal under rail the warp. is weighted and has friction cords or bands. «. b. The workman then work in the foUowing manner he has a number of frame . and then straightens the strip so as to lay the same parallel with the preceding ones then he takes a fourth strip and places it on the upper surface of the warp. ö. and depresses the warp evenly between the first and second strip. shown in the drawing. and parallel with the front of the frame a. next Strip ends thereof entering into the grooves formed between the guides b. a. wool. is cotton. may each be kept upright on their edges and in straight lines parallel to each other. c?. .250 THE ART OF WEAVING. (see Fig. the two ends of the strip being placed under the guides by which they are prevented rising up he then places the edgeways on the upper surface of the warp. The ends of the warp threads made fast to the front rail of the fastening a proceeds to Strips of rial . such as copper. in like manner to warp to the cloth roller of a loom. as and as are is is practised in looms for weaving. c?. third Strips. up to the end. thin metal. so that they the frame a. duced. . a. and the frame a. c. He then places another strip under and raises the same up evenly between the second and and he bends the strip in such a manner as to cause the two ends to enter the grooves formed between the guides and the sides of the frame «. and of a length somewhat greater than the width of the fabric to be produced in the machine the frame a. and the warp beam or roller d^ d. in like manner were to to winding or beaming a warp fabric. and are to be in width the strips being all of the same size what the depth of the desired nap is to be. or mixtures thereof. 6. and depresses the threads thereof evenly between the third and fourth strips. a. and with a he up evenly from time to time. causes the ends of the fourth strip to enter the grooves formed bestraight-edge tween the guides presses the strips b. silk. or other suitable mate. are to have a space between them equal to the width of the intended fabric to be pro. in the for a loom. is The frame supported by the legs or frame is c. zinc. or other fibrous materials. and when is füll. 123 and 125) on warped a number of yarns or threads of worsted.

and if the surfaces be extensive the pressure roller may be conveniently performed by means of a smooth iron roller it passed over the upper surface. arranged and prepared as above explained. The fabric thus if it is desired to be very correct in the is prepared then suitable it to be applied but it to is woven to textures or other surfaces. the Strips may be successively removed by cutting the yarn from side to side of the fabric. may car- be heated with an iron heater.CARPETS. &C. or Wilton carpet but it is not necessary to have the Strips grooved. preferable that the back of the woven fabric should be cemented on the warp. pets. then will be desirable to print the yarns or threads in the warp. as is shown in Fig. then. 124. succeeding strip. or other fabrics. and permitted to dry. In case be required to make with patterns. may be turned over. 124. RUGS. but they cutting. and by a sharp knife or other suitable cutting Instrument. is One more coats of India-rubber. by cementing thereto. as will dried. and cause them to spread out in such manner as to produce a fibres touching of the throughout. a. and in this condition the frame «. or other cement. . may be grooved. immediately on the warp or pile having been heated with the cement. so that when a suitable cement shall be placed or spread thereon and one sheet of fabric when the strips whole will become are removed by cutting. Fig. is India-rubber (caoutchouc but other materials. 123 and 124) or other suitable material employed. and another on to the fabric which is to conötitute the back. and then bring the two cemented surfaces together and press them well . but each pattern in the so lengthened as to allow of the bending printing must be up of the . to be spread over the surface of the warp. Yitrn YärvL ykrui "Yai'iL The warp thus arranged should have a smooth surface of metal or other suitable material passed over in Order to lay also to and pressed on the upper side and press the yarns or threads down evenly. or other suitable material. each over. The cementing :) material used by the inventor such as shellac. or may be employed instead. in like manner to cutting the warp when weaving velvet. as to pass first 251 then under. and before cutting out the strips of metal (as shown in Figs. such being made it hollow. or rugs. the be hereafter more fully explained. and this may be performed by having first spread a layer of the cement on the warp. as is the case with the wires used in making velvet.

) Fig. and this machine requires that the fabric . Fig.252 THE ART OP WEAVING. and guides 6. are formed into a cylinder. 126. and the colours used must well penetrate the warp (see tock's and HenshalPs methods. 125 Fig. Why- yarn. 125 Fig. when produced should be unwound before the cutting out of the . shows another arrangement of machinery for performing a like Operation of bending lengths of threads or yarns to that above described the only difference being that the frame a. 127.

And it will be seen an axis with suitable bearings at each end. : The person who works the pattern is to pro- ceed as follows By means of a needle he draws the worsted. AAA Over is AA used are quadrangular frames affixed is on the board B B. will be in this the same letters indicating similar parts machine as were used in Fig.) may be emthat the cylinder a. in order that it may be turned round by the workman as he Another means of performing this Operaproceeds with his work. wool. paintings. has ployed in the foUowing manner or yarns on a roller or . depending on the taste of the person who works the which relates other napped to another fabrics. a. such as worsted work. 127 represents a frame or apparatus suitable for working the pattern when performing the second part of the invention. in which case the napped fabric being made. as above explained. 126. yet under some circumstances it will be preferable not to perform that Operation. which would serve as a back. Strips : 253 by the in other respects the description above given. We have stated that the looped up threads or yarns were to be cemented to a cloth. drawings. it is to be cemented directly on shown at Fig. and the yarns or threads cemented together and to a suitable fabric. 123 and 124. Fig. as in Figs. the around them. mode of manufacturing carpets. but is capable of being so worked as to produce very ornamental surfaces and may be made to resemble tapestry and highly finishe^. such as in making a suitable napped fabric for the covering of hats and bonnets. tion of bending a number of threads or yarns (in such manner that each portion of thread or yarn when cut shall be cemented at a point or part intermediate of its length. rugs. to the hat or bonnet. or other yarn or thread through a hole or mesh in the canvas at one end. and the two ends thereof rise to the surface and form the warp of the fabric.CARPETS. and the Strips cut there-from as above explained. as above explained. and . pattern as will be hereafter explained. aided sufficient. in place of cementing it to any fabric. a. 123. RUGSj &C. and which differs from that above described. We will now proceed to describe the second part of the invention. for evenly stretched canvas. and then bending the warp over and under a series of thin strips of metal. in such manner that the canvas at each end shall be stretched to coincide one with the other as nearly as possible can be done. as is strips may have thread or yarn wound spirally and then a number of such covered strips are to be packed side by side in a frame a. in place of warping the threads beam. each of the end frames A.

. whether of worsted. before commencing to force out the mass of yarn by the ram. in somepat- Thus. in order that the same may be cut off after it has been combined by cementing it into a fabric. through a corresponding hole in the canvas in the other frame Aj commencing the work at the lower corner hole. cotton. portions of surfaces. and a piston or rammer inserted into the box or case 0. and that the shape of the ass was marked on the canvas. 128. according as the be performed by marking the canvas. and subsequently transferred and subdivided into a multitude of surfaces. by counting the meshes. fitting closely on all sides. wool. then with white and then with red. force out portions or lengths of the yarn. and are drawn equally . which is to be encompassed with a box or case C. : or it may. Having performed this Operation. which. against which the ram is to press. he would Surround the warp of yarn or thread with the box or case C. ac- on the frames silk. when . will. Above we have given our readers an account of the mode of working without reference to the pattern and we shall now proceed to show how a design or pattern may be worked in the frame. of the canvas across from side to side was ground or pattern. drawing the thread or yarn through each of the frames. as has been above explained terns. tili the yarn has been passed would be a long quadrangular mass of yarn or thread. the person working would continue to draw white yarn or thread through the canvas so long as the lower part of the frame was to receive the ground. the boxes or cases C. (see Fig. and working successively through each hole of the lower rows of the surfaces of then the next above. row of meshes or holes. should be cemented to the ram and permitted to dry. portions of the . vas. as will be hereafter more fuUy described and the ends of the fibres in the box C. . and drawing through colours according to the order of the pattern set before the person perform- ing this part of the work. and so on tül all the holes were worked through and the said quadruped completed. or tight) and the work is to be continued there through every hole. that the canshould be fine or coarse. however. or fabric used We would first remark. as above explained. (taking care that the thread or yarn canvas between the frames A lie even and smooth. thereof. or A cording to the degree of fineness of the yarn or thread used.) open at both ends and having so encompassed and secured the mass of yarn or thread. the same may be cut away from the canvas or fabric.254 THE ART OF WEAVING. supposing that the pattern to be produced was a red jack-ass on a white ground. when desired. other fibrous materials or mixtures and the pattern or design is to be worked or executed with the needle.

or such like combination of fibres may be produced in masses. and worked therefrom according to the invention. Hence each case. in Order to produce successive surfaces. as above described. which should be drawn on paper such as now used in working worsted by having the colours in small equaland consequently forms no part of the present contrivance. 128 represents a perspective view of an apparatus or machine wherein a number of warp rollers «. will successive portion or slice cut ofF from the end of the be a repetition of the same pattern. or portions of surfaces. by counting the meshes or interstices of the fabric. by screws or otherwise. or other napped fabric. de- pending on the nature of the fibrous materials employed. Each layer or warp of yarns is made fast to a rod. and then. a.) When the frames are füll a case C is applied. just sufficient to same closely embrace the raass of threads or yarns. AAAAA retain the (see Fig.CARPETSj RUGS. as is work on canvas. which being cemented before cutting. in suitable cases or boxes. . 127. whereby a mass of yarns. and the of getting up the same. draw in threads of the colour required. which being combined together will produce a carpet. which keeps the layers of thread separate (as shown in the Fig. and from the one above explained but by both the object of this part of the invention may be obtained. on the frame sized Squares. and • mode allow of a succession of cuts or slices being successively taken there- from.. to give We have chosen this simple pattern in order a clear description of this part of the mode of working as practised tion by the ingenious will readily inventor. &C. or threads. a. Such boxes or cases C. each having wound any suitable fibre. may be of any thereon threads or yarns of desired to be produced. of varied taste of the design. that well understood. the . Fig. We will now explain two other modes. and together in such manner. or rüg. the same is to be enclosed in a suitable case or box C. and Or in some cases the patas may be marked in the design paper. according to the fabric warp rollers being equally weighted. that in forcing the through the case in which they are in- mass of threads or yarns cludedj they will be prevented getting out of the correct position. slightly differing from each other. degrees of intricacy. depending on the is is. will form the nap of fabrics. but from the foregoing descripto a person be able perform other patterns. There are other methods by which masses of yarns or fibres may be obtained within cases or boxes 0.) and correctly placed. tern may be marked on the canvas or fabric. one warp above the other and having so obtained a mass of threads or yarns. 255 being formed in parts capable of being put together readily.

in order to cut off each successive layer or India-rubber cement should be evenly spread over the external ends of the body of warps. 129 shows another mode of obtaining a body of threads or . the cut or slice being them se- made between the cases or boxes by a sharp thin knife. in order curely. in order to retain the nap secure. or more. and case or box C. /: JBojz ojr Ü Case A VA to hold convenient length. Each of worked off by having suitable cases and forced through them. starting with several such narrow cases. as above explained. each only as deep as the intended nap. and they may be successively cut from the body of warps. securely en- compass the body of yarns or threads.256 THE ART OF WEAVING. the cases or boxes C. a slice. may be cut off. Fig. these boxes or cases C. slice. will then be pistons placed. say twelve inches. taking care that before cutting off one box or case. and applying one around the yarn as one is cut off. In order to cement all the ends together. or in where the length of nap will allow of it. Then. or such suitable razor-like Instrument. the cases C being hinged or or other suitable otherwise. which is a convenient length. may be made of parts.

is roller. We 33 . being cut ofF called to form napped It consists in what may be a folding machine. in order or surfaces to (fec. 6. and c. napped fabrics it is which the threads or yarns are beamed. yarns into a box or case. whereby a warp of yarns or threads. 257 slices allow of a succession of fabrics. from which may be cut a succession of each shce forming the napped surface. a warp on to 6. or of intermixed colonrs. and when a number of layers of the warp have been folded. accord- ng to tlie will of the party^ and depending on the description of desired to produce. a. . which is at one end of the case. and a rod or other suitable intrument is laid across the top of the warp is then taken evenly back to the other end of the warp the case C C. the rods being of such a length as to protrude beyond the end of the case C C. and by this means a body of threads will be packed in a case or slices. or part of the napped surface of a fabric. part of a .CARPETS. the rods are kept pressed down by the weighted Instruments D. is the top or cover of The warp is made fast to a rod. is a table . either all of one colour. at each end of the box or case C C. and the warp again brought to the other end of the case and another rod laid on tili the warp is folded. in order to allow the layers to go more closely together. and C. and in order to pack the whole closely. RUGS. and another rod laid on. box or case in which it is desired to pack a quantity of threads or yarns. the case C C and is then drawn evenly to the opposite end of a case. box. and the case is füll. the lower rods may be successively removed.

and so on afterwards applied. but we would remark. we would. When sufficiently dry. or parts of the pattern. that we see nothing to prevent the application of steam or water power. to be laid on to the surface of fibres and permitted to dry sufficiently before the ram or caused to force a quantity equal to the length of the de- nap from the case C. to canvas or other or to other surfaces. instead of manual labour. together. and other similar fabcementing on canvass or other fabrics before cutting and such hke fabrics. the cases or boxes is desired to be may be made into such forms as will. Having now given to the reader a practical description of this novel method of manufacturing carpets. equal to the length of the nap when that quantity to be cut off with a sharp knife. that they m^y be of other forms. and place the patterns. the whole by cement. where the inserting process was going on. in performing all the Operations required. or other suitable cement. where an extensive surface napped. is and India piston sired is rubber. cut on a bevel or angular direction. to raise the By this means. and on examibox C. and the ends of the yarn which is in the case or box. and the face of the ram Hence each slice or surface will be protruded and also of a bevel. Whatever be the course pursued of which threads in boxes or cases. and for hats where it is desired to have a laid nap. which arwill allow of the patterns or ornamental designs (which require the most time in packing) being and the threads or yarns worked into separate boxes which are to form the ground may in obtaining bodies of yarns or be in separate boxes or cases C. is cut up into slices. the fibres at the end may protude. which may be fabrics.258 have thus far THE ART OF WEAVING. a length is nation the cement appears to be complete over the whole surface. at the distance of about 2 yards from the scene of action. the piston or ram is to force out of the case or . when combined rangement or cases. or other suitable instrument. before dismissing the subject. . produce the shapes required. might easily be inserted per minute . and when cemented together will produce a laid nap surface or fabric. are to be again coated with tili cement. depending on circumstances. strips of metal. or in place of cutting when the fibres have been only combined with cement. further remark. as above explained. 60 nap or pile. ßy which arrangement. rics. rugs. should be carefuUy shaved or cut off evenly. spoken of the frames or cases into which the threads or yarns are packed as being rectangular. in the proper place. then this may be accomplished by having the end of the boxes or cases from which the cut is made. on a bevel. they may be further combined by .

is prepared as follows Turkey ganze warp. this description. allowing 20 strips to the only 2880 strips would be re- quired for the 4 yards.* It derives its beauty and lustre from the peculiar mode of preparing the weft. o' Sae smooth o' heart. another contrivstrips as fast as ance might be actively engaged in cutting out the they advanced with the cemented fabric quite dry. would. as an Imitation shawl. then provost of Paisley which circumstance is thus alluded to by a local poet * About this period. of course. or at least give way. meet with any difficulties. which would here be The distance of this point from the last inserted strip . 259 a cementing or soldering apparatus could be at work simultaneously and at the distance of other two yards from this. . and. vented fabric. " Philanthropie Rab. Buchanan exhibited a specimen of his newly inworthy fellow-townsman. The ingenious Alexander Buchannan. can be woven without any other apparatus than a ground mounting and two treadles. and with the superintendence of a mere might be working 10 Should any to embark in such an undertaking. that a pattern which would require a large harness.. which is called chenille. He And saidj it gaz'd wi' wonner. gab. yards of perfect We think nap or pile produced per day. so and the manner in which the colours are afterwards arranged in much. that from 300 to 305. is woven in a 1200 reed. twist to throw the ends of the cut weft into a spiral Mr. though rough Soon as he saw the curious wab. When this fabric comes from the loom. when opposed by the combined powers of body and mind. Scotland. they must not be discouraged for every obstacle must vanish. Robert Farquharson. according to the kind of shawls to be manufactured. from one machine of hours. Upon . of net yarn. cotton. with a . it is cut machine) in the centre between the dentfuls of warp receiving a little up (by a suitable and after .CHENILLE. who may chance . CHENILLE. the weft being either silk. or 306. to his : . from beginning to the end thereof. : — twist or dentful in every fifth interval. of the enterprizing individuals. vented this beautiful about the year 1820. his honour. or worsted. cliild. Esq. infabric. of Paisley. The weft. be about 4 yards inch of the piled or napped fabric." was a genuine job.

is again painted on a separate coloured. leaving a blank space on each side fusion. tles. with eight first re- peats in the breadth of a yard. the one behind the mounting hanging over the warp roller and kept tight by a small weight. showing the pattern. agree. and so on tili the weft for the whole pattern is finished. or that which its corresponds to a ground lash with different colours. a guide reed. it is THE ART OF WEAVING. put in the reed for the second pick. are to be figured. The warp which of the shawl is is likewise a Turkey gauze. 4 red. so that when it a sufficient quantity of chenille has been is produced from a warp. ready for the weaver. 2 yellow. by shifting the boxes of the lay at the end of each coloured The slip marked No. 1 by reading it. which.260 direction. whether silk. 2 is next space. give the fabric the appearance of a fine glossy shag. to slip of design paper. or w^orsted. the same as that the foundation of the weft. the slip of paper passes through the by a bit of rosin. we slip of paper No. 1 The ally weft is cut in lengths of eight yards. alike on both but sides. to prevent con- Supposing a web of trimmings were take the to be woven. and the colours woven in the same manner. for the . when they .. as the one is thrown in from the right band and the other from the left.) In weaving these shawls. (see Chenille paper. as for an Imitation harness . and the other is fastened at the The weaver then has only to change his Shutface of the cloth. page 511. &c. to is the weaver. when For finished. these slips are all numbered. when figured. customary to make shawls of the re- mainder. the weaver works a space of each of these colours on the warp. 1 black. and then three of the common weft. must be exactly the breadth of the trimming. The more tightly . there are 2 Spaces yellow. one pick of the chenille is thrown in. 2 white. and the fibres of the chenille. as pointed out by the design. and these are woven in spaces adapted different parts of the design the pattern is painted on design paper. cotton. as for a sample. and fastened at each end to a piece of tape. 1 white. but two spaces are here make them : better seen by the weaver. but in reverse order to the first. agreeably to its respective size on the slip of design paper. each space of the design. When of weft the shawls are to be of one uniform colour. being the quantity usu- wound on one bobbin or quill. only one kind is necessary . pick of chenille. and this will make eight picks in a yard-wide web and the bobbins are taken in succession. projecting in all directions. ably to the numbers of the slip of design paper. different to the colours are employed.

) and then w^eaving such that all strips on a ground. 49. Notwithstanding apparent perfection of the methods employed in producing some of the fancy textures which we have already described. comparatively. and its edges acquire a tendency to . improvements. &c. shawls. v/hich are to be cut into strips. for who obtained a England. have the appearance of silk.) and this is repeated until the required number of strips is completed. 50 and 53 :) that is. or plush. we have to record improvements of immense importance upon several of them. cotton. so to the für or cut edges of the strips is may be brought . know. and used as weft. wooUen. and even some individuals who art. somewhat in the manner of chenille weft. weaving. and the warp acts on the weft in the manner of ganze or cross-weaving (see Figs. by Messrs. very the consider themselves masters of the little about it. with great success. threads. The manufacture which we have just been has recently been adapted patent. is woven . 1839. so as to form either a piain or coloured surface. two. or other fibrous materials. in the following manner the reed are filled : — One. linen. linen. having the warp or threads spaced or set in the reed at certain equal distances from each other. the manufacture of carpets. für. the thicker is and the pile becomes. mats. cotton. while the other side piain and is also applicable to stools. yet. or of a mixture first of two or more of these materials. A texture or fabric of woollen. (but with this difference. intersects the warp. when thrown in. two. in considering (chenille) to carpets. The warp being thus spaced and arranged in the loom. the chenille is 261 closer twisted. and then a space of the double the length of the für required. of Paisley.) is left empty then one. tapestry. [equal to and another space is left empty. that the two edges of the strip shall incline more towards each other. covers of chairs. the weft is thrown in..CHENILLE. the warp threads. which we shall now proceed to explain. Fig. appears to us. as above described (see . one side of the fabric. so as to any cloth or fabric requiring to be velvet. more dents of w^th the warp threads. Templeton and Q^uiglay. The invention consists in weaving fabrics of silk. This It species of fabric likewise well adapted to the rüg and carpet manufacture. 130 instead of being left parallel. rugs. dated 25th July. or tables. are crossed over each other by each tread on the treadles and the weft. or raised. as in common . or more dents of the reed are again filled with warp reed. that no person who is unacquainted with weavits ing can have any idea of the variety and ingenuity of processes . rugs.

manufactured is partly with the prepared weft. 130. in FF of the warp threads have upon the causing both sides of the weft. Fig. or otherwise. 130 and 131. On this web being cut into strips. and six picks E E E . are all thrown up on one side. also exsome degree. through the vacant spaces already described. strip. ing. chenille weft. At Fjgs. and brought close together. The Fig. Fig. the lateral fibres of both sides of each side. to incline fibres. leaving the serve as a back-bone or back-band to the lateral cut.) and . when to warp threads threads or towards each other. 131 exhibits two crossing threads G G. instead of the warp or body thread. formed to he many horizontal lines as there are picks of the pre- pared weft in the cloth . are represented two modes of cross-weavand intersections of the weft. The process is somewhat similar to that followed in making (that all is. in crossings produce after it has been cut. are brought upon one all sides of ing from and into close contact. in consequence of the cross-weaving which the warp has received. after these lines of the design paper are cut asunder into strips^ and nuinhered^ the weaver enters them through the read of the loom^ (beginning with number one.) This Fig.) the appearance of the für when woven. and the effect the hibits. Three picks of weft or für D D D are uncut. cut in the centre. that the für or pile. come together. as in the case project- of che- nille weft. (B B is a repetition of the same. 130.) of three threads in the dent those two dents-fuU being separated by one empty dent C C. turn- ing round a cord or dead thread H H. exhibiting the crossings of the warp.) when cut. are two dents-fuU of warp A A of Turkey gauze. copied on design paper. which is accomplished with "bead lams" (see gauze weaving. 49. (by the turned up ends of the cut weft threads 1 1 1. but with this diÖerence.262 THE ART OF WEAVING. Fig. or lateral fibres of both sides of each strip. exhibits the effect which the crossings für. the weft. In Fig. The with as pattern intended to be produced on cloth.

there being fewer threads of the catcheris warp than the ground-warp. 263 commences to ueave the colours of weft^ in the exact order' in which the colours are painted an these pieces ofpaper. Antwerp in 1582. Did zealous Europa learn of Pagan hands. with a brush. and firmly up with the He now throws in as many ground or binder picks as are deemed necessary form the ground in the für. " This bright art. reader in the introductory part of this Work. were those of Flanders. and then repeats the Operation of weaving is and so on. without mentioning any particular date. gians did or did not derive their is them the invention of tapesWhether the Belknowledge from the East. or that part of the ground-warp drives it which reed. certainly due the honour of having restored which . The manufactories for weaving tapestry which acquired re- putation in Europe.weft lipon the surface. and they appear to have been long estabhshed in that country. The weaver proper place having thrown in a pick of the instrument. which may be ternied the catcher-warp a shed is formed by both . to receive the ground-weft. until the required length of cloth produced.TAPESTRY. As we have. less resistance In some used offered to bringing the für of the weft to the surface. The ground-warp of the cloth is prepared with an extra warp. excell'd. raises all fur-weft. While she assay'd with rage of holy war To desolate their fields : but old the skill Long were the Tyre also. to them this curious art. Guicceardini. in th' historic web. Phrygians' pict'ring looms renown'd j art. warps. sets it in its with his hand. in his history of the Netherlands. wealthy seat of And eider Sidon. in all to varieties. before they were introduced either into England or France the : precise period is when tapestry was first manufactured by the Belgians uncertain. principally at Arras. alternately. or otherwise. but a shed of the catcher-warp only for the prepared weft . and then. a portion of the ground warp is for fixing the für." Dyer.) given ample evidence of the its of the ancients in the manufacture of tapestry. skill it (to which the is referred. of the cloth. cases. pubascribes to lished at tries. or other the fibres of the für from the catcher-warp. is to fix it on the to fabric. TAPESTRY. comb. its only remains give some account of first its progress after introduction into Europe.

but under the patronage of Henry lY. a Dutchman. which was conducted by several from Flanders that monarch. and that he grants him the annual sum of two thousand pounds. to enable him to support his establishment. to wools and silks. commenced the working of tapestry. but it was not until t?ie reign of James I. Marcel (Quartier St. which his descendants increased. and a great proficient in the * The designs were furnished by Thomas Cleyn. and gave the sum of two thousand six hundred and seventysix pounds sterUng towards the advancement of a manufactory. this costly art we are indebted for the great perfection to has been brought in Europe. and one Jean Lianson. Henry lY. One of these named Jean filled Gobelin amassed considerable wealth. by WiUiam Sheldon.* knowledgement from Charles I. their attention to the who however did not confine dyeing of wool. so. dyers of wool were settled in the Faubourg St.) who was re- tained by Sir Francis for that purpose. a workman. which was estabhshed by Sir Francis Crane. with a view ture for Versailles of providing the costly and magnificent furni- and the Tuilleries. To these succeeded. in 1655. The patterns first used for making these fabrics in England. about the year 1606. : whom he had invited but this.264 gives a life THE ART OP WEAVING. named Glucq. first established a tapestry manufactory in Paris. As early as the fourteenth Century. however." an acforeign artists. of tapestry The weaving introduced into To which France. at Mortlake in Surrey. for ten years. which until that period had been confined to the low countries. clever artists. Marcel) at Paris. that he owed Sir Francis Crane the sum of six thousand ponnds Sterling for tapestries. paintings of the best masters. that it acquired any particular reputation. and from that period the royal manufactory of the " Hotel des Gobelins" dates its origin. the waters of which stream were considered as favourable to the process of dj^eing. were obtained from pieces which had already been worked by There is an extract in Rymer's " Foedra. The Gobelin family were succeeded by Messrs. (a Fleming. . if at all. and would pro- bably have been entirely had not Colbert the minister of Louis XIY. and at length renouncing the business of dyers. va- rious Offices of state. Canaye. This monarch greatly patronized the art. again remodeled it upon a more secure foundation. scarcely. inferior lo the was first England in the time of Henry VIII. on the banks of the Bievre. like many similar institutions founded by was greatly neglected at his death.

such. 265 after- Louis XIV. are allowed to be sold. which were still the property of the Gobelin family. from his marriage to the conquest of Franche Comte were also from the design of this master. the four elements. as the colours are more permanent. The Gobelins tapestry was formerly made in lengths or pieces. Le ßrun. which had untilthen been prosecuted with varions decrees of success. Connected with the establishment of the Gobelins. the width of which varied from four to eight feet and when one * Some pieces are valued at from 50. but the articles is regulated less by the size than by the work. Colbert.TAPESTRY. weavers and dyers. talents He here painted the series of the battles of Alexander. which were afterwards worked in tapestry. and still remain the finest productions of the Gobelins. finite is 9ne for the infor dyeing of wool. a drawing school. and has since been successfully carried on.000 to 125. under the direction of able chemists. and an annual course of lectures delivered upon chemistry as applicable to dyeing. or for presents made by the king but some few pieces. greatly declined. were brought from Flanders. At the period of the French Revolution this manufacture. at the Suggestion of his minister. it was again revived. The four seasons. although not to About the year 1801. 34 . and it occasionally principal acts of Louis .000 francs were expended yearly on these productions. not designed as . where an number of shades. The cost of price of the different two to six years to finish a single piece some of these pieces is enormous. his admirable which he communicated that beauty and grandeur. are chiefly destined for royal palaces. attached to the establishment and 1667 the celebrated painter. which entirely supported by the government. and the history of the famous XIV. but under the government of Napoleon. for the palace of St. . The pieces executed are generally historical subjects. wards purchased the buildings and gardens. mostly unknown in trade^ are dyed the tapestry. Wool There is is now also exclusively used. reauires the labour of from of tapestry. in which the principles is of the art are taught. seventy-six the same extent as formerly. from which circumstance the tapestiy made there. persons were employed at the Gobelins. has ever since been known in as " Gobelins tapestry.000 francs. and . art.* is beauty and difficulty of the The productions of this manufactory. Cloud 150. was to appointed chief director of the Gobelin manufactory. were so well calculated to produce." Skilful artists. chiefly in the preparation and it was estimated that of tapestry.

so that they seldom require to be joined even in the largest pieces. as it were." in the or low warp. A.* The longitudinal threads are separated from one another by suitable contrivances. seeing to go to the examine the piece he nothing of the effect he produces. that the tapestry frame should in respects bear so dose a resemblance to Ghelen's machine or loom. page 18 (see Introduction) the opinion and it goes far to strengthen we had previously formed of the superiority of talent possessed . and being obliged other side of the loom whenever he wishes to is executing. Two pestry. which now abandoned. 105. as in looms weavingj the painting intended the warp. be denominated the warp beam. composed of twisted wool. presented at Fig. therefore. so that the artist could not see the face of the design he was weaving. we are not to be understood as insinuating that either the French or Belgians copied Mr. re. which is still used. however. but only Struck upon the same idea. who have not visited this most interesting The frame or loom in which the tapestry is worked is of the most simple construction.266 of larger dimensions THß ART OF WEAVING. being the cloth beam. the frame is fixed perpendicularly the artist. the other. was required. Ghelen's frame. may perhaps convey some idea of the manufacture to those establishment. before he also works. with ratchet heads hold them. bhndfoided. The following brief description of the mode at pre- sent practised at the Gobehns. methods were formerly practised in the manufacture of ta- known first as those of the '• hasse is lisse^^ and the " haute for lisse . similar to the ratchet R and clicks or dogs to and dog S in Fig. by the ancients over the moderns by this assertion. by chance. until the whole In the top headles piece was finished and taken out of the frame. roller wo und upon the upper which may. between these posts two beams are placed. consisting merely of two upright posts with suitable cross-bars at top and bottom rollers or . they are manufactured of much fine-drawii together with such care that greater widths. and provided * It all which the reader will easily under- is a very remarkable coincidence. and the process tapestry being common be copied being placed beneath was very remarkable. or high warp. however. from the fact of the worked on the wrong side. as we are credibly informed that they had never heard of it. after much reflection upon the ßubject . of course. several of these vvere sewn or no seams were discernable. To principally these rollers or beams. are connected the longitudinal threads or warp. to the warp threads were arranged horizontally in a frame. At the present day. made for that purpose.

In particular. E. sufficiently open to him to see the painting behind For working the broach. The comb is also of wood. to introduce the cross their proper places. Pavy. then taking it a broach of the proper cisely the among the threads of the warp. whence gradually decreases to the extremity of the teeth. and looks he inserts at his design. a and an iron needle the first is formed of hard wood. with a small handle. or tufts of yarn. and all that too through his own instrumentaHty Tapestry weavers generally die of a broken heart * Should the workman have a what feelings of exquisite delight ! . The artist places is himseif behind the frame. he first turns colour.ueen Yictoria. which are it. to see their effect. spread like a cobweb. As a of his sort of guide for the artist. and serving the same purpose it as the weaver's shuttle. a comb. springing up in the most glowing colours amid the threads. which are form the picture. and to properly adjust them with his needle. before his enraptured eyes. material of which composed is the fibre of the banana. for entire An new or discovered by the palace. are required. 267 admit the threads in The division of the threads is effected in order to to cross threads. with his back towards the picture he about copy . and an inch thick at the back. Having placed the wool. and secured by patent. stand. round which the wool is wound.* species of tissue and tapestry has been invented M. which are more wool. tapestry. about 7f inches in length. should there be occasion.TAPESTRY. 70 and its explanation . or less divided. difficult without a minute examination to discover the it is dif- ference.) this he repeats every time it is necessary to change his colour. eight or nine inches long. and f of an inch thick. The aloe. and other trees and plants which are plentifuUy lively sense of the charms of natura. that it is It bears so close a resemblance to silk of the best kind. ending in a point. according to the greater or less de- gree of fineness of the intended work : it is used to press close the when any to line or colour does not set well. when he has thus wrought several rows he passes to the other side. with must he gaze upon the form of a beautiful female. three instruments . we would refer to some coverin gs of chairs and tapestry which have been especially ordered by her Majesty Q. which he brings across each other with his fingers. in pre- same way that weavers read their pattern s on the simple draw loom (see Fig. which promises to become an article of great coramercial value. he beats or presses it down with his comb and or simples of the . he traces an outhne of his subject on the threads enable warp in front.

