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> NCEEERE 2008, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim 737 132, INDIA

GIS AND GPS BASED PRELIMINARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING


Priyanka Dixit Student, IIT Roorkee J.D.Sharma, Professor, EED, IIT Roorkee M.K.Singhal SSO, AHEC, IIT Roorkee
AbstractThe major objective of a utility is to supply the power demand with good quality of service, through proper planning of system. This has led to development of methods which can be used to aid the decision making process for selecting best alternative. Complexity of electrical distribution system is a major reason for introducing new technologies as GIS (geographic information system) and GPS (global positioning system) that carries out complex power system analysis e.g. optimization of networks, load forecasting in quick and effective manner.GIS technology has the facility to plan an electrical distribution network routing of plain as well as remote hilly areas. GIS can facilitate information about customer, inventory, routing of distribution line, economic analysis of routing at the stage of planning, overload conditions in the upcoming days, load flow analysis etc. A GPS technology can also serve with a very effective and useful way for planning of electricity distribution system network in conjunction with GIS. In present study, the analysis of the existing route of the radial distribution system network of IIT Roorkee has been done. Existing network of a sample substation consists of 57 buses 56 branches, and 6 feeders. A 3-D model of distribution system network has also been prepared using a GIS and GPS technology. New layouts of the routing have been proposed on the basis of shortest feasible path. Best route among three has been selected on the basis of cost comparison. GIS and GPS may be considered as good tools for planning of electricity distribution network. Index Terms Distribution system network, Geographical information system, GIS, Global positioning System.
I. INTRODUCTION

(0.44 kV) distribution networks (distribution secondary system). Both distribution network lines supply power to customers directly either three phase or single phase. Thus, the total network is a complex grid of interconnected lines. This network has the function of transmitting power from the points of generation to the points of consumption. Electrical utilities require keeping a comprehensive and accurate inventory of their physical assets, for the provision of extending the network, undertaking maintenance, etc. Complexity of electrical distribution power system is only a reason for introducing new technologies as GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Global positioning system) that carries out complex power system analyses e.g. optimization of networks, load forecasting in very less time period as and when required. GIS technology has the facility to plan an electrical distribution network which sometimes very difficult to access for surveying like remote hilly areas. GIS based software also have the facility to interface it with other software tools (e.g. MATLAB) design and analyze. It has a very vast area of application consisting electrical distribution system as one of them. The distribution system is important to an electrical utility because its proximity to the ultimate customer and its high investment cost. The distribution system planning is necessary to fulfill the growing demand of electricity in an optimum way to make the techno-economic feasibility of the distribution system expansion. The planning of electrical distribution networks is a continuous development process for the customer point of view, increase in load demand and in Research & Development. Earlier it was done manually on road maps now among modern technologies; GIS can be helpful to solve the problems.
II. INTRODUCTION TO GIS AND GPS GIS (Geographic Information System) is "an organized collection of computer hardware, software, which is used to capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced database digitally."[1] GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting outcomes, and planning strategies. The analysis uses the spatial and non-spatial attributes in the database to answer questions about the real world. Geographic analysis facilitates the study of real-world processes by developing and applying

Power generated at generation plants and sent to a network of high-voltage (440, 220 or 132 kV) transmission lines. These transmission lines supply power to medium voltage (e.g. 33 or 11 kV) distribution networks (distribution primary system), which supply power to still lower voltage
Manuscript submitted on June30, 2008. This work was supported in part by IIT Roorkee, India. This paper submitted in National Conference on Emerging trends and advances in Electrical Engineering and Renewable Energy (NCEEERE - 2008) 22nd 24th December 2008. Priyanka Dixit, student M.Tech, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India, phone: +91-9717799755; e-mail: priyapah@iitr.ernet.in, 3.priyanka@gmail.com J.D.Sharma, Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India Phone : +91-1332-285889; e-mail: jaydsfee@iitr.ernet.in M.K.Singhal, Senior Scientific Officer , Alternate Hydro Energy Centre , Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India Phone:+91-1332-285167 e-mail: mksalfah@iitr.ernet.in

