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Syllabus

Subject Number: ME\683 Subject: Aerodynamics Units: 5 Weekly Hours: Theoretical: 2 Experimental: 1 Tutorial : 1

Week 1 2 3 4 Contents Navier-Stokes equations - Introduction - Derivation - Laminar flow between parallel plates - Couette flow - Hydrodynamic lubrication - Sliding bearing - Laminar flow between coaxial rotating cylinders Boundary layer theory - Introduction - Displacement, Momentum, and Energy thicknesses - Momentum equation for the boundary layer - Laminar boundary layer - Turbulent boundary layer - Transition from laminar to turbulent flow - Effect of pressure gradient - Separation and pressure drag Potential flow theory (Ideal fluid) - Introduction - Continuity equation - Vorticity equation Basic concepts in potential flow - Stream function - Potential function - Circulation Basic flow patterns - Uniform flow - Source , Sink - Doublet - Free vortex

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1 2 3 4 () 5 6 7 8 9 10

5 6 7 8 9 10

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14 15 16 17 18

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20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Combination of basic flows - Flow past a half body - Flow past a Rankine oval - Flow past a cylinder - Flow past a cylinder with circulation Incompressible flow over airfoils - Introduction - The Kutta condition - Kelvins circulation theorem - Thin airfoil theory Airfoil characteristics - Wind tunnel tests - Estimation of aerodynamic coefficients from pressure distribution - Compressibility effects - Reynolds number effects Airfoil maximum lift characteristics - Geometric factors effects - Effect of Reynolds number - Effect of leading and trailing edges devices Incompressible flow over wings - Introduction - Circulation, downwash, lift and induced drag - Finite wing theory Wing stall - Stall characteristics - Effect of planform and twist - Stall control devices Lift control devices - High lift devices - Spoilers Flow control devices - Boundary layer control - Reduction of drag Propellers - Momentum theory - Simple blade element theory - Combined blade element theory and momentum theory - Propeller performance Computational methods - Introduction to panel methods for airfoils - Introduction to panel methods for wings

14 15 16 17 18

19

20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

References

1- Fluid Mechanics By Streeter & Wylie

2- Introduction to Fluid Mechanics By Fox & McDonald 3- Aerodynamics for Engineering Students By Houghton & Carpenter 4- Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance By Roskam & Edward Lan

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Contents

1- Navier-Stokes equations. 2- Steady laminar flow between parallel flat plates. 3- Hydrodynamic lubrication. 4- Laminar flow between concentric rotating cylinders. 5- Example. 6- Problems; sheet No. 1

1- Navier-Stokes equations:

The general equations of motion for viscous incompressible, Newtonian fluids may be written in the following form: x- direction:

2u 2u 2u u u u u p + u + v + w = g x + 2 + 2 + 2 - - - - - -(1) x y z x y z t x

y- direction:

2v 2v 2v v v v v p + u + v + w = g y + 2 + 2 + 2 - - - - - -(2) x y z y y z t x

=0 t

g x +

dp d 2u = 2 - - - - - - - - - (3) dx dy dh g x = g. sin = g dx

eq. 3 will be

d 2 u 1 d ( p + h ) = - - - - - - - - - -(4) dx dy 2

Integration of eq. 4:

du 1 d ( p + h ) = y+A dy dx 1 d ( p + h ) 2 u= y + Ay + B - - - - - - - - - - - (5) 2 dx

y=0 u=0 B=0 u=0 A= y=a a d ( p + h ) 2 dx

eq. 5 will be

u= 1 d ( p + h ) 2 y ay - - - - - - - - - - - -(6) 2 dx

B.C (One plate is fixed and the other plate moves with a constant velocity U) (Couette flow)

y=0 u=0 y=a B=0 U a d ( p + h ) u =U A = a 2 dx

eq. 5 will be

u= 1 d ( p + h ) 2 (y ay ) + Uy - - - - - - - - - - - (7) 2 dx a

dh =0 dx

eq. 7 will be

u= 1 dp 2 (y ay ) + Uy - - - - - - - - - - - (8) 2 dx a

The location of maximum velocity umax may be found by evaluating zero. The volume flow rate is

Q = w u.dy - - - - - - - - - - - -(9)

0 a

du and setting it to dy

3- Hydrodynamic lubrication:

Sliding bearing Large forces are developed in small clearance when the surfaces are slightly inclined and one is in motion so that fluid is wedged into the decreasing space. Usually the oils employed for lubrication are highly viscous and the flow is of laminar nature.