000 inhabitants is this country famous for its shawls. . as well as in many other important branches of exceed the strength of experiments were on an average made at Toulon. however. found in the West India Islands and by very accurate experiments made by order of the Fiench Government. and Art thrives most Where commerce has enriched the busy coast He Catches all improvements in his flight. give a minute account of the origin and properties of the Cashmere Angora Goats. as laid by him before the Society of arts. in proving become also of ultimate benefit to the colony.) 1825 and 1828 transported to that territory two flocks of the finest sheep procurable throughout Germany. proceeding to describe the method of manufactur- ing those beautiful fabrics. in the northern part of Hindostan its chief city : is of same name. . Before. And stirs his own to match them or excel. Imports what others have invented well. We understand that the French Minister of Marine has introduced ropes and cables made of this material into the Royal Navy and as it is so much superior to hemp. " These are the gifts of Art. R. and contains about 205. Spreads Foreign wonders in his country's sight. Alternately the nations learn and teach. each with each." Cowper. vdth a statement of Mr. New South Wales (says Mr. 'Tis thus reciprocating.268 THE ART OP WEAVING. in which expectation. Riley's views in purchasing them. The upon cordage which had been six months exposed. he has been encouraged from the results that have attended the importation of the Saxon breed of advantageous to himself. CASHMERE SHAWLS. London. the wools of New South Wales. E. the arts. It might also be used with profit in the manufacture of pile carpets and hearth-rugs. we see no reason why it might not be advantageously employed in the cordage of the military and commercial navy of this country. or rather of the new race. they have been found to hemp by one-fourth. sheep into their favoured ciimates. anticipating that the fulfilment of his views would. surrounded with . momitains. we will in the first place. my father had also long contemplated introducing there the celebrated Cashmere " Many years since a resident in in and having goat. Cashmere the is a very rieh and fertile province. .

he solicited permission pure Cashmeres. and that the con- . he having. under these unfavourable circumstances. by the Yiscomte Perrault de Jotemps. "Iwas then advised. Polonceau his solicitude to part with any number of them at this period (the only alienation he has made from males the favoiirite producta of being two King of Wirtemberg. and in consequence of his taste for agricultural pursuits. intention of sending my father deferred for a time his any of them to Australia. that the average produce of the whole collection did not exceed three ounces each . and in Octoberl828. during an agricul- on the Continent. Ternaux is a great shawl tural tour manufacturer and the sizes elite is also a Peer of France. to see the stock of M. stamped features as short soft belonging to one race exclusively they were covered with long coarse hair. at one of the Duchesse de of hair. he subseqnently. and sometime estates of the seeing. Polonceau would then prob- ably be enabled to dispose of a sußicient number. succeeded in increasing the quantity qualities of the and value of the Cashmere goat beyond the most sanguine is anticipato tions . under which so small a quantity of down was concealed.CASHMERE SHAWLS. with scarcely any . Polonceau at Yersailies. so rapid that it of a union with this fine animal and his own The improvement even in the first drop was to persevere. Ternaux. this gentleman " ingenieur en cAe/" (chief engineer) the French government. Onen (Mons. directed my attention to the Cashmere flocks of Mons. and in proportion to their improvement. those also of 269 liand being now eagerly purchased by the most intelligent Van Dieman's manuany facturers in preference to those of equal prices imported from part of Europe.) . generation from the males produced solely by the of the unwillingness however M. by a happily selected cross. " With this object in view. bück with an extraordinary to try the effects silkiness an Angora having more the Beri. judging that M. therefore. induced him and when I first saw his small herd they were in the first third cross . Ternaux. where he preserved various of his herds colours. for the sum of and two females to the 3400 francs. enlightened ship of the was also honoured with the director"/erme modelt'' (model farm) at Grignon. character of long coarse but very soft down. He became purchase a chosen selection of the original imporafter among the first to tation of the cashmere goat from M. the animals were a mixture of to and from a perfect white if brown. 1 metthis distinguished man at his seat at St.) caused my father again to postpone his intentions until my return from the Australasian Colonies.

with the interest they express in their intended introduction into the British Colonies. W. for which purpose went to France with the Intention of all his purchasing a small flock of M. shouid I find expectations of the which having perfectly ascertained. he again re- curred to his favourite project of introducing these animals into our colonies. Polonceau to admit of a similar selection from his herd with also two bucks and two does of the pure Angora race from the Duchesse de Beri. that required eight or ten generations to produce a down simply pared to the equal to their inferior quantity and quality when comby produce of the Cashmere Angora. Ternaux and M. (Monsieur Jaubert has been a member of the Chamber des Deputies for several years past. looking sanguinely forward not only to their rapid increase but also to crossing the valuable breed. Riley revisited France. in 1822. Polonceau. has obtained little animals of the second cross very rendered his inferior to the breed that name so distinguished. ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE NEW RACE OF CASHrace of MERE OR ANGORA GOATS.) under the protection and patronage of the French government. but only obtained so tardy an it amelioration. stancy and properties of the race would by that time be more decidedly determined. become thus the means of forming a desirable addition to the already much prized importations from I New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land. who has has experiment with the native goat of France.270 THE ART OF WEAVING. in 1829. the latter result tried the am led to the conclusion that may be accomplished. as M. Polonceau created the new Cashmere Angora goats. and again induced M. Cashmere Angora breed Jackson. and three males. Polonceau to cede to me ten females in kid. Jaubert. and several eminent manufacturers. exclusive of their own pure down. by crossing the pure Cashmeres imported into France by M. with the pure breed afterwards introduced into France from Angora. with the Intention of proceeding as speedily as possible with them to Port verified. He has also crossed the com- mon goat with the pure Cashmere. of the peculiar qualities of their improved down. and I fortiinately was able to convey the whole in health to London. in füll common goats of the country with this expectation that they may. Polonceau. " On my arrival in England I at the close of ISSl." From the opinion generally entertained of their value. M. I at length succeeded in persuading M. .

abundance. quahty with the smallest proportion of et In 1826. and has proved during the several years which have elapsed. and in consequence. and more easily nourished common managed goat. Polonceau's flock. fineness. and he states that the whole of his herd produce from twelve to twenty ounces . the Jury appointed to judge the merits of the objects exposed. also awarded him their medal. M. in one season. thus showing the astonishing advantages this new breed has over the uncrossed Cash- mere. the " Societie Royale Centrale d' Agriculture de Paris" acquainted with the interesting result of M. the constancy of their qualities. he has since constantly propagated the produce of that cross among themselves. awarded him their large gold medal at their session. as it combines the softness of Cashmere with the lustre of silk. careful only of preserving animals entirely white for and of employing in the greatest propagation those bucks which had the of the finest down quantity and hair. at that time in the third generation. without any return having ensued to the individual characters of either of the primitive races. new race In 1827. requiring solely the care that is generally observed with valuable breeds . that is to say. the Cashmere Angora than the easily goats. that. being of this and considering that the down was more valuable than that of the East. a judicious choice of those employed for their reproduction. This gentleman are more robust also states. which never yield more than four ounces and seldom exceed two ounces each. lustre. 4th April 1826. Polonceau has goats that have yielded as many as thirty ounces of the down. prove that this new race may be regarded as one entirely fixed and established. and nominated him a member of their society in the foUowing year. at the exhibition of the produce of National Industry. and that thev are less capricious and more in a . and that it was the most beautiful of filaceous materials known. and abundance of their down without any degeneration. and softness. that an entire satisfactory result in the Union of the most essential quahties of down. 271 ment Since that period he has unremittingly persevered in the improveso immediately effected. length. At present the animals are in the twelfth generation. such a climate as and in New South Wales that the brilliant qualities of their may be reasonably expected down may yet be improved as it has been so eminently the case with the wool of the merino and Saxon sheep imported there. was accomphshed by the first cross. their health and vigour.CASHMERE SHAWLS.

animals every three or four days in general it first begins to five fall from the neck and Shoulders. and No. collect the down. but during the last six years he has not found it necessary. Messrs. To itself. exhibited samples of Cashmere cloth woven with yarn as fine as No. M. P. from time to time. Polino. dyed of every establishment. thought it prudent to give them aromatic herbs. but they thrive either on or straw. experiments he in open sheds. finds and from the experience he has already had. He . and are allowed to remain all the winter For the first year or two of M. Oriental an hydraulic wheel of 60 horse power. Brothers. notwithstanding their improved fineness and There is a fabric made with a mixture of Cashmere down quality. Cashmere shav/ls are woven by processes extremely costly. knows not of any particular disease to flock never having had any. or green on heaths. which they are subject. at Ferti Bernard. arranges they should kid in sufficient March. when it ceases to grow and detaches itself. the collection is completed in the space of eight or ten days. bis M. and consequently wheiice their prices are very high . of Paris.272 flock . when it begins to loosen. Hindenlang. where the sheep would perish they do not fear the cold. and developes itself end of March. Cashmere wool have multiplied very much and the prices of the yarn have fallen from 25 to 30 per cent. 130 for warp. unless artificially removed. meadows they also feed with equal declivities. from the animal at Sometimes the entire down can be taken one shearing. which is becoming very general one of the manufacturers. and almost in an unbroken fleece. which much increase the facility of combing and preparing the down for manufacture. : weft. The down commences progressively until the to grow in September. and in the foUowing four or from the rest of the days body . or in than even sheep. he docile them much more fodder. They prefer the hay leaves of trees. The shearing has the advantage of pre- serving more perfectly the parallelisms of the individual filaments. . as do all other goats. and spun silk. but occasionally he takes two falls from those of strength during the year. 228 for The mills for spinning of late years in France. he waits the period when locks of off it begins to detach and then the little with force are taken down which separate from the skin by band the down is taken from the . employs 700 22 to operatives with The slow. P's. . facility and on the most abrupt . THE ART OF "WEAVING. produced an assortment of Cashmere pieces from : fancy shade their 100 francs per yard.

the Jacquard loom. was a more difficult task. It became necessary. that weft is composed of a great many different threads constitute a continuous line in the whole breadth of the web upon which the lay or hatten acts in the ordinary way. By the aid of the draw loora.) are to with these yarns as there are be colours repeated in the breadth of the piece.000 francs have been paid for one shawl. therefore. alternately. Bauson of Paris. See Figs. which is worked up The weaving of the Imitation of real Cashmere shawls for is differ- ent from the above. (like those used by em- and lace manufacturers. but there siderable waste of carpets. tion shawls is executed as usual by as many Shuttles as there are colours in the design or pattern. in the order established by the design. to produce the real Cashmere style with much less labour. but besides broiderers filled this. The yarns intended to be the weft are not only equal in number as to the colours of the pattern to little be imitated. In both modes of manufacture. But to produce shawls altogether identical on both sides. The it. with the Eastern. which renders their number considerable the pattern is when . which was accomplished only at a later period by M. Ternaux first succeeded in weaving Cashmere shawls perfectly similar to the Oriental in external aspect. which became fashionable under the name of French Cashmere. the piece is mounted by drawing the warp through the harness and ground headles. somewhat complicated and loaded with its colours each of these small bobbins or Shuttles passes through only that portion of the flower or pattern in which the colour of yarn is to appear. exactly at limit it then returns upon : itself after having crossed although the they no less the thread of the adjoining shuttle from it this reciprocal intertex- ture of all the yarns of the Shuttles. that the whole art manufacturing this 35 . or contrive economical methods of weaving-. and even 50. many Shuttles. greater nmuber of these weft yarns being introduced only at intervals into the web when the composition of the pattern requires they remain float- ing loose at the back of the piece and are cut afterwards without aßecting in the Icast the quality of the texture. and still better. of We see. results.CASHMERE SHAWLS. and stops at the its one side and the other of the . is a coninto yarn in the weaving. 135 and 136. cloth. M. Still 273 2500 francs each. therefore. as is commonly The weaving of imitapractised for warps in the Jacquard loom. either to rest satisfied with work which should have merely a surface appearance. and which are thrown across the sold in Paris at from 3500 to warp.

Paris. the two last are from Thibet. is remarkable for the low price of all its shawls. even : though she has for aids. in which. in to direct the loom and work the treadles seated on her bench at the end opposite to the middle of the beam. and Nimes. the flower of by means an intertwisting and its ground are made with the pirn which renders them. Nimes spun It silk. black. which reduces its price without much impairing its so called. : beauty. which may consist in a difference in the twisting of the yarn. blue. cloth consists. About four hundred day's work are required for a Cashmere shawl of that prentices. there are three coloured wools. L. Paris manufactures the French Cashmere. and cotton are worked up appears that M. the weft of which a mixture of wool and spun silk. viz. in avoiding the confusion of the Shuttles. The warp of the imitation Hindoo shawl. which both the warp and the weft are the yarn of pure Cashmere down this web represents with fidelity. woven at Paris. of India admire de- The shawl merchants French artists the ingenuity of the Cashmere shawls. Thibet down. the other from Bholkera the Hght brown will the dark receive four colours. In the shawl country. at Livres. independent of the warp. two girl apshe directs and instructs in their tasks. together. also. without the shuttle used in European weaving. Considered in reference to their materials. it excels particularly in the texture of is its Thibet shawls. The labour does the strength of a woman. Lyons. .. the figures and the shades of colour of the Cashmere shawl which it copies the deception would be complete if the reverse of the piece did not show the cut ends. brown and blue. and dark brown. By the Indians. Girad. however. striking up the lay not exceed tili all have fulfiUed their function. of . whom breadth. as in common shawl weaving. In the Oriental process all the figures in relief are made simply with a slender pirn. is composed of spun silk. in some measure. which characterize the three fabrics of Lyons. near Paris.274 Cashmere and in not THE ART OF WEAVING. . The shawl merin imitating . light brown. has made the greatest progress in the manufacture of shawls . the French shawls present three distinct classes. white. has succeeded best in imitating sign and colouring. but condemn the cloth on account of its harshness. green and brown brown will receive only black. Cashmere shawls. chants State. that the colours in the English shawls are fugitive. she has weaving shawls from 45 to 52 inches wide. exhibiting all the variety of which appears in the Oriental.

. tormented themselves both day and night with schemes of bobbins. and the villages. very soon became the theatre of an epidemic mania. number. The patterns are read off from a book. and particularly . of Paris. * the reader For an account of the lace and net-work manufactures is referred to page 5. Polino Brothers. from 20s. in the year 1809. what little sense they once possessed and . SECTION EIGHTH. are symbohcally designated. and distribution and manipulations of the threads. and realize by working upon it. and not from a drawing. In consequence of such lace. and the forms and sizes of the flowers. by which the colours. and needles of every variety of shape imaginable. in Nottingham. &c. to 40s. fohage. unequalled in modern times. 275 The colours now ductions of the used do not exceed fifty in the most elaborate proit Cashmere loom. The embroidery is not worked with the needle but woven in the cloth. The looseness of twist in the web is owing to being done by the band these objections. have all lately been remedied by the ingennity of the Frencli artists. point-bars. LAGE MANUFACTURE. . per day. as that afforded by the after its commencewas common for an artizan to abandon bis usual occupation and betake himself to a lace frame. manufacture of bobbin-net For some time it ment. enormous earnings. Formerly was said that three hundred shades of colour were used. in which he became a share holder. Nottingham. The history of the arts furnishes no instance of such remarkable changes in the wages of labour. however. in ancient days. tili their several lost entirely minds got permanently bewildered. lockers. and no such instructive lessons of the influence of mechanical improvements. and from page 41 to 57.LAGE MANUFACTURE. Messrs. division. with Loughborough. neighbouring although destitute of mechanical genius or even talent of any kind. Indeed. pushers. There is an embroidery language.* Many unfortunate individuals.

into the lowest depths of despair. and . While this maneuvering in Third. . out their bratns ßobbin-net lace is a light semi-transparent texture of thread. an equal number of relative threads with the warp and these weft threads are made round every two threads of the warp. Among all the pairs of the warp-threads which have been thus twined together by weftthread. 132. finding their projects abortive. unbounded wealth.276 THE ART OF WEAVING. the weft threads which entwine or lace them together. one of them is shifted to the neighbouring warp-thread upon the left. the shifted warp-threads change back to their first position. 132. is A specimen of this tex- represented at Fig. which changes the positions of the warp threads. except that the threads are further apart. : however is apphed in quite a different way from to revolve that of piain cloth it consists. as in sunk and committed suicide. in the first place. where they are again entwined or laced together by the weft and the other threads of these pairs shift to the thrfead. the positions of the warp threads is in progress. and connected to it by the convolution of the weft thread after which. of . hy hlowing fine cotton others after cherishing visions of the most the dreamy age 7 of alchemy. Second. The weft or filHng. the same as in piain weaving. also move to one side. as before right and are entwined or laced together in the same manner as the first or left hand set were. Fig. — — after the warp-threads have been laced or entwined twelve times . arranged in hexagonal meshes. This species of cloth or web ture is produced by means of a warp.

each of which they become united by the weft-threads. therefore. in a winding beauty . . in order to interlace or entwine two threads of the latter together. . two meshes throughout the shown The warp. where both an edge and a aide drawn to the right . them entwining two individual threads at once. a diagonal line across The manthis. The weft-threads which are to pass through the intervals of the warp. as before stated. but are shifted laterally next pair. Fig. differs from piain weaving. nately by which they are alterand to the left. one fourth its real size. centre between each in the Fig. 136. or enlarged scale. would produce. in that the threads of the for the to the warp are not alternately raised and depressed. are wound upon little bobbins one of which is represented. in the course of fabricating the cloth. This specimen shows. ufacture of lace. are placed perpen- dicularly in the machine. as in the manner above Fig. how the fabric is the conjunction of three threads one of which proceeds from the line (constituting Hogarth's downwards. of the warp-thread. and derive their curvature from the ten- sion of the obliquely disposed Aveft-threads. at Fig. 133 will give the reader a or more correct idea of the nature mode of maniifacturing this species of texture.133 explained. were coloured. and. by the crossing or produced from twining of the warp and weft-threads together.threads. tlie latter if it 277 interval moves sideways through one it.) or wave line of rightj the second of these left. to working likewise in pairs.LAGE MANUFACTURE. purpose of introducing the weft. with a weft-thread. upon a magnified top. threads runs towards the as and the third to the crossing each other obliquely in the series.

with whose improvements we shall commence. is and section of this frame. 135. which spring. each of them placed within a small iron frame. it for guiding the bobbin upon . the bobbin its grooved border of discs embraces the narrow edge from falling out by the pressure to A A and the bobbin is kept spring B. 135 exhibits a side view real size.278 view are given. takes relative position in the formation of the lace. so that the . like that represented at Fig. the eye C. Any con- number is of these bobbins are put upon a spindle. the carriage. Heathcoate cessful patent. cut out from sheet . and this frame is : known to lace manufacturers by the name of the bobbin-carriage Fig. the father of the lace an ingenious mechanic of Radford. lace-frame. fourth its Into the circular or gouged-out space of inserted. But we shall confine ourself to giving a faithful most recent improvements which have been made in the manufacture of this kind of texture. brassj THE ART OP WEAVING. namely. be given ofF. at the upper side or the top of the carriage it after which. which for the then arranged in a suitable winding machine. Crofts. The the variety of mechanical combinations to is which this manufacsuc- ture has given birth. county with justice be . that a narrow space or circular groove be- tween them. arts. by a press or stamping macbine and they are so connected is left or riveted together. also. as it comes from the bobbin. of Tiverton. Crofts' first invention consists in . as shown in the edge view. for a great number of other patents have been granted making lace. so as to pro- mental spots on a piain bobbin-net . purpose of fiUing the bobbins with weft-thread. when pulled with gentle The its thread. It consists of two thin discs. as shown in the Fig. comit municates sufficient friction to prevent from revolving too easily. 136. but yet allows the thread force. by means of coiling up and accumulaiing certain of the warp threads into masses. without a parallel in any other brauch of obtained his first Since 1809. Europe and William Mr. escapes through . Fig. a spindle with a feather upon venient spindle to fit the notch or jog which pre- vents the bobbins from being misplaced on the spindle. county of Nottingham. previous to being After is put into their respective working positions in ijie these bobbins have been fiUed with weft-thread. a mode of producing orna- which spots are formed while the lace is in progress of fabrication. A round hole is pierced in the centre of each bobbin. by the ingendescription of the ious John Heathcoate. having a Uttle notch or jog at one point. when Mr. of Devon. a gentleman manufacture who may in called..

being aided by the pointed wires."* with their threads a. is an appUcation of pecuUarly jointed wires. The bobbins A* and B. taken in transverse section. the action of the hooks. duce spots at such parts of the piain net as are required intended pattern. to 279 form the The invention. 134 represents the operating parts of a lace machine. during the formation of the spots. Fig.* intended to form the spots. in con- junction with hooks for catching the threads which are to be looped up. in Order to form spots. which are usually given to the bobbins and carriages. Fig. in circular comb rotary machines. with certainty and faciüty . and remain in a State of inactivity. enables the machinery to perform without interruption. are drawn towards the front of the machine out of their working positions. and projected forward out of their places in the . the backward and forward swing- ing motions. front When the spots are about to be formed.* and b. are then selected by the pushers 3. the working points K. 134.LAGE MANUFACTURE.

by means of which the bobbins A* and B* can be from a lever : locked in the back combs receives motion E when g and . are represented as descending araongst the bobbin threads. The pointed wire bar 7 and the hook bar 13. maand drawing up the threads . during the Spotting. The back points G. The 8. not shown in the is There another locker bar F*. bearing against the inchned face of a is to. The pointed wires and hooks 1. by the blade /. and depressed by the lever 14. are guided up and down in front of the warp threads by the point of a gauge screw 21. as every person at ture. not formin g the spots. the one independent of the other they . into the front combs D. on the locker bar F. of the additional points and worked by the lever ] 2. leaving the points 5 in the centre of the spots in order to retain points them in their places. 13 for the warp threads are marked t. which are pressed on one side by the pointed wires 6. The particular features of novelty in this part of Mr. and the additional back points 5 at the same time. in Order that they may be caught by the hooks 1 and these on ascending. but unnecessary to show in the are raised drawings. in the front both levers are worked by cams. There is hkevvise another blade 2. and worked by the lever M. all acquainted with the lace manufac- be able to understand them. until the G are again inserted between the threads. by which attached worked. are locked in the back combs E. are attached to the lever 14. as soon as the Spotting is effected . application is shown in the figure the points G being withdrawn . is The /i. The bobbins A and B. locker bar F the coUars receive motion from a lever 10 drawing. as well as of keeping them in correct form. slight by the same pin. fastened to the top of the framing. lie below the additional back points 5. for vvorking the carriages combs D. required. by a suitable movement. used for THE ART OP WEAVING. beneath the spots. which receives its motion from various other levers and cams. bar g^ of the grooved back points G. which enter into the grooves in the points G and assist in making the Their mode of spots. it is attached to the lever 5. the points and hooks above described. will readily 6. The front points K H is the front driving are connected to. . on the back locker bar F.280 back combs E. and I is the back one. Crofts's for selecting chinery are. are whipped twice round their respective warp threads. The bars of the front and back guides bar. and the bar 11. and 7. attatched to the coUars 8. . fixed conducting guide 22. The wire and hook bars. the bobbin threads.Operation. the application of the additional back . t. but may receive shogging motions. loop the threads around the grooved back points G.

points. by the same rotary impulse which causes the piain net to be made. net lace . so that the Spotting ma- chinery may be put in action to produce patterns in the lace. and also in arranging in like various parts of Spotting machinery. in combining such arranged Spotting machinery. Fig. through manner. machi- The improvements shown in Fig. Qonsist in a method of 36 . so as to dispense with selection of particular bobbins and carriages. which is requisite for working spots in bobbin. 137. any and combining such roller arranged Spotting machinery with the ordinary fluted nery. for the purpose of 281 in correct form ditional keeping the spots and meshes of the net and also in arranging the various parts of the admachinery. 137.LAGE MANUFACTURE. also. with the usual parts of rotary machinery. the the ordinary evolutions of the machinery to which the Spotting apparatus is appended .

after being formed into regulär meshes by the taking-up action of the points. may be produced together. fluted roUer combining the Spotting machinery with ordinaiy chinery. whilst it is going up to the points. the lace net . are conducted through the eyes of the extra guides w^ x^ y. which supplies the other ordinary warp threads. in complete rows therefore.) one to each pair of guides. whilst the Spotting is going on. which drive the bobbin carriages. in close contact. attached to their extremities. and used for making bobbin-net lace . intended to form the spot one of these prongs then bend aside the warp thread included between them. as fast as it is made to say. The warp roller. or tissues. so as to bear it into the hook 1. which are to be used in Spotting because . between them the warp will threads. and keep it securely in the hook. is wound which or rolled up around the lace roller. threads. whether warp threads is or bobbin threads are to be taken up. except those particular warp threads which are hooked up to form spots. in the same machine which is made in the machines. . are turned by a toothed sector or fan. or shogging motion given to two of these extra guide bars at arrangement. Crofts's third invention or improvement machinery consists of an improved mode of combining together and actuating certain parts of machinery.282 THE ART OP WEAVING. The warp threads which are intended to be caught or hooked up.) taking into toothed pinions. already known. When such lace is afterwards unrolled and removed from off the roller. webs of lace that is net. by the said taking-up action of the points. warp marked w^ x^ y. or . The action is so nearly the same. 2r. to include . all the warp threads must remain motionless. by twisting together the bobbin threads and warp-threads. in lace Mr. ma- In fluted roUer machinery. two thicknesses. is shown at S. and are applied close against the ordinary guide bars in the usual manner of applying extra guide bars. without shogging. for sei vage threads. the successive rows of meshes of both nets having been gathered up together like one net. is A racking 6. the pointed wires each time of Spotting. four extra z^ are provided ^. t. that further explanation unnecessary. In this must have two prongs each. and are supplied from two extra warp rollers. To effect the shogging of particular series of guides and guide bars. all the carriages must go backward and forward. by means of which two thicknesses. it can lace will consist of be separated into two distinct pieces of lace net. no selection can be made of the bobbin carriages. (in the usual way. (unnecessary to show in the drawing. fluted rollers The R R R R.

by the Joint action of what are called swinging driving bars. the hohhins C's. the flutes of which act between corresthe teeth. respec- arches which are left between the tongs. and are sup- ported on pivots at their ends. in common . may pass completely out from between one row of warp or guide threads. b. the carriages fluted bar machinmust pass between both rows of warp threads at whereas. This improved mode of Mr. for the warp-threads. 234) and draw them out from between the warp-threads into the opposite combs to those from which they have been projected by the previous action of the driving bars. being close together. in the usual manner of fluted bar its machinery. in order that the carriage A or 7. Fig. by parts of fluted bar or fluted roUer machinery which is so called. because. its entrance between the other row of warp or guide threads ery. may their proper distances asunder. in the and 2. F. or by parts of circular comb machinery. may be carried into . and lockers. and 1. are placed so far apart. as usual in fluted bar machinery. These combs have tongs. before the same carriage makes . and 1. 138 represents the mode of operating by means of fluted The bobbin carriages A and 7. in order to move the carriages backwards in the combs F. the bobbins and carriages of which are moved in the combs. are included between the two rows of guides. and are screwed on guide bars 1* and 8. . by which the extra tongs. to prevent it from bending or springing. in the . tively. are situated beneath the centres of the combs E. as usual in fluted bar machinery but the leads 4 4 4. forwards in ponding and carriages are moved backwards and combs and between the warp-threads^ by means of revolving fluted rollers. formed at the under side of the carriages.LAGE MANUFACTURE. are for the purpose of retaining the combs steadily at be carried into . F. The fluted rollers C. are cast in leads. which are cast in leads to hold the combs together. same manner it as the teeth of pinions act in teeth of cog-wheels efFect. at the opposite ends of the combs. the lead at one end of each comb being adapted to be screwed against the comb bars G. D. and 3. have teeth at roUer machinery. each rolle r being steadied in the middle of length by bearings and 5. 283 efFect. projecting from them at each end. These guides. their under parts to be acted upon by the flutes of the roUers C. which drive the bobbin carriages. turning on centres which lockers catch projecting nibs at the under sides of the carriages (see Fig. and 2. situated beneath the combs. situated above the combs. are united. that the middle row of combs 2. H. instead of a. The guides B and 6. D.

The racking is effected by a lever Z. counted perpendicularly. actuated by a cam.284 THE ART OP WEAVING. Fig. once. warp threads. 138. as usual in other machines. are capable of shogging endways.* * A rack of lace is a certain length of work. . is racked endways when required to produce the traversing of the in Order to rack the bobbins. The guide bars 1* and 8. and contains 240 meshes or holes. by which lever the middle comb bar 3. at the bottom of the machine.

Owing riages length of the combs. and to their being conit nected by lead at each end. or words turn again. combs and guides.'''' This turn-again bears just about the same relation that to the Hingland bears to England. fixed to the middle of the comb bar.* The middle fluted roller 1. to which they are held by screws. difiicult to take out carto from the combs when required carriages. and entanghng among the warp-threads. sliis. The pivots.t of the same kind rollers. and H. the carriages. so as to be little capable of turning a rollers. passing through upright slots in the bars. which are manner of short crank bar arms. 285 The tier bobbins and carriages. is supported on pivots at each end. at the end of the crank to the bars. are each supported in sockets 11. in order to let down the fluted much to as may be requisite. in order to set the same at liberty. 12 are enabled to be : * The term "g-aw^e. at in ordinary fluted bar maas is chines. would be . to each end of the 10. are tier guage. at the therefore.LAGE MANUFACTURE. sockets. t The Nottingham lace manufacturers give this part of the machinery the appellation of " tum-again^^^ being a corruption of the phrase " turn-again. Hireland to IreldJid. For this purpose the flat bars 12. Halhany to Alhany. means the number of gates. which are fastened ends of the comb bars and they may be steadied in their centres by a suitable support. 10. in one inch of the holt bar comb. When the fluted rollers C and D are let down. are shdden upwards against the inside flat surfaces of the comb bars G. the two C and fastened in the D. comb Each as of the axles 10." in the lace manufacture. for permitting the turn-again of the carriages. one end of each of the innermost transfer what is generally called is commonly used. instead of double guage. the bars 12. in bearings afiixed to the end of the middle comb bar 3. are supported in bearing . at the ends of their respective rows. to disengage them from the teeth of the carriages. round. 12. and fixed into the comb bars thus. so that : it will partake of the racking extremity of its motion of the middle comb bar is each fluted part provided with a " turn-agahiÜ'' piece. must be prevented from sliding down by their own weights in either of the combs E or F. 11. are supported on pivots. . as used in made common single fluted bar machinery. placed parallel to the horizontal axles or spindle bars bars. that their from one row to the short to the other. and per- mit them be drawn out at the outer or open ends of the combs. or interstices. permit of drawing out the rollers open ends of the combs.

slidden upwards on these screws. . of the locker to take hold of (see D.) c.) at the the tong in the centre of end of each comb. and F. and is moved backwards and forwards. 136. There are. from the upper end of a lever hehind the machine which receives its power from a pair of cog wheels. must be raised up to the carriages instant that the fluted roUers are let at the down . taking into pinions at the end of the axle of each The sector L hangs loosely upon one of the main ccntre-pins. by moving the elbow lever 13. such as is Fig. the bar rollers C. is have their tongs at their ends. 139. but when the blades of the lockers are turned upwards. but their shape to act a little because the lockers. The middle comb 2. has its length. E. The form of the carriages similar to those used in circular comb machines. with two «arriage for the blades Fig. the Iower edge of the bar 12. which projects out from the crank bar axis 10. is withdrawn I. likewise. 12. their acting edges descend to below the ränge of the nibs of the carriages and allow the nibs pass over them. two other lockers 22. The mode of operating in circular comb machinery. to 13. and by a roller. and acts in the manner of a short lever to raise up the flat bar 12. sector L. The Iower has a notch or opening in its end. may be supplied from one large warp commonly used in other lace machines. and 19. When the fluted rollers are raised up again. diflerent. and the back and front combs. at the under side of each a. . with a vibrating or pendulous motion by means of a link c?. will not permit of having projecting tongs (as in Fig. by the same movements. The combs are is placed in three rows. and «. The ^ warp-threads for both pieces of the double net. 138. The bars 12. in a suitable position for their blades c. to catch the outer teeth of the carriages which are pushed into the combs over the lockers. has also a notch or opening in end. machinery warp-threads. is shown in roller. so as to draw out those carriages from between the The lockers 0. are the same as m common circular comb and are placed beneath the front and back combs. which are beneath them. Rotary motion is given to the fluted D. and the upper poised its arm of the elbow lever 13. when they are turned downwards. which is effected same by a small elbow lever 13. to receive a tooth at the end of a short arm 15. instead of the two marked K and g. arm of each elbow lever receive a flange at upon a centre-pin 14. as before described. in order that their Upper edges may raise the under side of the carriages and stop. 12.286 THE ART OP WEAVING. nibs or teeth.

20. are the same their as are used in circular raachinery. Fig. Supports the sockets of the lockers y and z^ are Unks attached to the locking lever. which .LAGE MANUFACTURE. which centre assist in passing the carriages out of the combs . push the carriages along in the warp-threads. 139. they are raised by the upright sliding rod 23. 287 with blades 21. combs and pass them beneath M. The comb to driving bars L and M. cannot push the car- . and act with a vibrating or pendulous motion. but the driving bars L.

in the make a double manner herein described which. lace. * The machine here referred John Leavers. The leading features of novelty in this part of Mr. . then that locker is turned up and its blade will draw those carriages quite through the warp-threads. in the proposed method of w^orking. and their racking wheels also. Crofts' ma- chinery consist in combining and arranging certain parts in such a way as to have a middle row of combs. situated at the opposite side of the warp-threads. Mr. by which the bor- ders or edges of the piece of double net its were united together. must be entirely removed from the landing bars because. the seivage guides are removed from their bars. out of the machine. during fabrication. for making . with suitable racking movements to cause parts to of lace-net. on the axles of the racking wheels. with a row of warp-threads. If it has been used for making only piain net. tra versing bobbin. this improvement to the lever machine. called bullet holes. See " Egyptian Shebetz. If the machine has been used for making narrow breadths of lace. can be separated into two distinct pieces of laceby cutting the turn again. tions for racking the front comb-bar.288 THE ART OF WEAVING. The rächet wheel. : riages quite through the warp-threads therefore. sists Crofts' fourth improvement in lace-making machinery con- in certain alterations or arrangements in the structure and mode of working that class of lace machinery called " the levers^^''* and the circular comb machinery. having large holes in it at certain intervals. in the year 1811." page 4G of Introduction. before . must also be removed. the other carriages arrive at the other row of warp-threads actuating the parts of machinery. of New Radford. whereby one row of carriages and of may be passed entirely through one row of warp-threads. and the back combs cast anew. on each side of those middle conibs. as soon as the nibs of the carriages. which are foremost. get far enough over the blade of that locker. . for the purpose of making a particular pattern of lace. which has In applying called pushers. without bullet holes. the front comb-bar being kept stationary by its gauge screws. t to (the lever machine) was invented by Mr. and all their supports and appendages. the parts which are used for dividing the carriages into two ranges. no traversing of the carriages The comb-bar w^heel. together with the pusher-bars. the turn-again combs and bar are removed. with its holt and connecwill be required. web or tissue when taken net.

with only six leeth and the guide-bar racking wheel must be removed.LAGE MANUFACTURE. having three steps or elevations on its circumference. ratchet wheels having six teeth. 140. are substituted. for lifting and letting fall the catch bars. The catch-bar wheels. and a new one cut. The niimber of points are to be Fig. their . 289 must be changed for a new one. . with three deep notches. are removed and otliers. eight teeth.

holing also have thirty-six teeth in the figure. affixed to the notched wheel dj is turned . in lever machines. to form the bullet holes. must be changed for one of six teeth as in the figure. taken transversely the purpose of showing the forms parts. in what is called a ten point machine. 0. and each receives a separate racking motion. The ratchet wheel a. and detain the back landing bar u. or closed together. so t. which are attached usual guide-bar. or dividing stop. shown known and to the common The threads. A magnified portion of the lace ornamented at Fig. bar The pump apparatus or lever. the bullet holes being formed by the ordinary method. are provided with the extra guides m. p. being already well none of which in parts are use. for lifting and letting fall the catch when either of the point bars come down and go up again. is shown Fig. for bullet . bars. positions for elevation. common The large guide-bar and the racking wheel.290 doubled . are quite little when the two land- ing bars t. 140 represents a sectional through the machine. 141. must be disconnected from both point Fig. —This way ratchet drives the notched wheel d. down. instead of detain- ing them at a distance apart. large racking wheels. must also have thirty-six teeth. for the extra guide-bars. THE ART OF WEAVING. of the working The ratchet wheel a. that is. twenty points are placed in every inch. n. 141. and which usually has eight teeth. with bullet holes. which gov- erns the half as to catch This stop must be adjusted. as in the ordinary positions. for the divided carriages to be caught by the catch bars.

are the points . r. . by passing the lacing thread round the two bobbin threads. The threads seivage threads are supplied from the roller A. consists ornamenting the lace. . ö. and therefore can be made more expeditiously. their ratchet wheel being turned by the d* seivages of The the net are formed by strong warp from the threads. which is at- tached to the guide bar h. the combs e. In applying these improvements front to circular its comb machinery. The first of these inventions consists in a net-lace. The racking wheels are and which are turned by a ratchet w^heel of twelve teeth.J. The parts by which these improve- . 142 represents. and racking wheel removed. c?. we pass on to describe a few improvements of quite a different character. being without traversing threads.. guide bar ordinary guides on the common and the other row through the guide b.he is comb bar points for is kept stationary. lace. warp-thread to which it acts in a similar in manner.threads proceed b. /. two catch aie applied. John Heathcoate Esq. stretched tight. composing the top of the meshes. by the bars r driver. ones. is called the ^'poppet and has a vertical movement. new mode of manufacturing bobbin by inserting sewing thread between the breadjLhs of of it. the principal working parts of this machine. 141) will be of a much more simple textme than ordinary bobbin-net. by able Catches on its means of suit- upper end. with their guides. from the roller a. c. g^ g. The ten points are also doubled in this machine. the warp h. The ordinary warp. 291 driver ö. provided by a roller. the lace roller a. Crofts' improvements in lace machines in general. the roller . of changed eight different projections. in section. made by our ingenious and worthy friend. lockers. being to changed from twenty points per inch.^' The bar for E. . are the ordinary guide bars. the warp-thread that forms the and behind bobbin threads which compose the meshes of the passes in front of the lace. Another part of the improved mode.LAGE MANUFACTURE. etc. and in place of driving-bars and 5. driving bars c. /. c?. the lockers . during the fabrication and finishing the two and then rethe adjoining breadth. distinct v^^arp roller. Crofts that this kind of lace-net (see Fig. one row of passing through the A. Having given the reader a faithful description (a practical one) of Mr. Fig. the purpose of stopping the turn-again carriages. the lacing thread passes in front of seivage. new —one having the other five. through the guides on the guide-bar ba?'. Tiverton. on In this improved mode. and illustrated the same by suitable engravings. We are informed by Mr.

ments are effected are the guide D. in lace ma- chinery ööc. the bobbin threads. by passing the lacing threads round which compose the top of the meshes. The in a second part of this gentleman's improvements. The improvement mode in the of inserting the lacing thread. 142.292 THE ART OF WEAVING. which we shall now endeavour to explain. The sists guide D has a separate racking movement from the other in this part of Mr. and the lacing thread roUer C. mode of ornamenting the lace. the warp-threads and behind the bobbin threads by passing it across and Hkewise the . Fig. H's invention con- guides. consists method of manufacturing ornamental work or figures composed .

or apparatus. be used in applying such Orna- ments. . as shown at Fig. or narrow other suitable fabric. that by varying the forms of arrangement of the pins. 143. circles. Fig. 293 of gauze or of any new forms and shapes. so as to assume stripes. tattings. with corresponding or suitindentation required for producing one pattern. The third part of Mr. angles. to tools. . implements. of edgingSj neiges. and the form which is given to the edgings in that particular design. ornamental work or figures. varieties of figures or patterns may be produced. in curves. Fig. by putting them on pins. and The rim of the large their accessories. H's inventions consists in certain machinery. by being put upon pins. arranged to receivethe same. or other figures. will sufficiently illustrate the nature of the invention and it will be evident. 143 represents a side view or elevation of the machine. composed of the large cy linder A. The table indentations or spaces in the edgings. and the small cyhnder B. mounted upon a frame C. 144.LACE MANUFACTURE.

