# SEISMIC DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 1

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design Requirements

• Context in the NEHRP Recommended • • • • • • •
Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Other topics Summary
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 2

Context in NEHRP Recommended Provisions
Design basis: Strength limit state Using NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Structural design criteria: Chap. 4 Structural analysis procedures: Chap. 5 Components and attachments: Chap. 6 Design of concrete structures: Chap. 9 and ACI 318
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 3

Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems
Reinforced Concrete
Unbraced frames (with rigid “moment resisting” joints): Three types Ordinary Intermediate Special R/C shear walls: Ordinary Special Precast shear walls: Special Intermediate Ordinary
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 4

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design

• Context in the Provisions • Concrete behavior

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 5

Unconfined Concrete Stress-Strain Behavior
20000 18000 16000 14000 4500 psi 8800 psi 13,500 psi 17,500 psi

Stress, psi

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004

Strain, in./in.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 6

Idealized Stress-Strain Behavior of Unconfined Concrete
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0

Stress, psi

⎡ 2ε ⎛ ε ⎞2 ⎤ fc = fc' ⎢ c − ⎜ c ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ εo ⎝ εo ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2fc' εo = Et Et = 1.8 x106 + 460fc' , psi
0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004

Strain
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 7

Confinement by Spirals or Hoops
Asp fyhAsp

ds fyhAsp Confinement from spiral or circular hoop Forces acting on 1/2 spiral or circular hoop Confinement from square hoop

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 8

Confinement

Rectangular hoops with cross ties

Confinement by transverse bars

Confinement by longitudinal bars

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 9

Opened 90° hook on hoops

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 10

Confined Concrete Stress-Strain Behavior
8000 7000 6000 Stress, psi 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 Average strain on 7.9 in. gauge length
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 11

no confinement 4.75 in. Pitch of 3.5 in. ¼ in. dia. 2.375 in. spiral 1.75 in.

Tests of 6 in. x 12 in. cylinders

Idealized Stress-Strain Behavior of Confined Concrete
Kent and Park Model
4500 4000 3500 Stress, psi 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016
No Hoops 4 in. 6 in. 9 in. 12 in.

Confined Area 12” x 16”

Strain, in./in.
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 12

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Reinforcing Steel Stress-Strain Behavior

Stress, ksi

rupture~10-12%

40

strain hardening~ 1-3% rupture ~18-20%

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Microstrain

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 13

Reinforced Concrete Behavior

failure cracked-inelastic cracked-elastic

uncracked Mid-Point Displacement, Δ
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 14

Behavior Up to First Yield of Steel
b c d As

εc

fc

φ εs Strain εsEs < fy
Stress

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 15

Behavior at Concrete Crushing
b c d As

ε c,max

f'c C

φ εs >εy Strain
fy Stress

jd Asfy Forces

Mn = Asfyjd
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 16

Typical Moment Curvature Diagram
700

w/ strain hardening
600

f’c = 4 ksi
w/o strain hardening

M, in-kip

500 400 300 200 100 0 0

fy = 60 ksi b = 8 in d = 10 in ρ = 0.0125

100

200

300

φ x 10-5 in-1
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 17

Influence of Reinforcement Ratio
5000

f’c = 4 ksi
4000

fy = 60 ksi b = 10 in d = 18 in

M, in-kip

3000 2000 1000

0 0 100 200 300 400

ρ = 2.5% ρ = 1.5% ρ = 0.5%
φ x 10-5 in-1
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 18

Influence of Compression Reinforcement
1600

1200

3

2 5

800

Beam 1 2 3 1 4 5 6 4 7

ρ 0.0375 0.0375 0.0375 0.0250 0.0250 0.0125 0.0125

ρ' 0.0250 0.0125 0 0.0125 0 0.0125 0

M lb / in2 bd2
400

6 7

0 0 0.008 0.016 0.024

φ
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 19

Moment-Curvature with Confined Concrete

ε c,max
c

f'c

φ
As

εs >εy Strain

fy Stress
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 20

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Moment-Curvature with Confined Concrete
35000 30000

Moment, in-k

25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000
Beam - 24 in. x 36 in. Tension Steel - 12 ea. #10 Compression Steel - 5 ea. #8 Confining Steel - #4 hoops at 4 in. c-c

without confining

with confining

curvature, microstrain/in.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 21