Assumptions: The acceleration is zero. The body force is small and can be neglected. Also

2u 2u 2u 2u and y 2 z 2 y 2 x 2

d 2 u 1 dp = dy 2 dx

Integration:

u= 1 dp 2 y + Ay + B 2 dx

B.C

y=0 y = hx

u =U

B =U A= h x dp U 2 dx hx

u=0

u=

1 dp 2 (y hx y ) + U 1 hy 2 dx x

Q = w u.dy

0 hx

assume w = 1

3 Uhx hx dp Q= --------(*) 2 12 dx

h1 h2 l hx = (h1 x )

dp 6U 12 Q = 2 dx (h1 x ) (h1 x )3

dp produces: dx

Integration gives:

p( x ) =

B.C

x=0 x=l

p = po = 0 p = po = 0

Uh1h2 h1 + h2 and C= 6 U (h1 + h2 )

Q=

With these values inserted in eq.(**) we obtain the pressure distribution inside the bearing.

p( x ) = 6 Ux (h x h2 ) 2 h x (h1 + h2 )

The load that the bearing will support per unit width is:

F = p( x ).dx

0 l

6 Ul 2 F= (h1 h2 )2

2( k 1) ln k k + 1

where

k= h1 h2

Consider the purely circulatory flow of a fluid contained between two long concentric rotating cylinders of radius R1 and R2 at angular velocities 1 and 2.

In this case the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates are used. r- direction:

2 ur ur u ur u ur 1 p 1 ur ur 1 2ur 2 u 2ur + ur + +w = + +g + r + t r z r r r r r r r 2 r 2 2 r 2 z 2 r

- direction:

u u u u u u u 1 p 1 u u 1 2u 2 ur 2 u + ur + + r + w = + + + + g r + t r r r z r r r r r 2 r 2 2 r 2 z 2

u =0 , =0 , t

p =0

d 2 u d u + =0 dr 2 dr r

Integration:

1 d (ru ) = A r dr B ---------(i) u = Ar + r

B.C

r = R1 r = R2

u = R11 u = R22

2 R2 (2 1 ) 2 R2 R12

A = 1 + B=

2 R12 R2 (2 1 ) 2 R2 R12

u = 1 2 R2 R12

2 2 (2 R22 1R12 )r R1rR2 (2 1 ) -------(ii)

= r dr r

d u

By using eq.(ii):

2 2 R12 R2 (2 1 ) = 2 R2 R12 r 2

5- Example:

1- Using the Navier-Stokes equation in the flow direction, calculate the power required to pull (1m 1m) flat plate at speed (1 m/s) over an inclined surface. The oil between the surfaces has ( = 900 kg/m3 , = 0.06 Pa.s).The pressure difference between points 1 and 2 is (100 kN/m2) . Solution:

2u 2u 2u u u u u p + u + v + w = g x + 2 + 2 + 2 x y z x y z t x 2u 2u =0 , We have: Acceleration =0 , v=0 , w=0 , x 2 z 2

d 2 u 1 dp = gx dy 2 dx

Integration

du 1 dp = y gx y + A dy dx 1 dp 2 u= y g x y 2 + Ay + B 2 dx 2

y=0 y=b

B.C

(b=10 mm)

u=0 u = U

B=0 A= U b dp b + gx 2 dx 2 b

du 1 dp U b dp b = + y gx y gx dy dx b 2 dx 2

F = o area F = du dy area

y =b

area=1 m2

F =

U

b

b dp b g x 2 dx 2

We have g x = g sin ,

F=

dp p = dx l

1- Using the Navier-Stokes equations, determine the pressure gradient along flow, the average velocity, and the discharge for an oil of viscosity 0.02 N.s/m2 flowing between two stationary parallel plates 1 m wide maintained 10 mm apart. The velocity midway between the plates is 2 m/s. [-3200 N/m2 per m ; 1.33 m/s ; 0.0133 m3/s] 2- An incompressible, viscous fluid is placed between horizontal, infinite, parallel plates as shown in figure. The two plates move in opposite directions with constant velocities U1 and U2. The pressure gradient in the x-direction is zero. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to derive expression for the velocity distribution between the plates. Assume laminar flow. [ u = (U 1 + U 2 ) U 2 ]