) The cement is applied to the net only where the edging will come upon it when the pressure. and B. as will be best seen detached at Fig. or other figures. ac- cording to the pattern or design intended to be produced. A and B. its from the roller H. as circle. and the forward towards the cylinder part. (which is may be re- conveniently supplied from the bobbins II. a proper supply of size is in succession applied to those parts of the net. the edgings or other texture. 145 and 146 which holes are made in curves. 144. sprigs.) THE ART OF WEAVING. as will be These pins are sustained 143 and 145. causes the edging to adhere to the sized net. woollen cloth. the sizing roller to press E (see Fig. The surface of the roller E. descend by their own weight. as to allow the pins to be pressed back within the perforated cylinder A. or As the cylinder A revolves. a. 144) the under surface of which dips into the trough containing the same (as in sizing warps for power looms and as the rollers E and F. 144. and are kept by the curved with the small cylinder . Fig. and in due proportion with the cy linders A. the pins a. on its it put. or other fabric. border or pattern. they move in succession towards the Upper part of the 145. whereby the points again project from the cylinder A.) supported from the axis of the cylinder A. at Fig. upon their respective axis. be covered with elastic substance. and bears on the upper part of surface towards the The surfaces of these two cyhnders. The roller E. (See a sample of edging on the cylinder A. of course. Upon these pins. B other figures. (see Fig. draws it off the lace-net. carries B. must. a. plate D. just alluded to. or other suitable which will yield to . or other fabric. 143) is made upon the net. .) the net border are brought together. working into each other. in that position. as they are successively brought in contact by which means the borders. (by means of the wheels. by a curved plate D. is supplied with size or cement by a small roller F (see Fig.) volving of the cylinder A. the surface of the roller being formed accord- which the edging assumes upon the cylinder A. intended to receive the ornamented ing to the figure . to receive the pins a.294 cylinder is . by the wheels upon their respective axis are connected. and pressed closely over the small cylinder B. by the brace e. pierced with holes. which. within or underneath the upper portion of which plate is so shaped and kept stationary the cylinder rim A Seen more clearly in the plan. being moved and the edging or between them : simultaneously and equally. are hberated from the pins. (see Fig. cylinder A.

143) which. Wet spunges ö. regulates the pressure upon the net and border between the two cylinders A and B. is to be it passed alternately under and over the wires d. Motion is given to the cylinder B. a number of shown at Figs. is The flat net or other fabric. to take ofF any size which may adhere to them. is a spring governed or by any other suitable contrivance. the excess being retained by the contact or pressure of the side of the trough against it . ö. and cylinder G. It may be useful to add. of course. destined to receive the border.) by a treadle M. which it causes to draw the lace therefrom. which. muslin. Tension cords O. that the wet spunges ö. and 144) and paratus. meant to designate such edgings. are passed over the cylinder B. and B. and continue in contact with it until the whole Operation is completed. so as roller to allow a proper quantity to adhere to the surface of the well understood. 143) are band side of each of the cylinders A. are likewise applied to the bobbin K. But to prevent the lace from being stretched or elongated. for the sake of more clearly describing this pro- . e. any suitable for is stripes of woven or manufactured texture. e. fixed upon its axis N. by its action against the bearing of the cylinder A. 295 it. as 143 and 144. (which by the train of wheels and the band or belt L. by the pressure of levers and Springs. and B. may be advantageously applied to the surfaces of the cylinders A. taken from the cylinder G. (see Fig. and weights P.LÄGE MANUFACTURE. For the purpose of better exhibiting the several parts of the apwe have left out the work altogether in the plan. We have. to press against the left made The trough which contains the size or cement. formed into designs and attached to net. is a cylinder moved by a band or belt L. in order to keep and moderately tight. passing over the cyhnder B. so as to give the required tension to the silk threads Q. G. the term edgings. proper being formed into figures or pat- and the term borders. By terns . and to overcome any tendency which it may have to adhere to the cyhnto receive the lace it is der B. or other suitable texture. by a set screw (see Fig. 144. (see Figs. is meant. F. acting upon the ratchet-wheel. communicates it to the other cylinders and the roller. it and silk also the better to separate from the cylinder B. 143 finished work. Fig. These threads efFectually strip the net or lace from the cylinder. and are not separated from it until the lace is threads Q. is regulated.. 6. any inequality of the material passing under .

to which we alluded in the in- troductory part of this Work. Thebes. may be produced. which think demonstrates. Dear Friend. must have been to great perfection indeed. 146) are suitable where the edgings have holes or open places. (See pages 46 and 47. ing. Octoher I7th. or design. Gumarabic. it is evident.) is A we lace representation of this specimen given at Fig. Kersivenus. who arrived here yesterday morning. from Mr. and the consequent arrangement of the by which the gum or size is applied to Brüssels lace^ or the net. 1843. the edging must be as will. beaiid cause am thus enabled to furnish you with a drawing of it. and of the consistence of thick cream will tised . If the object be to produce Imitation of ton sprigs. detached the nature of sprigs. We men shall now conclude this part of our subject. a. (one of which is shown enlarged. 147 . on business of importance for bis Majesty. that if alternate intervals objects of were left between portions of pattern. shown an uninterrupted . our readers a copy of a containing an account of the speci- of ancient Egyptian lace or net.296 cess or manufacture. and the roUer E. that your I letter reached me in this place . which is practo the Brüssels and Honiton sprigs may be adopted and also in Imitation of Chantilly and other blonde laces. . The size or cement may be made of various kinds of gum. a. in case it should be deemed necessary. to the taste of the designer. or other adhesive matters. But the following letter. was handed to me last evenby our worthy friend Amasis Osirtasen. when formed and pressed into the proper shapes. according pins a. The pins a. that the brought machinery used by the ancient Egyptians. with regard . dissolved in water. or borders or Spaces THE ART OP WEAVING. by which it can be readily put upon them but in case the edging is of a close texture. beyond the possibility of a doubt. it Your favour is lucky indeed. before such a fabric could have been produced. at Fig. groups. by laying before letter. the pins must be smaller. With regard to what you say about the sample of lace or net. of the 19th May last. succession of pattern but. most made by tlie band with the bobbins or and the method of sewing them to the net. will ' convey a better idea of the subject than anything we can say. made of such forms Honiand materials nearly resemble the work needles . ans wer the purpose very well. or boquets.

Lepsius.o'clock A. were just at the . at which time we had given up nearly all hopes of success and. with what the Doctor calls. in fact. be here at present . On your letter. sunrise. point of leaving the scene of investigation. while you were there in 1833. " a carpet power loom. 147. that he feels interested in your succesSj and has done for so. ever since he saw you in Berlin. 297 also some explanation. mentioning man the object of your he at once consented first me in searching for the sample. who very fortunately happens to to this scientific gentleto aid and after letter. a few minutes before . at which time we commenced our search and we continued it without intermission until 10|. M. Fig. I lost no time in calling- upon our esteemed acquaintance. obtaining a patent from the Prussian Government. as he says. . lunar detached revolviiig Shuttle boxest We proceeded this morning. more receipt of easily than I could otherwise have done. Doctor's eye (which when fortunately the you know 38 is always on the sharp look-out) .LAGE MANÜFACTURE.

concludes. that the part of the sample marked AA in the figure. of linen. at first sight.1835. and of which circumstance he at that time made men- tion to US in a letter . but also is interest of science. although the sample has become yet. which. make the necessary much obliterated triple lenses from age. We proceeded forthwith to drawing . he was enabled to decipher." gives us an account of a corslet. who is deeply skilled in the mysterious art of weaving.298 THE ART OF WEAVING. Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. all perfectly distinct. Each thread of the corslet was worthy of admiration for though very fine. . overjoyed the Dr. and. as a whole. as quite a simple circumstance. excellent (which you knovv enabled to possess most awful powers of penetration) I have been make a tolerably correct outline. . which you are aware always a favourite hobby with the Doctor. was composed of 598t other threads. must have been employed in the manufacture of this specimen. with the help of the Dr's. ornamented wilh numerous figures of animals. and although appeared to me. on dose examination. but being hurriedly cailed away. in his inieresting work. therefore. on business of impor- tance. of the very which we were in search. that the same threads which form the weft in the part A A. Kersivenus saw this specimen while at Thebes. from a fevv obliterated characters . on the dosest examination with to perceive the naked eye. page 127. that : Lepsius itself. It will be seen. all distinct the quality of the fabric being similar to that of the corslet dedicated to Minerva. and is. our learned friend. III. in fact. in the month of March . no doubt. by Amasis. constitute the warp at B B this actually puzzles the Doctor. by the aid of one of his best glasses. teils me. and I became on making only for You may guess how the this re-discovery. King of Egypt. See vol. and. " Manners and t Sir Gardiner Wilkinson. the effect : same he. caught a glimpse. unknown to moderns. is of opinion that no machinery at preis sent used in the lace manufacture at all capable of producing some very iagenious piece of mechanism. differs very materially from that this feature shown at BB . at Lindus. in the course * It appears that Mr. while looking over identical object of my Shoulder. entitled. not a bad drawing. he lost all recollection of the occurrence. worked in gold and cotton. every one was composed of 360 other threads. I was unable The Doctor entertains strong hopes of becoming. worthy of your attention as a practical weaver and manufacturer. You will not fail to perceive. that each thread of the net. although fine of .* not for your sake and for that of your country. This explanation.

tures. buds." Cowper. myself have Httle doubt that his most sanguine expectations will be reaUzed. I am sure. Kersivenus . Homeopathic Physician. in these excavating Operations^ a kind of people called " Irishmeii. ."^ And now.) having taken it with him into the Ark Lepsius employs. My family three #****! <fcc. with mournful scream. ! (the first son of Noah. are all well. Wrought patiently into the snowy lawn. No farther back than yesterday. while idiot owls by night. is the only thing of the kind preserved from the wreck of the anti-diluvian world. " Here the needle plies its . name this of that ingenious but ancient indivi- and instrument according to the Doctor's Statement. The pattern grows the well-depicted flower. that cannot fade. Friend. is received his professional instruction in France an Egyptian by birth but where we first had the plea. in this neighbourhoodj I. of for and from what I can learn regarding them. Shem. busy task. at present. and leaves. S. possessed of the machinery 299 by which nets of the and. rouse echo from her dream.LAGE MANUFACTURE. making headway in this kind of work each : whom. which excavations are progressing.. gracefuUy dispos'd. Cleopatra sends you her love. of a short time. Embroidery is the art of adding to the surface of woven texa representation of any object we wish to depict. bearing the dual. may I your humble ser- ALEXIS KERSIYENUS. and EMBROIDERY. Tubal-cain . threaded with the material in which the * It may be well to State that Mr. about 5^ o'clock P. is at least worth eleven of my own coun- trymen. Bure of forming an acquaintanceship with him. fair Follow the nimble iSnger of the A wreath. Dear vant be.''^ they are famous one. and sprigs. Civil Engineer. some of his workmen dug up an electrical at machine. And Curling tendrils. of flowers that blovv success With most when all besides decay. Unfolds its blossom . . through the medium of the needle. M.P. judging from kind here represented were manufactured the rate .

dlework or tapestry. not to enter into a general description of the dißerent articles used by ladies for the purposes of needle-work. work is to be executed. any practical information upon such fern-stitch^ finny-stitch. are referred to Miss Lambert's excellent " Hand-Book of Needlework. —-an its art that has not inaptly been termed the mother of painting. discovery claiming the priority by called many centuries.* We are indebted to the luxury and magnificence of the nations of the East. for the invention of embroidery. a labour in which she has been assisted by some of the most celebrated masters. it has been humble sister of the latter art and the aim of the needlewoman has been to Imitate. as closely as possible. Galway-stitch. confine ourself . the fair sex cannot snbjects as." practised Those of our readers who wish to obtain a knowledge of this art. many of whose chef-d'oeuvres have been executed for the express purpose of being copied in neethe . the productions of the pencil. queen-stitch. Our object at present is. to and Tipperary-stitchj we shall therefore. In more modern times. This may be effected by various methods. to The Greeks gave the honour of the invention of embroidery : Minerva by Pliny it has been assigned he says the Romans called embroiderers broidered garments. giving our readers a brief historical account of the art description of the apphcation of France. Inwrought with num'rous conflicts for her sake. this art : to the " Phrygians . on either side All dazzling bright with flowers of various hues." Andromache " also in her She Chamber at the palace top. Josue Heilmann. " vestes before the Trojan war. old-stitch^ new-stitch^ chain-stitch^ bi^aidstitch. Beneath the band of Mars endured by Greeks.300 THE ART OF WEAVING. and a machinery to it. of Mulhausen. as by ladies. were especially celebrated for their skill in and Homer mentions Helen as being engaged in embroi- dering the combats of the Greeks and Trojans " An ample web magnificent she wove. A * splendid texture wrought. and on most descriptions of fabrics. nor the methods of applying them. roseniary-stitch^ whip-stitchj hack-stitch^ side-stitch. JSpanish-stitch. hence Phrygiones^^^ and em- PhrygiomoßP The women of Sidon. expect from us Indeed." . Limerickstitch. Kilkenny-stitch. as successfully accomphshed by the ingenious M.

which were the peculiar privijege of the Admiral's vessel. xii. a Pytha- and a lawgiver of the Locrians. and various emIn the time of Moses. appears to have been made in Egypt ex- pressly for xxvii. was celebrated as " a cunning workman. as species of embroidery peculiarly their own. therefore.) sails. dyed and embroidered of divers is colours. We are informed by Pliny which Antony and Cleopatra went to the battle of Actium was distinguished from the rest of the fleet by its purple sails. for that purpose (Ezekiel but use was confined to the pleasure boats of the nobles. was the first Roman king who wore an embroidered garment. kiel. § Lib. or of ordinary sails being white. The term embroidery. representing the phenix. ther far- names their robes. c. flowers. king of Pergamus. were decorated with embroidery. 3Q1 The art of einbroidery . which. forbade the use of embroidery. to have invented the disciple of art of embroidery with gold thread. that Tarquinius Priscus. 299. has reference to all kinds of ornamental work done with the needle thus comprehending within its meaning every description of decorative needlework. both as to the materials employed. 62. 35. 1. Lib. the term is much more limtions of weaving. however. XXV. its and was bought by the Tyrians . after mentioning bracelets and chains. whence the Latins sometimes called embroiderers . 1 Exekiel xvi. and the vestments of the priests. were wrought with fanciful devices. ancients. of blems. 13. ited.t The curtains and Ornaments of the Tabernacle. and the mode of using them.* the tribe of Dan. IT The Word embroidery is derived from the French hroderie which some deduce by transposition from hordeur. of embroidered linen. In the extended meaning of the term.t Attalüs. the king himself (lib. in scaiiet. According goras. the son of Ahisamach. relating to one kind of needlework only. may equally claim the honour of a similar invention.EMBROIDERY.l" most of them have a * Cloth. c. said by Pliny. nations and savage tribes unknown to the : . as employed in the writings of the ancient historians. who first distinguished the monarch and Senators by particular rohes and Ornaments. in purple. and in fine hnen. including tapestry and some descripAt the present day. embraces an almost innumerable variety. fits The prophet Eze- reproaching the women of Israel with having abused the benetheir of Providence. 7. still jewels for their foreheadsj and earrings.§ Zaleucus. except to courtesans and Dionysius Halicarnassusll informs US.) that the ship in |1 the borders of their stufTs. to Diodorus Siculus. Ahohab. because they formerly only embroidered XXX. iii." and as Egyptians even the sails was greatly of some of practised among the ancient their ships an embroiderer in blue. p. t Exod. and their crowns.

. Chinese have long been celebrated . the museum. they anciently vvrote aurohrustus. as gained by patient application. The beauty of the written character. also the bark of a tree spun into a fine thread. A Chinese uses no short for no compendious methods to abridging labour : he is not without ingenious resources to accomplish an end. with choice subjects of the graphic as patterns for the use of the to sumed penny be poor. antiquary's might deliver several lectures ments of The meadow. the objects are so well selected and so numerous. but bis aim does not seem be to save time. the grove. and twisted silks. so frequently exemplified as in China. She is asmanual is priced at about one fair yellow. with threads spun from the pine-apple and afterwards so richly and dehcately embroidered with the same ma- are weil Imov/n.* The drawing of their embroideries is sometimes as uncouth as that of their paintings. the brook. nowhere The mere accomphshment is of writing a good style. history. fine musHns made at Manilla. are the natural results and perseverance. limbularii. * The plant. and hence the It little young needlewoman. has a cover of a stores of studded with lig- spangles of gold. One acquainted with Chinese literature and natural with this book before him. through the Persians. and the pages of mythology with tbe adornthe house and garden. In fact. it has been doubted whether the art was not originally brought into They Europe from them. for embroidered with gold. and many other marvels in art of untiring industry cutSj resorts to and knowledge. whence the French word broderie. is the result only of many tedious years of study and self-denial. art. the the excellence of their silk finished graces of their composition manufactures and embroidery. of our money. Tradescant Lay for the foUowing inter- esting account of the art of embroidery as at present practised by the Chinese. According to Du Gange. but in that of some of their use floss flowers (doubtless . are all laid under contribution. Success. " I pur- chased an elegant book. culled from the varied to nature and art. and contains between two and three himdred ures. We are indebted to Mr.302 TUE ART OP WEAVING. terial. that they might serve as illustrations a small encyclopedia. or brustus brodatus. copied from nature) they are frequently even to botanically correct and their works are not more be admired for their remarkable freshness than for the extreme labour bestowed Lipon them. The for the beauty of their embroideries indeed. the wonders of their porceiain. " For twenty-two cash filied or tseen." he says.

done by men. humble bandaged and kept from growing beyond the limits of gentility. A curious purse subject of worn in the girdle of Chinese gentlemen. perhaps.' I what Solomon village teils us of the needle last chapter of Proverbs. The finest In this way a specimens of embroidery are.) in which the figures were inserted by the needle the . several patterns are given expressly for this purpose. which. woman. so that the discovery was thought worthy of a superior agency. whom he once saw two girls at seated eulogizes in the of Mongha. Their looks were not likely soon to attract a lover. 'Heaven's magistrate confers Over his head are bats disporting among the clouds the wealth. to close confinement and the unnatural Position in which they were obliged to sit. extended their legs across another of twice the height of their was provided for the frarae on which the piece to be embroidered was spread forth. I think without a rival for beauty as an article of female attire. alert. and seat. as their feet were small. of wakefulness. for these animals are on the is while men sleep. Old Testament we have two kinds. In the little work too genteel. which was owing. support They were this work in the upon a low stool. Their faces wore a sickly hue. in the weeds of in his office. Much skill and labour are bestowed on the embroidery of a plaited skirt worn by ladies. but could not Imitate. holding band a scroll with this motto. I suppose. emblems.EMBROIDERY. 303 The book is said to be for the use of the person who belongs to the green window^ which is an epithet for the dwelUng of a poor wo- man The : while the red gallery denotes the residence of a rieh female. and lets in both the hght and the breath of ters of the dame leans upon the vermil-tinted balusgaudy verandah. The Chinese are fond of retaining what . as far as my Observation goes. industrious poor pHes her task near the green lattice. and hence they were compelled to tease the sampler from the glistening dawn tili the dewy eve. which is made of earthenware. to do the drudgery of the housewife. and gazes carelessly at the sunbeams as they sparkle among the flowers or woos the soft breeze which heaven while the rieh agitates the green roof of the Indian fig-tree. who stand while at work —a practice which these They were damsels poor.) in which they wrought in the weft.' . The title-page presents us with a venerable man. with my partiality for what is Chinese. and so their feet were before me. the maase rokem^ {opus phrygionicum. ' Her candle goeth not out by night. . and were is maase choseh^ {opus plumarium. is also the much of this kind of elaboration. in their parents' idea. Embroidery and In the figured textures were generally in favour with the ancients.

when embroidery. are well known. they formerly often ornamented Imitate. cannot be sufficiently admired ness. the negresses marriage. in a way we cannot According to M. their embroidery with pieces of money. this curious on the morning (before sunrise) of the ninth day after marriage custom appears to be almost universal among the lower Orders^ but it is not so prevalent in the refined circles. by the Indian and Candian women. the value of which the7 a circumstance. The Georgians and particularly the Turkish women. being rather a species of exquisitely fine netting. banshees. on which they work the smallest objects in gold passing. but more particularly those of Viennaj last of dress both for . before their of fish. According to M. The women of Therapia on the Bosphorus excel in a . however. silver. unfortunately but every petal of which is worked These extraordinary productions of the little known in this country. representing figuresy flowers.304 oldj THE ART OF WEAVING. with cotton. The embroidery practised by the latter is curious enough they work with their own hair. &c. as valuable and interesting coins and medals were frequently found in the old garments in which they sometimes trafficked. they present as trophies of their skill to their husbands. ßesides the Turks. be termed embroidery. as an armen and women. mermaids. and have preserved both these arts in their highest state of per- fection. with which they make splendid repre: sentations of flowers. and animals. have long been esteemed. was an object of considerimportance. and the inhabitants of the Islands of the Levant. embroider the skins of various beasts. as well as that of animals." The beautiful embroideries on muslin. : they also insert the skins of sea serpents. the Greek women of the present day. however. principally of gold and for their embroideries such as crape . and the pictures thus formed. the Germans. are renowned on the lightest and most delicate materials. are still celebrated for their embroidery. and ganze. most beautiful description of work it can scarcely. foliage. who had a considerable trade in the Levanty turned greatly to their advantage. They needle. for their extreme delicacy and elaborate- In the ticle able and preceding centuries. represent flowers in relief. Savary. with the utmost exactness. de Busson. which they ornament with gold thread Their embroideries on morocco leather in a mann er unequalled. and other outlandish kinds of Senegal. in every variety of colour . which the did not appear to understand Genoese merchants. without fraying the thread. eels.

front headles are employed and two beats or strokes of the reed are given to each thread of Aveft thrown across the web. so much . Chasubiters . and sometimes from an extra warp. embroidery on fine miislin and cambric has been carried to great perfection. The embroideries of Nancy and Paris of this description. than in any other country practised at the present day. Embroidery. is often effected in the Jacquard and draw looms. and mushn. and are much sought . accordingly as it happens that the embroidering sha^des are the same as those of the ground warp. — it is not.) there must be one card or lash . that according laws. use was forbidden by sumptuary art of The of embroidery seems to have attained a higher degree . In the neighbourhood of Ebenstock. At the same Milan and Venice were also celebrated for their embroidery pi'ices but the its were so extravagantly high. 305 palm of excellence with the Frencli. largest of Prevot de Paris. At Plauen. a correct representation of one of which embroidering. 70. When there are several colours in one line of the pattern. by Etienne Boileau. for- however. disputed the period. where it is bought by the Russian and West Indian merchants great quantities are also exported to Persia. are always worked with front headles. cotton. circles)3. one which he does before giving the two ground beats or strokes of the reed. or different from them. perfection in France. They were formed into a Company as early as 1272. for and the binding headles only are used 39 In most .EMBROIDERY. under their respective names of " ßrodeurs. in the same neighbourhood (celebrated for its manufactures in linen. some which would astonish the work-people of the present day.Ye used . Embroidered fabrics for coverin g furniture. and the threads of warp which pass through these headles are sometimes taken from the ground warp. to enable the colour after another . after. In such cases." — their last Statutes were framed in 1719. Decoiipem*s. on an extensive scale. Embroiderers merly composed a great portion of the working population of the towns laws were specially framed for their protection. and the Erzgebirge. to Lamarre. . is given at Fig. Small Shuttles or pirns (sometimes called to each.) much figured lace is also worked. In Saxony. (as in Fig. Egratigneurs. which may be met with at the shops in Dresden. for the purpose of binding the embroidery. much tambour work is done this is generally sold at the Leipzig fairs. 136. have of late years attained great excellence. The ground headles are worked for the ground strokes. weaver or weavers to embröider them.

When there is is any gilding of gold or silver used in embroidering. that embroidery could never have yet.* It whole diameter to re- been worked with would have been supposed. with a hole in it its centre. such is the case. at the " National Exposition of the Products of Industry. France. over- . and acdoubt. in a mechanical point of view. Heilmann has. Josue Heilmann. the workraan places the design paper before him. exhibited his embroidering machine in Paris. invention will. therefore. it . and of the specimens of ingenuity there displayed. The spectator especially Struck with admiration. so that the whole number of Shuttles employed Shuttle or pirn is is often very considerable. (as in Gobehns tapestry weaving. to prevent the gilding from injuring the cloth eflfected this is by putting clean paper between the cloth and the roller on which it is wound. Mr. as fast : as woven. (which often the case. in a small compass. . invented few years a machine by which a female. it was. (as in Fig. . and hihs of an inch inside is thick. that motion.) so as to see distinctly how to insert them. without which attracted most attention. each busied in copying the pattern. in the construction of machine. M. 136. An account of this remarkable be interesting to many of our readers. Each colour in the pattern requires a shuttle for each repeat in the breadth of the web." for all 1834 .306 instances footj left. profit by machinery But a since.come. with the assistance of two children. 130 embroidering needles. in seeing the precision with was which each of the needles came of place where the most expert itself to prick the stuff in the very it ! band would have done this .) and the binding headles with his When the pattern requires a great variety of shades of colour. H. Indeed. difficulties of * In an almost in- some instances.) for the carriage pin on its which revolves. could turn off daily as much work as 20 expert band embroiderers. THE ART OF WEAVING. The embroidering generally about 1^ inches in diameter. employed upon the common frame. for whether at rest or in was always surrounded by a crowd of curious persons some directing their attention to the embroideries which it had executed. and others trying to foUow its motions and to divine its mechanism. the common shawl Shuttle is used instead of the circle. of Mulhausen.) the cloth must be carefuUy rolled in paper. complishing its task with perfect regularity . one person only being required to put all these needles into action. the weaver works the ground headles with his riglit (as in damask weaving. as fast as the thread is its wanted : hollowed out to about f ths of ceive the warp. Mr. it was interesting to see.

received. a real work you have my practical like that you name. have expired but a short time since. not Such a work. 5th. and England. vantages which must lesult from they will appear obvious to every reflecting mind. when effrontery usurps the place of genius. have come to the conclusion that the Doctor's description is not in- tended to benefit the manufacturer or mechanician. a catch-penny descripbut as all the movetion of my Embroidering Machine is given : ments and mechanical arrangements contained drawings. which has really procured me many compliments (among which is the decoration of the " Legion d' Honneu f^) is at present public property. at page 437 of vol. Your favour of the 29th June last has just reached me. home consumption. but only for the amusement of children. but also to your own country and the world at large . surmountable character . I am glad to hear that you have embarked in the publication of a treatise on the art of weaving. ever. and best wishes. saving millions of dollars annually to the country. so far as I am awai:e. in the undertaking. will be quite a god-send . patents obtained in France The . August Dear friend. your 1 many essential parts of plate are omitted. of 1.EMBROIDERY. in a practical point of view. will prove of immense age of only to individual manufacturers and weavers. enlosing a Copy of " Ure's Dictionary of Arts. so that this invention. Mulhausen. is not necessary that we should enlarge upon the national adthis invention. with those of your friends here. for in this charlatanism. am persuaded. with in plate 2. or the most lasting re- proaches. at least. 1843. 307 and he well merits the compliments which he has It." for have not made any improvement on the Embroidering Machine some time past nor has there been any material alteration made in its principles. 1. because. " Facts truly stated are the best applauses. howof for- is calculated to supply us with beautiful embroideries. Manufactures and Mines . either here or in England. I . and render us independent eigners in this delightful branch of industry. that for it We would remark. which will include I all its various branches." in which publication. benefit. since its first introduction.

* We think these complimenls have been altogether misplaced. {Ce nianvfacturier a recuilli des compliments. It would certainly be received with much favour and. Would it not have been more becoming in these gentlemen. ä New York. Membre de la Legion d' Honneur. perhaps. and two assistant children. as before observed. rolling all the time along an iron railway and lastly.) Each machine. 260 pincers or fingers to lay hold of them. is 5000 francs (nearly 1000 dollars. he follows the drawings with the point of the pantograph with the other.and it requires merely the labour of one adult. on which he bears alternately. : . GILROY. a handsome gold medal. he opens the 130 pincers of the first carriage. Etats Unis d' Amerique. to have sent Mr. ä faire tourner la tete^) from a multitude of persons. in token of their admi- ration of his ingenuity ? . who were in Manchester last year.308 THE ART OF WEAVING. containing 15 of rny Em- This manufacturer has received compUrnents at least sufficient to drive a man crazy. Je vous presente mes salutations cordial . The Operator must be well instructed in the use of the machine.the course of last jear. with one for he has many things to attend to at the same time band. might prove greatly to your advantage. with one foot and then the other. by means of two pedals or treadles. When JOSUE HEILMANN. . C. and he shuts at the same . advantage of those who have it hitherto adopted the use of but my opinion is. is calculated to perform daily the work of 20 expert band embroiderers. of Manchester. ready. British Association. which are held fast in pincers. The price of a machine containing 130 needles. will be more serviceable when within the reach of every one. MONS. and of course. at the meeting of the broidering Machines. which must give up the needles after having pricked them into the stuff. G. Heilmann.* Although wonder. I several times visited the factory of Mr. approaching to and receding from the web. Louis Schwabe. to prick and draw all the needles. he turns a handle. your work on the " manufacture of textile fabrics" is you would do well to send a copy of it to our Societe Industrielle here. I this invention has it filled the mechanical world with do not think that that has turned much to the pecuniary it . the inventor of the mach ine. During. and carried by carriages.

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correspond to those of the pantograph or Fig. the letters of reference in the edge or left central rectangle Fig. 1.* you stand at the side by a third rectangle. 1. 2. ground. This assemblage of the . it is not less remarkable for the arrangeit. as the Position of the pantograph denotes . describe successively.) In Fig. either by the motion of the machine movements of the girls. 309 them and draw them back eise to do. by which which it is secured to the is not represented in *If the reader will carefully examine the central or middle rectangle (of Fig. of the parts which compose than for the effects produced. The arrangement of the carriages. and Fig. the side of the frame forms two equal rectangles A B B A. A B B A. The arrangement of the stuff. the other at the left of the machine). the parts must be strongly the fixed together on a foundation firm enough not itself or to be shaken. Fig. 3rd. 2. 2. represents an elevation taken in front of the machine. The arrangement of the pincers. being that side on which the machine is worked. 2) he will find thatit presents a complete edge view in elevation of the left hand side of Fig. which has a hole to receive a fastening screw. and to We ment fectly understood because. The other side of the frame. 1. who go from one pincer to another to change or fix the needles.EMBROIDERY. The arrangement of the frame. 2nd. We shall Ist. shall endeavour to make all the details of this machine per. symmetrically placed. 1. 4th. 1 (plate 2) is shown a section of the frame. forms but one piece or casting the sections of the : and vertical sides of the machine are quite similar on the right hand side at No. and united narrower and more elevated. in one complete piece. is represented one of the feet a. horizontal in the raiddle ADCA. hand (as one at the right. The children have nothing but to change the needles when the threads are used up. The frame is of cast and set iron .t three rectangles. ARRANGEMENT OF THE FRAME. time the 130 pincers of the second carriage. . + It side of as it would be desirable to cast the sides of the frame would save much labor in the fitting up. which must receive afterwards. an elevation taken from the left hand side of the machine (as you stand in front of Fig. and below it. watch that no needle misses its pincers.

.riÄTE 1.