Plastic Hinging

l M

idealized

φ

actual plastic rotation

lp Mu

φu −φy φu

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 22

Strategies to Improve Ductility
• Use low flexural reinforcement ratio • Add compression reinforcement • Add confining reinforcement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 23

Other Functions of Confining Steel
• Acts as shear reinforcement • Prevents buckling of longitudinal •
reinforcement Prevents bond splitting failures

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 24

Structural Behavior Frames

Story Mechanism

Sway Mechanism

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 25

Story Mechanism

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 26

Structural Behavior - Walls
Δs

H

V N

H V T

V N

V V V

C

Flexural failure

Horizontal tension

Sliding on flexural cracks

Sliding on construction joint
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 27

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Structural Behavior Walls
Vu 1 2 hw 2 45 lw 1 Vu
Compression

Vu

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 28

Structural Behavior Columns
1000 800

Ultimate yield

14 in square 4-#11 bars f' c = 4 ksi f y = 45 ksi

600 400 200

1.75”

bending axis

0

0

400

800

1200

1600

0.002

0.001

0

Moment, M, in-kip
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 29

Influence of Hoops on Axial Strength
Gross column Area = A g Confined concrete Area = A core

Before spallingP = Agf’c

After spallingP = Acore(f’c + 4 flat)

After spalling ≥ Before spalling
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 30

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 31

Well Confined Column

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 32

Hysteretic Behavior of Well Confined Column
M 1.0 Mu 0.5

-4 -0.5 -1.0
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

4 Drift, %

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 33

Δ

Structural Behavior Columns
M1 V M1 V

L
V M2 M2 P

M1 + M2 2Mu = V= L L

Range of P Mo Mu M

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 34

Column Shear Failure

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 35

Structural Behavior Joints

V fc h ft T Cc

Cs

Max. shear force Vj = T- V

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 36

Hysteretic Behavior of Joint with Hoops
M Mu 1.0

0.5

-1 -0.5

5 6 Drift, %

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 37

Hysteretic Behavior of Joint with No Hoops
M Mu 1.0

0.5

-1 -0.5

5 6 Drift, %

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 38

Joint Failure – No Shear Reinforcing

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 39

Anchorage Failure in Column/Footing Joint

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 40

Summary of Concrete Behavior
• Compressive Ductility
– Strong in compression but brittle – Confinement improves ductility by
• Maintaining concrete core integrity • Preventing longitudinal bar buckling

• Flexural Ductility
– Longitudinal steel provides monotonic ductility at low
reinforcement ratios – Transverse steel needed to maintain ductility through reverse cycles and at very high strains (hinge development)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 41

Summary of Concrete Behavior
• Damping
– Well cracked: moderately high damping – Uncracked (e.g. prestressed): low damping

• Potential Problems
– Shear failures are brittle and abrupt and must be

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 42

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design

• Context in the Provisions • Concrete behavior • Reference standards

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 43

ACI 318-05

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 44

Use of Reference Standards
• ACI 318-05
– Chapter 21, Special Provisions for Seismic Design

• NEHRP Chapter 9, Concrete Structures
– General design requirements – Modifications to ACI 318 – Seismic Design Category requirements – Special precast structural walls – Untopped precast diaphragms (Appendix to Ch.9)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 45

Detailed Modifications to ACI 318
• • • • • • •
Modified definitions and notations Scope and material properties Special moment frames Special shear walls Special and intermediate precast walls Foundations Anchoring to concrete

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 46

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design

• • • •

Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 47

Design Coefficients - Moment Resisting Frames
Seismic Force Resisting System Special R/C Moment Frame Intermediate R/C Moment Frame Ordinary R/C Moment Frame Response Modification Coefficient, R 8 Deflection Amplification Factor, Cd 5.5

5

4.5

3

2.5

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 48

Design Coefficients Shear Walls (Bearing Systems)
Seismic Force Resisting System Special R/C Shear Walls Ordinary R/C Shear Walls Intermediate Precast Shear Walls Ordinary Precast Walls Response Modification Coefficient, R Deflection Amplification Factor, Cd

5

5

4 4

4 4

3

3

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 49

Design Coefficients Shear Walls (Frame Systems)
Seismic Force Resisting System
Special R/C Shear Walls Ordinary R/C Shear Walls Intermediate Precast Shear Walls Ordinary Precast Walls