> NCEEERE 2008, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim 737 132, INDIA models. Results of geographic analysis can be communicated with the help of maps, attributes or both. In electrical power distribution system GIS integrates the non spatial database of system to the spatial data. GIS software performs different analyses e.g. load flow analysis, load forecasting, route optimization and inventory control etc. in interfacing with other power system analysis software. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a technology, which provides accuracy and flexibility of determination of stationary or moving spatial objects. Its applications are navigation, surveying, remote sensing, mapping, and geodetic positioning. Geodetic positioning can be determined either in relation to a well-defined coordinate system, usually by three coordinate values or in relation to other point, taking one point as the origin of a local coordinate system. GPS uses satellites and computers to compute positions anywhere on earth. [2] In electrical power distribution system for finding the location of any object e.g. poles, substations, transformers, tracking of routes etc. It gives the position in form of latitude and longitude, which can directly be imported on computer screen. GPS are becoming very effective tools for GIS data capture. The GPS can easily be linked to a laptop, computer in the field, and, with appropriate software. Users can also have all their data on a common base with very little distortion. Thus GPS can help in several aspects of construction of accurate and timely GIS databases.
III. THE ROLE OF GIS IN DISTRIBUTION

NETWORKS Database plays an important role in the planning, where different software programs form a part of the system operated by a database management system which stores, retrieves, and modifies various data on the distribution network. The electrical utility for different operations requires record geographical information in the database. Distribution system required two types of geographical information related to network: (a) Spatial Location and visualization, (b) Database or attributes attached to it. Interfacing of geographic with its database with analytical tools makes the system more user friendly, takes less time to analyze, more efficient and low-cost power distribution systems These analytical tools are available with GIS based software. Thus GIS is a tool which operates the system both with its geographic and its corresponding attributes attached to it. Material management, inventory control, preventive maintenance and system performance can also be accomplished in a systematic and cost-effective manner. IV. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GIS USED FOR 3D MODEL OF AREA OF INTEREST In GIS based distribution system planning a platform has to be chosen. Here, a GIS based software ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a has been chosen for the analysis of the existing route of the radial distribution system network of IIT Roorkee, India. A three dimensional model of distribution system network has also been prepared using GIS and GPS technology.

The various aspects can be analysed by the model of network prepared in GIS and data available with the geographic (attributes): Optimum feeder path, Proposal for different layouts for future expansion, Selection of optimal conductors, Load Flow analysis, Cost comparison among different layouts, Database management, Inventory control, In this study modeling of electricity distribution system of IIT Roorkee, INDIA has been done using GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Global positioning system) technology. Distribution system network of IIT Roorkee consists of 12 sub-stations with different feeders for different areas and three underground grids of 11 kV connecting these sub-stations, which are coming from 33kV sub-station. A three dimensional model is build in geographic and all the related database is attached to the geographic. The data related to the distribution system is attached with the geographic. For obtaining a map in GIS based software i.e. ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a map of that area is required, that map may be in the form of a topographic sheet, a road map, a satellite image or an areal photograph of the area of interest. Here a satellite imaginary of IIT Roorkee is available in fig 1 as a map for digitization. The graphical representation of the network of these feeders and results obtained by the software is another feature of the work. The relevant information about the feeder such as feeder name, segment number, and type of conductor used, length of the segment, etc. can be obtained by attributes attached with the graphic. Technical aspects of the proposed layout can be understood on the basis of corresponding power flow analysis and cost comparison. "Every object present on the Earth can be geo-referenced", is the fundamental key of associating any database to GIS. Here, term 'database' is a collection of information about objects and their relationship to each other and 'geo-referencing' refers to the location of a layer or coverage in space defined by the reference co-ordinate system. Satellite imaginary is now georeferenced by taking a few control points on imaginary and their latitude and longitude using GPS technology. Different layers e.g. road, building, open space etc. are being digitized in ARCVIEW 3.2a. After digitization the topology of all the features is built e. g. all the buildings, roads and ground will be built as a polygon. Fig 2 shows the digitized map of IIT Roorkee on satellite imaginary. Fig 3 shows the Complete digitized map of IIT Roorkee in view window of ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a with built topology of all the features.

> NCEEERE 2008, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim 737 132, INDIA

Fig .1. Satellite imaginary of IIT Roorkee opened in view window of ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a

Fig .4. Location of poles with latitude and longitude in left window and corresponding location on the world map in right window at 300 miles zoom level in GPSMAP software.

Fig .2. Digitized map of IIT Roorkee shown in view window of ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a on satellite image

Fig.5. Location of all the poles of IIT Roorkee at 800feet zoom level GPSMAP software.

Fig .3. Complete digitized map of IIT Roorkee shown in ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a Due to the poor resolution of the satellite imaginary, the location of the poles and feeders is not available hence for locating all the poles GPS technology is being used. Location of poles in the form of latitude and longitude will be stored in a GPS instrument during survey and can directly be imported on the digitized map. The location of the feeders now can be drawn between the poles. Fig 4 shows the data of location of poles with its latitude and longitude and also corresponding location on the world map using GARMINs GPSMAP. Fig 5 shows the location of poles on world map at a 800 feet zoom level.