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) which has the form of a trough and is fastened by a nut and screw to the cor. 1 at their upper part. at the exhi- and was 2\ metres wide (about 8 feet 4 inches of our measure. the two sides of knees are the frame are joined by a single bar D" (Fig. 3 represents at its its upper part a Fig. but the other proportions are not disIn our drawings (Figs 1 and 2) the bars A'' and D". which bears all the mechannecessary to possess an exact idea of and how the moveable enabled to parts. so that the needles might bear a thread one metre long. Fig. which represented Such is the disposition of the frame. two extremities of each of these bars. needles. connect the sides of the frame A and A'together (see Fig. similar to the bar there are knees . : . D and 1. we shall designate corresponding by the same letters of reference with an accent : thus. to give strength to the frame. A" besides. 2) corresponding to those designated foot by a. 2. We have already observed that the pincers which carry the always at the same point. at the a".metres long. which turbed. A' B' B' A'j A' B' B' A'j will be the two symmetrical rectangles of the second end of the frame. as well as that of its back. A' D' middle. corresponding to C A' and is will be the rectangle of the a' will represent the six feet A D C A. Between each at the and its correspondent a' there a bar of cast iron A". . The width of the machine depends upon the nuraber of pincers intended to be set to work. D'. contained The model which we saw 260 pincers. ARRANGEMENT OF THE STUFF TO BE EMBROIDERED. the form and disposition of which is shown in Fig. 1. which are here very numerous. the two sides of the frame are joined by six bars. ism of the machine and it is it. (see Fig. 1) instead of being 2\. whether the or narrow. the length adopt- ed by M.310 the figure. little raore than two metres. 1. (see scale at foot of Fig. two of these shown in Fig. in Order to understand how the other fixed parts are supported by a dotted line.) The length of the frame must always be the same. entirely similar . are perform their respective functions with perfect regularity. under part. Heilmann. machine be wide vantageous canbe put in the needles. for the length of the thread that .) The figures here given have been narrowed considerably. bition in Paris. depends upon the length to give the frame. as is and all it is always ad- we have a done. that to say. are not quite 2 metres. present themselves and that con- . parts is TUE ART OF WEAVING. Thus. responding angles section of this bar . shows the form of is outer edge.

after the needle has gone through. to the requisite extent. at F'. where hidden in part by some stuff to the Supposing that one of these Systems presents the upper needles. beam drop . make it turn. Fig. 1. and the other to the under : as the two beams of each system have not their axes in the same vertical plane. then it remains only to Stretch the Besides this system of under beams. if the stuff was not displaced with a precision. The stuff is set on a large rectangular frame. 3) would be inclined and would come to present itself obliquely to the workman did not take care and bring it back exactly in the middle. The disposition of the stufF and the mechanism by which it is displaced. suffi- cient to present successively. for each of these bearas : has at one of its extremities a little ratchet wheel g^ g. and the and more the same result would be produced by turning the under beam. the extremities of which. and to the catch of the other stuff. . and we shall try to explain them. but it not completely seen in Fig. F'. shows also two long wooden roUers G. it suffices to same time the two catches and to turn in the proper dithe beam on which the stuff is wanted to be rolled. on to put it straight. there is a second system of is two upper beams. the draws the under beam and tends wheel holds it. after having raised its catch. other pieces. 1. all the points through which the needle has to pass. G. the needles 311 would pass and repass continually through the same hole. if the plane of the stuff G" (Fig. to execute the flower or the drawings intended. These two roUers form a system of beams^ on which the stuff destined to be embroidered. fixed. bear on the sides F of the frame. 3. the needles. whilst the catch of its ratchet stuff G" (see Figs. by means of a strong wooden ruler. and the two horizontal sides. it follows. ing. purpose. opposite the point of the needle. the catch of the upper 3.EMBROIDERY. fastened with iron trunnions. are therefore of great importance. as well as the roUers. may be rolled and stretched vertically to the proper degree. sequently. 1. for instance. and which is disposed exit is same manner it is also represented in Fig. the four sides of which are visible in Fig. When it is desired to pass any . F. as indicated in Fig. the upper and the under. on which they turn. actly in the for the same . that in rais- wheel and turning the stuff beam in the direction indicated to by the arrow. viz the two vertical sides at F. 1 and 3) Stretches more part of the stuff from one of the raise at the rection let beams to the other. the teeth of one of these wheels being bent in a contrary direction to the teeth of the other.

strings g" (Fig. 6". the Operator sews on its edges. are chosen. may present opposite each needle. be in a straight line in only one of the positions of the paralleloto gram. 1) represents a parallelo/. its have them to remain always in a straight line. in fixed proportions. and b b". it is evident. the two vertical sides of the frame 3. Mr. and these points c. this condition can be fulfilled in many ways. the successive points which must be pricked and crossed by the thread. three angles of the second we have then h"c b' the proportion b"f b'd . the sides keeping always same length the sides h b'. by what ingenious means. Fig". lo obtain this result. hh' fh" (Fig. the principle on which the construction of the pantograph rests is this it is sufficient that the three points c?. For. and how the stuff which is fastened on it. remains now. on condition that in one of the positions of the parallelogram. fixed to the sides F of the frame. in the this two opposite without its being torn. one to the point d. drawings of all kinds. the parallelogram remaining the same. little ribbands of linen cloth or other suitable material. uses the pantograph. are hinged. the line c point/". : c. the three angles of the first of these triangles are equal respectively to the . and d. : ö'. whatever Position be. sufiice to bring the properly the point c to the point h". or vice versa distance b' but when d has been once chosen. the line c d which joins them. stuff The directions. for tliis ruler is shown at G'. by means of which he is enabled to reduce or extend. and the other to the point c. will pass through the point /. the frame raay without deviating from the vertical be displaced in had at first been fixed. and consequently forced to follow all its movements. each of the Systems of beams. 1) which draw them It laterally to see all it and which are directions. must also and to effect receive a lateral tension. / and consequence. is a necessary Now. it would . the distance b" c. f being parallel b" c^ and b' d to 5"/. Heilmann. are lengthened. Every one knows the principles on which this Instrument is founded.312 THE ART OF WEAVING. that in order to carry the point d further from the point 6'. since in the present position. and afterwards ties to these ribbands. and we shall only recall them to plane in which memory in a few words gram whose four angles ö. . and so disposed as become either very acute or very obtuse. as having equai angles . since the position of to the . d passes through the the triangles for b' b' c?/and b" to c f are similar.

the sides will since the figure will still remain be a parallelogram angle . then remain equal to the h' f^ d This once admitted. besides. the point when the point c passes into ano- / will pass at the same time. the angle c h"f will and consequently. will be respectively parallel to the hnes c then. and the two lines cf and / d will be on the same line. (and analogous cf and f d of the primitive . now. in let c. in joiuing d to c'. if in any other Position. thus they will be similar. The same ther point c". gles b" c is sufiicient to observe. and the Knes //". seen. b' and since the lengths c b" and b" f^ d and fj are constant. or shutting arbitrarily the angle 6. for instance. in a cer- making is all the system turn round the point c': d US imagine. the figures described by the point / in the diverse positions of the parallelogram. the point c be joined to the point / and the point d to the same/j the two triangles b" c f and h' f d which will result from it. that in the primitive trian- f and b' f d. that the point c comes in then. the three points c. c". it evident that the point c'.EMBROIDERY. ' that the line//' is parallel to c c'. in all the positions that the parallelogram 313 may take. the relation which it between the outlines of these figures. To find. which in f'^ for instance. we have 40 . in opening parallel. that the to the triangles b" We new triangles b' formed on d b c'. will still have an equal angle comprised within two proportional sides. into another point /". / will be found some- w^here on that line d the straight point c line. but. that is to say. suppose that we move the point tain direction. we have c'f b" c df in the primitive position b'f b" c we had c f df it b'f follows then df df the result is. c' c" . position) are similar. are always exactly similar to the figures described by the point exists c. : thing will happen. / and d will remain in a straight hne. since it falls always on joins the point d to any position which the may have take. ff". lastly.

de bc b'f df the triangles cc' dff and dcc' being similarj de ' we have also ff~df hence it results cc' = b c or bc . so that the middle of their thickness in is exactly the vertical plane of the stuft". consequently. and the turning point by which it carries the stuft' and frame in its movements. to be understood. that the triangles dbc and d b' f being also similar triangles. 3 on which it turns. made is equal to the sixth part of b ff ^ of cc'. Heilmann has taken After this demonstration. In looking over 2 and 3. C/ hence h" C df bf cf+df df but b" c+b'f b'f cf+df=dc. will be very easy to perceive how the pantograph acts in the embroidering machine. thus and b" c+b'f-^bc. that the side b c has a handle B". //' If the side b b" has been will be also b'f bb" c. 2 shows the profile of the angles plainly. to that plane in which. which it requires only the first notions of geometry. 1.314 THE ART OF WEAVING. we have bc b'f db d b' b' it and as Mr. . Heilmann. 1. that in general the outlines de- scribed by the point / will be exactly the sixth part of the described by the point c. To obtain more precision and solidity. the support shows more are joined together. the sides of the pantograph Fig. and hinges and Fig. This proposition is that adopted by Mr. It outlines may also be observed. and the axles of the hinges as all perpendicular as possible. that to say. it will be seen in Fig. by which the workman puts the Instrument in action . d= b'f results bc=bd. Figs.

and the drawing stuff is set on a vertical board E. and before fastening the nut it must be drawn backwards or forwards. in the motion of the pantograph. terminated by a point C".) this board is supported by the iron rod e'. the extremity & . the 315 is movements are accomplished. Heilmann has accomplished Ist. and to give him at the same time a sure and easy figure equal to that. will go exactly through the same way as the point/. there is fixed at little and perpendicular to the to the parallelogram. if the frame is well fixed on all sides. it. iif the workman takes hold with his of the handle B" (Fig. D" a bent piece d" (Figs. then. and forced to ports move in the same plane. frame a little The upper side F' of the frame carries two jutting rulers. the point/ will describe a figure similar to the figure described by the point c and 6 times smaller. it rein the plane of the stuff. to give to the workman. and 3) and on which is also fixed the piece d'^ this piece d' is fastened to d" by an c? by a hinge iron pin but it has an oblong hole. parallel plane of the and the parallelogram. mains only to fix the frame to the angle / of the parallelogram which is done by means of the piece F" (Figs.EMBROIDERY. until the support be exactly This condition being accomplished. . and put back only a distance equal to the length of the style c C" (Figs.) tied to the side ö c of the pantograph. 1. 1) and makes the pantograph naove in hand any way. as we have said to direct it. it it. passes over a pulley and supports at : its extremity a weight which the workman may graduate. keep it in its plane. manner A rope e (Fig. the outlines of that draw- for this purpose. 1 and 2 . which the point c describes means ing : to go with the point c through all c. it is necessary also to lighten so that the embroiderer may carry the point of the pantograph without effort or uncertainty in his movements. each of its points and of those fastened to . at will to raise the this weight balances the pan. who holds the handle B" a drawing six times larger than that which must be executed by the machine. This effected 1 large upper bar jutting. Thus. It is sufficient. but the point / cannot move without moving the frame and all its Supbesides.) It is now piain. tograph and tends 2d. a style. 1) which is also used for different purposes. every point of the stuff describes a by the point /. is forms a pretty heavy weight. that. as we have demonstrated. as its we shall show hereafter . by fixing on the having a proper which is joined to . 1 and 3. loaded with beams and it stuff. the frame. fixed on an iron foot E' (Fig. this in the following Mr. and consequently and 6 times smaller. and will be observed that if to necessary. described similar to that.

supported at . in the greatest excursion from top to bot- tom slits or from bottom to top. and which. are disposed one at the right and the other at the left of the frame (Fig. 2 . 2 move together. The und er at side of the frame. have frame vertical which the under F is fastened. i (Fig. h' on the two arms h" which form the extremity of a forked lever H". which are entirely similar. on the arms of the levers H". shown its two extreraities slides which carried by feet of cast iron I" (Fig.) the blocks of which are of an oval form (Fig.) a counterpoise I.) both have a longitudinal (Figs. be confounded by deplaced from the original plane. which they make the flanges h' (Fig. on iron feet. 2 . and without preventing its move in all directions. for the rods e" are fixed to the great bar D" .) we shall designate by the same letters of reference the pieces which compose them. has two horizontal rods H and bent. in order that the two sides of the frame may be equally raised therefore they are keyed on a shaft I'. 1. as it may be or near the line of the supports. which thus is used as a giiide to maintain in all 1 plane. Before we describe the arrangement and action of the pincers which carry the needles. 4th. H as (Fig. 1) supported side of the which the frame can make. 3. which the frame can take 3d. in Two guides i. 4) of the pulley describe. ARRANGEMENT OF THE CARRIAGES. being dis- had been regulated the length of the rods H must also be equal to the amplitude of the lateral movement of the frame. however. is seen at E" (Fig. . prevents. These carriages. its and horizontal slit in which the rod e" may easily slide and 3).) each of these rods is fixed in the groove of a pulley H' (Fig. the length of the slit at each of the rulers E" must be äqual to the amplitude of the lateral movement. 2.316 the proiile of which THE ART OP WEAVING. Each carriage executes its movements on a railway. 1) supported by two small arms. allows to raise the to from frame upwards the frame to any required height. . 4) and supported by two triangulär flanges A'. which are a little h (Fig. we shall explain the disposition and movement of the two carriages which carry these pincers and all their mechanism. grees with a straight line. the Upper part of the frame. and the arms of the levers H" must be sufficiently long to let the are. for which the pantograph . composed of . the the two levers H" must profile of which is shown in Fig.

The carriage cornposed only of a long hollow cylinder of cast iron L (Figs.EMBROIDERY. constitute the carriage.) the corresponding bracket of the other rail is itself is seen also on the right. at first a little complicated.* (Fig.) an end view bolted is given on the right at No. properly speaking. of course. seen 2. one set on each side of the machine. 2) forked to receive the axis of the wheels. One . can himself without changing his place. nnderstand. with their pulleys L' L'. is as straight as possible and horizontally of these rails one at at each side of the machine. 1 :) in this figure. and thus may with the greatest facility approach or withdraw from the stuff to prick or draw the needles. k are the two seen at the (Fig. to it acts with We shall now endeavour is make this part of the arrange- ment understood. 1. conduct the carriages and regulate. sion. the last only has been represented. against the post A' ß'. This mechanism. Mr. 2) fastened against the post J' Aß at the right is of the frame. 1 and 6) which is cast oq the cyhnder L. ßut. which are fixed against the large posts A C and A' C' wheel rn (see left side of Fig. the extent of their course as well as the rapidity of their motions. plan represented in placed and vertical posts is A C left Fig. it. Heilmann attaches to a piece of mechanism by means of which the workman who directs the pantograph. which. 1. by two Stands to the other and J" : a similar pulley fastened end of the frame against the corresponding post A' ß' (Fig. 1. as he pleases. two rails 317 fixed. These pieces. are then in perfect equilibrium on the rails K. to supersede the necessity of employing a person to produce these alternate motions of the carriage. 2 and 6) having at each of its extremities two wheels L' which roll on the rails K (Figs 1 and 2 . and that which is fastened to the post A B has been suppressed. that there are two sets of rails K. 5 the two jutting parts on two brackets. 1. and what an essential point. will perhaps appear to it is many readers. it * The reader will. K 2 is . On a level with the centre of the pulon which leys J is fixed an iron shaft M" (Fig l)supported in proper couplings or bearings. A pulley J (Fig. 2) would project. and the piece V is also bolted on the piece or appendix l (Figs. but in reality is simple and very ingeremarkable preci- nious. sight.) .) the wheels L' are mounted on a piece V (Fig. to show the and edge view in centre of Fig. also bolted to and A B of the frame one of these brackets : and its A:. as seen at K K K and L' L' (Fig.

which is at the extremity of the shaft M" corres. are secured.) of the frame inside the frame. D . by turning the wheel arrow. this same stud-pin also carries a roUer which runs under the rail K. to draw the thread and tighten the stitch. 2 :) ing cog wheel passes an endless chain j the part of chain which must pass round the circumference of the wheel called m is Vaucanson's chain (chaine-de-Vaucanson. 2. motion. Heilmann has disposed on the piece O. arrow (Fig. it takes hold of them. to it is designated by the letter M'. 2) to the piece m". 1. 1 and 2.) the carriage will beforced towards the by the and. the carriage will M in a direction opposite the stuff. performs its course in removing. the shaft M" has towards : its extremities. moveable round the point o O'. which same time. 1) or the wheel M (Fig. 2) in the direction indicated st uff. O' and O" have similar teeth and diameter the two wheels O' and O" are fixed in relation to each other. a bent lever the bending n' has a cog. the right being hid by the pulley J extremity (pan tograph side) projects outside the frame. it comes back and brings its the needles to prick the stuff in carriage riages turn . draws them. that by turning the shaft M" (Fig. To is 71 bolted n' on the two posts A C and A n". effect this. on to the the contrary. hand one its left visible m Fig. with the exception of the wheel M. one at j' and the other at j" (Fig. . be- it is necessary distinguish the however. M one of the carriages has advanced and pricked the needles into the stuff. (Fig. which similar and fixed in the same manner. M'. 1. which we have just described every thing is the same and designated by the same letters of reference. the other is there ready to receive them. move from The left hand carriage (Fig. but never move at the Mr. so that it is sufficient to turn the handle N (Figs. 1 and 2) to make the wheel . which is supported by the extremity of the stud-pin m' (see right side of Fig.) the other which must pass round the circumference of the pulley J is a simple strap the two extremities of the chain J. wheel and the extremity 7i" another cog-wheel O'' the four wheels M. When afterwards its . the first must remain in its place waiting for it thus the two cargo alternately backwards and forwards. 2) is arranged exactly as the right hand one. ponding cause are. to steady the carriage. On the pulley J and on the correspond(Fig. It results from this arrangement. fixed in the piece l of the extremity of the cylinder L . of the frame. to the second carriage. 1) which is .318 ^ THE ART OP WEAVING. to support another cog wheel this M (Figs. during . but is two cog wheels m the left .) tw. in all respects two wheels and M'. .

bat the lever ?^ o is in- clined to one side or the other. Yiewing these parts as they are represented by Fig. For the present. but at the same its time. evident. mesh 2. he has feet Icft to act The workman having B'' of the only bis other things to do. that by turning the handle N in the direction indicated by the arrow. 3. on the lever n o. we shall consider these treadles only as the of communicating motion to the lever n o. a occupies (Fig. 1 and 2) are moveable round the axis p (Fig. represented in of the its cir- front. and the n o will be inchned so as to gear the wheel O' into the wheel M'. 1 and 2) will suffice to act alterThe reader will nately on the left or on the right band carriage. the wheel O' will neither if touch the wheel M nor yet the wheel M'. 319 O" but turn. when inclined to one side or the other. the shaft P '' supports at its extremity a piece little . and the simple movement of the lever n o (Figs. it is evident. in the direction indicated arrow. that by lowering the treadle P. which goes into the forked extremity of the . and the right carriage will approach to the limit which prevents the pincers from touching the the person with a rapidity which depends entirely on by turning the handle in a contrary direction. because rope P' (Figs. 2) . the treadle which is now down will be raised. the wheel O' touches neither the wheel M nor wäll the wheel M'.EMBROIDERY. The treadles P (Figs. and the other with the handle N. by its the wheel M will turn stuff. 2) will turn from left to right. r. means . and on the other by a piece K' fastened to the two large posts of the frame A C and A D (Fig. and a place which side it view No. Mr. 1). 1) it and at the left has teeth on a portion of above. 1) the upper part of the shaft P'' (supposed to be lever Seen from the end as in Fig. turns the handle : who N perceive. 1 and 2) supported on one side by the stand E'. it is or gear alternately into the wheel M or the wheel M'. which now raised (Fig. and as he has yet many Heilmann has placed before him two treadles. 1 and 2) will of necessity be rolled . that when the lever nois vertical. lever is no . the wheel O' will be geared into the wheel M or M. but for the present we have only to speak of the part without teeth) and is furnished with a pin. feet by means of which he executes with bis not less delicate a series of Operations than those he executes with bis hands. and have ropes p' rolled in a contrary direction on the pulleys P' these pulleys are fixed on a shaft P" (Figs. cumference (we shall see further the use of these teeth. alternately. now. the carriage wiU go backwards. one of bis hands occupied with the handle pantograph. and consequently the wheel O' : when it the lever n o is ver- tical.

(Figs. and has fixed on the prismatic little ruler it will be observed easily that it Ist. (Fig. consecutive arms Q. one after it another. at Spaces of abouthalf a metre. in a very straight line.. the curved arms Q. needed. 6 and 8). 8. to give a complete idea of them an iron rail. 1). pincers that are found in a row. is fixed on this prismatic ruler. a set screw t. the form of which ruler a spring its under part left At the extremity (see Figs. this part is sufficient. it is to these appendices that are 1 with two bolts. Figs. the three consecutive rulers. . 6 and 7). the ear has a which allows to carry backwards or forwards. Q. extends between the two 1. a it to the left. pulley in proportion as the other rope will unroU. extending from one end to the other of the This prism is destined to receive and to support all the carriage. 1 and 2. and 2) . 2) the shaft L'. by means of it which has at 2d. place At T seen the under jaw. appendices 5'g'fastened toit (see also Fig.320 on its THE ART OF WEAVING. and separated from each other by an interval equal to the thickness of the upper jaw. as seen in Fig. with a hole in them. 6 represents a part only of one : prism. when ARRANGEMENT OF THE The shaft L' (Figs. 6. Upwards. used to raise the end of the upper jaw Y. forming a well set triangulär Fig. where the scale fastenedj larger) . and towards its middle. 6 and 7) in which passes an iron pin which crosses the thickness of the slit arm but instead of a simple hole. 1 PINCERS. with the Figs. each of them is a little prolonged beyond its two ears. 10 and 1 1. the three rulers S. and is 2) supports from distance to distance. so that. f.. in forcing it to shut and to press against the under jaw 3d. 8) is which compose it& one of the pincers. which must be found in the three intervals of the arms Q. and destined to receive the corresponding ear v of this jaw . which are destined to support all the mechanism of these of the pincers arms but as they are disposed nearly in the same manner above and below (see Fig. two little round ears. Underneath. represent the different parts (Fig. and s' it is fixed against each of these arms by means of an ear (Figs. seem to form but a Single triangulär prism. after they are properly arranged. 9. The workman can then put. represented at S (Figs. so that the apparatus will be quite ready to act in a contrary direction. set in .

8. At the right extremity. S (Figs : 41 . it is fixed in an angular groove. an iron shaft U which extends from one side of the carriage to the other (see Fig. 1) an end view of this shaft is shown at U Fig. be complete. having a conical this plate is repre- hole larger inside than outside a front view of sented at Fig. by which it will be seen. The Order to lipper jaw its Y has been removed froni better. down sufficiently to overcome the also elasticity of the spring Fig. that it is flat on one side this shaft is supported by little forks u (Fig. that the upper jaw Y of the pincer t'^ (see Fig. the pincer will 7. the upper jaw Y. seen from the end. when they should deliver up the needles to those of the opposite carriage. plate T'. cumference. the Y must be pressed t'. . of füll working size in the middle. 4th. by any cause should be misplaced much in advance . in show form It will now is be perceived. the eye is it put in it as in a common needle.EMBROIDERY. There is for this purpose. 2. or too 5th. Fig. a thin plate T'. 1. at the same time. if its place in Fig. gaged in . 13. 321 vertical jutting t". 9 represents a view of the pincer from above (a plan view) it shows the size of the jaws and that of the spring f. Suppose now. by three points of its cir- When a pincer it. the depth of which is a little less than the diameter of the needle. 11. and when the pincer is shut. that the prismatic ruler right all the pincers are set at a proper distance on 6. the filaments of the short end are only mixed with those of the long near the needle. 6 In Order that the pincer long end of the upper jaw may be opened to receive the needle. or like shown in Figs. 7 and 8) to form the upper row of the hand carriage. A little to the right of the ears. but not doubled. holds it in the groove thus the needle is held fast. after having pricked them into the stuff. and are slightly twisted. we shall endeavour to explain by what kind of mechanism the workman succeeds in opening. so that they may hold better. 12 represents a needle Y'. 6) which . is opened and half of the needle comes to be enby the opening of the plate T'. and go more easily through the stuff through the hole which the needle makes. the thread is is . all the pincers of the upper row. if a small it serving to stop the needle. 8) dropped down and into its place between the ears and a pin passed through these that ears. on the side of the Fig. 10 represents a pincer. as seen in Fig.

at to draw the rope which it sup- . 2. pincers. and these halves enter into the pincers of the left band carriage. 1 and 2) it is by means of these pins that the movement is communicated to the ruler X. . where it is X . which are open to receive them. and these are of such a height. 1 performs this 2. taking these parts as they are represented in Fig. 1) a piece p' . and on the left at No. 1 and No. easy to understand how they operate.v' of the notched rulers X ?-' . fixed. 2. secures the and pricks into the stuff the jutting half which it carries. 2 1 . and terminated by forks z and z'. and it is by a key-pin u' the shaft is round in the parts which the forks. to shut the left band carriage pincers. that when its flat turned downwards. and is used as a pinion gears into a sector r. destined to at Fig. so that they may take the needles and open the right band carriage stud-pins x' in the forks z\ of the needles pincers to give them up. it circumference. to open and shut the vertical ruler X (Figs. a side view of which be seen in Fig. it is then necessary instantly. are fastened with bolts at the extremity of the arms fixed there rest in part is Vj without pressing them. r' (Fig. which put in motion treadles P. it touches the ends of all the upper jaws . in the direction of the arrow : then. let For. by means of the two treadles its P and is have already said. of the shaft U two sectors with teeth x^ w. once . 1). fixed at the extremity of the shaft R (Figs. placed in the middle of the horiby proper bearings The shaft R also supports zontal and lower bars of the frame.. the two forks designated by z' correspond to the left band carriage (as seen in Fig. Heilmann fixes at the two extremities its axis. and the ruler has at its under part an horizontal pin x' (Figs. each of these sectors gears into a toothed and 2) which can slide against the arm Q. and those designated by z correspond to the right carriage they are destined and it is very to receive the stud-pins .322 THE ART OF WEAVING. 3 it has teeth on two-thirds of its with its toothed part. he bears on the raised treadle This the workman does with bis foot. that the shaft P". supports at right extremity (Fig. 2). and it by forcing down the Springs f. placed crosswise upon it. 1 and No. the carriage advancing. us suppose that the workman brings the right carriage towards him. opens them when it turns on To may produce this effect.) Operation. 3). make the lever n o act this piece is represented in front . of the carriage. 3) jvhich can revolve on its axis and is supported . We We by the shall now try to explain how the workman (Figs. Q. so that the pincers remain shut. and to tlie sector Xj and consequently to the shaft U. Mr. two arms Z Z (Fig. by turning the handle N.

communicated to the shaft P". 6 also indicated in and 7 . elasticity. 1) is . 2 . turn as well as the flattened shaft U. consequently the toothed shaft R. 3). the position of the wire. 2) and brought . after the return of the same movement of the treadle. flat make the the sided shaft U all the upper jaws V by means of the arms Z Z (No. X corresponding sectors x . of the lever n o (Fig. which gives pressure of the pincers and opens them turn. the forks z^' z' which terminate them at the left. connected to the ends of the bars y' Figs. which is easily regulated. pinion p" sector and simultaneously to the two arms Z. The which produced this double result. only to turn the handle N to give motion to the stitch. 2.' of the toothed rulers of the left hand carriage. bars as will be seen. z of these arms (Figs. descend and carry with them the studpins j. seen in Fig. 1. make the on the end of all at once. as will be hereafter more fully explained. but this tension presenting no some inconvenience might to the carriages have happened. left which draws the needle and tightens the The threads are stretched in proportion as the carriage withdraws. w4re must be very straight its : and which this wire is simply twisted together at ends after having taken a turn round the notched ends of the 2/'. 1 (a httle below the prismatic rail Y which extends across the and projects over it at each side this shaft is supported by pieces y which are bolted on the arms Q. Heilmann fixed of a piece mechanism by means of which every thread is pressed at the same time by a weight. the workman shuts the pincers of the left hand carriage and opens those of the right hand carriage. Z. 2 and 6) in which it may turn at its left extremity. 1 and 2) are raised and carry the stud-pins x' in their ascending movement. the extremities of the two bars y' are connected by 1) a stout wire which extends across the machine (Fig. rulers sectors X ascend x and in shding in their grooves or guides. which wdll remain open until they have re- which they are fixed its flat pincers. on close examination (Fig. The reader will see in Fig. Thus at the same time. all the threads which come from the needles must . 323 is then the movement of rotation which is produced in the cor- responding puUey r. and all the pincers of this side are shut ceived the needles. had not Mr.(Figs. has also changed the position the wheel O' on the wheel left hand carriage. . it has two little bars y' and w^ and at its right extremity a single bar y' and a counterpoise y" which may be ^vhich Supports the pincers) a shaft carriage . the extremities z. on side jaw y of the means of the Coming on the ends of the upper by Springs f.EMBROIDERY. ports . M' so that the workman has hand carriage.

which the machine can embroider is of needles to be set at work because. but we have and 2. in Fig. we will offer a few remarks in regard to its Operation. which will be seen by referring to Fig.) Having thus described. it is example. proaches the . and would require a machine . and breadth. to the best of our ability.. when the in leaving that position. so that the number of patterns to be emFor broidered will be equal to the number of needles employed.) When the carriage apand before the wire touches it. must be somewhat greater than the breadth of the pattern to be embroidered. XX : shaft U of the upper carriage is precisely the same as that of the under carriage. Tension is coramunicated to the threads of the lower needles by an arrangement the same as that above designated by the letters of reference Y. only considered the upper our demonstrations. as well as the The number . and In the description just given. which the machinery takes the 6. that the distance between the needles. y'. desired to work with 130 65 above and 65 below. to by one needle. that the distance between the needles should be rather more than 7 inches. : on the contrary. this beautiful piece of mechanism. w and w'^ (see Figs. each pattern was be 7 inches in very evident. Therefore. 2) meets a stud-pin w' (Fig. because are the same the flattened the sectors x x and toothed rulers will be seen that in Figs. or the motion of the frame would cause a part of the stuff which had been embroidered needles. if it is if. and 6. and operates simultaneously. the bar is w shdes in descending on the pin w'. bringing down 2 the threads of the needles position indicated in Figs. 2 stuff. in order it to simplify an under ränge of and needles which are also connected to the lower extreinity the machinery of the arms Q. to come for in front of another needle. removed y' to a httle distance. there are 15 patterns in each ränge these would size of the patterns limited. 7 carriage. y. ränge of pincers and needles. 1). (see Figs. take the position represented in Fig. goes from the stufF. 2. 1. which bears against it and raises it gradually the bars «/'. and then the counterpoise y" makes the bars the wire which connects them. (the Position of which is seen in Fig. on after all fall.324 THE ART OF WEAVING. 1 there is pincers . require one needle each . it is therefore evident. 1 and 2. the bar w. example. all the needles in each carriage (on the same horizontal Hne) have each its respective pattern. . respectively. y' and the wire which connects them is raised at the same time and pass under this wire. exactly similar to the upper ränge which opens and shuts the pincers is also the same.

he must look at the embroidered stuff in the machine. has the advanfor instance. To embroider patterns of a larger size the number of needles must be diminished so as to allow of a greater distance between them it would be necessary. . and so forth. (which see) so that the workman has . for instance. to reduce them one-half. embroider at the same time 130 ribbands of any length suffice to dispose these all it will ribbands on the beams G. . 65 above and 65 below. and then conbefore tinues to embroider from the mark which he had made roUing the stuff on the beam. in diminishing the number because. of needles. whether above or below. the pattern which on the board E. is going to prick. which he must foUow with the point of the pantograph should he happen to be interrupted and have neglected to mark the place where he left off. and stops the working of the machine a moment. its length or height may. it To facilitate this is kind of reading. it vantages of the machine . set at a distance of about 1^d' inches apart (mettre ä la distance environ 4 centimetres) . composed of straight each other at right angles. or about 13 metres in breadth : 325 but. the height which the vertical motion of the frame allows then the workman marks the place where he has for left oflf. according to the part last finished. this then is the maximum of the breadth of the patterns to be em- broidered. crossing is on the contin- board E. makes the point of the pantograph rise or descend. It will be perceived. : to produce patterns 3 inches (8 centimetres) wide. ually under his eye the pattern divided off into small Squares. requires as we decrease the admuch time to work it it a carriage with 50 needles as one with 130. carrying on this space 130 needles. the pattern wliich lines. the pattern on the table E (Fig. 1) being raised or lowered to correspond . is to say. Although the machine tage of having no limit in is limited in its width. while he roUs on one of the stuff beams G the embroidered part before the needles the new which he had executed. the arrangement of the mechanism : will not allow to give the ma- chine so great a breadth to hitherto the machines have been confined that 2^ metres for the working part. more than 65 times 7 inches. But. and brings which is to be embroidered he .EMBROIDERY. that the workman must is not foUow with the pantograph. . but must stop the little point of that Instrument on the point or square of the design paper or pattern which the needle and stops enter in he carries it again on the point through which the needle should go or returning. 70. as in Fig. and to embroider .

Figs. leys H' are supported. Fig.g-. 3. FF. g". e. Three of the angles of the pantograph. d. Fig. Support of the board E. 1. Figs frame where the workman posts of tlie 2 and 3.326 to see THE ART OF WEAVING. Stand fixed on the Upper side F' of the two sides of the frame. Cross-bar in hold the the shape of a trough which g'. /i'A'. A B C D. 2. where he to commence work again. Fig. vertical posts of the frame for carrying the stuff. Rope attached by one end to h. the stuff c. Point of the panto. 1.b".. a". (Fig. 3 and 7. B". 2. Flanges by e'. The six feet of the frame. Figs. Curved arms which support the rods H. Handle of the pantograph. E. Sliding rule fixed on H". Large levers which support the side F of the frame. Four rolle rs the cross-bars A" to the vertior wooden beams fixed on the cal posts of the frame. E". E'. 1. Fig. 1. nothing undone and not INDEX TO PLATES 1 AND 1. Fig. Horizonof the frame. unites the frame above. Guide-rods fixed to the under side of the frame v/hich carput. The six feet of the opposite graph. ries the stuff.H'. Fig. ing a weight at the other end. rolled on the beams G. Rod fixed on puUeys H' and at the other the cross-bar D" and sliding in counterpoises I (Fig. 1 and 3. Figs. 1). Strings used to Stretch the stuff sideways. 1. 1. side of the frame. G'. Figs. Fourth angle of the parallelogram which forms the pantoa'. Fig. Lower cross-bars tal sides of the same frame. 1 and 3. 3. Fixed points on which the G" Stuff. 2. Figs. The opposite side ries the stuflT. at one end the blocks of the e". C". frame and connected by an a. 2) on the pantograph side. 1 and 2. Figs. Fig. Figs. (see Fig. Throated pulleys in which the rods H slide. in order twice the same thing. Figs. Iron rod to support the board which the blocks of the pulE. Two rulers fixed on the same posts and b. Yertical frame which car- A' B' C. 2 and 3. The side of the sits. 2. Point of the side bb" on which the point is fixed.) the sliding rule E". passing over a pulley. 1 and 2.b. Ratchet wheels fixed graph. the side 6 c of the pantograph. at one of the ends of the rollers G. Figs. . 1 and 2. 1 and 4. y. pantograph turns. Fig. 1 and 2. intended to maintain in the same vertical plane. Catches which wheels g-. Board on which the pattern to be embroidered is H. A". which connect the feet of the F". and hav. D". axis pin to the pantograph. Knees which unite G. 1. 2 and 3. F' F' Figs. what has been already embroidered and to leave to find is by comparibis to repeat son with the pattern on the table E.

2. M'' M" Two shafts turning in bearings fixed on the large posts ports of the extremities of the shaft i. Figs. j' Endless chain. Stands which Support the pulley J. 1 and 2. 2 and . Figs. set on the front extremity of top with I". l'. Fig. N. m" Fig. carriages AD A Fig. Two a vertical sht in having which shdes J. Cog-wheel. . 2. n. and supporting the Avheel L' which rolls on the rail K. 1. K. 2. j. kj Flange of the rails K. andj". 1 and 2. 2) connecting the sides C and of the frame. Fig. Piece supported also to is by the stud-pin. Small wheels which support the carriage on the rails K. to move the carriages forward or backward. Rails for the Fig. C of iron feet AD. 1 and 2.n". Fig. Figs.n'. q destined to receive the large arms p. n'. Flanges. 2 and 6. C. Axis of the treadles P. with flanges k by which it is bolted to the upright posts B of the frame. M . Fig. t?/. 1. m' Stud-pin crossing the piece l'. two extremities M. n" and moving with it (Fig. P' Pulleys fixed on the shaft P" and moving with it. shafts is shown in Fig. I'. Two cog-wheels gearing into each other. Shaft or 1. through which the axis of the shaft L is fixed to the wheel-carriers l'. n". The two Sup- the axles M" and outside of the frame. Counterpoise of the lever H". Fig. The two extremities of the forks of the levers H". O. 0. Fig. Support or axis of the lever n. Wheel-carriers. p" Piece fixed at the extremity it has teeth of the shaft P" on 1^ of its circumference. havits two extremities a bent lever ^^. 1. K'. I'. Gross pieces bolted to the two posts and C and supporting the extremity of the shaft P". carries the pul- /. fixed to answer for each other and so that the two sides of the frame which cariies the stufi be supported and moved at the 327 Ä". 2. the under edge of the frame. 1. AD' and A the frame . L'. A one of these Fig. Shaft on which are supported the levers H". Figs. 5.) P. 2. and 2. 5 represents one of these rails. Handle J' and J' Figs 1 and 2. 2). fixed to the points n' and n" of the ing at cyhnder of the carriage. seen from above. set on the shaft M" inside the frame. 1. A AD O' and O". I. is turned. Bent lever supporting the two cog-wheels O' and O" and supported by the axis pin 0. (Fig. Two treadles. L. m'.EMBROIDERY. Figs. 2. Cog-wheels. flange by which it is fastened to the wheel-carriers l' and having besides from distance to distance appendices q. p' Ropes which connect the dles trea- aa P to the pulleys P'. P" Shaft which leys P'. forked at the to receive the axles of the small wheels L'. m' and which the endless chain con*nected. and the other part is prolonged and . serving to maintain it in its plane during its motions. Cross-bar (Fig. 1 an equal force. 2. . Figs. PuUeys at each end of the frame. Points means to of by which the wheel O" which the extremities of the endless chain are attached.

t^ Screw intended to fasten it on the prismatic rail. 1. right. Shaft supported at the under part of the frame by two bearings r' r'. z^ z'. r' r'. Two vertical rules with teeth shding against the arms Q. r Sector with teeth. Figs. and turning y. and intended to make the shaft turn at the moment when it leaves it. Fig. front of the pinion j)". No. t' Spring intended to press down the Upper jaw of the pincer on the needle. one the Upper shaft Y. (see middle of Fig. 2. Section of the rail K. y"^ Counterpoise of the rod Y. Flange intended to support the arms Q. 1. . w'. supported on the extremity of the shaft R. 1). Q. 12. S.Figs. Figs. No. Q. is small arms fixed. Figs. Prismatic rule supporting the pincers it and . 8. Figs. Key pins which keep the axis of the shaft in its place in X X. 1 and 2. 1. Forks which terminate the arms Z Z. 7 and 13. 2 and 6. T'. X. Small perpendicular arms or rods on the ends of shaft Y. QQ 6. and also showing the thickness of and the shape of the foot a. and which are in- w. s' s' Ears to which the arms Q. Fig. 2. Bearings fixed on the frame supportin g the shaft R. Q. A small fork piece tended to receive the stud-pins x' of the toothed rules which Supports the axis of the shaft U. (Fig. lo"^ has a stud-pin which goes through the forked extremity of the lever no to 2. the other on the under shaft Y' they are connected by a wire. Q. arm or Z Z.) X. 2. one at the . Fiat shaft supported by the extremity of the arms it is also shown in Figs. Fig. Y. 1 and 2.. 6. Under jaw of the pincer. 9 and 10. Figs. q. and gearing into the pinion p". Figs. U. 1 and 2. Figs. w. x^ Sectors gearing with the teeth of the rules and fixed on the flat shaft with which w Two on Y X U they turn.) x'^ Stud-pins fixed at the bottom of the rules X. Horizontal section of the post A B. Shafts sup^ ported by the arms Q. 6. 8). by means of the ears s' s'. T. and against which the small arm slides. . Large arms of cast iron. seen from above. (Fig. q. Arm at the extremity of the shaft Y. 1. 1 and 2. U the fork pieces u. 3. freely. 2 and 6. V. No. size. V. which are fixed on the shaft or cyUnder L by means of the flange q. q. are bolted. Upper jaw. the upper jaw of the pincer with the under one.Y. v^ Ear used to connect.'y'. 11). (Fig.328 THE ART OF WEAVING. 1 and Qj d. Plate pierced by a hole through which the needle goes into the pincer. and the other at the left. R. 1 and 2. make it move. A view in profile and in 1. Needle of the füll with the eye in the middle. 1. by means of a pin. so that the motion of the shaft produces that of the shaft Y'. w'^ Stud-pin fixed to the frame. Fig. Fig. fastened between two consecutive arms Q. Arms fixed on the shaft R each being terminated by two forks z z^ Fig. Figs.