Response Modification Coefficient, R
6

Deflection Amplification Factor, Cd
5

5 5

4.5 4.5

4

4

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 50

Design Coefficients Dual Systems with Special Frames
Seismic Force Resisting System Dual System w/ Special Walls Dual System w/ Ordinary Walls Response Modification Coefficient, R 8 (7) 6 Deflection Amplification Factor, Cd 6.5 (5.5) 5

(ASCE 7-05 values where different)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 51

Frames
Seismic Design Category A and B Minimum Frame Type ACI 318 Requirements

Ordinary

Chapters 1 thru 18 and 22 ACI 21.2.1.3 and ACI 21.12 ACI 21.2.1.4 and ACI 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, and 21.5
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 52

C

Intermediate

D, E and F

Special

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls
Seismic Design Category Minimum Wall Type ACI 318 Requirements

A, B and C

Ordinary

Chapters 1 thru 18 and 22

D, E and F

Special

ACI 21.2.1.4 and ACI 21.2 and 21.7

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 53

Precast Concrete Shear Walls
Seismic Design Category A and B Minimum Wall Type ACI 318 Requirements Chapters 1 thru 18 and 22 ACI 21.2.1.3 and ACI 21.13 ACI 21.2.1.4 and ACI 21.2, 21.8

Ordinary

C

Intermediate

D, E and F

Special

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 54

• Category C
– Discontinuous members – Plain concrete
• Walls • Footings • Pedestals (not allowed)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 55

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design

• • • • •

Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 56

Performance Objectives
• Strong column
– Avoid story mechanism

• Hinge development
– Confined concrete core – Prevent rebar buckling – Prevent shear failure

• Member shear strength • Joint shear strength • Rebar development
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 57

Frame Mechanisms “strong column – weak beam”

Story mechanism

Sway mechanism

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 58

Required Column Strength
M nc1

∑ Mnc ≥ 1.2∑ Mnb
M nb2

M nb1

M nc2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 59

Hinge Development
• Tightly Spaced Hoops
– Provide confinement to increase concrete strength
and usable compressive strain – Provide lateral support to compression bars to prevent buckling – Act as shear reinforcement and preclude shear failures – Control splitting cracks from high bar bond stresses

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 60

Hinge Development
Before spalling

After spalling

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 61

Hinge Development
Bidirectional cracking

Spalled cover

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 62

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Beam Longitudinal Reinforcement
200 fy ≤ ρ ≤ 0 .025

At least 2 bars continuous top & bottom Joint face Mn+ not less than 50% MnMin. Mn+ or Mn- not less than 25% max. Mn at joint face Splice away from hinges and enclose within hoops or spirals

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 63

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Beam Transverse Reinforcement
Closed hoops at hinging regions with “seismic” hook 135º hook, 6dh ≥ 3” extension Maximum spacing of hoops: d/4 8db 24dh 12”

Longitudinal bars on perimeter tied as if column bars
2d min

Stirrups elsewhere, s ≤ d/2
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 64

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Beam Shear Strength
Mpr1
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S

Mpr2

Mpr = Mn fs = 1.25fy ,

with φ = 1 .0

Ve1

ln
Ve = Mpr1 + Mpr 2 ln w ul n ± 2

Ve2

≥ Ve

by analysis

If earthquake-induced > 1 V e 2 shear force and Pu < A f
' g c

then Vc = 0

20
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 65

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Beam-Column Joint
Vcol T C

Vj = T + C − Vcol T = 1.25fy A s, top C = 1.25fy A s, bottom

Vj

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 66

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Beam-column Joint

⎧20⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Vn = ⎨15 ⎬ f 'c A j ⎪12 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭
• • • •
Vn controls size of columns Coefficient depends on joint confinement To reduce shear demand, increase beam depth Keep column stronger than beam

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 67

ACI 318-05: Overview of Frames:
Column Longitudinal Reinforcement
M nc1

0.01 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.06
M nb1 M nb2

∑ Mnc ≥ 1.2∑ Mnb

M nc2

At joints (strong column-weak beam)

Mnc based on factored axial force, consistent with direction of lateral forces
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 68

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Column Transverse Reinforcement at Potential Hinging Region Spirals Hoops