Fig .6. Location of poles imported on ARCVIEW 3.2a from GARMINs GPSMAP

Fig .7. Location of poles and feeders of distribution system network of IIT Roorkee

> NCEEERE 2008, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim 737 132, INDIA The location of poles collected during survey from GPS has to be imported on GIS software. GPSMAP is compatible with other software to transfer its data. Fig 7 shows the imported data of poles of distribution system network of IIT Roorkee from GPSMAP to ARCVIEW3.2a in geographic. Fig 8 shows the complete 2-D map of distribution system of IIT Roorkee prepared with GS and GPS technology. It shows the layer of roads, buildings. poles and feeders.

Fig .10. Layout of existing routing of sample substation

Fig .8. Complete 2-D map of distribution system of IIT Roorkee

Fig .11. First proposed route for sample substation with loading of blocks and pole attributes

Fig .9. 3- D model of distribution system network of IIT Roorkee GIS has the facility to convert a 2-D image in 3-D either by contour elevations or by using the height of the buildings. The3-D model of existing distribution system network of IIT Roorkee has been prepared using ARCVIEW GIS 3.2a as shown in above fig 9. Spatial parameters of distribution system can be found from the model of distribution system of IIT Roorkee prepared in GIS. To find out the optimum routing using GIS one substation as a sample has been selected and three layouts of routing have been proposed on the basis of shortening the length of the feeders and routes should be feasible also. Conductor selection has been done on the basis of kW-km. these data are available in attributes. The lengths of the feeders of three proposed layouts have been measured from the GIS model shown in fig 11,12,13 and given in table1. Cost comparison of the three proposed layouts is done on the basis of lengths available. Fig 10 shows the location of sample sub-station on 3-D layout of the exiting system.

Fig .12. Second proposed route for sample substation with loading of blocks and pole attributes

Fig .13. Third proposed route for sample substation with loading of blocks and pole attributes

> NCEEERE 2008, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim 737 132, INDIA Table.1. Lengths of existing and proposed feeders of sample sub-station measured through GIS model Existing feeders Number of feeders=6 Feeder Length name (m) Vikas 640 Nagar Saraswati 615 KunjA Saraswati 391 KunjB Community 373 hall D-class 1257 Solani kunj 907 Total 4183 Layout: 2 Number of feeders=6 Feeder name Vikas NagarA Saraswati Kunj Solani kunj D-class Vikas NagarB Community hall Total Length (m) 302 574 900 622 423 373 3194 Total 2937 Layout: 1 Number of feeders=5 Feeder name Vikas Nagar Saraswati Kunj Community hall D-class Solani kunj Lengt h (m) 315 835 335 738 734

Table: 2 Feeder lengths, type of conductor and annual losses of existing and proposed routes
Existing feeders: Number of feeders =6 Feeder name Vikas Nagar Saraswati KunjA Saraswati KunjB Community hall D-class Solani kunj Length (m) 640 615 391 373 1257 907 Loading kW(max) 230 256 240 60 321 456 Loading (kWkm) 147.2 157.44 93.84 22.38 403.497 413.592 Type of conducto r dog dog weasel cable dog dog Annual Losses(Rs ) 272491 229662 146788 79540 473418 512682 1714581

I R (kW) 14.8125 12.4844 7.97935 4.32379 25.7349 27.8692

4183 1563 Total Layout: 1 Number of feeders =5 Feeder name Vikas Nagar Saraswati Kunj Community hall D-class Solani kunj Total Length (m) 315 835 616 335 738 734 2957 68 473 296 1563 22.780 349.074 217.264 cable dog dog 4.9923 9.8841 7.7776 514.360 dog 13.2740 Loading kW(max) 110 Loading (kWkm) 34.650 Type of conducto r Squirrel

I R (kW) 22.5245

Annual Losses(Rs ) 414360 244188 91839 181828 143076 1075291

2957 Total Layout: 3 Number of feeders= 5 Feeder name Vikas Nagar Saraswati Kunj Community hall D-class Solani kunj Lengt h (m) 561 515 400 657 804

Layout: 2 Number of feeders=6 Feeder name Vikas NagarA Saraswati Kunj Solani kunj D-class Vikas NagarB Community hall Length (m) 302 574 900 622 423 373 Loading kW(max) 110 496 456 233 200 68 Loading (kWkm) 33.220 284.704 410.400 144.926 84.600 25.364 Type of conducto r squirrel dog dog dog weasel cable Annual Losses(Rs ) 397260 194813 336335 189057 473826 102256 1693547 Loading (kWkm) 188.496 200.850 39.200 172.791 382.704 Type of conducto r dog dog cable dog dog Annual Losses(Rs ) 202542 59401 227745 150164 304163 944015