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7 I^T" ^ Fiö: 5 o i a" ^ EiüaizffeclView KJ ( e: . K^./" 11.B F" .1^ 7/V'l P 3^ ji o) J Yif 4 A .

In concluding this part of our subject 329 but express our the we cannot any admiration of those talents which have overcome construction of machinery. Ed- ward Koechlin. skill and perseverance.' Mr. The paltry fraud of appropriating to himself the observations of others." We have the pleasure know that he is of being well acquainted with Mr. without acknowledgment. Edward Koechlin was in England. particularly in power loom weaving. will detect internal evidence of the one being derived from the other. me for ever. possesses more real inventhis sort." accounts of several other inventions of his in different branches of manufactures. Bauer's drawing. volume of the Bulletin de la Societe Industrielle de Mulhauis a memoir. that Mr. ' _ Form ofthe By James Thomson. first published in 1828. Heilmann's paper being published in 1828. of the fibres of cotton. Heilmann. but also a strict integrity. and mine in 1834. It is from this drawing and Mr. which ac- companies my paper ' ' On Mummy Cloth. Josue Heilmann. man find. Koechlin's communication. renders some explanation necessary. H. these gentlemen also lay claim to the embroidering machine which we have just described ? Perhaps they invented it too and ! 42 . and among many interesting papers furnished by this gentleman and published in the " Bulletin" of the " Societe. Heilmann what Lord Jeffrey * We extract the following characteristic morceau from page 543 of a book History of the Cotton Manufacture. Bauer and all his friends put together." there is a memoir entitled '' Observations Microscopiques sur la forme. Heilmann's Observations Micro' scopiques' are derived. which was readily granted.' in which he ascribes to the fibres of Cotton the same form precisely 11. entitled Obser' vations Microscopiques sur la forme. that Mr. given to them in the drawing of Mr." containing tion. la finesse. Mr. and requested permission to copy it. et la force des filamens de Coton. " Baines's envious entertained by Englishmen (especially of the mlddle class) to- wards the French: Relative to the In the sen^'' "NOTE Fibres of Cotton. he saw Mr. and during a visit he paid to me at Primrose. däted Feb. had Bauer considered this explanation necessary. Heilmann has given world we by referring to the records of the '• Societe Industrielle de Mul- hausen. et la force des filamens de Coton. might have passed unnoticed by not the friends of Mr.R. Heilmann's Observations' are accompanied by a drawing of Mr.* much valuable informa- Indeed.S. man of Ster- ling honour and altogether incapable of any thing of We will venture to assert. and not only an extremely ingenious man. Whoever will take the trouble to compare the two drawings. la finesse." as a specimen ofthe spirit entitled. by Mr. Mr. In 1822 or 1823. 1822. as great as difficulties in ever conquered by huis . The embroidering machine to the not the for only invention which Mr. Bauer. we may say of Mr.EMBROIDERY. F. Why do no tive talent than Mr.

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. which roll against the drum. warping and sizing having been to al- ready thoroughly investigated. WARPING AND SIZING BY POWER. nianual labour this by the application of power instead of subject we shall now endeavour to elucidate. or petty lawyer.000 odd words. SPOOLING. as to be swalvillainous System of trickery or deception. as applicable (see Section First."* agents and quack is doctors diffuse by the cognomen of " saw-dustifig light and not darkness. as it were gious instinctively. it is . in the aid of that mysterious art. by friction of contact C represent cast iron arches fixed between tlieir each pair of drums. and serving to keep the spools in places by which a lie is garnished commonly practised by men of no real inventive talent or capacily but whose impudence is their grand SubstiSuch characters often apply to some dishonest patent-agent. a prodi- memory. • The band processes of spooling. and of casting aside and rejecting. tute for genius. Were we ambitious of confusing the wits of the rabbie with very learned dissertations on spooling. is wortliless or immaterial. he is an extraordinary. but our object to Fig. B B B B. lowed by the pubUc without a ehrug ! . containing 16 drums A. purposely to work up the invention or inventions of some ingenious man. and a certain rectifying and methodizing power of digesting and arranging in its proper place. —possessing whatever infinite quickness of apprehension.) it looms worked by only reraains to show how these various processes may be : facilitated. warping and sizing. James Watt " Independently of his great attaininents in mechanics. and. whose business it is to assist them in their difficulties which he does by drawing out a long windy rigmarole specification of some 5. in many respects a wonder — ful man . 148 represents a common cylindrical shaft. tliat whicii is really valuable in practice. we would call known to patent . under pretence of making improvements thereon and then gilding the pill over so skilfully in the summing up of the claim. * A over and made to appear as truth: ." SECTION NINTH.330 Said of : THE ART OF WEAVING. with four spools .

Fig. Pieces Fig. 148. lying on the moveable GG. GG (Fig. 149. 148. -G Q i ^-^^ F Jl R g G -- - F dl 1 Lä . which moves the rails G G driven of the guide.SPOOLING. D^ D .) Each spool has suitable iron it gudgeons at its ends. and clean it from any loose specks rails that may is adhere it II are guide pins fastened on the J. to the spools while the yarn is winding on.) shaftj by a band from the cylinder connected with a heart motion. and by means causes the yarn to wind on equally from end to end of the spools.) : EE pieces are the bobbins from the spinning frame F F are cylindrical rails of iron covered with cloth. The puUey alternately in a horizontal direction the füll length of the spools. serving as an axis on which revolves (see Fig. Each of the drums A is covered with cloth or leather. partly smooth F. fibres.pins 1 1. as otherwise it would give a vibratory motion Fig. 149. 149. (see 331 D D. so which down to the . and requires to be perfectly true.Ää Gn Ig nc rt a I 1i i 1 1 lä a 1 a B {1 F I] a Q Q Q i ¥ ä a b F E of cloth are also fastened on the rails beneath the cleaners F that the thread passes through between the two plies of cloth.

the back of the w^arper. simple in its construction. is she requires to take out a considerable completely if number fore. before the yarn is left which is on the bobbins. she thereby has all the bobbins within her reach.000 capable of hanks per day of 12^ hours. which cloth. warping machine. The species of is to explain an American . and is far superior to those used for it in Great Britain has the advantage of being provided with an . oft' Instead of winding the yarn of a larger size. greater than the expense required for spooling. it has not been generally adopted. is attached to the back bobbins. The this bobbins are transferred to the warping machine and well though machine is very simple notice. so that whenever she perceives one nearly erapty. be wound off. having the bobbin frame inface towards which is .332 This machine is THE ART OF WEAVING. The next step preparatory to the Operation of weaving is. that web. lie the longitudinal threads of the parallel to each other through the breadth of the . therenot wound off at some other Hence the cradle warper loss machine. mounted with a rack or creel suited to the size of the This creel. and tie the two ends of the thread. The yarn. warping machine which we shall now endeavour invention. and lies in a horizontal position. as has been found that the is from the quantity of waste made by it. tervening . replace it with a füll one. rack. liable to made into waste. while the attendant supplying their places with füll is constantly ones . she is ready to remove it. is mation of the warp or chain. yet it is worthy our WARPING MACHINE. or winding the yarn from small bobbins on to others of a larger size. in the frame. in its construction. suited to the common bobbin frame of a the for- warping machine. and the small quantity of yarn contained on each. but is of the hoUowed in the centre like a cradle hence it is denominated the The girl who attends this machine Stands with her cradle warper. extremely light. and be easily kept in order. withAnd owing to the number of bobbins out stopping the machine. and vvinding 3. but in order to prevent them from running out entirely. or bobbin frame. they are constantly emptying. it is the small bobbin s on to others common in a number of factories to take the bobbins direct from the spinning frame to the warping machine. A machine containing twenty drums is may attended by two girls of twelve years of age.

and upon one end of its axis. which being constructed of wood. from which the length of yarn on each beam is ascertained. is the framing of the machine. ingenious contrivance by means of which the breaking of a thread. is the drum J. where each thread is separated C being perforated with small holes corresponding to the number where of threads to be wound on the beam. they thence pass over the rods DD : from these through the guide-reed is E the and on first to the beam F. which indicates the revolutions of the drum during the warping of each beam. The drum J. 150. is exactly one yard in circumference. Passing the plate C. there is a screw working into small geared wheels connected with an index. Figs. which represented as containing only G are on the sarae which drives the wheel I on the same axis with the wheel I. 150 and 151. The axis of the yarn beam rests on two slots of the framing at K. The belt pulleys shaft with the wheel H. it 333 is instantly stopped on t^ w K/ K/ AA. . on which the yarn beam rests. 151 to bobbin frame the plate it a heavy appearance in the drawand 153 are the threads proceeding from the the iron plate C. which drives the yarn beam F. by the 'stirrup L L. From the top of the . gives B Figs. which is round of the yarn. ings . and by which it is moved. also weighted down by the cross lever M. and is pressed down upon the drum J. all the threads are brought into one horizontal plane. and the attendant is paid accordingly. Fig.WARPING.

the lever and hook on the axis of the yarn beam at K. is so the füll beam is then removed. the yarn beam : O. 151. to the weight P. is a strap attached shaft. 151. and which winds round a small ratchet wheel Q. on the end of which the sufRciently füll. the strap O is When the beam is is made fast. gradually rises. until the : M — — — — . far reUeved as to be pressed back and an empty one put in its place the stirrup is brought forward tili the hook is above the axis of the beam the catch of the the strap unwound and the machine is ratchet wheel is hfted then ready to warp another beam. always so as to keep in a proper position in relation to the increasing diameter of Fiff. stirrup L. so it as tlie yarn fills on the beam F. tliat N extends to the giiide reed E. wound up by means of a wrench attached to the which thereby Ufts the weight P. THE ART an arm OF WEAVING. and the arm N presses it up the guide reed with the same gradiml motion. Fig.334 stiiTup L. ratchet wheel.

and suspended by their own weight on each thread. and Jg of an their weight varies from 4 grains 4 dwts. the machine upon the break- ing of one thread will be instantly stopped.WARPING. being F'. containing the drop wires therefore. retards the oscillating motion of the plate Z. Fig. Fig. . from f to ^^ broad. the top of the the tumbler X Y X. Fig. 150 and 153. and pulls wooden frame it girl attending. which causes turn it to shift so far as to act upon the upright rod and round as fast. to 4 grains : 10 dwts. and. the shaft K' K' turns round. and causes the frame J' J' Straps L' L'. 153 . lays . is it As the yarn from the bobbin frame passes sus- DD . but between these rods. The shaft UU extending across the machine. by draw- ing down the rail H' H'. and the plate Z so made oscillate under the drop-wires when a thread breaks. it By is lifting the lever at C'. and in to consequence of the eccentric lever. H' H'. slackens. and R. the wire drops down tili the point of the hook at S. raises the other C. 153. of course. 335 From machine however the foregoing description. Figs. which immediately depresses either end of the plate X X of and the tumbler. 154. differs it will be seen that this warpingIt is very little from those used in Great Britain. lever 150 and 153. and the machine ready hold of the rail to be put in motion. Fig. advantage of the stop-motion over the rods and efficient. as soon as the by the tension In machine gets into füll Operation. 150. Fig. 150. the drop-wires are borne up by the tension of the threads. rests on the plate T T. but as soon as any one thread breaks. enters the plate C. (See RRR. shift the belt from the on to the loose pulley. J' J'. 151 and 153 are . which keep of the yarn.) They are hooked at the top. lever WW. operated upon by the spiral spring E'. which again presses down the extremity at lever B' C' at B'. Fig. then disengaged. and it is this dropping down of the wire that stops the ma- chine. And as these various parts are fitted so as to operate all at once. When it the machine in Operation. these drop-wires are pieces of flattened inch thick about four inches long. there : a drop-wire pended upon each thread Steel wire. far as to make the belt lever G'. Figs. into the fork. has an ec- centric at V. the wire drops down. forward I' I' are straps of leather fastened to the . When the broken threads are all tied. is front view. besides having the and which will now be described. Figs. to raise the so far as to hft all the drop-wires their places above the top of the plate Z. which works into the fork of the is tum- W W turns upon a Journal and with and it The at A'. V working . On the top of the lever W W. there a small bler X Y X attached to the steel plate Z. the 150. the rod D' D'. in every respect as simple .

150. to operate upon it an arm of the upright rod puUey at the F'. Fig. 151 and 153. of the small lever M' N'. 151. 150 the lever or catch C.'. lifted. drops into the square groove seen in Fig. 154. it also draws iip the point M'.336 lifting THE ART OF WEAVING. until the point C : of the lever B' C. the drop-wire frame J' J'. 152. . is kept in the groove of the rod D' D'. Fig. Drop wJre of one fourth the workiag size. and shifts it to the right hand. 153 & 154. the and the whole machine is instantly put in Operation and by lifting the catch C. which causes the other extremity N'. it is instantly stopped. the rod D' D' being operated upon by the spiral spring E'. Figs. shift the driving belt : from the loose. Figs. Q. small Spiral spring drop-wires are . by the Thus by pulling forward the rail H' H'. C R Fig. on to the fast O'j of the upright rod F'. and turn round as fast as to let the belt lever G'. also operates same time another arm upon the rod D' D' at P'.

. the different 43 . seen in Fig. and supplying ones . the attend- frequently behind the bobbin frame. the end of a broken thread might wind round the so far. to This motion is. close this part of our subject with the warping a remark or two regarding and beaming of silk webs In warping silk webs where the warp is to consist of differ: — ent grists or colours of yarn. necessary. A silk warp to make taffeta. duced. " The Cotton Manufacture of the United States of America contrasted and compared with that of Great Britain.. but each must have a separate and distinct roller for itself and they must be weighted according to the nature of the texture to be pro. but double-threaded in one place and single in another. must not be all beam . depending upon each other.WARPING. pullicates. taking out their places empty spools." We Ist. The above account of the American spooling and warping mais chines. this In looking at the representadons given of it machine. in his excellent work. A warp making the same pattern put on the same roller or in several places in the web. 151. &c. however. satin. &c.. and be difficult to keep in order. must not be put on the same roUer or beam with one to make gros de Tours serge. is The warping machines used in Great Britain require as should her eye be diverted from her the utmost attention on the part of the attendant to notice instantly when beam a thread breaks . except by being furnished with a acting stop-motion. F : it consists of a piece of sheet the figure. 152 is 337 for a front viewof the guide reed E. because. that would work inaccurately. Flg. work but one moment. for But this while the machine with füll is is not the case with those in Operation. number of corresponding to the number of threads to be warped on the beam. from the number of it Springs. entitled. &c. principally abridged from the able descriptions given by James Montgomery. and put the machine again in motion. This. the bobbins must be arranged in the creel or Order in bank agreeably to the which they are indicated in the draught or design. ginghams. will be By examining it seen that the if slits are so contrived. directing the yarn on the iron cut into a beam slits. nor could the cradle self- warpers of America be used. as to require five minutes or more to find it. 3d. that a lease may be formed on each beam acquainted with levers. eminently entitled the appellation of an important labour-saving improvement. Esq. as in stripes. 2d. not the case. therefore. used in America ant is . those un- might be apt to suppose.

John and the second. of Messrs. it 2. by facturer is manu- enabled to dress warps which have previously undergone the process of sizing. Uvion. when it is . Mr. is of the invention of Mr. and the end of the warp. the large is wooden rollers or cylinders. consist . made pass under and over a series of having suit- able gudgeons and bearings at their ends. warp is squeezed between two which expel the superfluous moisture. secondly. for firstly. drying machine. the warp. through which the warp the size. letters and reference indicate the same throughout. in this place. and thereby freis obviating the necessity of joining or twisting in the warp. to describe only those which are likely to prove of these which we shall Potter. It then passed over the cylinders of a common finished. Plate 3. Thomas Johnson. It will be our object.) place the yarn on six or eight beams. Since the invention of the in 1802. P's machine. a great many different contrivances have been tried to facilitate the Operation of sizing but most of them have sunk into ob. by Mr. Blackburn. as tlie double- threaded part would be much larger on the roUer than the single. is a plan of the same. and Fig.* so as to produce a warp more capable of . in a ball (as taken from the drying house. from . similar lo those used by calico printere. —In certain variations in the construction means of which. rotary motion being communicated by the friction of the travelling warp as it is drawn away from them. of beneficial to the manufacturer. but instead of passing the warp simply through rollers. After having passed this series of rollers. In operating with this machine. an ingenious mechanic of ßredbury. SIZING. Kennyworthy. common dressing or sizing machine. Hornby and consider. enduring the subsequent friction in the process of weaving and. so quently as the case when a warp figures of of the ordinary length is used. is drawn to . is usual to which it is drawn off and combined in the process of dressing to form the warp but in Mr. would not work equally tight in the weaving. is placed at the point A. the of the ordinary dressing machine. represents a side elevation of a dressing machine is which part of these improvements applied . in a sized state. to 1. raanufacturers. The first Manchester . Potter's improvements in the process of preparing warps the loom. In the construction for and arrangement of a new machine the purpose of producing a warp of greater length.338 parts THE ART OF WEAVING. parts The same Fig. * The common is it sizing machine consists of a trough filledwith size.

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4. . ni.M^.

and is taken up on the warping beam of the loom. practised with sized warps and held back by the friction strap and weight R' and R^. These rods LL. a view of a machine forming the warp on a beam previous to the sizing process. (see Fig. is attached a . 4) in these chines depend on the revolution of the eccentric P (Fig. is the driving pulley. would cause great difficulty in passing it through this machine with any degree To obviate this difficulty and separate every thread. 7. 5 and 6) represents a is cone drum. 4. and Fig. being placed on the beam R (Fig. Fig. side represents an elevation for . Q. 3) in the ordinary manner. the two blades Q. that the adhesion of various threads of sized warp. 4. be varied according to the nature of the work in the machine. In Fig. as in the ordinary dressing machine. In this machine. which driven by means of a strap. M. and are vibrated by the arms N N.. On the S is fixed. 2. of regülarity. C and D. where the varying position of ravel H'. S (Figs. at a proper tension as the dressing proceeds. as best seen at Fig. will be seen dividing the threads or ends of the its warp in progress towards the rollers 1 1. (Fig. G and H.) . are attached to the shaft or rod M'. Now it is well known to weavers and persons conversant with the preparation of warps for the loom. whence it proceeds under the brushes K. the process of open- is effected by means of which move on centres at their respective extremities. is 339 canied over the rest or guide B. and between the pressing roUers C and npper D. driven from an eccentric on the face-plate P. between the stiffening rollers I I.) through which they receive an alternating motion from the arm N. where it is traversed in the direction of the arrow through the any impediment which inay arise in the v^arp. thence round the stud E. Fig. 6. which gives off the warp ing or separating each thread of the warp Q. 1 and 2) and the blades Q. 1. are passed through the openings of the lease which two rods has been secured at the warping machine. which is vibrated by the connecting rod O. L L. rollers passing again between the pressing siirface of the roller C. The vibrations of the rods LL (Figs. and raotion is impaited to the various parts in the common way. so as to yield to the rods L. the velocity varyis ing according to the diameter on which the strap extremity of the shaft on which the cone placed. 1. suspended from above. and forward. and back ander the roUer D. as in Figs. as seen in Fig. arrives at the horizontal position. a plan . 1 and 3. mawhich may speed be driven at a speed of 210 revolutions per minute but the may 5.STZING. and over the carried forward From tili it this point it is over the rollers F. The warp in a sized state.

»'I-ATK FitjJ. r &m ^-^^- --^ tu ^iy. 111.^. .Kff. 4. n^'A .

.

which acts as a pressin g roller during the Operation. carries two circular discs d and e. same time the marking . so as at all times to correspond with the position of the presser Y. in the dressing machine. 6. 6. 5) which tightening a strap^ shaft. and regularly distributed by means of a small ravel X'. and is provided with fibrous material. and thereby distributes an equal quantity of warp on the vaThe disc e. T (Figs. along with the arms in which it is supported. 7. and thence to the beam (Fig. for the action Q. are filled and equally pressed. divided by the flanges. This pressing roller Y. is prorious beams W. and so on tili the v/hole series of beams W.) so that as soon as the first small beam W. and supports a lever Ä. is so calculated as to or fiUing make one revolution during the Avith winding on. lipon it during the winding process of the cone S. is moved in the frame of the rods or L L. as seen at Fig. the disc o?. This shaft c. at the same time securing a W lease in the yarn of each beam. 5. the position of which will be seen in The disc d. the warp is received from the heck X. 6. c?. as already alluded to. On to these beams W. and the speed of cess of filling. and in side view at Fig.) which drives the spur-wheel U. 5 and 6. arrests the revolu- break on the pulley g^ placed on the cone tion. is provided with a small lever which rests Fig. and under the roUer X^. driving a worm-wheel on the upright shaft h (Fig. carry ing a succession of small beams W. and passes it forward to the next.) which is also provided with a worm driving a worm-wheel on the horizontal recording shaft c.340 spur-wheel THE ART OF WEAVING. which acts on the marking rod i.) into which it is forced by the weight m. vided with a series of notches or gaps. warp. where the direction of the yarn will be seen passing over the giiide roUer X^.) cylinder Y. saturated with marking ink which marks the warp every time the lever A. remarked that the heck X. placed on the perpendicular rod by which the weight m. as shown in Fig. the Operator raises the presser Y. passes undef the edge of the warp. It will be also it in which is supported. is füll. is allowed to fall into one of the notches in the at the disc e 'see Fig. that fall is one of the beams W. fixed on the end of the shaft Y. by means of a spring o. at the same time that it is compressed into a hard State by the 7. but when eßected a notch or gap in the disc of the weight by means f^ allows the lever /. to (Fig.) The extremity of the opposite arm of the rod i. will be seen a small worm «. 5 and 6. 5. in the proReturning to the cone shaft which carries the wheel T. is supported (see Fig. as they are filled in succession. Q. 5. move freely on the rod Z Z (Figs. which is traversed by a worm and worm-wheel. when placed on any of the various beams W.

The improvements in this machine. of the warp. The distance of the notches on the disc e (Fig. may be multiplied to any convenient extent.) and the velocity must depend on the natm^e of the work and the judgment of the OperaBy tracing the action of this warping machine. during the fiUing process.) the the warp. 5. in. forming a beer or half beer. to describe Messrs. is left W. weight m. Should the marking apparatus shown in Figs. 5. As the threads are divided into certain numbers. and usually termed " beers or half beers" in the ordinary warping mill. that S. is replaced in rest." The principal feature of novelty and improvement in Messrs. consists in a peculiar We now pass on machine for sizing . mode of distributing or laying out of the threads. 6. so that they shall be dressed or sized in parallel strips or breadths. ous that the beams W. to the motion is transferred from the cone drum yarn beams e. bands. from its neatness. is compensated for by traversing the driving strap to a larger diameter of the cone S (Figs. consist in a novel and particular arrangement of mechanism for sizing and preparing warps from " beam or machine warping. which necessarily effects a great saving in joining or twisting as practised in the ordinary In Fig. and in that into Strips. The varying taking up of the warp on to these beams W. laid in even close contact. it will be obvitor. 5 and 6. rod i. and marker i. the regularity of its motions and the work which it is capable of performing.) are calculated to compensate for the increasing diameter of the on the beam W. and consequently the length warp. side and by side. by the spur wheels 6.) T and U. to avoid and more clearly to show the levers e' and d. The notched disc out in the plan view (Fig. is well worthy our attention in this place. by the action of a spiral spring former position on a o (Fig. mon use may be easily substituted in stead. during the process of sizing and preparing them for the loom^ possesses many advantages. one of those in comconfusion. it will easily be perceived. method of sizing or dressing warps. according to their increased circumference. indicating a uniform and equal amount of mark on warp placed warp on the beam W. 341 its stud or having made the mark. Section First. which will be evident to persons conversant with the ordinary modes of conducting such Operations. be considered too complicated. and K's. H. Hornby and Kennyworthy's and preparing warps for the loom which. (See common warping mill. or beers .) This new method of dividing and laying out the warp threads and half beers. 5 and 6.SIZING.

situated at the entrance of the machine. for the purpose of effecting the cross shed. for dividing the shed of the warps. and allowing passed through the sizing and preparing process in single threads. for the purpose of looming or drawing . and also the driving apparatus for giving motion to the mechanism. the drying cylinders. lease previously to the yarns being submit- The lease now being taken. with more expedition than by the ordinary method now in use." can be effected by the arrangement of one and the same machine. commencement the machinery for sizing and preparing warps. that as the unsized warps proceed from their respective beams b. d. ready for looming. 1 represents a plan or horizontal view of the machinery in which these improvements are shown Fig. and the cross band or threads introduced. that is of the headles for obtaining the lease or cross shed of the warps. headles. through an ordinary ravel or comb prior to their to. . is much a new arrangement same. previously wound and these main side frames also prepared by the warping machine . tension and guido roUers. size. b. h. is a side elevation and Fig. as they are wound on to the warp beam. a vertical section of the same. 2. as commonly them to be more easily conducted through the machinery. a. It will be perceived. c. taken lonThe main and gitudinally through the middle of the machine. which Support the beams of warp or yarn 6. The warps may be thus extended to a and the process of taking the " lease" and winding on to the warp beam ready for " looming. Fig. In Plate IV. for marking off any required length of warps. tney retain the form slightly attached to and are each other by the adhesion of the threads. : Support the various ravels or combs. previously to the dressing. and passed and thus divided equally. a. being passed through the headles d. sizing substance.342 THE ART OF WEAVING. chinery. One of the improvements connected with the working of the magreater length than usual. 6. 6. sizing or dressing trough. side framings of the machinery are shown at «. b. tlie breadth passed through of bands or strips. sizing. at the entrance end of the machine^ or at the and the further improvements in a novel form of ravel or comh^ for allowing the lease band to pass through the warps without the necessity of having the whole of the half of the Operation . and thereby taking the ted to the sizing process. or drying of the placing the headles. «. thus forming narrow tapes or breadths of warp if and consequently rendering them more tenacious than done. b. 3. consist in beers or breadth relaid each time of taking such lease or cross slied . b. they are guided on c. and also in the application of a revolving self-acting marker. b.

more regulär. if found more desirable. (of required number. may be adjusted to any degree and 2. and immersed into the trough or vessel / (see Fig. and less likely to be broken or disarranged. h. (Figs.) into separate and distinct tapes or sheets. roller proceeding upon the axis of the guide m. in close lateral contact. 1 and 3) : it will be observed that these tension rollers A. to finish the yarns . being of course much stronger. The continuous warps being thus made or separated or into breadths bands A. 1 by the rollers m. and thus boiled into the warps as they pass through it. conducted ravel or comb n. than in the ordinary mode of 1. for the purpose of dividing and laying the warps in parallel breadths. as is well understood. charged by the pipes 2 and 3) also heated by steam through the pipe g. any any and or it comb e. the fibres of the threads. either being alit. and for the purpose of dressing and laying making to the tapes or bands more com- pact and even : it is caused 2. 13. and disThe /. (Figs. as they pass be found rial will around these drying cylinders. through a similar and 2. to be cleaned or otherwise. dried. by steam passing through the pipe g. (see Figs. i.) is placed over the yarns as they proceed over the cyhnders k. (Figs. to cause the parallel threads. m. ä. the yarns warps are passed throiigh a ravel or comb e. by means of the worms and wheels 12. h. to yarn or warps. 14. sizing. lowed to vibrate or oscillate freely as the warps proceed over may be caused to revolve.) each thread being laid parallel.) but of a finer rake or pitch . 3. and is to be kept in a heated state. are now passed over a conducting roller. and under the tension rollers h. The warps are then to be passed for ward through a pair of squeezing rollers.) the warps now proceed in a sized.) of tension. as the sizing mateside. take into the racks 14. will now assume the form of tapes or bands.) revolve very slowly by means of the small band 16 (Fig. 2 and 3. A brush 15 (Figs. in connection with which the pivots of the rollers h. and pinions 13. strip or band of warps. 3. or raised up entirely out of the 1 troughs. and thus proceed in a tape-like form. i. from thence the warp (Figs. by and forming each division. side thus. 1 and 2 . 1 and 2. and finished state. (see Figs. is passed around the drying cylinders k.) containing a similar sizing preparation.) formed by a rack of teeth or pins and intervening spaces. 1 by turning the winch handle which. g-. n. or by any other convenient means. or otherwise. Z. (of desired width. 2 and 3) and again immersed in the trough or vessel j (see Fig. as they lay side by ad- here slightly together.) which contains the sizing material.siziNG. the ravel or by side . in of the or 343 warp through the headles. k. side side. are mounted. (see Figs.

chinery is effected by means of a strap passing around the driving pulley q. another. (Figs. from the description just given of these improved machines for pr eparing warps for we will not grudge the expense incurred on our part in rendering all the particulars as piain as possible. and the corresponding cone ii. In the detached Figs. may either be used with a rotary or any other required real benefit If our manufacturing friends shall derive any the loom. posite leave them .344 tlian the ravel e. that one set or rake of teeth always be entering and dividing the warps. which from time to time dips into a colour box. is similarly adjusted. which carries the revolving marker 8. the strips and again similarly dividing by the oscillating or vibratory action of this comb n. 2. 2 and 3. 5 and 6. by means of the weighted lever 2 (Fig. (Figs. is a toothed pinion w.) for dividing or separa- ting the warp. which motion. 4 shows one description. being that preferred oscillating be used with a pendulous or is motion : Fig. 1. and alloAving the warp beam to contain accurate lengths. or baiids are tnrned edgewise. waste in the looming. upon the small shaft 7. 4.) The self-acting marking apparaupon the end of the revolving guide tus is shown in Fig. 1 roller o. any length for the pieces intended to be woven. 6. n. without y.T. which preferred to be used as a rotary comb. ready to be removed and taken The continuous Operation of the mato the loomer or drawer in. Fig. . The yarn is kept distended and even. . 1.) driving the trainof spur wheels which gives rotary motion to the warp beam p. Upon the shaft r. e. 2 and 3. and by passing through or over which. by means of weighted friction bands being passed around the ends of the warp beams b. (upon a large to scale. and will will be perceived. 1 and 2. 1. as those on the opFig. and laid over the tension roller o. o. at the reverse end of which is the mitre wheel 5. are shown three varieties of the improved ravel or comb. o. having a driving strap passing around it. is also a conical drum t. it 5. and the pressure of the squeezers or presser rollers. THE ART OF WEAVING. at one end of which there . taking into a worm wheel upon the end of the shaft 4. and marks the warp threads with a patch of colour as it revolves. (Fig.) mounted also upon a transverse shaft v.) upon the end of the transverse shaft r (Fig.) being traversed from the loose pulley by the setting on rod s. driving a corresponding wheel 6. (see Figs. 6 shoWs another modification of the same. as they pass through the machine. is a small worm 3.) in a proper State to be received and wound upon the warp beam p. causing it to wind on the yarn or warps as required. 1. z.

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imni :^'^^^^as "u U 6^"& 4^'"'0 (^'" 4» .PLiVIE IV.

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PLAIN WEAVING BY POWER. Levers play on every side. pf from 10 to * For the true origin of power loom weaving (piain. Brought by straps of leather strong. 44 . with small patterns. and figured. Now Do tbe steam begins to blow. See how fast the lay is driven. It is certain that this machine would have long since passed into oblivion. will not always be so slow. your loom attend . page 20 to 37.SECTION TENTH. See the treadles sink and rise See how well the cloth is woven Gracious ! how the shuttle flies ! Brien Dhu O'Farrell. applied to light fancy fabrics. While ihe Shuttle shoots along. haste. of Marnham. Stay no longer idly singing: You're a prelty girl. of every description) see introduction to this work. tvveeled 5. We shall not in this place give any repetition of the old hacknied Story regarding the origin of the Edmund power loom (in Europe). Girl.* by Mr. (say. 1785. Driven by the power of steam Wheels below and wheels above Turn Force correctly every is beam. constantly supplied. ing began to be extensively introduced for the manufacture of piain goods and not until the years 1830 to 1834 that it was successfully . bearing date 4th April. Or your web have no end. had it not been for the improvements made upon it by other men It was not until the year 1801 that power loom weavof genius. Nottinghamshire . your loom with speed See the shafts begin to move. indeed Hark ! the factory bell to is ringing ! Mary. which he obtained a patent. and 64. and for Cartwright.

showing the interior working parts of llie machine. Roberts their <fc Co. readers its we shall confine ourself to laying before our application to the weaving of piain Fiff. linen or wool. but as machine contains no particiliar feature of novelty. A fly is the frame for work of the loom : B. silk. 155 . Manchester . Sharp. 156. whether of cotton.wheel..) C. Fig.346 THE ART CF WEAVING. wheel equalizing : irregvilarities of motion during the working of the machine D (Fig. we shall not waste much time upon it. belt pulleys (Fig. 155 shows a side view in eievation of the power loom. so as to has been stili further im- proved by various ingenious individuals.) ca. fixed on the . it 75 changes of design.) driving spur. both in Europe and Ameri- make it availabie in the manufacture of almost every description of figured textures. In the present section. Fig. fabrics. as constructed by Messrs. 155. Since 1834. 156 is a section of the same taken through the centre.

156. as well ae for giving motion to the shuttle. and gearing into the wheel F this wheel F. 347 crank shaft E.) The the treadles K K. 156. working into a pinion a fi-iction weight M.PLAIN WEAVING. in tappets and levers. namely. G nicated to the headles for the purpose of shedding the warp. 155. The cranks of the driving shaft are connected to the swords of the lay cams J J. that motion is commu. on : the end of the cam shaft connexion with suitable and it is by means of this shaft. to which rope is attached. consisting merely of a spur wheel N. by passing a rope round the circumference of each end. has double the number of teeth of the spur wheel D. and consequently makes only half as many revolutions it is keyed. or made fast. The yarn beam is weighted in the ordinary manner used for coarse goods. (as any practical . The cloth roller and take-up motion manufacturer will perceive) possess no feature of novelty. Fig. . as will to by arms H (see Fig. which work the headles be seen very plainly in Fig. give motion J J.