⎛ Ag ⎞ f 'c ρs = 0.45⎜ − 1⎟ ⎜A ⎟f ⎝ ch ⎠ yt and f 'c ρs ≥ 0.12 fyt

A sh and A sh

⎛ ⎞ f 'c ⎞⎛ A g ⎜ sbc ⎟⎜ ≥ 0 .3 − 1⎟ ⎟ ⎜ fyt ⎟⎜ A ch ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ f 'c ≥ 0.09sbc fyt

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 69

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Column Transverse Reinforcement at Potential Hinging Region
hx hx

⎛ 14 − h x ⎞ so = 4 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠
Spacing shall not exceed the smallest of: b/4 or 6 db or so (4” to 6”) Distance between legs of hoops or crossties, hx ≤ 14”
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 70

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Potential Hinge Region

For columns supporting stiff members such as walls, hoops are required over full height of column if

Pe >
• •

f 'c A g 10

For shear strength- same rules as beams (concrete shear strength is neglected if axial load is low and earthquake shear is high) Lap splices are not allowed in potential plastic hinge regions

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 71

Splice in Hinge Region
Terminating bars

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 72

ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
Potential Hinge Region
d ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ clear height ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ lo ≥ ⎨ 6 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 18" ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 73

Moment Frame Example
A A’ B C C’ D 1 2

N

7 @ 30’ = 210’

3 4 5 6 7 8 5 @ 20’ = 100’
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 74

Frame Elevations
A A’ B C C’ D A A’ B C C’ D

11 @ 12.5'

15' 18'

Column Lines 2 and 7

Column Lines 3 to 6
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 75

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

15' 18'

11 @ 12.5'

Story Shears: Seismic vs Wind
seismic E-W seismic N-S wind E-W wind N-S

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 76

frame 1 frame 2 frame 3

1 2 3

includes shearwall

0
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 77

Story Shears: 25% rule
Frame 1 25% Frame 1

w/ walls w/o walls

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 78

Layout of Reinforcement
4

28.6”

29.6”

22.5” 30”

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 79

32”

Bending Moment Envelopes: Frame 1 Beams
A A’ 4708 B 4515 C L C

Seismic 715 Dead 5232 5834 5761 492 Combined: 834 4122 4222 4149
1.42D +0.5 L + E 0.68D - E 1.2D + 1.6L
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 80

Beam Reinforcement: Longitudinal
Max negative Mu = 5834 in-kips b = 22.5” d = 29.6” f’c = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi Mu 5834 φ 0 .9 A s req'd = = = 4.17in2 fy (0.875d) 60 ⋅ 0.875 ⋅ 29.6 Choose: 2 #9 and 3 #8 As = 4.37 in2 ρ = 0.0066 < 0.025 OK φMn = 6580 in-kips OK
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 81

Beam Reinforcement: Longitudinal (continued)
Positive Mu at face of column = 4222 in-kips (greater than ½(5834) = 2917) b for negative moment is the sum of the beam width (22.5 in.) plus 1/12 the span length (20 ft x 12 in./ft)/12, b = 42.5 in.

A s req'd

φ 0.9 = 2.94in2 = = fy (0.9d) 60 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ 29.6
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 82

Mu

4222

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Beam Reinforcement: Longitudinal (continued)
Choose 2 #7 and 3 #8 As = 3.57 in2 φMn = 5564 in-kips OK Run 3 #8s continuous top and bottom φMn = 3669 in-kips This moment is greater than: 25% of max negative Mn = 1459 in-kips Max required Mu = 834 in-kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 83

Beam Reinforcement: Preliminary Layout

A
2 #8

A'
2 #9

B
3 #8

C
2 #9

C'
2 #8

D

2 #7

2 #7

3 #8

3 #8

2 #7

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 84

Moments for Computing Shear
Hinging mechanism
B C C'

9697

8999

10085
20.0'

10085
9.83' 10.5' 20.0'

Plastic moments (in-kips)

150.4 94.2 150.4 90.9

Girder and column shears (kips)
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 85

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Joint Shear Force
150.5 kip 355.5 kip 355.5 kip

T = 1.25fy A s,top = 355.5 kips
560.5 kip

C = 1.25fy A s,bot = 355.5 kips Vj = T + C − Vcol = 560.5 kips v j = 15 f 'c = 949 psi Vn = v j A j = 949 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 30 = 854 kips φVn = 0.85 ⋅ 854 = 726 kips > 560.5 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 86