I R (kW) 21.5949 10.5900 18.2830 10.2771 25.7570 5.5586

3194 1563 Total Layout: 3 Number of feeders= 5 Feeder name Vikas Nagar Saraswati Kunj Community hall D-class Solani kunj Total Length (m) 561 515 400 657 804 2937 Loading kW(max) 336 390 98 263 476 1563

Table1 shows a good reduction in length of feeder conductors by rerouting, which indicates saving in power loss also. Now among three on preliminary basis a cost-effective route can be selected.
V. COST

I R (kW) 11.0101 3.2290 12.3801 8.1628 16.5342

COMPARISON AMONG PROPOSED LAYOUTS

Cost comparison among the proposed layout will finally select the optimum one. This has been done on the basis of the cost of accessories used in the distribution network viz. conductor, poles, stay wires, cross arms etc. The cost of other accessories is calculated in table 3 used in different layouts. Annual losses can be calculated in table2. For Resistance of the branches length is available with map in GIS software.

The comparison of complete cost of the entire layout will decide the optimum layout. This is shown in table 4, the comparison shows that overall expenditure of layout 3 is least than other two. Hence it can be concluded that layout 3 can be selected as the cost-effective one from the economical point of view.

> NCEEERE 2008, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim 737 132, INDIA Table .3. Complete cost of accessories of all the layouts Layout-1 Item Number of poles Stay wire Insulators Cross arm Conductor Miscellaneous Total cost (Rs.) Layout-2 No. of Items used 94 22 436 17 Total Cost (Rs) 846000 46640 26596 2652 25726 20000 Total cost (Rs.) 967,614 No. of Items used 78 16 348 9 L.S. Unit cost (Rs) 9000 2120 61 156 No. of Items used 82 21 388 16 Total Cost (Rs)

738000 44520 23668 2496 26327.2 20000 855,011 Layout-3 Total Cost (Rs)

is done for a sample substation. Different possible layouts of shortest and feasible routes have been proposed using ARCVIEW3.2a and length has been measured. Reduced lengths of feeders result in reduction of power losses. Optimum Conductor selection according to loading and length i.e. kW-km is also considered for minimisation of losses. Among different proposed layouts of distribution system network, selection of the cost-effective layout has been done on the basis of cost analysis. Economic viability is a major consideration for cost-effective route selection. Thus GIS & GPS technology is the versatile tool for the planning and optimisation of the electrical distribution system network. It is especially useful in hilly terrain as well as for the plain areas where the accessibility to the area is difficult for the route survey. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We are indebted to the Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, and Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India for having provided me with the opportunity to carry out this Study. . REFERENCES

702000 33920 21228 1404 24353 20000 802,905

[1] [2] [3]

Table .4. Comparison of complete cost of all the layouts Total annual loses (Rs) 1,075,291 1,693,547 944,015 Total cost of accessories(Rs) 855,011 967,614 802,905 Total cost (Rs) 1,930,302 2,661,161 1,746,920

Layout Layout-1 Layout-2 Layout-3

http://map.sdsu.edu/geoagent/gis_intro.htm#definition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System S.P.S. Raghav and Jayant K. Sinha, Electrical Network Mapping and Consumer Indexing using GIS, UPCL, Dehradun. [4] Monteiro, c. Ramirez-rosado, Compromise Seeking for Power Line Path Selection Based on Economic and Environmental Corridors, power system transaction on Aug, 2005. [5] Chengshan Wang, Saiyi Wang, The Automatic Routing System of Urban Mid-Voltage Distribution Network Based on Spatial GIS, power system technology, 2004, powerCon 2004, international conference on 21-24 Nov. 2004. [6] Kenneth E. Foote and Margaret Lynch, Department of Geography, UniversityofTexasatAustin,1995. http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/intro/intro_f.html [7] G. W. Chang, S. Y. Chu, and H. L. Wang, An Improved Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow Algorithm for Radial Distribution Systems http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/59/4162574/04162583.pdf [8] http://www.FUNDAMENTALS%20TRANS%20AND% [9] Siemens Power Engineering Guide, Transmission and Distribution, 4th Edition. [10] Central Public Works Deptt, Schedule of rates (Electrical) part-2, External 2007.

VI. CONCLUSION

GIS based electrical distribution system planning is an area of great importance. This study presents the 3-D modelling of distribution system network of Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India, using GIS (Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technology. GPS technology has been used to locate those features which are not available in the satellite imaginary due to its poor resolution e.g. location of poles. The whole system has been assumed to be balanced. The database management of distribution system of IIT, Roorkee is also attached as the attributes to its 3-D model. Rerouting of the feeders on the basis of shortest and feasible route using GIS based software