156. are bolted to the side of the horizontal shafts U (one at each side of the machine) the shed. in both Figs. as bolted to the horizontal shaft U. at X. will be seen at Y. and at Z. this arm receiving motion from the stud-pin sword of the lay L. alternately. T (one of which is thrown by means of two levers seen in Fig. as seen in both these of the ordinary construction.) is The shuttle connected at bottom with the horizontal communicated to these shafts shafts U. . therefore.) The shoes or südes W. 155. motion being by a wiper V. and this wheel from the clicks or drivers Q. working against the iron shoe or shde W. is The protector A^. together across the which conmachine the . one end of this leather strap. The shaft U. Figs. after having thrown the shuttle through by means of a leather strap and nects the horizontal shafts Position of U U.348 O. 156. fixed in the R. The picker staves or levers T. 157. at the we shall. 155 and the other in Fig. are recovered spiral spring to their original positions. being unworthy of further notice. by means of the arm S. Fig. which pinion receives motion is THE ART OF WEAVING. which are indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. pass This form of the power loom on to de- scribe others of greater merit proceeding gradually until we arrive most perfect. Fig. (see Fig. has suitable bearings at each end. 155. made fast to the ratchet wheel P.

and John Scattergood. In Fig. of Manchester. 157. and crossing the loom in the same way : E . 158. and only such parts delineated as we consider requisite to explain and show the position in which the improvements are applied. thereby producing shed or opening in the warp for the passage of the shuttle at each Vibration of the lay. 158. Fig. A. and the shaft The extremity of the arm F. parallel to. a side view. the cloth the Position of and C. show the different parts of as improved by Messrs. Apelles Howard. 159. Figs. the tappet shaft by which is the headles regulated. B : on this shaft is made fast and immediately two arms F. above the yarn beam F'. 159 349 a loom. 157. and 160. 158. in which part of the framing removed for the purpose of . represents the driving puUey keyed .PLAIN WEAVING. of Stockport. 157 is a back view of the common loom is : Fig. similar to that marked E. for the pur- pose of showing more clearly the nature and construction of the same. 157 and 158. making the apphcation of the improvements more obvious and Fig. carries a shaft G. to the lay B. some of the ordinary parts of the loom are omitted. E represents a shaft supported at each side of ihe loom. In Figs. the yarn beam the D. on the crank shaft. 157 and 158. a view of the improvements apart from the loom. which gives motion roller . Fig. In Figs.

and consequently the warp which . the reverse will be produced by the opposite motion and further. as best seen in Figs. and the amount of tension to which the w^arp is subjected will depend upon the amount of counter weight H. represents a wormwheel attached on the axis of the yarn beam B and m. over the shaft or roUer G. will be seen in Figs. .) and at the other extremity with a rod suspending the H. of the various parts By retracing the action which we have last described. 158. . as seen in Fig. The lever K. F' Fig. and under the To the arm F'. The direction of the the yarn first beam B. is provided with a catch or dog q. 157 and 158. that the position of the shaft G. for example. and also the vibrating lever K. 159.) On the same shaft which carries the worm or screw m. . as soon beam B. or given ofF by the yarn beam B. by means of the small handle o. will of the worm m Vary or vibrate according as the warp is taken up. beneath (Figs. will assume a certain position. in one direction. as best shown at Figs. it will be obvious that any amount of warp can be given oflf by revolving the yarn by means of the worm m. sliding in a suitable slot. which has a constant tendency to elevate the shaft G. (Fig. the shaft G. 158 and 159 pendicular rod i i. G ^s"^"— "Sh as the loom is put into action and the regulär Vibration of the is lay proceeds. 158.) L.350 moves ing freely THE ART OF WEAVING. Suppose. G Fig. counter weight N. is placed or keyed the ratchet wheel M. on its axis. is suspended a small lever or rod which supports the weight . this arm also carries a perwhich moves freely through an opening or hole in the lever K. 157 and 158. 158 and 159. a worm or screw taking into the wheel L (Figs. the cloth which produced will be taken up on passes the cloth roUer D. 157. while it will be taken up or. the warp to be wound up to a given point. taking into the ratchet wheel M. proceedshaft E. which is not keyed but perfectly free. Under these circumstances. 160. 159 warp threads from and 160.

acting on the warp threads. the catch or dog ^. and E. 160 will act rather more uniformly than that already described. the lever y^ is raised and comes in contact with the wiper r. so that the warp yarn. excepting that in the place of the weight N.) and thereby gathers a tooth in the ratchet M. the small wiper is r. although the tension will not materially vary. But as soon as the take-up of the cloth roUer has proceeded so far as to depress the shaft G. might be used with advantage. as it is produced. was inserted at i i. This train of movement is shown sepa- by which. always remaining the same.PLAIN WEAVING. taking-up bf the noveliy which the cotton cloth. on account of the counter weight H. is placed on a stationary fulcrum x^ and the rod i. caused by the depression or varied position In weaving cloth of a fine of the shaft G. similar to that marked G. would keep them . i. by the is elevates the lever K. for giving off warp yarn and actuating the The shafts G. is placed under the tappet shaft C. to the position indicated i. should be well polished. will have a tendency to depress that shaft. which letter g^ (Fig. is carried down ward s and attached by a small spring to the lever This lever y. and vibrating lever K. y. may not be chafed. with which ports the ratchet connected . the arrangement represented at Fig. This contrivance. and rotates the ratchet wheel M. on the return of the lay. is provided for by a commensurate giving off of warp from the beam B. is carried forward by the counter weight N. For the manufacture of silk goods the shafts G. the point of the arm F'. the arrangement of parts does not vary from that already stated. which moves freely on a fixed fulcrum at z. which. in passing under and over them. quality. does not with but as soon as the rod G. These three shafts. that another shaft. as already explained. and actuates the yarn beam B. beam B. as already described. does not possess aiiy particular feature of in a practical point of view. and when a sufficient quantity rate in Fig. In this figure. of yarn interfere is given off from the it. over the shaft 351 G. this band being passed round the small drum or barrel placed on the same shaft that Sup- M. 159 . which gives off the amount of warp required. 159) the rod connected to the catch or dog q (Fig. to we can recommend. it will be obvious that the regulär take-up of the cloth on the roller D. cutting away the connecting rod and all the other parts of the apparatus shown in the Figs. and E. together with the foregoing description. provided manufacturer. depressed by the tight- ening of the warp. which immediately depresses it. 157. by means of the band and tightit is ening weight S. i.

represents a back elevation of a loom of the ordinary construction." Manufacturers have. have been attended with so their Coming it into general use. of South Crossland. which will be obvious after Suppose. and although many attempts have been raade most part they have object. for example. 219 and 220.) Looms mounted with doubt. that the warp.) in "Nature • her productions slow. clothier. . prior to which date we tested the in- vention for over two years at M. that while the shed forming. bearing date Sept. (See Figs. the rollers at the extremities of and F'. ig . as the loom is well known. 162. is beam is passed over the shaft G. tili time Improve the price. yet for the totally failed in accomplishing the desired ceeded. be this contrivance. to remedy this evil.. in the Figs. aspires By just degrees to reach perfection's height So mimic art works leisurely. and acting as a distender on the warp portion as the shed closes after the passage of the Shuttle (taking slack. Fig. or wise experience give The proper finishing. it evi- dent. to which the improvements are applied . 19 Rue Chateau Landon. strain caused strain is caused. in the parish of Almonbury. Paris. 30th. France. 169. In these drawings the same letters of reference indicate the same parts. in Coming from the B. shown at Fig. as it first found available we a originated with us in the year 1835. that is to say. The few that have partially sucmuch expense as to prevent The improvement now offered is all descriptions at such that very can be added expense. Philippe's machine shop. and to power looms of a trifling we think will completely remedy the If evil^ at least so far as cotton stuffs are concerned. county of York. equally tight on both sides of the shed a Word of explanation. when the shed is füll open. under the shaft E. the vibratory action always compensating by yielding at the point where the greatest the arms F. will be raised or depressed in proportion to the by the shedding of the warp. and from thence is into the headles .352 THE ART OP WEAVING. Fig. we have no found advantageous in weaving delicate yarns. Edwin Bottomley. as in pro- shown up the would. experienced great inconverol- nience in regulating the relative motions of the yarn and cloth lers in . shall be glad. 1838. in connec- tion with the vibrating reed take-up motion. and over that fixed at the point F'. but to patent for which was granted Mr. 161.

and Fig. 163. is a plan of the improved meit. a side 3S3 view of the same . with each other.) To this shaft is also keyed the worm O. 163. the small pinion L. and its arm or connecting bar is provided with a slot through which one of the arms of the bell-crank lever HH. The lever J. .) fixed to the shaft is geared into the spur-wheel N K (see Fig. and these wheels. passes (Fig. embraces the eccentric FF . chanism. which vibrates on the centre of the upright shaft K.PLAIN WEAVING. Fig. and conse- quently the yarn beam A. (Fig. revolve . on the axis of which the worm-wheel P. 45 . a side view of FicT. 163) and is taken upon to the the cloth roller D. G G. The it yarn beam A. which imparts This forked piece alternating movement piece G G. 164.) To the opposite arm of the bell-crank lever H H. is furnished with a small stud or pin in which the pinion L. which actuates the worm-wheel P. is placed in the iisual position. being connected also the ratchet wheel M. and contains the warp which passes over the roller passes over the breast B : after the warp is is woven beam C (Fig. 163. 162) (Fig. 161. 161. is attached the connecting rod I and this rod communicates motion to the lever J. cal eccentric On the shaft E placed a cyhndriforked F F.

is a rack continuing downwards and working into the pinion S. Thus the rotation of the shaft E. (Figs. 163 is and 164) is a small pulley provided for with a cord. in a ratio correspondirig with the . 163 and 164 fixed to this support. Fiff. (Fig. as shown in Figs. 162. 161) working into the rack attached to the sHding carriage U. 163) at the opposite extremity of which is another pinion T. We shall now proceed speed to the yarn to describe how the required increase of beam A. (Fig. the purpose of . . other suitable material wood or 161. is effected. A small roller of Q. hence is required that the yarn beam increase lessj its speed of rotation as the diameter becomes thereby insuring an equal quantity of warp given off at each beat of the reed against the cloth. whatever the yarn beam. may be the diameter of 162. On the shaft R.354 is THE ART OF WEAVING. as shown in Fig. is supported. 161. beam a giving off motion. imparts to the yarn placed. by a shding-piece R. moving freely in a slot in the frame-work of the loom. to which suspended a weight. number of vibrations of the lay but it is obvious that a greater length of warp yarn would be given than where the diameter is off the larger diameter of a it füll beam reduced .

as it is con- sumed in the weaving process. . On the arm of the bellFig.. which conveys a traverse motion to the carriage U. and thus an equal and uniform delivery is effected during the whole of the weaving process. 161. as already explained. the bell-crank lever quently increases the speed of revolution of the yarn beam A. as roller Q.PLAIN WEAVING. Fig. 163. 163 and brings it nearer to the centre or fulcrum of H H. 164. keeping the the yarn. the reducin Fig. and consearrow. in the direction of the Fig. and thus producing an increased Vibration in the lever J. by means of the connecting rod I. 355 shown constantly pressing against the under side of By this contrivance.. 163) gathers more teeth in the ratchet wheel M. allows the roller Q. (Fig. there- by compensating for the decreased diameter. which has the effect of increasing the ränge or space through which the opposite arm of the lever vibrates. tion in the diameter of the warp on the yarn beam. which by means of the dog or catch V. to rise. without reference to the length of the warp that may be rolled on the yarn beam.

at- and in working order Fig. Fig. 167 and 168. either nearer or further one of these lever J. tached. and either greater or less amount of warp yarn is delivered from the beam after each any Vibration of the lay. and it is by connecting the rod I. 165. 167. to any to holes. 166. for improvement. is attached. ac- cording to the nature of the fabric to be woven. the striking no resistance. From will the foregoing explanation. with the novel parts . continue. difficulty in practical power loom weaver have no comprehending the improvement. By means of this Figs. although the general evolutions of the loom Fig. showing particularly the novel parts vertical section. represent an improved power loom weaving light textures. is a profile representation . Seen a series which the connecting rod I. Rhode Island. whenever. . is a side view of the loom. that the amount of Vibration of the take-up determined. of the same. 165. 165.356 crank lever THE ART OF WEAVING. Fig. from the accidental breaking or nondelivery of the weft. is a taken through the loom at right angles to Fig. 165. is from the fulcmm of the bell-crank lever H H. the delivery of the warp. an extremely ingenious mechanic of Johnstone. will be of small holes. H H. invented by Amassa Stone. is the cloth. up of the reed meets with little or and also the taking-up of suspended. 166.

is also driven. and also the L L. in the line looking toward the cloth 357 . which is capable of vibrating on pivots or centres. Fig. 166. The reed is mounted in the lay in a frame. From beam the framing of the loom warp threads pass over a whip roUer B. which works . the same parts in all the The yarn beam in the usual A. also at right angles to Fig. 167. is mounted on the this side way. is beam E. friction of their The crank or driving shaft H. as the crank shaft rotates. above. 165. that is. that open the sheds of the Avarp. p^ . is a horizontal view of a portion of the lay of the loom. the headles picker staves C C. 168. and thence through the headles C. passes over the breast roUer F.PLAIN WEAVING. beam Fig. %'^'''. that drive the Shuttle to Fig. by the to the cloth wound upon a loose roUer G. the tappet shaft K. and No. in the line looking in the opposite direction. and surfaces. is a vertical section. the latter is made to vibrate in the usual way and by the ordinary connexion of toothed wheels. for the purpose of allowing the reed to fall back when it strikes forcibly against the weft thread in beating up. in the ordinary way. . by which the working parts of the loom are driven. 0. to the back part of the lay and hence. and fro. and reed D. is connected by the crank rods 1 1. . taken at that end where the improved parts are connected respective letters of reference pointing out the figures. toward the warp beam. 30. The cloth produced by the Intervention of the warp and weft threads in the front of the reed.

is That end of the rod S. the ends of these Springs pressing against the lower Springs rail of the reed frame. 167.358 THE ART OP WEAVING. Fiff. is bent downward.. is attached to the side of one of the swords of the lay by means of a fulcrum stud R. The Joint connecting the end of the lever Q. the reed. 167.) The lower part of this S. frame as is attached by an axle Joint to a horizontal rod connected. against the bottom rail The upper end of this lever bears of the back of the reed frame M. and rod S. for the purpose of enabling the rod to pass over the rocker at bottom of the sword. 167. but it is confined in its Situation enabled to swing backby powerful Springs O O. is pivots on studs N N. and is held there by a slight spring (see Fig. to which the lever d. frame is mounted in the lay. The tension of these may be tempered by the adjustable staples and screws P P. 30. which the lay vibrates upon. Upon studs or pivots N. with ward. 166. A perpendicular lever Q. shown in Fig. and held by its frarae. secured to the back of the lay.. ^ No. . In the representation of the back of the lay at Fig. and more readily illustrating the design and Operation of the present improvement. projecting from a bracket bolted to the sword. These parts of the loom are described for the purpose of leading to. it will is fixed in a fr ame which MM . must be brought as nearly in coincidence with the axle of the lay as may be found practicable. these bolted to the upper parts of the swords of the lay. be perceived that the reed D.

and shaft T. . carrying a click or tooth. carrying an upright stud. and made to deliver the warp. the fixed into the horizontal rod. gives by bolts to the horizontal rod S. a small arm extends. is fixed. At . which passes through an eye at the back end of the horizontal rod S. From this side of the collar V. the elearm being Struck by the sword when the lay a sliding movement to the rod S.PLAIN WEAVING. wheel U. suspended on a pivot or stud in a bracket attached to the side frame. 168. This ratchet wheel acts upon a tooth at the end of the shorter arm of a bent lever Z. and thereby afiixed to drive the ratchet causes the click W. is loosely fitted upon the shaft. corresponding in the number of its teeth with the ratchet wheel U. another ratchet wheel Y. and held up by a pin. into the teeth of a . A ratchet wheel U. a Standard W. Below the endless screw on the perpendicular shaft T. for the purpose of forming a jointed support to that end of the is rod. At a short distance from this Joint. Upon the Upper part of this shaft is fixed an endless screw or worm taking wheel on the yarn beani by the rotation of which worm the beam is turned. 359 At the back part of the loom there is a perpendicular shaft T. is vated end of which back. the point is of which drops into the teeth of the ratchet wheel. near its lower end and below this a cylindrical piece or coUar V. Z. is made fast by a holt to the perpendicular shaft T. Fig. supported in brackets bolted to the side frame or Standard. A falls bent arm X. This tooth driver that gives rotary movement to the ratchet wheel U.

back again. in the way described. acted upon to cause it to slide the horizontal rod S. is. therefore. one tooth. in beating up. the lay advances for the purpose of causing the reed to beat up the weft thread . given out from the yarn beam. By these means. to drive the ratchet wheel U. which will cause the click W. 166. through the same distance another tooth of the ratchet wheel allowed to W. not now be driven back as before. as shown in the section Fig. tion. 166. and also draws back the click ratchet wheel U. As the Upper end of the perpendicular lower rail lever Q. nor the lever Q. the warp will no longer be : consequently. and consequently a want of Alling to the cloth the reed. will not meet with that resistance which it did when the Alling of the weft thread was perIn the beating up of the lay. therefore. the bent arm X. The rotary movement given to the shaft carries round the ratchet wheel wheel acting upon the tooth at bent lever Z. as is necessarily forced back. and thereby turn the shaft T. the reverse end or longer arm of the lever is . as W. a tappet pin fixed. that THE ART OP WEAVING. but as it is mounted in a vibrating frame M. near the extremity of the longer arm of this is bent lever Z. by means of which the yarn beam is drawn round. bringing with it the This movement of the rod S.360 the reverse end. time that a tooth of the wheel Y. After every flight of the shuttle through the open shed or warp. bears against the of the reed frame whenever the reed frame recedes. that end of the lever the under end consequently horizontal rod S. causes the end of above described.. there will be tiö delivery from the shuttle. and the warp given out. causes that end of the bent lever as T. will not be drawn over and the shaft T. taking up or winding the cloth upon the beam in front. the click U . and its endless screw. and the teeth of this ratchet the end of the shorter arm of the Y . being thus remain in a quiescent State. passes over the tooth of the shown by dots in Fig. as usual. for the lever. 166. the reed frame will fect. to be depressed every lever. to be brought close against the vibrating sword of the lay.. be sufficiently . purpose of raising the click or dri- arm for of the ordinary taking up which works the ver of the ratchet connected with the ordinary train of toothed gear. the force with which it strikes against the cloth causes the lower rail of the reed frame to recede or swing back from the lay a short distance. the sword will strike against the end of the bent arm X. But in the event of the weft thread having broken. and moved forward. and slide the horizontal rod S. over one tooth in the On the return of the lay into the inchned posi- shown by dots in Fig.

or delicate silk textures. then the taking up of the cloth ceases.PLAIN WEAVING. which operates upon the ordinary gearing for windmg up movement the cloth on the roller as usual. equal to the length of one of the teeth in the ratchet wheel U. in conjmiction. as well as the delivery of the warp. 165. For textures having from 35 to 80 threads of weft per inch. with the com- mon ratchet take-up motion attached thereto. Fig. however. therefore. which is arranged in a frame. Stone's loom will be found an acquisition. raised. where only from 10 25 threads of weft per inch are required. although the loom contimie in action. on the end of the perpendicular shaft T. 361 its which causes the tappet pin fixed near extremity to lift the take-iip lever. this contrivance would not answer at all . all that accomplishes. any degree of reguit is larity and this will be evident when it is remembered. unless Mr. The improvement now to be de46 . it is allowed new tooth . as fine as the diameter of the weft thread to be used . that by the accumulating pressure of the cloth against the reed that motion is communicated to the yarn beara. as before. over a tooth. until another ridge of cloth is piled up against the reed. 166. To appear a superficial observer. Mr. a native of the upon a wisp^ and emEmerald Isle. suspended. to Mr. Mr. that the chck or driver to fall into a W. this contrivance of . when the point of the dick W. by fast as required. and after this has taken place. coaxing the warp from cloth. will again hop In Order to make this loom Aveave thin goods perfectly regulär. but we question whether teeth of this fineness would not be more than a match for the eye-sight of any manufacturer in the United States. as before stated. it be the very acme of perfection yet. instead of is off the yarn beam as for The of being taken up regularly as the iveaving proceeds. 169. Stone's might possesses place. that for to light muslins. In the it first of too complex a character is : indeed. can be effectit ed with one-fifth of the machinery which contains. it many deis fects. receiving motion from a vibrating reed. it wound up by ßts is not until a number threads of weft have been added to the face of the cloth. ayid Starts . S. 167 and 168. S's. in a practical point of view. will keep jiggling or dancing there. it would be absolutely necessary to have the teeth of the ratchet wheel U. loom not capable of producing thin goods with . It is clear. to assist. represents part of the frame of a loom. owiog to the breaking of the weft thread. as well as an improved method of governing it. precisely the same as that shown in Figs. hung bis reed ployed. is Biit when the rotary of the perpendicular shaft T.

* Fig. although exceedingly simple. for the purpose of keeping the und er part of the The Springs g. Stone's apparatus can accomplish. is capable of effecting all that Mr. for the purpose of setting the bolts to any required position. gy g. a distance equal weft thread. 169. K. at the point means * of the spring v and this spring is made fast to the rail X. is the frame of the loom . of the reed frame. g these bolts have regulating nuts. is pressed back by the reed P. two Springs. the reed . the rail K. THE ART OF WEAVING. at each Vibration of the lay. according to the degree of pressure intended to be communicated from the Springs g. screws at each end. a uniformity of tension roller. the reed cessary because. by means of two clasp bolts passing through the lay . g.362 scribed. a lever having its fulcrum at rail the upper end of which lever is kept pressed against the . by K. in regard to their pressure against K. one at the back and the other at the front of the lay. g. as will be perceived by the black dots at the points w. to the rail K. ?*. A B ß C. lOj and are governed. are screwed by two reed frame K. 7i. w^ w. and the yarn beam is not absolurely nemay be communicated to the warp fröm the cloth . The connexion between . the lay . P. In the Operation of the loom. pressed up. the rail which clasp bolts may be seen close to the letters g. is to the diameter of the o.

and makes its lower end to strike against the arm a. sweep i. the taking-up apparatus would not be set in motion. its point working into the teeth of the ratchet a little to the right of the letter c. in motion. would not be forced back by the beaten up subsequent motion of the loom. Mass. one of the swords of the lay. has received sufficient motion from the X. haa a similar sword with a sweep i no difficulty can be experienced on this with : head. by two screws. a. end. put the cloth is roller if c?. letter it y . weight 10. 169) was granted to Oliver C.. Burr. and carries at its end a dick or driver e. only . it thus winds on the texture as it it woven . after plained . a. 7?. a. any addition to the which had been previously the reed. but the reed beats up Avithout the weft.\ When the loom is put in Operation. therefore. a. is prevented from recoiling by a suitable catch fixed inside the frame. tz. a: this arm has its axis at Y. as shown a little above the clined arm «. the reed P. as indicated by the black dots. will not in that case be forced back. bearing date July t The its figure being drawn in perspective. which wheel has a pinion made fast to it. of course. to revolve. . in which tooth it will remain. is forced back by the weft in the act of beating up and as the weft acts on the lever w. a. ingenious mechanic. by the crossing of the . The inclined arm a. of Milbury. «. can be seen but theopposite side of the lay. and A patent for this inveniion (Fig.PLAIN WEAVING. to that would not strike against the inclined face of the arm a^a^a^ and. this roller serves to elevate the in- has been depressed by the action of the it. a. to cause the other extremity to depress the arm a. a.* At the lower end of is a turned-up part z. a. for giving motion to the ratchet wheel c. 363 the lever n^ n. and taking into the spur wheel on the end of the cloth roller d : the ratchet wheel c. an 17. a. the roller will raise the arm a. turned-up end of the lever n^ n. upon so that in the in the manner already ex- backward motion of the lay. at its it and keep the click or driver e. cf. of course. so as to The vibrating motion of the lay roller a stud-pin carrying a small . to fall back into a new tooth in the ratchet wheel c . until the lever point * ?i. and consequently the lever n. is effected through the agency of which works in the sweep i : this stud-pin is connected to an arm on the end of the driving shaft m. ?i. is not suffi- heavy to cause the ratchet wheel The sword of the lay carries a small roller or puUey fixed on a stud-pin. against : the tooth in the ratchet wheel c ciently but this c. weft. 1835. as there would not be cloth. and will thereby cause the click e. which touches the inclined part of the arm a. which serves to balance has a small governing weight 10.

therefore. For shirtings and calicoes. Before commencing the füll must be so is set in relation to the inclined arm er. " 'tis own 't. n. a. a fourth swore 'twas his while a was its father. because the arm had not been previously deIn this position. the lever ?^. to the other extremity. the pihng of the cloth against the reed before any motion at all can be communicated. very account. that this not only simpler. n^ will nearly touch the inchned face of the a. the length of the lever n. is 5 and from the axis . 0. a. because." is mine. 17 inches but these relative lengths It is is may be varied to suit the different heights of looms. continue to operate without any motion being communica- ted to the ratchet wheel cloth. not perfect. and possesses the advantage over . 0. a. to the rail K. and when the lay under side of the is thrown füll back. forward a distance equal to that wliich the catch had fallen back in the previous working of the loom.364 force the ratchet c. a liable. n. a. n. «. or turned-up end. and of taking up the cloth. the action of the lever w. very evident. a.sufficient to communicate action on this however. " " The invention lie. being. at each pick of weft . but superior to it. 170 and 171. to the same defect experienced in Stone's mechanism.?^. being a certain extent. the best in existence at the present day of fitting it and the expense to a loom is only a few Shillings. of from 30 to 80 or 90 threads of weft per inch. lever n. from the axis inches. improvement or contrivance. the turned-up end of the a. c. THE ART OP \VEAVING. . to riiost . the roller will not touch the pressed by the lever arm. that when arm the reed brought up to the face of the cloth. produce textures of uniform thickness throughout : but this contri- vance contains the same defects as those pointed out in Mr. the loom may 72. therefore. perhaps. It will unless weft be added to the face of the be perceived. Operation of weaving." said a would-be inventor I You said a second. three threads to the of weft at arm a. it is. for ever c. a . caused by the greater leverage For looms of the working size." A third And cried. so as to Figs. Stone's . exhibit another method of regulating the movement of the yarn beam. and this is of the lower end of the lever n. is direct on the arm «. this motion is. " mine !" with a voice loud as Stentor . «. Stone's motion. that a very shght addition of weft to the cloth (say two or three threads) will commimicate extensive tion to the mo- arm 0. namely. and no other fifth . of taking up the cloth with greater regularity 72.

The tion foUowing is the manner in which the bar E. receives its mo- from the spring reed B : When * the lay advances and brings the reed into contact with the ginal. on its Upper end which operates. steps of the perand J. simpler. Potter. down nearly as low as the bottom of the lay sword lay in which the bar F. which acts upon the ratchet wheel G. a direct infringement. This alteration of Stone's loom. Nov. extending . 170. of Cranswhich circumstance goes far to prove ton. a perpendicular shaft. Fig. by gearing. slides ratchet wheel G. the part of the F. having a lower end. . the spring reed C. a guide piece. Rhode Island. a lever. loom it . D. notwithstanding its similarity to the oriwas made the subject of a patent by one Welcome A. 1837 . and an endless screw or worm H. at its . 23. to receive beam as in Stone's loom 1 1.PLAIN WEAVING. having a notch or mortise and guide the bar E. 36^ upon which loom the lay it is. is . indeed. what we have time Britain. B.* A. that there is in reality no more protecin tion for the ingenious man in the United States of America than Great . to give the requisite niotion to the yarn pendicular shaft in it . after time stated. although possesses tbe merit of being somewhat .

Potter says through that of the spring whip as shown in Fig. for the it purpose of holding in its proper position when not acted upon by any other force. already described in both Figs.)^ On referring to Mr. : The foregoing description represents the bar E. and these gentlemen. Mr. Figs. back and turning the ratchet wheel G. and the reed presses forcibly roll on the cloth. its iipper end. the mortise L. to which wheel it will give motion when the lay is thrown back this force is effected by the sword of the lay Coming into contact with a Shoulder at M. back. 165. The whip crum P. and bear- ing against the fore end of this back motion of slot. it but Mr. 171. throws the top of the lever C. Stone's machine. a rod or wire R. Potter's modification. draws the rod forward by the and the back end of the bar E. ! ?io douht^ can whom the invention truly belongs . shown in real character of the infringement will be place. working on a its fulcrum T. forward. this to recede from lower end. Potter. and this lever is operated upon : in a manner lever E. being actuated by the resistance of the face of the cloth against the clothj the springing of the reed reed. When the lay moves forward. Potter to other manufacturers. 167 and it 168. this has the effect of drawing the whip N. in connexion -with the lever O. (Fig.366 THE ART OF WEAVING. 166. in the slot at lay. works on a fulloom. on the frame of the loom. roll N. the shaft F. in the bar E. extends to a lever S. then Catches upon a tooth of the ratchet wheel G. A spring Q. : and causing the lower end of the bent arm O. and 171. (Fig. 171. 170) or the lever S. Stone's invention consists. 170 with Mr. then moving the yarn beam by means of the worm or screw H. its is supported by a bent . must be long enough to give play to the without moving the lever C. and its lower end passes into a mortise or L. a similar one at other end the bent made fast to the frame of the arm O. of Manchester. Louis it Schwabe and Mr. said bent arm ex- tending to about an equal distance froni the fulcrum at each end. acts upon the lower end of the bent arm. the In the first manifest. as receiving : its motion through the agency of the spring reed that he sometimes communicates roll. for the purpose herein explained. in the * The whip is roll N. thus forcing the bar E. there being arm O. and comparing Figs. mortise or slot in the bar lower end passing into a E . and as this lever works upon a fulcrum K. having used several years before the date teil of his patent . not the invention of Mr. Mr. similar to that of the lever C.

166. having the bent arm X made fast to T.. shaft forth. yarn beam (see Figs. are precisely the substituting a mortise or slot L (see Fig. Stone's patent is . referring to the subject of Mr. in connexion with the rod S. ratchet wheels U. Potters patent.PLAIN WEAVING. the click W. with justice too . Stone F. the one depending upon the other. and Y. instead of the bent bar S. arm Into X. 170) in the rod or bar E. 367 application of the lever Q. of Stone's looin (see Figs. 165 and 166 . receiving motion from the vibrating reed D. Now. on at Figs. Fig. worm working into the spur wheel A A. P. its ing inapplicability to and does its inventor credit. made Mr. lever C. we think. for the contrivance really very ingenious. govern the giving out of the warp.) and these and. bar E. for his worm H. and take-up motions claimed by Mr. inserts the end of the lever . ratchet wheel G.) in the bar E. and so same but he evades Mr. notwithstandsome kinds of textures^ as has been already stated. will be seen that he has adapted the . bolted the slot to the rod or L. vertical shaft on the end of the parts. 171. Stone's patent by . as well as the taking-up of the cloth. and the it. as it shown let-oflf 170 and 171. This feature forms the subject of Mr.

does not possess and is only another method of beating about the bush. are too lazy to get their living by honest means. ] 66 but this alteration.368 THE ART OF WEAVING. and so forth. . Potter obtained a patent for Mr. 165 and 166. against the teeth of the ratchet G. answers the same purpose as that shown in Figs. as in Fig. in Fig. 166. &c. represents a side view. being connected to the arm is of the common take-up lever (which in all respects like that . a patent was granted to Horace Hendrick. 170) to draw back. the sword of the R R. own and the term Mr. is ^ttached to the bar E. : keeping the bar E. 165 and 166. Cj instead of connecting it by a pin to the end of the rod or bar S. and it is the playing of the lever C. and stationary guide J. engraving. on it. towards the bar E. lever n. in Figs. 170. in Figs. this rod X. Conn. 170 and 171. in Stone's loom. bearing date 22d Sept. makes a catch of the rod or bar E. when Fig. in elevation. with another modification of the same apparatus for regulating the taking-up of the cloth aud for which contrivance. " the rod and sickle . the lever C (Fig. as any man who is not a dovvnright ignoramus may at once perceive. 171. and our only object in having gone to the expense of drawing. instead of and putting the cHck W. is quite as applicable. against the ends of the slot L.000. 1836 but it is not wortha $1. for turning the ratchet G. 167 and 168. The jogged end M. and this the same is as that marked Q. FFF lay . of course. of Kilhngly. at its lower fulcrum. shown patent." but we think pruning hook would be F.n. 169. near its up against the inclined rod X. as in Figs. amounts to nothing. . denominates his appendage. in Figs. purpose of evading Stone's How in the world Mr. The any for the modification of Fig. of a common power loom. The spiral spring 12. Stone. P. to us a mystery : surely somebody about the this transaction Patent Office must have been magnetized took place. (receiving motion from the vibratory reed) that rotates the ratchet G. but is no improvement thereon. 170. is Stone's invention. in Fig. of the bar E. to expose that system which is so extensively carried on by men who have no real talent of their . is. 165.. The RR. in Figs. merit. H. in loom made to beat extremity.. on the end of the shaft F (Fig. 170 and 171.) instead of the piece X. 170 and 171. the frame of the loom H H.. Mr. is the lever which receives motion from the vibrating reed. 172. and C. so as all this to allow its point to drop into a new tooth in the ratchet G: justly belongs to Mr. for the purpose of inserting a stud-pin into the rod. until cient cloth has suffi- been woven to cause the under extremity of the cloth. and giving it Insertion in this work.

against the lower part of the connecting rod X. is it in the clicks is K The only feature of novelty that we can perceive. at up of the cloth . must be required to enable and this. 169. as in Stone's loom. some purpose best hiown to Mr. S. and in the turned topsy-turvy. Fig. 169. himself. for the purpose of keeping the reed frame in others also. 172) being connected by a stud-pin 47 . is the lay . but here it is its place. 173. in Fig.PLAIN WEAVING. except that in this case hke that above the is in for it turned upside down. is a spring (one at each side of the lay) bolted to the sword of the lay at T. to turn the cloth roller P. being acted upon by the roller B. and that too so near its fulcrum that something in the neighbourhood of a horse least. cause the clicks or drivers K. of course. in the beating of the nib or under extremity of the lever R R. subject of this patent con- Wherein does the reader suppose the sists ? Is it in the lever ? RR? Is it in the Springs S ? Or. H. B. 369 shown at Fig. The arm C. in our opinion. to the lay The rod X. will. power. it to actuate the taking- is improving hackward. a small friction roller or letter y^ stud-pin fixed on the side of the lay. (Fig.) L.

Neither do we see the Utility of the stud-pin B because. from the relative positions " Emulation. be inserted in the lever R R. in this case. and the it. informs us. the motion would be in . when a sufficient quantity of piled up against the reed but even then we think the odds against the lever in R R. similar to that marked 10. connected to the sickle C. Mr. as to bring the fulcrum nearer to the reed. unless the under extremity of the lever altogether after RR. human much more and works It is in itself some than does in others. were cut away respects like which. in Fig. Mason. underneath the arm C. which is actuated by up motion the reed. 169. As tive this contrivance is represented. useless. 169." we confess our inability to see the Utility of so doing. all that shown at Fig. if the arm C. were roller made fast to the lever R R. but simply remarks that " the lever rod R R. through the agency of the vibrating reed. 169. w\\\ only operate as a it posi- take-up motion. as before stated and in order to make actu- ate the arm C. and." He also says that " the roller may but. the rod X. kept un- . to prevent the rod X." says which these parts are represented by the patentee. the rod X.370 sword at bottom and THE ART OF WEAVING. will raise and depress the arm C. the lower nib or point the rod X. actuates the C. so C. on the lay sword above fixed would answer the same purpose as the n. it would ful- be necessary to shorten the distance between the reed and the crum R R. as in Fig. through the agency of the rod X. the roller or stud. shows strongly in much more it plainly. into which slot the pin lo^ may work this pin w^ having a suitable head made upon it. pin B. in Fig. it. which carries the clicks or drivers teil K. H. or stud-pin B. shown it. independently of The arm pa- tentee does not us how the lever R R. or roUer is . to the arm C. and a long slot made in the end of the rod X. This done. from dropping off. 0. is counterbalanced with a weight. is however. " like the other passions of the itself mind. it or stud-pin B. in order to give the other extremity greater scope for acting on the arm Instead of this. in forcing up the cloth is may possibly actuate the arm . innocent if and was planted in our natures for very wise ends. constitutes a positive takeand consequently the lever RR. instead of in the sword HH : . at top. . midway between it lower extremity. the reed and that the fulcrum of the lever its R R. 169 for if the stud-pin B. turned-up end of the lever ??. . v/ill depress it. communicates motion to the cloth roller by means of the X. In this Position. will be tremendous. with the roller on the sword of the lay below of the lever But. must be diseonnected from the pin to.

otherwise it is 371 capable of serving very excellent pur- degenerates into a finds mean and criminal ambi- Hon. and to farne^ not regarding how he comes by is if his praise urge him to Stretch himself beyond the line of his and attempt things arts to which he unequal . and peihaps insensibly this passion. than to wilhhold or withdraw the renown from the real benefactors of our race." " There of is. or in actions trnly reserve or falsehood. der proper regulations. and extra vagance of this passion. whether popvlfirity passion for capacity. that excites and enables a it. if he pants öfter it . though not the highest. or a noble spirit. there never And. is yet one of the most legitimate motives of meritorious exertions tonly repressed one which should never be wan- by giving currency to either contemporary or posthumous calumny against a useful Citizen. w4iat truly was a fine genius. then not only vanity.cel in good and virtuous. and pursues that design with a steady unaffected ardour. And if it excite a man to wicked attempts.es vanity. his mnbition then becom. sue hard for a little in- cense. bat was secretly. " no greater act of injustice. and break through the obligations of honour and virtue." says another writer. poses. but ' let vice. without wortlty deeds. man to do a great deal more good than he could do without haps. so just and at the same time so well expressed. a man's views centre only in the apbe dcserved or not . that rose above and distinguished itself by high attainments in excellent. desire to possess the esteem and gratitude of our fellow creatures. it is willing to sacrifice the esteem of all wise . it is a true sign of a noble spirit : for that iove of praise can never be criminal. plause of others. that the intelligent reader will at once perceive theii- apphcabüity to those subjects which we have just been coa- . to conde- scend to : mean and low dis Simulation for the sähe of a name and in a sinister^ indirect looy.PLAIN WEAVING." These sentiments are. and unsubstantial a pleasure the highest liow gratifications of afford many cruel mortifications it exposes US to. per- the common is level. on the contrary. . in our opinion. not caring froni lühcm he receives it . To correct the irregularity reflect US but how it airy . " When a man something within him that pushes him on to ej. none more detrimental meed " A to society. make him and good men to the acclamations of a mob to overleap the bounds of decency and truth. if it prompted by the Impulse of '• But.