Beam Shear Force A
79.4

A’
82.7

B
82.7

C
Seismic shear

75.6 29.5 29.5 108.9 49.9 53.2 29.5

79.4 29.5 29.5 112.2 53.2

82.7 29.5

Factored gravity shear

112.2

Design shear
46.1 105.1 108.9 49.9 112.2
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 87

53.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Beam Reinforcement: Transverse
Vseismic > 50% Vu therefore take Vc = 0 82.7 kips = 73%(112.2) Use 4 legged #3 stirrups
Vs = A v fy d s

At ends of beam s = 5.5 in. Near midspan s = 7.0 in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 88

Beam Reinforcement: Transverse

• Check maximum spacing of hoops within
plastic hinge length (2d)

– d/4 = 7.4 in. – 8db = 7.0 in. – 24dh = 9.0 in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 89

Column Design Moments
A A'
7311

B

Girder moments (Level 7)
6181

∑ Mnc = 1.2(7311 + 6181)
= 16190 in − k
8095

8095

Column moments (Level 7)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 90

Column Design Moments

if

Pu >

f 'c A g

∑ Mnc

10 > 1.2∑ Mnb

Distribute relative to stiffness of columns above and below: Mnc = 8095 in-kips (above) Mnc = 8095 in-kips (below)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 91

Design Strengths
Design Aspect
Beam rebar cutoffs Beam shear reinforcement Beam-column joint strength Column flexural strength Column shear strength

Strength Used
Design strength Maximum probable strength Maximum probable strength 1.2 times nominal strength Maximum probable strength
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 92

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Column Transverse Reinforcement
A sh and A sh = 0.09sbc f 'c fyt ⎛ f 'c ⎞ ⎡⎛ A g ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎢⎜ = 0.3⎜ sbc ⎜ A ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎜ fyt ⎟ ⎢⎝ ch ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠⎣

Ag = gross area of column Ach = area confined within the hoops bc = transverse dimension of column core measured center to center of outer legs Second equation typically governs for larger columns
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 93

Column Transverse Reinforcement
Maximum spacing is smallest of: •One quarter of minimum member dimension •Six times the diameter of the longitudinal bars •so calculated as follows:

14 − h x so = 4 + 3
hx = maximum horizontal center to center spacing of cross-ties or hoop legs on all faces of the column, not allowed to be greater the 14 in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 94

Column Transverse Reinforcement
For max s = 4 in.
A sh ⎛ f 'c ⎞ ⎡⎛ A g ⎞ ⎤ 4 ⎞⎛ 900 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 0.3⎜ 4 ⋅ 26.5 ⋅ ⎟⎜ = 0.3⎜ sbc − 1⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎜ fyt ⎟ ⎢⎝ ch ⎠ ⎥ 60 ⎠⎝ 702 ⎠ ⎝ ⎦ ⎠⎣ ⎝

A sh = 0.60 in2 and A sh f 'c 4 = 0.09sbc = 0.09 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 26.5 ⋅ = 0.64 in2 fyt 60

Use 4 legs of #4 bar – Ash = 0.80 in2
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 95

Determine Seismic Shear
Mpr,top Mpr,1 Mpr,2 Vseismic

ln Vseismic Mpr,bottom
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 96

Mpr,3

Mpr,4

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Column Transverse Reinforcement Shear Demand from Mpr of Beams
Mpr, 1 = 9000 in-k (2 #9 and 3 #8) Mpr,2 = 7460 in-k (2 #7 and 3 #8) Assume moments are distributed equally above and below joint

Vseismic

8230 ⋅ 2 = = 139 kips (12.5 ⋅ 12) − 32

Note Vseismic~100%Vu

Vc = 0, if Pmin <

f 'c Ag 20

= 180 kips

For 30 in. square column Pmin = 266 kips OK
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 97

Column Transverse Reinforcement Shear Demand from Mpr of Beams
φVc = φ2λ f 'c bd = 0.75 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 0.85 4000 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 27.5 = 66.5 kips φVs,required = 139 − 66.5 = 72.5 kips φVs,provided = φ A v fy d s 4 ⋅ 0.2 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 29.6 = 0.75 = 266.4 kips 4

Hoops

4 legs #4 s = 4”
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 98

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Column Reinforcement
A'