y b

3- Two parallel plates are spaced 2 mm apart, and oil ( = 0.1 N.s/m2 , S = 0.8) flows at a rate of 2410-4 m3/s per m of width between the plates. What is the pressure gradient in the direction of flow if the plates are inclined at 60o with the horizontal and if the flow is downward between the plates? [-353.2 kPa/m] 4- Using the Navier-Stokes equations, find the velocity profile for fully developed flow of water ( = 1.1410-3 Pa.s) between parallel plates with the upper plate moving as shown in figure. Assume the volume flow rate per unit depth for zero pressure gradient between the plates is 3.7510-3 m3/s. Determine: a- the velocity of the moving plate. b- the shear stress on the lower plate. c- the pressure gradient that will give zero shear stress at y = 0.25b. (b = 2.5 mm) d- the adverse pressure gradient that will give zero volume flow rate between the plates. [3 m/s ; 1.37 N/m2 ; 2.19 kN/m2 per m ; -3.28 kN/m2 per m] 5- A vertical shaft passes through a bearing and is lubricated with an oil ( = 0.2 Pa.s) as shown in figure. Estimate the torque required to overcome viscous resistance when the shaft is turning at 80 rpm. (Hint: The flow between the shaft and bearing can be treated as laminar flow between two flat plates with zero pressure gradient). [0.355 N.m] 6- Determine the force on the piston of the figure due to shear, and the leakage from the pressure chamber for U = 0. [295.1 N ; 1.63610 -8 m3/s]

7- A layer of viscous liquid of thickness b flows steadily down an inclined plane. Show that, by using the Navier-Stokes equations that velocity distribution is:

u=

(2by y 2 )sin and that the discharge per unit width is: Q = 3 b 3 sin 2

8- A wide moving belt passes through a container of a viscous liquid. The belt moving vertically upward with a constant velocity Vo, as illustrated in figure. Because of viscous forces the belt picks up a film of fluid of thickness h. Gravity tends to make the fluid drain down the belt. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to determine an expression for the average velocity vav of the fluid film as it is dragged up the belt. Assume the flow is laminar, steady, and uniform. [ vav = Vo

h 2 ] 3

9- Determine the formulas for shear stress on each plate and for the velocity distribution for flow in the figure when an adverse pressure gradient exists such that Q = 0. [ y =0 =

y2 y 2 U 4U ; y =b = ; u = 3U 2 2U ] b b b b

10- A plate 2 mm thick and 1 m wide is pulled between the walls shown in figure at speed of 0.4 m/s. The space over and below the plate is filled with glycerin ( = 0.62 N.s/m2). The plate is positioned midway between the walls. Using the Navier-Stokes equations, determine the force required to pull the plate at the speed given for zero pressure gradient; and the pressure gradient that will give zero volume flow rate. [496 N ; 372 kN/m2.m] 11- A slider plate 0.5 m wide constitutes a bearing as shown in figure. Estimate: a- the load carrying capacity. b- the drag. c- the power lost in the bearing. d- the maximum pressure in the oil and its location. [739.6 kN ; 348.6 N ; 348.6 W ; 12500 kN/m2 ; 150 mm]

12- Consider a shaft that turns inside a stationary cylinder, with a lubricating fluid in the annular region. Using the Navier-Stokes equation in -direction, show that the torque per unit length acting on the shaft is given by: Where: = angular velocity of the shaft. R1 = radius of the shaft. R2 = radius of the cylinder.

T= 4R12 R1 R 2 1

2

Problem No. 2

Problem No. 4

Problem No. 5

Problem No. 6

Problem No. 8

Problem No. 9

Problem No. 10

Problem No. 11

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