* and Fig. 173. tervening lever and straps. as well as of throwing the Shuttle . . 174. for the purpose of throwing the shuttle. outside the frame. and on the * A patent for this improvement. bearing date 27th Jan. 1843. was granted. in Fig. represents a front elevation of a power loom. as shown Fig. by means of a connecting rodj at its lower extremity.372 sidering place. The latter of these levers communicates motion to the picker staff. THE ART OP WEAVING. 173. is a view of the crank or driving shaft detached from the loom. . The nature of this improvement consists. is the frame of the loom loose pulleys c. Fig. the headles are worked ther lever of similar form receives its an inand also anomotion in the same way. the crank shaft. in connexion with . in the United States. 174. in constructing the crank or driving shaft with a cylindrical cam on one end of it. showing a novel metbod of working the headles. and no apology will be required for inserting them in this Fig. as shown to the left in both Figs. by means of which. h b. . carrying the and on one end. to Frederick Downing. 174. a groove being made round the periphery of this cam. a fast a..

of Great Ancoates Stanfield's street. we : believe that Mr. By this combination. Manchester. The tage : dispensing with but. d. a slot is made. working in the groove e d. all and below the cylinder angles to the crank shaft of which will be easily understood on examin- ing Fig. b. upper end. for weaving light textures. . it will be perceived that as the cyhnder cam volves. loom makers. slide at its vibrated. d. that by this arrangement. will soon wear out e. the top being connected with the pickers in the usual way. which extend from thence under two pulone strap being attached to each leys lOj and up to the headles crossing each other . by p this rod has its fulcrum at o. of Leeds. which lever also has its ful- crum on the shaft its . at right parallel with side. of the and this would be found a great evil in a large weaving . is at the centre : of the lay rocker q . . which has its fulcrum on the shaft A. by means of the button or e. where but lit- power 3d. h : this shaft is on the outside of the loom frame.PLAIN WEAVING. . Stanfield's loom will never come into for the following reasons It is only applicable where two leaves of headles are em- ployed 2d. Messrs. connected so as to be adjust- able to the Upper end of the lever . re- and vibrates the lever k. made on the cirbutton in the groove e^ cumference of the cylinder The k slide or is on the opposite side of the cyKnder. vailing on manufacturers to adopt and. It will be perceived. 173. . this was effected cams and by Mr. the cylindrical 373 cam c?. the Shuttle will be thrown. opposite end. and vice versa. the small slides or buttons which work in the grooves e cylinder d. In the groove of the cyUnder cam c?. as far an advanback as the year 1835. is connected to the picker stafF 15. having two spiral grooves e e^ and//. and turns freely thereon near each end of the lever G. headle. it machine but appears that they did not succeed in preit . The lever k. is certainly Stanfield. had the construction of Mr. means of the rod of the lever k. at the under end The fulcrum of the picker staff 15. cranks of the shaft b b. Sharrocks and Birch. two sHdes are ütted on opposite sides the one on the front side is attached to the lever G. on the end of the driving or crank shaft b from right treadles to left. Ist. It tle is is only applicable required . Downing's modification of very general use either. The rapid motion of the crank shaft b &. in which stud-pins g g^ are so fastened as to be adjustable (by proper screws and nuts :) to these studs are affixed the straps i i. the headles will is be worked as the lever G.

as well as in throwing the shuttle. has got it . as neither a quicker nor a slower motion to the lever k. 1838. projecting from one of passes the back corner posts of the loom treadles are placed between which the ends of the 3. 176. F's. but the mothrowing the shuttle might possibly be found applicable textures (piain) the strain d^ as well as although. 175. and a pin or holt through them and the supporting arms. one these guages have set screws in them disc. ing date the 6th of February. for in the working of the headles. he fixes a disc on the shaft near the lever k . 176 which levers . as shown neath. . in the application of the horizontal treadles or levers it an additional cams. teils us. patent is The subject of Mr. represent an improved satinett loom. in the grooves e cam The patentee informs us. the grooves of this cam would be worn out firstj in. the cam tion for would be too great on on the bearing of the shaft hh . also Claims the application of the additional set of cords or strings connected to the under extremities of these upright treadles or levers which cords or strings pass under a set of puUeys to to the left. we think this defect would not be remedied for. the top set to the right. in Fig. to shown in Fig. This disc is omitted in the Figs. of Stafford. which work /i. and are then connected one set the headles under- The and the treadles lie horizontally. room containing some 500 or 600 looms but in a smaU concern. if the slides were of harder metal than that of the cylindrical cam c?. the whole of the strain e. Each . near the bottom of the loom. with disadvantage as Mr.. D. set of shoes to the left and the bottom Mr.374 THE ART OP WEAVING. . 176 and 176J. which to regulate the distance the shaft shall be turned round by the Vi- bration of the lever k. as constructed by Elijah Fairman. F. it will not effect what the patentee can be given e e. comes on the small of the cylinder slides or buttons d. than that which it receives from the grooves of the cyHnder cam d. The other ends of the . stead of the slides : in either case a clitter-clatter would be the con- sequence 4th. from the face of on each side of the lever k: two guages project. 3. and For heavy . we think. will be Seen have their cam shoes in opposite directions. set of treadles is supported at their outer end by two short arms or bars. other set near the top. or cam. Connecticut for and bear- which he obtained a patent in the United States . Figs. it would notj perhapsj be much feit and although the slides or buttons were made of steel. one upon another. for the simple reason that. . that.

375 treadles are supported by shoit thin forming pieces of iron or wood. treadle. rests and slides for the treadles to its Each treadle has an iron shoe fastened to front edge. 175. so that the warp opens to let the . To the end of each of the under treadles. tili moved by the treadle and when one part of the headles is raised.PLAIN WEAVING. one near each end. and passing down. which passes under a pulley in the lower part of the loom. is attached one cord. the others are held down. and Coming up. cam acts to give the treadles mo- To the end of each of the upper treadles are attached two cords. These cords hold the headle firm that it cannot move up er down. of a triangulär form. and the other over ano- ther pulley. suspended between two headle rails at the top of the loom. one underneath each play lipon. on which the tion. projectitig out horizontally. Fig. fastened to short posts or studs in the frame. is fastened to the under side of the same headle in the centre. one of which passes over one puUey. are fastened to the headles. .

) cam shaft (see Another method of producing the same motions and effecting the object. Shuttle pass freely. so as to match with the shoes of the treadles. The cam shaft is turned by means of a bevel gear on the bottom of the cylinder cam. by the shoe of the under treadle being thrown out of its Space. and turning upon a pin in the centre. the action is made free and easy. and made to open wider and more clear. is to have but one set of long double treadles. the treadles are worked and bottom of an upright shaft. By these alternate movements of the treadles. gives way to the motion. 176. and pulUng upon the headle cord. standing upright. driven by a pinion on the Fig. the corresponding treadle in the lower set attached to the The cams by which same headle. and a short same . that the Shut.376 THE ART OP WEAVING. and the headles kept closely confined to their places. which passes through them. by the aid of an additional cam. Fig. the treadle is drawn back to its place again. by its shoe being drawn into an appropriate space in the cylinder cam and when the upper cam has passed the shoe of the treadle. extending from top to bottom of the loom. and are so arranged that when an Upper cam strikes the shoe of one of the treadles to raise a are placed near the top headle. tle may pass without danger of over-shots. 1761.

&c. with ratchet wheel. Back whip roller. tvveen The The cams and pinion similar to those by which the the pinion being placed upon the horizontal treadles are moved end of the cam shaft. A Yarn beam. standing upon the floor. rection. cams. Jj shaft wheel. connecting the lay with the crank wheel G. and at the other supported by a post or posts. but in a contrary diexactly opposite. A A A. picker staff. will suffice Fig.PLAIN WEAVING. C. The 4 corner posts of the frame. and stand directly between the cams. B. Dnving shaft. By the action of the cams on each side of the treadles. The lower ends of the treadles have a shoe on each side. Lay arm. with heads. giving the same motion to their upper ends. firmly attached to the loom. 175. they are thrown alternately one way and the other. to support the treadles. are carried by a bevel gear . Perspective view of the loora. F. 48 . are placed horizontally betwo bars or arms attached to the frame of the loora at one end. I. such as akeady described. 176. Cloth roller. it not necessary to describe more particularly : parts reference to the Figs. as in Fig. 377 arm or bar on each side. Breast beam. Cam The D. But as is this loom is nearly the same as those in its common . H. Driving wheel. G. E. use.

and on which the the treadles slide. leaves. prevent are opened. plan w^ould be utterly impracticable. thej are made of difTerent depths. End cam shaft. "| Each treadle hae an iron shoe on which the cam acts. Q. Two arms attached frame.. 176^. one cam above another to match the treadles. of the &c. Standing and supported by a upon the to the b ö. (See Fig. and their respec- arranged one tier above another. might be compriaed in aboiit the gpace of 5 inches. a a. Shoes on each side of the treadles. one to between which the treadles are placed and are supported. were a mounting 90 . bevel gear and pinion. shown m Fig. answer for looms where a few leaves of headles only are necessary but in looms for weaving fancy textures. Headle between which the J'. Posts to Support rails. in order tive shafts are to to comprise as many leaves as possible in a small compass. Bars toseparate and supportthe ends of the treadles. each treadle. The headle I i I P O. and on the same side as the one at bottom. C'. Upper. Represents the cylinder cam at the bottom of the headle cam shaft. ddd. . with the bevel gear. z. J 176^. on opposite sides. with their mode of Operation. gg-. headle Two match wheels on the outer ends of the cam shafts. one cord. for them from touching when the sheds example. In such looms. Represents the upright double treadles. Shows that the same Operation may be had by pJacing one of the cams at the top. where from 10 to 100 leaves are required. one over each of the top pulleys. P. headle pulleys are hung. Ä. as in Fig. . will. Lower treadles. Cam L. Separate cams by which the Upper treadles are worked. Mr. and turn upon a pin passing through them and the arms. R. to consist of to a sufRcient height Thus. passing under the under pulley and fastened to the centre of the bottom of the headles. and e'. TT From each T. 176^. From each bottom treadle. The as vertical levers having shoes at each end. Fig. no doubt. f. or 6 part cam. e. cords and pulleys over which they pass. N. the whole. The treadles. attached to the frame of the ioom . 176. M. Two arms or bars. Headle pulleys. F's. by arranging them in three tiers of thirty shafts each. 176^^. judged post or floor. Shoe on the upper end of the treadle. The cyhnder cam. Fig. rails. either to the cross girt or otherwise. It also shows the form of the cams on the upper end of the shatt. Headles.378 K. posts. In such cases. THE ART OF WEAVING. and fastened to the headles near each end. and the mode of Operation. as in Fig. and the pinion on the cam shaft and the grooves on the cam into which the shoes of the treadle fall alternately. which is not uncommon for some of the finer kinds of silk patterns woven in Spitalfields. and were the shafts made abont ^th of an inch thick. Upper treadles. or are driven in as the corresponding treadle is thrown out to raise the headles. Headle cords. S S S. The connexion by ends of a cords from the bottom of the headles to the series of horizontal or vertical levers is not Jieiv. . Upper treadle pass two cords. 176. Q. shaft. and one of the treadles as operated upon by a cam the cam is on its end a 12th part of a circle. as best. and the 6 are cast in one piece.

showing the stop-thread motion the same letters of reference indicate similar parts in the Figs. indeed. Fig. the part under the plate being and extending back to the square hole in the plate. so that the hook «. under the cloth side of the plate in the e. M. so as to come against the pin b. is attached to the inner end of the piece B. 178 and 179. The pin b. and on the end of the shipper which little is hung on * the under side of the breast beam. A piece of iron B. riveted to the side of the iron B. presses the pin b. attached : of the usual form. of Stonington.PLAIN WEAVING. may rise and fall. . they cannot do otherwise in the manufacture of various kinds of tweeled and fancy goods. see Section . is e. represented in Figs. in November 1841. with it. and. on on the undcr placed a slide s. by the aid of a contrivance fixed on the breast its beam near centre and is directly in front of the lay. Conn. passing through the hole in the plate e. by a pin on which it works easy. A piece of Steel d. which carries the small pins or teeth. but loose on the holt to allow of Vibration. for ward against tlie slide is s. Stillman. set so as to lap making a right angle k. Stands up near the breast beam. 176. For further Illustration of this subject. neither the vertical treadles or levers. 178. Fig. European weavers always use sink- ing cords attached to suitable levers. as represented in Figs. and supported by a holt passing left sufficiently through into the breast beam. This contrivance consists of a small iron plate the Upper side of the breast beam. 175 svrer at all. would anfor it would be . and extends a be- It a roller would be difficult to apply this motion ofMr. is made fast in the hook piece a. Stillman's was used instead of a breast beam. to looms where .Second. The loom represented in the Figs. 178. is placed on the under side of the is breast beam below it the plate e. the loom stop of itself This improvement consists in making when the weft thread breaks or becomes ex- hausted. nor the horizontal treadles. A small spring fastened on the front of the breast beam. as shown in Fig.* The hook a. - 379 shown in Fig. owing to the space they would occupy and 176J. which Stands up in the hook a . teeth. 177.. was made the subject of a patent by O. necessary to niake them sufficiently thick to bear the strain required for opening the various sheds. and v. the other end being a small bar Vvdth a series of pins or form of a staple. An invention for stopping the loom when the weft thread breaks. in connexion with raising cords.

380 THE ART OP -WEAVING. This lever o. yond the vertical lever o. This we consider to bc a very serious defect because the contrivance coidd not he used with certainty on looms for wcaving fine or delicate textures on that very account. the action of which Operation raises the cloth sufficiently to set the pijis free. . bending the spring Vy and raising the hook a. 178 and 179.. When hrings pin it a thread of weft tip if. being thus woven into the cloth. 177. * The weft the elasticity . lohich teeth are also to the cloth. through the agency of the protecting pin p. (Fig.* The teeth. Fig. the reed hroiight b.p is thrown through the shed. must he strong enough to enahle the slide s. striking against the point k^ of the horizontal lever under- neath the breast beam that the belt is shifted from the tight pulley on to the loose one. when the spri7ig V jerks them forward in weft thread. the inner end of the slide s. is of the ordinary description and it is by it. are held by the thread until the lay is carried back and the headles change position by springing open a new shed. Fig. forcing the back towards the breast beam. 179) passes under it v/ithout collision. against the teeth of the slide s . ready to receive another thread. even if it had no other fault. the vmrp. 179. to overcome of the spring v.

with considerable advantage. or hap-hazard. 179) against which it shdes. 1833. turning on its holt. and stops after the belt is thrown off the tight. steel piece c?. being circular. 381 When reed as it tbere is no weft thread to hold the teeth. as in case of the protecting pin p. forcing the piece B. that the construction of a power loom ring the process of forming the shed . which brings the sufficiently to o. and the second. jure that part of the reed which came in contact with the pins in greater velocity.PLAIN WEAVING. but only it is not necessary for him to describe one. These obstacles. in time to come in contact witli the permanent obUque hook c. Stillman's motion from becoming of any great practical Utility. William Thomas Shallcross. against the lever A:. in driving the Shuttle with greater rapidity. of Holt Town. as they would break the threads. is acted upon by the weft thread and Indeed. is represented in bis drawings in perspeo- . We think that the action of the needles or pins in entering between the threads of warp. driving it back lever cause the other extremity behind the vertical to stop the it striking in the ordinary it loom. but for looms of much and this will be eviwhich the slide piece Sy carrying the pins or teeth.. to the loose puUey. being well understood. where the speed is only 38 or 40 picks of weft per minute. to point out those variations in parts of the mechanism which he claims as improvements. sidewise. they follow the moves forward. in a new mode of working the headles and taking up the cloth. it would not answer consider the at all . The patentee considers. thereby letting down the hook «. slides on the lever carry k^ a little as it takes it back^ which brings the the lay should steel piece d^ before the protecting its momentum on it far enough pin p. with many others which we could mention. The motion of the steel piece c?. the very rapid motion of some looms would soon inreed. The needles or pins should not be made sharp at their points. would be to split very uncertain. (Fig. Mr. s. dent enough when we mode in the slide piece in the slide 5. 179) way. to looms for weaving wide textures. (Fig. nor to those where the cloth does not spring or become elevated du- hecause the pins could not disengage themselves from the cloth in such looms. for improvements in power looms. obtained a patent in January. will prevent Mr. The first part of the improvement consists. not apphcable to looms for weaving figured goods. first The contrivance by which the object is to be effected. This contrivance might be added. as they would be very apt any warp threads with which they came This motion is in contact in their ascent neither should they be too blunt. near Manchester.

accompany the but all are equally ob- means he renders a loom " less complicated tha?i heretofore" and that by it " labour and materials are economized. that by these not been able to discover. a long having a forked end which guides an endless strap or band that passes over two conical drums (like that marked S. The inventor does not claim the framing of the loom which in our opinion a very great oversight on bis part. as the wound round its cloth rolier every additional fold in- creases diameter . so as partially to clasp the cloth impaired. 1833. Plate III) one of which is on the tappet shaft front arm of the loom. scription. for a method the of producing a varied degree of speed in taking up the cloih is cloth. of Manchester." all of which. so that each succeeding fold is wound on it. if true. the obscurity of the deletters and the absence of is of reference in many . ted to this Motion drum from drum on the tappet shaft end communicaby means of the rolier. Thomas Welch. before cutting Joint and the greatest diameter of cloth to be roUed on at one time This saddle is connected. the face of which is hollowed out. cotton spinner.382 tive THE ART OF WEAVING. : rolier. tbere to is a pinion which takes into the crank wheel. upoD a very small scale. which ries of other is a pin in this wheel a connecting rod is at- also attached to a double crank. and it i^ so indifFerently described that we can only understand. Several variations of the arrangenient specification. which the patentee calls a saddle." and that "the power for driving the loom will be greatly diminished. rods ed to hnk together. . . with the short side arm of an upright crank iever. 5 and 6. The following is the mode of applying Mr. is The outer end of the counter shaft provided with a pinion. By the nsual method.) with the utmost desperation. with a greater degree of speed than the one preceding the texture of the cloth is whereby and the number of picks to an inch is lessened. we regret we have scure : the patentee says. that. the other its broadest end being nearest the centr« of the shaft is drum on a counter the shaft. of mechanism. parts. The other features are rendered equally by the sraallness of the figures. near the cloth being farthest from the centre of the shaft. Then follows a se- and cranks (which we have in vain attemptand ultiniatel}^ the movements thus obtained. in Figs. and that tached. unintelligible. obtained a patent in October. its is endless band just mentioned. pin. drive the picker staff and causes the shuttle to rush through the shed wheels. to the from the centre of this Iever. affixed framing of the loom protrudes. by a it out of the loom. Welch's invention to a power loom A block of wood is provided.

to which is roller. having two cranks.PLAIN WEAVING. One of the wheels. the lower part of this axle. This shaft is turned by two crank arms. extending from the lay to the crank. as well as the pin- and wheels which turn the cloth roller. but the cloth (says the patentee) will be wound on with the same degree of speed as at first. by pressing against the saddle by this means. upright crank lever. attached to the end of which is fastened to the breast beam of the loom. The : following is mode a band loom The ions first saddle. saddle is kept in contact with the cloth parts by means of a . with the exception of the catch same as in the box and spring lever. The spring. slower motion will be communicated to the cloth roller. and the other end extends out. pinions — these communicate a wheel. to having a large number of picks the inch. by which means the last mentioned drum will be caused to revolve more slowly therefore. the patentee adopts the following arrangement of parts From the back of the saddle. is now fastened on a crank shaft. when applying this inven- tion to the taking-up of the cloth. are the instance. at one or both ends. owing to the increased diameter of the cloth beam. a flat bar of iron extends. The drum. which was before on the tappet shaft. aily . which worked by the rack before mentioned is . which motion drives a series of wheels to aiicl 383 . and is steadied in its revolutions by a fly wheel. by the wheels and pinions. and its long arm will cause the endless band to traverse towards the pointed end of the drum on the counter shaft. and the other remain the same as before the the motion of the cloth roller being varied by the traversing of the endless of applying this contrivance to bands. —these roller. fastened on the end of the cloth thus caused to revolve. and is . In Order to insure steadiness of action. in or out of gear as occasion re- At every succeeding fold of cloth added to the roller it will gradupush the short side arm of the crank lever back. and its arms. which are removed for the reason hereafter explained. . by means of an endless band (and two stout . fastened a large spur wheel. works a rack. and it communicates motion. and forms a support for an upright axle. provided with a pair of prongs the endless bands. and to which prongs act on . aie provided with a catch box. which is and one of the pinions attached a spring lever by which they may be thrown quiies. formed into a rack centre of a bar. To the upper part of this axle. one — this bar travels in an eye. is is fastened a small spur wheel. the lever will be turned partly round.

or shortly afterwards. 169 either of which looms is far superior (both as regards working and simphcity of construction) to Mr. inadequate to cause a sufficient pull. 163 and 164 will accomplish the object of this patent with the reader much is greater precision and simplicity . meeting with a diminished resistance. " what Claim as my invention. throwing the wheels and pinions are useless .384 THE ART OP WEAVING. as explanatory of his invention. 166. therefore. the catch box and spring lever. Lancastei. in the arm of the manner above its described. in consequence of the reed on being at such times Struck up. strain. which we yaw ! yaw ! ! yaw is. applied to looms for taking up the cloth in the way claimed by Mr. . improvements in looms which improvements consist in certain machinery to be attached to looms for weaving various kinds of cloth and set in motion hy the pull. Mellowdew's. for mechanic. is Irishmen) to the other drum. rer pretending to ceive. lay ceases to vibrate. Thomas Mellowdew. 165. 167 and 168. and is not worth a stiver. or jerk given to the warp threads by the hloio of the reed in heating up the weft. that " wheti vibrations the for the lay ceases whole must stop roller. in case of the breaking or non-delivery of the weft. corresponding. as that ] it effects by that shown at Figs. is In I summing up Mr." to out of gear. The patentee says. obtained a patent in May. Mellowdew says. the causing the pull or strain upon. referred. and sujfficient delivery from the warp-beam. or by that at Fig. 162. The looms represented at Figs. the endless band being caused to traverse by the long lever. and which produces by its action a regulär. in order to stop the cloth respond. strain. although the general evolutions of the loom continue. in concluding his specification. a knowledge of such subjects will at once perhis specification. Oldham. occasioned by the blow of the . . We may need not here recapitulate the immense long yarn given by all the patentee. Welch. is an old German idea. . to which Figs. be accomplished by the loom represented in Fig. produce the effect required. The cone drums. 161. as any manufactu71. of Walshaw Cottage. and taking up of the cloth on the clothroller so long as there is weft-thread added but which delivery and taking up cease. indeed a mysterious and is well worthy the attention of the learned. 1838. to . or jerk upon the warp threads. wbich fastened on a counter shaft. ! ! ! That the machinery its of a com- mon power loom should continue regulär evolutions after the affair . . or jerk of the warp-threads.

as we before observed. For weaving &c. and sufficient dehvery of yarn from the warp-beam. shown at Fig. we shall. We could instances were name we disposed to be personal. on being Struck up. (whip-roller) supported oii vibrating levers. for governing the delivery of the warp and the taking up of the cloth in common equal in power looms . for several France. years past. causing a diminish- ed pull. or jerk. and taking up of cloth on the cloth roller. and an effectual cover for private injustice and professional rapacity. 168. 170 and 171. Mellowdew's patent. he finds it most . 49 .PLAIN WEAVING. about six months prior to the date of Mr. positive take up motions (in connexion with a motion to stop the loom when the weft thread breaks or becomes expended on the cop or bobbin) must be used instead of the vibrating reed . 171 and which modification was raade the subject of a patent in the United States.* We might here give accounts of some 50 or 60 other contrivances which have been made the subjects of patents in Great Britain. reed in beating up the weft 385 has beeil pre- when sufficient resistance by the supply of the weft from the shuttle to produce. when attached to looms for weaving various kinds of cloth. by means of a vibrating carrying roller. 165. close this part of cur subject by referring the reader to Section Twelfth. Stone's loom. and acted upon by the jerk of the warp with the other machinery herein described. as formerly stated. Belgium and America. 167. therefore. therefore. light silk stuffs. a regulär corresponding. may be ef- fected with the modification of Mr." All this. and. strain. meeting with a diminished and inadequate resistance. or shortly afterwards^ in consequence of the reed. 23d November. easily accomplished by drawing out a long and intricate specification describing in a manner as minute and circumlocutory as possible hundreds of well-known parts. delicate textures. such as ganze. 169. and summing up bis claims in so ambiguous a manner as tu defy all Ihe powers of human penetration to discover their meaning. but which delivery and taking up will cease in case of sented to it the breaking or non-delivery of the weft. 1837. 166. so long as the proportionate filling up of the Aveft continues. Such scare-crow specifications afford lo the designing an ample pretence. * Whenever a patentee intends fraud or concealment. but none of which contrivances are at all point of practical Utility or simplicity to those shown at Figs.

commonly a small diamond or with a dot or speck in the centre. which gives : it the resemblance of an eye ted bird-eye patterns. immediately divisions. it may. between the which serves as a point leaf to both sets. into alter nate Squares. however. not be amiss to offer a few obSections Second servations on fancy textures in general. perhaps. and piain texture. By the term fancy weaving we mean patterns which are produced in looms dles . The sm aller zenge figure. deviating from the formal the bird-eye. extend to eight leaves flushing. For a complete description of the method of weaving figured patterns of unlimited extent. Section Second. shown at Fig. It is customary. hy "power^ see next Section. The draught of lined work patterns may be considerably diversi- by dividing the leaves into two equal portions. produce but a lo- very limited variety of patterns. SECTION ELEVENTH." Rowe. hence these figures are generally denomina- When the mountings. and drawing a few sets of the diamond draught on each portion. by repeating . however. alternately. figures of and upwards. somewhat resembling the damboard pattern. the weaving of those small moimted with leaves of hea- and of which we have aheady given sufficient explanation in and Third. This arrangement throws the group of small figures produced by each set of leaves. 36. they admit of considerable diversity in tweeling. and which now assume the appearance of what fied is called lined work. In the present section we shall confine our reinarks to those looms for weaving fancy textures which we consider to be of most practical utihty. mountings. " The wise and prudent conquer difficulties By daring to attempt them. to introduce an odd leaf into these mountings. FANCY WEAVING.386 THE ART OF WEAVING. with such other information as has a direct bearing on the subject andj in the outset. with leaves of headles. Sloth and folly toil Shiver and shrink at sight of and danger And make the impossibility they fear. Any number of concentric figures may be formed.

will appear. and one set of tweeling leaves. For patterns of this kind. that a stripe with an odd number of tweeling leaves will not admit of a similar tweel for the crossing or check. the weft will appear to most advantage on the upper this side of the cloth while in the loom. into equal portions in weav- Any stripes tweel of an even number if of leaves may be converted into and checks . the common mounting of four leaves. whose dimen- sions and variety would depend on the number of leaves. stripe is dia- dart stripe. in order to make the piain sheds alternate without Interruption. but to produce the tweel in the check. Where the pattern will permit. which have an even number of tweeling woven with one set of tweeling treadles. will produce a similar tweel across But should the stripe be woven in a six or eight leafed the web. and therefore. and the treading continue be one great figure. the pattern would composed of concentric Squares. stripes. " 387 directioiij the draught several times over the leaves in one and re- turning in the contrary direction as often • so that should the draught diverge from the centre of the cloth toward each seivage. in order to form checks or the borders of handkerchiefs. mond Sometimes the draught of a tweeled form. or When employed a web is to be tweeled across. tied alternately on the tweehng treadles. the mountings will consist of one set of piain. are the piain ruption. the greater portion of the tweeling leaves should be sunk. the for same number of leaves must be the ground that are requisite for the tweeled stripe. Besides advantage. the strain on the machinery will not be near so is made in the commonly called a great. double the number of treadles are requisite. and the stripe be formed into a dart or her- ring hone. the piain parts must also be drawn on six or eight leaves. — ing leaves. Thus. in raising the smaller portion of leaves. to convert a four leafed tweel stripe into a check. that in all mountings which have an odd number of tweelhowever. and the arrangement of the raising cords. and the pattern produced herring hone. tweel mounting. as the ground leaves must always be divided ing the piain parts. Tweeled aiid piain textures. and each leaf is corded so as to rise and sink alternately in Hence it the piain parts. the piain may be woven by a single over and over . to the same extent. as the sheds of parts can then be made alternate without any Inter- All tweeled leaves. and the raising and sinking cords of the piain mounting are It must be observed.FANCY WEAVING.

a dentful warp passes through every second interval only consequently. for each set of the tweel. and the other below. when converted it into piain texture. &. ditional is necessary to introduce ad- warp as well as weft into those parts which are woven piain. It (fcc. same as the stripe. in general. is exactly double the set of the This method of forming some of the other branches all patterns with gauze and cambric. as noticed above.388 THE ART OF WEAVING. the reader miist consult Section Fourth. veining. however. be double of that in the latter. and one of piain leaves. when additional weft is thrown in. by workstripe. and arrangement of each kind of the warp in one with the number of times the pattern is tern. like of fancy w^eaving. merely by substituting one set of gauze. and converted into a check the ing over the treadles in one direction for half of the cross and reversing the order of treading Gauze. those parts of the reed . veining. are also variously combined with several of the other branches of fancy weaving. the set of reed in the former. one being flushed above. to represent in the draught every leaf which is requisite in the is.c. delicate patterns in the silk and To obtain a knowledge of ganze. the piain texture will make a pretty bold contrast to the light transparent fabric of the gauze. which are occu- by the plains will be füll but in the gauze spaces. mounting. All that is commonly re- quired in the draught tity to point out to the headle-maker. As the warp of gauze. produ- ces but a very thin or flimsy fabric. may be extended to and Diaper. spidering. which. the quanset of the pat. that when gauze and piain are woven pied of the in alternate stripes. will. A dentful of this additional warp is taken into the reed alternately with a dentful of the gauze so that the former. our attention in this See- . draught. are afterwards cut away. Section Second for . . page any draught of the latter may be adapted to the former. inust be observed. the order of succession in to be drawn into their respective and to which these several warps are mountings each being supposed to be repeated . the varieties of a diaper mounting (see Dornic :) 112. the gauze Spaces. and varying the succession of the draught and treading accordingly. And hence. to understand bis The first own department of the loom to which we shall turn business. purles. and produce some of the most beautiful and cotton manufactures. spidering. the weaver. Jt is not customary for the manufacturer to annex the plans of cording to these Compound draughts neither is it alvvays necessary. particularly in extensive business. for the other. latter.

is By these iraprovements. as may. . is obtained. Arphaxad's Th. and causing less breaking of the warp threads. in a pecuhar arrangement or dis- position of mechanisni. calculated for weaving fancy may. as to speed and uniforaiity of work. this loom the yarn beam is situated at the bottom of the framand the cloth roUer is placed at the top (as in E. or weights. regulating stops for the rising lay to strike against at the that the reed is moment beating up the weft. without impropriety. the sudden concussion of the lay. of the Introduction. under circumstances. county of Gloucester and for a patent although textures. .) warp threads proceed through the headles in vertical positions. present section. 1838. The invention consists. while The lay is made to the headles are moved to and fro horizontally. and that they may be more definitely explained. in we think Tenth and some respects. in March.FANCY WEAVING. rise and fall vertically by the action of suitable cams and levers. differs it very is much from it not. Mr. by nieans of which considerable advantage. and is impelled upvvards by the momentum of a falling weight. Fletcher's improvements in the construc- In Order tion of looms. is immediately relieved whilst the blow being caused by a descending weight mounted upon the end of a lever attached to the cam shaft.e great weaving engine. and by the elasticity of these regulating stops. upon the warp threads. especially as regards the weaving of woollen cloths. and with much to illustrate greater effect cloth than can be obtained by the best hand weaving. in the introduction of certain new parts or pieces of mechanism into looms in generai. Fletcher assures us he enabled to weave better cloth by power than has hitherto been accomplished by hand^ the cloth being much firmer^ and the mechanism affording the capability of making more " picks" per minute. the invention of Mr. of Stroud.. be explained in the those described in Section firstly. chanic. which will enable the reader better to comprehend the novel features of the machine. any degree upon the of Impulse can be given to the lay without causing an undue strain upon the warp threads. strain and consequent . Charles Fletcher. tion. This loom. This part of the mechanism is also furnished with suitable elastic In ing. being of tion. pages 20 to 37. for the purpose of weaving woollen goods and secondly. K. be found desirable. thereby producing a fabric of heiter quality^ and in greater quantlty^ in a given time. is 389 an ingenious mewhich he obtained vertical construc. which can be so regulated and adjusted as to increase or diminish the blow. we have drawn the figures on an enlarged scale. Mr.

Fig. and in- dependent of the lay or reed. 180. the toothed wheels q q (Figs. a plan view and Fig. a section. 181 and 183) are actuated. by means of the setting-on rod nn . The side frames. is a side view of . beam g^. and the pinion m. 181 and 182) secured fast to the sides of the frame a and are quite free from. Fig. 181. . (Figs. at The Shuttle boxes are shown at a. Fig. on each side. i i. the strap puUey l (Figs 180.390 THE ART OF WEAVING. c. affixed to the frame a «. 183) to the cloth roller h. as it is prodaced by the weaving. proceed s over the breast the top of the loom. being geared with the which is fast upon the cam shaft p p. 183. taken through the middle of the machine. The larger of these toothed wheel o. 183) upon which The warp threads proceed from the yarn the warp d d. which slide horizontally in bearings ff. are represented Sit a aaa. beam through the headles e e. 181 and 182) thrown into gear with the driving pinion m. is woiind. a back. being connected by traverses or rods b b. showing the position of the warp and the apparatus for working the headles. in which the ordinary parts of the loom are mounted. . 180. tiie loom Fig. Upon the is main driving shaft k. 182. is the yarn beam or roller (see Fig. (Fig. view It will be Seen that the cloth. .

Fig.FANCY WEAVING. 391 Fig. 181. 182. .