7 @ 4" 5" 8 @ 6" 5" 7 @ 4"

#4 hoops:

12 #8 bars

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 99

Levels of Seismic Detailing for Frames
Issue Hinge development and confinement Bar buckling Member shear Joint shear Strong column Rebar development Load reversal lesser minor lesser lesser minor Ordinary Intermediate minor lesser lesser minor Special full full full full full full full

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 100

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design

• • • • • •

Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 101

Performance Objectives
• Resist axial forces, flexure and shear • Boundary members
– Where compression strains are large, maintain
capacity

• Development of rebar in panel • Discontinuous walls: supporting columns
have full confinement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 102

Design Philosophy
• Flexural yielding will occur in predetermined •
flexural hinging regions Brittle failure mechanisms will be precluded

– Diagonal tension – Sliding hinges – Local buckling

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 103

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: General Requirements
lw
ρt = parallel to shear plane
hw

ρl = perpendicular to shear plane Shear plane, Acv = web thickness x length of wall
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 104

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: General Requirements

ρl and ρt not less than 0.0025 unless

Vu < A cv f 'c

• •

then as allowed in 14.3 Spacing not to exceed 18 in. Reinforcement contributing to Vn shall be continuous and distributed across the shear plane
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 105

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: General Requirements

Two curtains of reinforcing required if:

Vu > 2A cv f 'c

Design shear force determined from lateral load analysis

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 106

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: General Requirements

Shear strength:

Vn = A cv α c f 'c + ρ t fy
αc = 3.0 for hw/lw≤1.5 αc = 2.0 for hw/lw≥2.0 Linear interpolation between

(

)

Walls must have reinforcement in two orthogonal directions
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 107

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: General Requirements

• For axial load and flexure, design like a
column to determine axial load – moment interaction P
M

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 108

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: Boundary Elements
For walls with a high compression demand at the edges – Boundary Elements are required

Widened end with confinement Extra confinement and/or longitudinal bars at end
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 109

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: Boundary Elements

Boundary elements are required if:
lw c≥ ⎛ δu ⎞ 600⎜ hw ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

δu = Design displacement c = Depth to neutral axis from strain compatibility analysis with loads causing δu
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 110

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: Boundary Elements

• Where required, boundary elements must
extend up the wall from the critical section a distance not less than the larger of: lw or Mu/4Vu

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 111

ACI 318-05: Overview of Walls Boundary Elements

• Boundary elements are required where the
maximum extreme fiber compressive stress calculated based on factored load effects, linear elastic concrete behavior and gross section properties, exceeds 0.2 f’c

• Boundary element can be discontinued
where the compressive stress is less than 0.15f’c

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 112

ACI 318-05: Overview of Walls Boundary Elements

• Boundary elements must extend horizontally • •
not less than the larger of c/2 or c-0.1lw In flanged walls, boundary element must include all of the effective flange width and at least 12 in. of the web Transverse reinforcement must extend into the foundation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 113

Wall Example
A A’ B C C’ D

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

15' 18'
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 114

11 @ 12.5'

Wall Cross-Section
17’-6”=210” 30” 30” 12” 30” 30”

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 115

frame 1 frame 2 frame 3 1 2 3

includes shearwall

0
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 116

Boundary Element Check
Required if: fc > 0.2 fc' based on gross concrete section Axial load and moment are determined based on factored forces, including earthquake effects At ground Pu = 5550 kip Mu from analysis is 268,187 in-kip The wall has the following gross section properties: A = 4320 in2 S = 261,600 in3

fc = 2.3 ksi = 38% of f’c = 6 ksi ∴ Need boundary element
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 117

Boundary Element Design
Determine preliminary reinforcing ratio in boundary elements by assuming only boundary elements take compression M = 268,187 in-k
M P B2 B1

P = 5550 k
B1 = P M + = 3892 kip 2 240 P M B2 = − = 1658 kip 2 240

Need

0 . 8Po = 0 . 8 (0 . 7 ) A g 0 . 85 fc' (1 − ρ ) + ρ f y > 3892 kip

[

]

For Ag = 30(30) = 900 in2 For fc’ = 4 ksi ⇒ ρ = 7.06% Too large For fc’ = 6 ksi ⇒ ρ = 4.18% Reasonable; 24 #11
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 118