Fig. Near the end of the picking 181) connected to the lever tached a buk 1 (see Fig. in order to efFect the projection of the shuttle from each side of the loom alternately. The extreme end of the picking stick v. fast picking stick by a cord. upon which the are also mounted thus it will be seen. and exactly at the point opposite the centre hne or point of the Shuttle. is It will one of these cams at each end of the cam having the step or fall cut in opposite points of their peripheries.392 THE ART OP WEAVING. be seen that there shaft. attached to the stick is at2. bears against the sliding piece jr. 181) upon the end of the short lever x^ to escape the step or fall cut fast upon the scroU cam scroll y. revolves. keyed upon the cam shaft pp. 183. so that the shuttle will thus receive a blow in a direct line through the shed. the tappets sss^ will succes1 1^ sively actuate the treadle levers and divide the for warp threads by loom by shedding the headles at proper intervals tle the passage of the Shut- iiu (Fig. wheels q^ is keyed fast the tappets or cams ss s^ upon the tappet shaft r r. which Avill be readily understood by persons conversant with the ordinary evolutions of power looms. . instead of being liable to that uncertain is course sometimes produced when the slide piece z. that as this tappet shaft r r. upon . 181. is projected across the is means of the picker stick which suddenly actuated by the spring w^ causing the roller (see Fig.) The shuttle v.

and consequently revolve with it. strike against the bed 12. ßy these means the picking stick is suitably actuated by the rota- tion of the scroU cam y : the vertical rod 3. the lay j. as each weft thread is put in. 180. set screws 11. as the stops 11. and the necessary sharp blow which up the cloth. actuating the lever 5. 10. and as the fraraes 10. is effected by the cams 4. will catch upon 50 .FANCY WEAVING. all the strain upon the warp threads is obviated by means of the india rubber or other elastic bed 12. and thus pretenting any possibility of breaking the warps in consequence of the sharpness of the blow given the lay. likewise be adjusted by sliding the weights 7. (see Figs. conducted over suitable tension pulleys 14. 83) the levers to rise. 180 and 182. It will be seen that these frames 10. is also visible in Figs. as will be clearly seen in Fig. 7. 180 and 183) so that the stroke of the lay or de- may be varied to suit the kind of texture to be pro- As the lay ascends. fast upon the cross shaft 6. (fast g g^ (also upon the cross shaft 6. 14. (as there is one to carry each end of the lay) are provided with adjustable stop pieces or gree of Impetus duced. 181 and 183) will immediately ascend with a sharp quick stroke. is which placed in an opposite direction to the lever x^ fast at the lower end of this rod. upon the levers as occasion may require. made fast upon the shaft jop.) In case the shuttle should not enter the shuttle box at every stroke of the picking stick. which are fast upon the shaft p jo.) are made ^*. 4. the takiug-up motion which usually attached to power looms may be dispensed with. the Upper end of the vertical rod 3 . to the lay It will also by be perceived that the degree of impetus given may 8. and is drawn rise of is The sudden desirable to beat in dotted lines in the sarae figure as having escaped this point. is consequently. the notched lever 15. 393 lever 2. is As the blow of the lay against the weft thread quite sufficient to cause the yarn beam to give out the quantity of warp required. By the momentum of the falling weights 7. 8. and allow^ng this lever to escape or fall past the straight side of the cam. where the lever 5. for the purpose of giving a shght rebound to the lay. 10. merely keeping the whole in proper tension by means of the friction band or weighted cord 13. (see Figs. carry ing the lay are attached to the extreme g g^ the lay (see Figs. is shown just upon the point of escaping the cam 6. 8. and thus perform the ends of these levers beating up of the weft thread. as in Fig. at the ends of the ] levers 8. 183. 181 and 183) with whi^h each side of the loom is provided. and round the drums at the ends of the warp and cloth rollers (see Fig.

however. the hlow from. the tooth or nib 16. from the oration delivered before the Median monarch. Fletcher. rod n n. and lohile it is in a State of constant motion with the Vibration of the lay. In France. and by the agency of the rod 18.394 THE ART OF WEAVING. is a very pow- . caused one side of the Shuttle. years ago. which throw the driving pulley (see Fig. instead of heing liable to that zig -zag course so frequent in common power looms. Gigot. adapted the detached shuttle boxes . into France. of Mulhausen it have been patented in Messrs. about 15 Gigot. John and Arch'd Reid. and those procured. are doubtless of the invention of that ancient and ingenious manu- Glasgow. 180) to l.. or outside the loom. in skillful hands. (see Fig. and the inventor. which is at rest. Fletcher's loom is. the Shuttle will he impelled through the warps in a straight undeviating line. by M. the picker staff can instantaneously he given to the Shuttle. and in thus the loom will be stopped. Mr. hy the direct ifnpetus given to causing it to hreak through the warps and fly out of the loom. 181. Eugene and since then various modifications of Great Britain and America. lift the band lever 19. fröm Persia. This machine is highly creditable to the mechanical skill of and although the idea of placing the warp vertically in a power loom did not originale with Mr. (see Figs. or outside of is not haWng been introduced. and thereby raise the lever 17. it of a series of shuttle boxes disconnected from the it. and as such blow may thus he given in a direct line loith the points or centre of the Shuttle. lay and fixed on the framing of the machine." It would appear. shown in Fig. by M. King Deioces (see Introduction) that Arphaxad was well acquainted with the principle of the rotary detached Shuttle boxes. the detached shuttle boxes have received the cognomen of the " squirrel cage. The most curious feature in Mr. loom for facturer. 180 and 181) upon the lay as it rises. an antiquarian. be turned to good account. in the East. 181) out of gear with the pinion m. yet we think bis method of effecting this object is decidedly the most practical for the manufacture of piain textures of any hitherto introduced it admits. thus frequently throwing the Shuttle out of its direct course. ofi the pin fixed in the side of the setting-on will cause the spring 20. The working new. so that when the warps are divided. of still further improvement. having the station- Shuttle hoxes detached from the lay^ and fixed or made ary upon the framing of the loom. of to their vertical power which loom they obtained a patent in 1835. : might. Fletcher's shuttle motion.

the tappets or teeth may be varied to a much greater extent. After a short trial.FANCY WEAVING. . we are happy to say has met their most sanguine anticipations we sold the Scotch and French patents for the same invention to John . for improvements in the construction of looms. for an improvement upon a power loom for weaving muslin. Messrs. or " num- bers to the round. . in order to work or produce the pattern or figure. The pa- Co. firstly. (where we saw the loom. obtained a patent in July. in a peculiar arrangement of mechanism. in combination with certain other arrangements of mechanism. for certain improvements in the construction of power looms. Bury. The variety of patterns is obtained by a greater extent of Operare- tions being afforded to such working parts of the loom as are quired to shift the headles. to be employed in looms. 395 one and we think it might be used with advantage on looms weaving wide textures. London. of Todmorden. In their loom. that a great variety of shifts. Sterling. which is may be readily applied to fancy looms. Lancashire.. George Clarke. : Chanter. Cousins. by means of which patterns of considerable extent may be produced on the cloth. and other light textures which. before it becomes necessa- same patby renewing the " round" (as it is termed by the weaver) and any required alteration in the figure to be produced. manufacturer. obtained a patent in January. of Manchester. 1840. This invention may be said to consist. by which two pieces of for cloth may be produced at once. so constructed. John Ramsbottom and Richard Holl.. than can be commonly done by the ordinary tappet wheels. it was found not to answer the expectations of the purchasers. and the other ränge extending similarly at the back of the loom. Lancashire. machine was purchased by Messrs.. the " reading on" of ry to repeat the order of shedding or recommencing the tern or figure. forming an endless and flexible rack of teeth or tappets. whereupon they returned it to its original owners. without the assistance of the Jac- quard machine. in the application and use of such apparatus. the warp-threads are placed vertically in two ranges. Esq. one ränge extending from a yarn beam below to the tent for this <fc cloth roller at top in the front of the loom. . may be made with facility and speed that is. Blackfriars." may be accomplished. changes. 1834. in place of the ordinary revolving tappet-plates or wheels and secondly. erful . This mechanisni.) for the sum of £200. This same Company paid US a handsome sum. of Stamford st. Diggles manufacturers and machinists. for shedding the warps. in the year 1836.

Fig. flexible tappet rack. according number of shafts or headles employed in the loom. as the different patterns or devices to be into woven may . tappets. the purpose of changing or shedding rollers. and thereby effect the shedding of the warps. that endless chains or ladders have for been heretofore employed. and adjustable. capable of being readily adjusted.396 It THE ART OP WEAVING. or chains. is ribs of But Mr. Upon these bars are mounted. should here be remarked. by side bands. require teeth. the whole are formed belts. or studs. LOlL . . and placing them at certain distances apart. but they are constructed so as to carry revolving on certain bars. two modes of applying the improvements are shown in the figures. particularly detailed. in any convenient manner. 184. Clarke's to the formed by simply provi- ding a given number of bars or a certain length. the warps. or the width they occupy. an endless flexible rack or band of tappets. as their axles. longitudinally in their Situation thereon which rollers act upon certain vertical levers. hereafter more In Order that this invention may be more perfectly understood.

vibrates upon its fulcrum at e. at one extremity. 185. is fixed the crank plate 5. to the cloth roUer is H. supporting the warp roUer B. and supported in a separate framing a a. 186) attached at its upper end. (see Fig. (see and actuating the link c. The ordinary crank shaft of the loom is shown at I. as usual. Fig. from which motion to the side : communicated to the improved mechanism.PANCY WEAVING. 184. 185. Upon the end of the crank shaft I. (Fig. is a side elevation of the same. Fig. are through the reed E. by a pin. This lever rf. 185) over the breast beam G. proceed through the headles D. (see also Fig. The ordinary framing shown at A A. . to the crank plate 6. and at its lower end to the lever d. and carries. also or loom-sides. a draw This apparatus is seen detached from the loom in Fig. 185) revolving in the ordinary direction. 184) of the vibrating lay F. representing the applia loom cation of one description or arrangement of the improved endless belt or chain of tappets to for weaving iigured fustians . from whence the warp threads C. attached of the loom. as follows Fig. catch /. and Fig. is 397 a front view of a power loom.

n. are so placed. 184. are fixed and it will be seen." according to the pattern or device to be woven. 186) passes. (see Fig. also by means of the link c. the catchwheel g. around which a strap or belt v v. 185) with one of which. simultan eous. The 184) is requisite action of the rising effected. is wheel gj and shaft shown at Fig. the notched guide-wheels ii. passes catch- A detached view of the guide-wheels h. i i. (see Fig. *. the teeth. each headle D. with the progressive motion of the tappet-rack k k. vibrating the lever d . (see Fig. the connecting lever s. Fig. or tappets * of which it is partly composed. is mounted upon the shaft h.) kkk. that as the . (see Fig. (see Figs. for the purpose of throwing the lifters into the position. at top. and falling bars r. Fig. n fulcrum (see Fig. or " read on. 187) and upon this shaft. around and taking into which.398 THE ART OP WEAVING. r*. It will now be will seen.) will strike against the heads of the headle levers n n. are all suspended. r*. 186. 187. is attached. 185) rising cross-bar r. where they may be acted upon by the These levers 0. studs. . The tension pulley m. is in connexion. is for the purpose of assisting the drag or weight of the tappet-rack. 186. the bars r. 187. and vibrate upon the shaft or and are each connected by means of links or wires p p. and is designed for the purpose of actuating the catch-wheel g^ one tooth at every revolution of the crank shaft b . To this strap V. ar- ranged. the flexible rack or belt of tappets (see Fig. 185 and 186) which is jointed at its lower end. on the other extremity of which. placed about midway in the frame. to the hooked hfters qqq. fixed upon the roller u. are also fixed. and over a similar roller u. that as the travelling tappet-rack proceeds. (and which it be e^ddent to the practical weaver. to the crank t.

to the headles D. and leather. by the customary stringing. and depressing of these bars is accompUshed they are kept in parallel positions. and Fig. 189. the nut. into . as the tappet-belt or rack revolves. and Fig. for receiving the studs. a modification of the improvements.. and the mode The drawing reof applying the same to fancy looms. an enlarged 2j scale. (see Fig. by which the tappets are held. distances apart. teeth. or chain. placed at suitable and furnished with the necessary number of holes reading on" the tappet-studs. 190. 399 action imparted to the by means of the vibrating crank raising &. and consequently work the pattern.FANCY WEAVING. and ad. 185. — justable in the bar. 188. will shed the warp. are connected at their extremities. 188. cemented together by means of a Solution of caoutchouc. by means of the wires y y. for " A number of these bars. the requisite alternate . and. tappets 2 3. fixed to the frame a. are each separately connected by a pin to vibrating treadles w w. proved endless tappet-rack composed. and thus. strap traverses. 189. Fig. of the perforated bar. or a back view.) The hooked lifters q q. by traversing up and down in mortices. by means of the weight n*^ with which each lever is furnished (see Fig. are also brought into the position. i'9 D upon which the imshows a front view. the is several pieces of 1. Fig. belt. composed of canvas. as the pattern requires. is shown. by being screwed or otherwise fixed upon a band. These treadles w w. in the frame a a. 184) to the ordinary top and bottom jacks z z. The headle levers n n. on the end of the crank shaft I. At Fig. are formed an endless rack. tape. where they may be acted upon by the falling bar r*. represents a portion of the tappet-rack detached. working on their fulcrum shaft a.

The bars or rails of tappets are connected together at suitable distances into an endless chain. Thus the simple action of these risers and fallers is transmitted directly to the headles. The moveable tappets. may be so arranged. and bottom jacks hh. at each side. presents a partial sectional view of the figuring apparatus.) to a a «. which are connected by stringing to the headles. 4. that these studs or teeth. and l. or system of bars. An endless belt. actuating the top jacks g g. the axles of the grooved or fluted rollers b b. upon any bar.400 THE ART OF WEAVING. 191. that the necessary raising and depressing of . or by any other suitable means thus it will be seen. upon the end of the ordinary crank-shaft. as usual. (as in the former instance. with which they are provided. studs. successively. by means of the connecting wire//. are suitably arranged upon woxk the pattern and are ahernately caused to raise or depress the by acting upon the rollers e e. supported in the framing ccc^ attached to the Fig. and their intervening blanks or spaces. treadles d d. upon or device required. . and is progressively actuated by the grooved roUers 6 6 side of the loom. by being confined or strung together by the chain 4. 191. attached to an ordinary loom side. or tappets aaa^ passes around. the whole being put in motion by means of the spur-pinion i. shown at Fig. or rack of teeth. or teeth their bars or rails. ö. driving the spur-wheels k.

briefly notice a few of those which are likely of manufacturers who live Mr. shown at Figs. obtained a patent. for improvements in the construction of in for John Potter. and 176-^. 1834. obtained a patent rious kinds of fancy goods . The apparatus by which the levers are actuated. cotton manufacturer. and are also attached to ano- ther set of levers or treadles underneath.the levers and cords which connect and work the headles at top and bottom are also the same as those employed by Mr. or chains. 176.FANCY WEAVING. and Thomas Mellowdew. one above and the other below. The movement means for rais- ing and depressing the headles is obtained by of two sets of tappet wheels. 401 to suit the pattern or d d. June 16th. 1822. and does not differ. 1825. for weaving vawhich improvement consists. 175. each set having as many tappets set as there are headles. for a tappet wheel but as it does not differ in principle from Mr. May. in our opinion. one series at top and the other at bottom and as these levers rise and fall. in any respect. of Sraedly. the best hithweaving fancy goods. of Oldham. cessary to describe an improvement in power looms. . Lancaster. and. F. for the henefit in the country. Roberts chester. is similar to the common barrel organ. or " reading on" of the tappets or teeth. of the same place. in working a number of headle-leaves by means of two series of levers. may be varied or adjusted. it is worthy the attention of manufacturers of such textures. Various other contrivances for working a series of headles have been inventedj by different individuals. Esq. work six leaves of headles set from the ends of a which headles are suspended by cords of top levers. device required to be woven which arraDgement. obtained a patent in Januto improvements on the power loom. Bowman's. Clarke's. it. fixed. will be readily understood. Richard Roberts. 51 . near Manchester. in both the above descriptions of racks. it is Manunne- a patent in November. adjustment. . of ary. in his loom. the treadles . 1821. erto introduced for This improved loom of Mr.. but none of them are eqiial. These tappet wheels are and are turned by means driving shaft. Fairman. from that used by Mr. Manchester. no doubt. obtained & Co. of the firm of Sharp. attached to the side of the loom. mechanic. of a pinion upon the end of the crank or Mr. We shall. in point of practical Utility. for to prove interesting. for the purpose of shedding the warp. however. and applied by the practical weaver. the headles are moved up and down. Clarke's. enabling him . is. . to Mr. belts.. Robert Bowman. Joseph Jones.

as the lay moves forward to beat up the thread. so constructed as to govern the position of the headles. round which it rcvolves. at right angles with the lower end of the levers. 189. 186. to the side of a common power loom. is a small toothed wheel levers. to the common power loom. on the ends of two moving on is a stud as their common fulcrum. 184. 187. containing each a shuttle. Boyd. to a proper position for discharging its and receiving it again from a box of the ordinary kind on the opposite end of the lay. in fixing a wheel. of Manchester. power looms. containing one-half the to number of teeth complete check or plaid be woven contains threads. at right angles with its plane. which more detailed description. about 8 inches in diameter. the the variety of the check or . 1828. This wheel is moved a tooth at every second stroke of the lay. .. Boyd. Oliver D. turned forward and backward. in turn. on the top of which are the toothed arcs or segments." which improvement consists. embracing be- tween them the before naraed small toothed wheel. A power acting in the same direction. " an improvement in the check or plaid power loom . are constructed as many which circle. repre. or links. upon the periphery of precludes the necessity of a sented at Figs. shuttle boxes as there are colom^s in the check or plaid to be Avoven. These shuttle boxes. which the is placed on a stud-pin. firstly. bringing Shuttle through the shed each Shuttle box. Conn. by means of two arcs of a or segments of a wheel. to the kind of cord. 190 and 191 which wheel. Clarke's invention. or principle of this The improvement is the same as that of Mr. 185. The extremities of the cam plates are indented and protruded alternately as the figure to be woven requires and when the wheel to which : the cam plates are attached performs Shuttles will plaid have shifted through all and be prepared to commence the same routine again. 188. according diagonal stripe to be produced on the cloth.402 THE ART OF AVEAVING. adapted to the manufacture of corded fustians. and Arnos H. is On the backside of this wheel. obtained a patent 19th August. for what they term. and which improvements consist. whose respective ex- met by the respective extremities of the two before named levers. by means of a short arm on the cam shaft of the loom on the : plane of this wheel tremities are is affixed two cam plates. without one complete revolution. in the adaptation of an endless chain of plates. Enoch Burt. alternately on the other end of the said levers causes the shuttle boxes to move forward and backward. One of these arcs or segments toothed on the outside and the other on the inside. are shifted to form the check or plaid in the foUowing manner : A wheel.

through which a small horizontal shde will project a the lay is and in front of the end of the slider. arm is raised out of the cavity or notch. or little end. in case the shuttle fails to box. To secure a correct check or plaid. to it is which an arm. by which they are prevented from moving until required again the spring to shift . the end of which or opening in the backside of the moveable boxes. hung on a but at other extremity it. and is pressed down by a spring as the shuttle enters the box. in the ordinary way. the loom is made to stop in case the weft thread breaks. (if unbroken. in the fixed box. at which time. is acted upon by the lower ends of the move is the boxes. presents its on one side. the thread. like that each of the shifting boxes being furnished with a guard. On the crank shaft. times lies cam. or has become expended on the bobbin. enters The loom protects. which levers that plates. between these there fully a small aperture in the reed.FANCY WEAVING. by means of a spring fastened at one end of the cam plates. Shuttle be entire. Before closing our observations on looms for weaving fancy textures. but from the shifting boxes fixed one into a slot by a picker lying horizontally. aperture. When the lay moves forward. which instantly unlocks the before named spring catch. which acts in turn upon the finger on the protec- tion rod. and is held in that by a dehcate spring catch at the other end of the arm. when down across this aperture . the thread will lie. offset is placed a cam with a concentral stud. letting the point of the lever or arm fall below the offset in the cam but if there be no weft thread acmss the . so Position by every revolution of the as to be in a position to meet its offset. it the thread from the bobbin in the will extend from the edge of the web is to the shuttle at its box . w^e shall offer a few remarks on the manufacture of several . a spring arm drops into a cavity or notch in the edge of the plane wheel on which the shuttle boxes are fixed. As bclow raised if This arm the Shuttle enters the box. when is to stop the loom. before they strike the edges of the cam The Shuttle thrown from the fixed box to the raoveable one by to the a picker of the ordinary kind.) where it is held fast hy a crawp that falls upon it. forces back a little the horizontal slider. and which is thrown back as the Shuttle leaves the box. near the seivage of the cloth. thus extended across the aperture and held fast. 403 shift of At every the sliuttle boxes. the slide passes through without being driven back. interrupting the niotion of the loom. with an inchned plane on the other end. conse- quently the arm remains locked and instantly stops the loom.

but which plicable to satins. GROS DE NAPLES. and does not make it dri/ and stiff: what makes it supple. SHINING TAFFETA. causes a better grain given to the cloth. gros <fec. thread be always delivered from the shuttle with perfect uniformity of tension . The stroke of the reed is given when the shed is nearly füll open which renders the cloth very brilliant in appearance. may be of service to those of our friends who much skilled in silk manufactures. is to make the greatest possible show with the least expense of material. There must be . just before the stroke of the reed given. Shining taffeta is raore brilliant than that just noticed . and as soon as the shuttle is tlie shed to be closed. and is made with a warp less light. TAFFETAS.404 THE ART OF WEAVING. force. Taffetas should be woven with the warp passed throiigh. The French are very particular. indeed. by hand. may also be found apde Naples. neiCare must also be taken that the weft ther too tight nor too slack. . Gros de Naples that the silk is woven with the warp pretty tight in the loom. there will be ins and outs in the selvages. may more and easily disengage itself when the shed is be- ing opened . power loom weaving. before changing them.distance reed than 2 inches. In weaving rally used.. coinprising hoping that they are not tafFetas. in attending to these matters.) this fabric great care (for is threads he lald evenly togeiher^ must be taken that the weft more than one thread is genepassed through the shed. giving the edges the appearance of a carpentefs saw. to avoid fabric. The great secret in manufacturing these silk textures. making a thin place or shire in the The weaver must Superior taffeta is give the strokes of the reed with uniform made with 4 threads per dent of the reed. the and when the shuttle weaver must see that the thread from the shuttle lies properly. at be On a this kind of texture. is pretty tight is . the temples must not from tlie any time be at greatei. and inferior with 3 threads per dent. is that the warp is slacker than in other taffetas. which is the principal reason why their goods always feel so smooth and soft to the touch. the weft must be well Struck up. otherwise. This manner of closing the to shed before beating up the weft thread. kinds of silk textures.

fewer ends used in the weft. invented by C. or accord: ing to the thickness of the cord wanted in the fabric for fine gros de Naples. Gilroy (see Section Twelfth) to the power loom. G. in the power loonn. . our friends will be better able to judge after reading the * We perfect silk proofs set before them in next section. in coinbination with Jacquard machinery. given to each strokes thread of weft but are indispensable. one stroke of the : In weaving gros de Nareed. but 4 ends is the number generally employed. there are of course. Belgium and (See testimonials at the end of Section Twelfth. half of which are raised and depressed alter nately. by hand. reed. to produce as and other goods. in France and Great Britain. of silk. The warp is not kept tight in the loom. tweeled and figured. turning on gudto strain equally. and with 4 threads in the dent of the in giving . The weft is composed of 3 or 4 ends put together. Clean white paper must be put on the cloth roller. have laboured 15 years. the cloth will be perfectly even. so as There must be a Avhip roller. Scotland. . not only these fabrics. two strokes for 405 with open shed be given with . the first and the second with greater force shed : if it only one stroke were given to each Crossing of the weft thread. must be moveable. These skillful improved looms have received the approbation of the most Prussia. trehle^ in the dent of the reed. and there should be one weight on each side of the beam or roller. when the quality is to be superior. of the new mechanism. The reason for using so many headles on piain texture. would have to but then the fabric would not be so good whereas. or of other materials. according to the quality and it is generally manufactured in a loom v/ith 8 or 10 leaves of headles. as fast as the because this texture having a thick warp and fabric is wound on weft might become watered by the Vibration given to that roller by the stroke of the reed. Ireland. is ples of inferior quality. each passage of the close shuttle. The pace weights which govern the tightness of the warp. manufacturers of England. particularly when it is wanted to cover well.) THICK SILK CLOTH. Thick silk cloth is a fabric made with 4 threads. piain. but all fabrics. two moderate strokes. is to prevent the warp from being crowded in the headles. as could be effected by the most skillful weaver. and how well we have bucceeded. facility can be manufactured with the greatest and profit. France. only. double or . generally.* Gros de Naples is made with double and treble threads in the warp.FANCY WEAVING. two Since the introduction in hand looms.

In weaving a superior satin. placed at a proper height and .406 THE ART OP WEAVING. and even in France the manufacturer is often at a loss for competent workmen some who have worked at this business for 30 or 40 years.) over this roller the rope must be passed (see Figs. so that the weft may be perfectly tight and straight. caps. used for all satins. : work is in Opposition to each other. SATIN. Tour (same as seivages of gros de Naples. &c. geons or Journals. The warp must be well picked before being put into the loom. the headles should be 16 inches in depth. to suit the headles .* For these kinds of textures. Paris. * A Lyons silk warp picker. only five leaves of headles are used which headles are made of raw silk. four threads to ten threads per dent in the reed. The weft thread repeats 4 times in the middle of the seivage (in the seivages this kind of texture) and only twice in the edges cloth roller which on the roller will loll with the silk as fast as the cloth is taken up tinually caused . This prevents the weft thread from following the shuttle back again. 219 and 220 and prevent the evil effects which would be conby the decreasing diameter of the warp beam. The sleeking tool is . French) and of various lengths of web . This kind of fabric is dyed after it is woven. when one seivage and vice versa. Satin is made of different widths. that is is to say. A piece of silk goods is never considered well woven unless the seivage is perfect in every respect. costs 1600 francs to procured on application M. 6y a Lyons silk picker . lows on the outer edge. and is used only for making hats and artificial flowers. not having paid sufficient attention have not become good weavers . or eise it will be . while others have obtained ten times the amount of knowledge in one-fifth of the time. when intended for making the crowns of hats. the warp must not be too tight and it must be worked with an open stroke. .) Sometimes the seivages to satin fabrics are zig-zag in the middle and the rest gros de Tour. and entirely free from hills and holopened on the right the other closed on the left. Black satin is generally made with a double warp. except those of 4 threads per dent of the reed to these a soft brush is applied inThree or four dents at the edges of the cloth are gros de stead. 12. impossible to make a iine satin. from f ths to fths of (44 inches. Dioudonnat. No. Rue St. When threads are entered per dent. It requires a very skillful weaver to make a good silk fabric. or cleaner. and may be Maur. . an aune and has from only four .

The patentee observes. bearing dato Ocis 1836 . county of Windham. Conn.FANCY WEAVING. 192. 407 HEADLE-MAKING MACHINE. constructed in excepting the application of that principle which makes a part of the machine a . 192.. a representation of which machine given at Fig. Fig. obtained a patent for a machine for tober 20th. John Blackmar. of Brooklyn. that " this machine all essential respects like those now in may be common use. making headles.

and many turing places in France these 30 years past. . of its existence else- where previous A patent has been secured in America. for a peculiar method of forming the eyes of headles. whether constructed in the late as the way described year 1836." bench susceptible of a rotary in the following This is effected manner : A. are not so Ukely to cut the eye as if they pressed against a single loop of the headles. the warp threads are pressed against the knots. each of which encloses the side A. be . fine goods. may be shifted by the Operator to any position best suited to facihtate the work I. possibly may have had no knowledge to the date of his patent. . B on each is side of the eye. spiral spring. having suitable gudgeons C Cy ends these gudgeons C C. and well worthy the attention of cotton manufacturers. fbr It is curious that a patent should have been granted it a revolving headle-frame so fact. B. of the headle frame in . or revolving motion. pieces of the frame on which the headles are constructed J J. in any desired position. which being hard tied. passes: the shdestands G G. are the a vahiable one. side A. 192. we think. the subject of a valid patent in the United States of America yet Mr. or any other way. particularly those of them more immediately engaged in making As these headles are generally made of cotton yarn. whilst two single knots are formed on the side B. shde-stands. is C D. and. the only machine used for making headles Ronen. Blackmar claims as of his invention the revolving principle . as represented in Fig. they would . Tt cannot. in in Lyons. represents the bottom of the mach ine or bench B B. when drawn the eye being formed between the two knots. 192i. brace to hold the shaft D. which consists of a double knot. The tight. each carrying a small puUey over which the muddhng twine or binder HH. so that in the up and down motion of the headles. and the . Fig. Paris. pass through the end pieces E E. : carrying the shaft D. side pieces in their proper places to keep them from sagging G G. 1921. other manufacand has been of late introduced (from France) into Spitalfields. for the purpose of holding the shaft D. side and these end pieces are made fast on the gudgeons C C FF. headle shafts. This improvement. therefore. one Fig. side at its posts. when has been well known.408 THE ART OF WEAVING. perfectly straight. Mr.

Umber. no doubt. boil 20 minutes. do. then a of turpentine it. headles varnished on this plan will not chafe the warp as smooth as glass. it must 52 . 2 gallons linseed oil. and add 2 gallons spirit of turpentine the varnish must not be very bot when the turpentine is added. — This done. —In applying this varnish. In boiling the various ingredients. : Mr. Sugar of Lead. such as the following receipt will be found far superior. do. first well boiled over a moderate . whole is then cooled down to blood heat. 409 soon wear out unless protected by a suitable varnish being rubbed upon them. they should be again brushed down with tallow. Headles properly varnished in this manner. Red Lead. (fcc. will generally last over one year. is ^ ^ ^ Lib. indeed. When is the shellac entirely dissufficient for use. after 5 or 6 days working. and perfectly dried before they are used. 1 do. We shall made lay before the reader two methods of doing to for ihe first of which we are indebted Mr. Application of the Varnish. Montgomery's common headles. it but only a solved. the manufacturer may use bis own judgment : as to the time when each of them becomes properly dissolved but we think the foregoing directions will be found pretty correct. a very good one weaving the coarser descriptions of shirting &c. are fire. except the shellac. the headles should be brushed down with from the dressin g machine : and after the varnish is thoroughly dry and hard. on either power or band looms. and. James Mont- gomery. headles in the United States muslin. Note. it is to be constantly stirred and the several ingredients of which it is composed must be added slowly. and is requires to be well stirred all the time. until the strength little out of the lead then added. Maine. will become Varnish for Headles. Superintendent of the York factories. 1 Lib. Gum Shellac. This for receipt of Mr. In making this varnish. M's varnish is of the following ingredients 1 Gallon Linseed Oil. then add 32 ounces red lead. this . boil slowly IJ hours then add 32 ounces gum shellac. . while the whole boiling. take the varnish off the fire. to prevent it from taking fire. quantity of the spirit added. Before putting on paste or size the varnish. • . Litharge.FANCY WEAVING. the shellac is is All these. Saco. for it is. boil 20 minutes then add 16 ounces umher. . appears to be the only kind of varnish used for .. but for weaving fine goods. as . the at a time. boil 20 minutes. to make it fit Such articles as require are to be pulverised. to smooth them well before they are put into the loom.

with the utmost confi- dence. K. to manufacturers of such fabrics. the second. (See Introduction. 193. and other upwards of 18 years and we can . by obviating the necessity of shifting them on the cloth. therefore. for testify that it damask looms for Covers. 194. Fig. 194. Fig. is the best composition for this purpose we have ever known : we can.) principle of this temple appears to be the The . and in 'the third. Numerous patents have been obtained in Great Britain. it. as is reThe contrivance Avhich has been quired in band loom weaving. 195. The headles should be hung up a warm room In while the various coats are drying. to One of these nippers sei vage be fixed on the breast it beam of the loom. a side or edge view Fig. and three coats should be given of the composition thus formed. 3 parts varnish and 1 part Let one coat be dry before putting on another.) it LL. Make be mixed with flour size. furniture stuffs. for improvements on temples. represents a plan view of the nipper or jaw-temple . Arphaxad. half varnish and half flour flour. piano-forte descriptions of figured goods. recommend it."* Fig. but as the proportions mentioned are correct. so as to render them more applicable to power loom weaving. a detached part of an enlarged is scale. France and America. as is. and 3 parts flour . tance than the temple it for it is through its its instrumentality that the is woven. TEMPLES. while the reed beats up against As we have already shown the construction of temples used on band looms (see First.410 THE ART OF WEAVING. There cloth. 6. on his great verlical weaving angine. perhaps. which opens the jaws or chaps of the nippers ple used same as that of the temby E. no implement about a loom of greater impor. invented many thousand years ago. and Fig. We have used varnish of this kind on the front headles of v^^eaving table cloths. page 75. at each of the cloth. is the " American nipper" or " jaw temple. found to answer this purpose best. within the last few years. is kept at proper breadth. they may easily be increased to any desirable extent. particularly for stout textures. Section to now only remains to show those best adapted power looms. the first coat of 1 part varnish . on . this receipt we have stated only small quantities of the differ- ent ingredients. where is acted upon by the motion of the * lay.

are guttered out. At the extremity of the plate A. Figs. 193. like a rasp or coarse file. and G by which means. 193. (Fig. to hold fast the cloth. and is pressed against the chap F. and G. every time the cloth is 411 cloth to be slid- Struck up. a flattened-out or broad-piece J. (Fig. and G. (see Fig. slips hack out of the chaps is F. Fiff. of the lever HH. to The 193) is for the purpose of adjusting the temple to suit different widths of cloth. 193 and 194. of the nippers. which pin fixed in the plate A. It will now be perceived that the cloth will be released every . which. lower part of the front of the lay it The is partially represented at L L. and the cloth again grasped by the temple. plate A. made in the plate A. .FANCY WEAVING. thereby causing the wedge-piece K. as shown in The long slot D. is released at the moment the lay isfull up against it . 194 and 195) is a spring-piece. (Figs. 193 and 194) turns on the fulcrum-pin I At the left end of this lever H H. to enable them better .) to be forced in hetween the chaps F. and permits the den forward towards the cloth roller. when moves towards the breast beam to strike up the cloth. which the nippers are attached. The under chap G. 191. The there right is lever is H H. The inner surfaces of the chaps F. 194) for the purpose of forming the upper chap F.) a bar E. is fixed which bar is turned-up at one end (see Fig. by its elasticity. (Figs. is to be fixed to the breast beam B B. the wedge-piece K. comes in contact with the end J. at the other end. the cloth .) and at the end a knife-edged wedge-piece K. but when- ever the lay retires. by means of a screw holt C. (to the right.

if possible. without unsere wing the screws above referred For the greater convenience of adjusting the temples. the chaps or jaws should. 196) is riveted or screwed into an iron plate (like that marked I. 196. which is also an American invention. 196. and well worthy the attention of . similar to the first plan. Weston. be brought within f ths the cloth will be kept betacquisition in ter of manufactu- rers generally. Mass. of rotary temple. ivhen the reed is füll up against the cloth. The made per. we think unnecessary give drawings of it here. This kind of temple should be so fixed on the breast beam as enable it to to take hold of the seivage within half an inch of For very the reed. time the reed comes in contact with it. 1829.) lated to admit of changing the position of the temples. similar to the method patented in 1816. and G. patented in rise to the following improvements in The wheel with oblique teeth. . to suit the width of the cloth to be woven. that. 196 :) this plate has two grooves made in it. 198 and 199. January 7th. they have given construction. an inch of the reed by which means extended. 197 and 199.412 THE ART OP WEAVING. with a hole in its centre having a screw cut in it. April Ist. to receive two screws. This temple is certainly a valuable power loom weaving. Fig. was the subject of a patent in the United States. Draper's im- proved temple. Draper remarks. and grasped again by the chaps or jaws F. the instant that the reed hegins to retire from it thus enabling the temple to hold out the cloth to the same . to confine the The grooves are calcuplate down (see Figs. many defects were discovered by its subsequent experience in the working of his temple. as 1816. or the wheel may be altogether of metal. We shall at present turn our attention to Mr.. to. 197. for improvements thereon. Ira Dra.* A metal ring surrounds the wheel and teeth. and guides it exactly at the required distance. revolving on a centre pivot (like that marked H. Mr. by which it is screwed down on the centre pivot. width at which the reed held it. and has a bar across the upper edge. A notch being filed or cut in the edge of the ring over which the cloth passes. 18] 6 and the same gentleman obtained a second patent. Draper's temple is the same as it that of the temple to represented in Figs. Fig. A short angular groove in the Upper edge of the ring receives the cloth. stout goods. a thumb screw is * As thie principle of Mr. by Mr. causes the teeth to leave the cloth freely.

William Craig. as seen from underneath from the side of the loom . by turning the thumb screw. as seen Fig. inside of the breast beam. a spring to receive the cloth. inserted in a lip projecting from the edge of the ring : 413 the lower end in of this thumb screw has a groove turned . 197. first. which plays a groove in the bottom plate and. and France patent bears date November 25th. and is certainly well calculated for cotton textures generally. a top view of the temple . and is long enough to suit the width of the cloth. an edge view. giving the toothed wheel a sudden rotative niotion. the . should not reach little its destination in the lay- box.hich confines the toothed wheel . Ireland. but should stop a short. 196. every time the reed Struck the weft. and To remedy these objections. is substituted long enough This spring is screwed by its centre to a suitable stand. in it. Draper are. breast is when Standing at the back of the loom. the ring with the cross-har v. is Fig. easily applied to a loom. on the breast heam and having no the consequence was. Draper observes. This improved temple is a remarkably neat piece of mechanism.FANCY WEAVING. 199. and. of Manchester. a similar one being required at the left. obviates the sudden rotary motion. and John Cochran. 198. by any accident. have lately obtained patents for improvements on the rotary temtheir American ple. . 1841. second. the spring on which the temples are screwed^ instead of being screwed to the breast beam. difficulty in the application Mr. The temple represented in the Figs. that one great of the temples first patented by him. and is placed as near the reed as safety will permit. In addition to which. it would be caught hetween the reed and temples^ and consequently break either the reed or the Shuttle. . and not liable to get out of order. Scotland. Fig. The improvements claimed by Mr. in- holes creasing the wear of the temples ten fold and enlarging the made by the teeth in the cloth. as seen and Fig. if the Shuttle. was their being screwed firm elasticity . looking towards the beam on the left side. right band one. the rim on the lower end binds on the under side of the bottom plate and confines the ring. an end view. the cloth would give way and recoil. the centre pivot on which the toothed wheel turns . of Stockport. a bottom view. and the temples being screwed on each end of this spring gives them an opportunity of moving laterally with the cloth. third. in England.

and to keep it firm in its place when adjusted. Fig. Rotary rim or temple. on which the temple G. I. A. is fixed. for setting the temple to suit difFerent widths of cloth. Turned-up edges of the slotted piece C. 198. C. D. i