Boundary Element Confinement
Transverse reinforcement in boundary elements is to be designed essentially like column transverse reinforcement

A sh

fc' 2 = 0 . 09 sb c = 1 . 08 in at s = 4 " fy
4 legs of #5

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 119

Shear Panel Reinforcement
Vn = A cv ⎛ 2 λ ⎜ ⎝ fc' + ρ t f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎠
ρl Panel ⊥ to Acv ρt

Vu = 539 kips (below level 2) φ = 0.6 (per ACI 9.3.4(a)) ρt = 0.0036 for fy = 40 ksi Min ρl (and ρt) = 0.0025 2 curtains if Acv

Vu > 2

' fc A cv
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 120

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Shear Panel Reinforcement
Select transverse and longitudinal reinforcement:

longitudin al : 0 .2 ⋅ 2 # 4 @ 12" ⇒ = 0.0028 > 0.0025 12 ⋅ 12 transverse : 0 .2 ⋅ 2 # 4 @ 9" ⇒ = 0.0037 > 0.0036 12 ⋅ 9

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 121

Check Wall Design
30000

Nominal
25000

Factored Combinations

20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000

Moment, k-ft

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 122

Shear Wall Reinforcement
B R C 8 B C 3
24 #10

B

C

12

7
24 #9

2

#4@12" ver. E.F. #4@6" hor. E.F.

fc’ = 6 ksi

11

6
12 #9

G
24 #11

10
#4@18" ver. E.F. #4@16" hor. E.F.

5 B 4
#4@12" E.W. E.F. #4 @ 4"

#5 @ 4"

9

8

3

fc’ = 4 ksi
Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 123

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design

• • • • • • •

Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Other topics

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 124

Members Not Part of SRS
• In frame members not designated as part of
the lateral-force-resisting system in regions of high seismic risk:

– Must be able to support gravity loads while subjected
to the design displacement – Transverse reinforcement increases depending on: Forces induced by drift Axial force in member

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 125

Diaphragms
Diaphragm Shear walls Collectors, if req’d to transfer force from diaphragm to shear walls Load from analysis in accordance With design load combinations Check: • Shear strength and reinforcement (min. slab reinf.) • Chords (boundary members) - Force = M/d Reinforced for tension (Usually don’t require boundary members)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 126

Struts and Trusses
performance objectives

• All members have axial load (not flexure), so
ductility is more difficult to achieve

• Full length confinement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 127

Precast performance objectives

Field connections at points of low stress

Field connections must yield

Strong connections
• Configure system so that hinges occur in factory cast members away from field splices

Ductile connections • Inelastic action at field splice

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 128

Quality Assurance Rebar Inspection

• Continuous
– Welding of rebar

• Periodic
– During and upon completion of placement for special
moment frames, intermediate moment frames and shear walls

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 129

Shear panel reinforcement cage

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 130

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 131

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 132

Quality Assurance: Reinforcing Inspection - Prestressed

• Periodic
– Placing of prestressing tendons (inspection required
upon completion)

• Continuous
– Stressing of tendons – Grouting of tendons

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 133

Quality Assurance: Concrete Placement Inspection

• Continuous
– Prestressed elements – Drilled piers – Caissons

• Periodic
– Frames – Shear walls

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 134

Quality Assurance: Precast Concrete (plant cast)

• Manufacturer may serve as special inspector •
if plant’s quality control program is approved by regulatory agency If no approved quality control program, independent special inspector is required

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 135

Quality Assurance: PCI Certification Program

• Review of plant operations
– Scheduled and surprise visits – Qualified independent inspectors – Observed work of in-plant quality control – Check results of quality control procedures – Periodic – specific approvals requiring renewal

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 136

Quality Assurance: ACI Inspector Certification

• Specialized training available for:
– Laboratory and in situ testing – Inspection of welding – Handling and placement of concrete – Others

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 137

Quality Assurance: Reinforcement Testing

• Rebar
– Special and intermediate moment frames – Boundary elements

• Prestressing steel • Tests include
– Weldability – Elongation – Actual to specified yield strength – Actual to specified ultimate strength
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 138

Quality Assurance: Concrete Testing

• Sample and test according to ACI 318-05
– Slump – Air content – 7 and 28 day strengths – Unit weight

• Rate
– Once per day per class

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 139

NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Concrete Design

• • • • • • • •

Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Other topics Summary
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 140