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Table D.1 3rd and 5th graders: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj.

Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * *

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* *

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.2 3rd and 5th graders: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * *

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.3 3rd and 5th graders with Low Word Attack Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

*

*

*

*

* Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * *

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.4 3rd and 5th graders with Low Word Attack Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

*

*

* Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * *

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.5 3rd and 5th graders with High Word Attack Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* * * * * * * *

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.6 3rd and 5th graders with Low Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH *

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.7 3rd and 5th graders with High Word Attack Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* * * * * *

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.8 3rd and 5th graders with Low Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH *

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.9 3rd and 5th graders with High Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, TestsGrouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

*

*

*

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.10 3rd and 5th graders with High Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

*

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.11 3rd and 5th graders with Low PPVT and Low Word Attack Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.12 3rd and 5th graders with Low PPVT and Low Word Attack Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.13 3rd and 5th graders with High PPVT and Low Word Attack Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

*

*

*

*

* Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * *

*

*

* Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.14 3rd and 5th graders with High PPVT and Low Word Attack Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

* All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH *

* Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * *

*

*

* Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.15 3rd and 5th graders with High PPVT and High Word Attack Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH *

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

*

*

*

*

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * *

Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH *

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.16 3rd and 5th graders with High PPVT and High Word Attack Test Scores: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH *

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

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*

*

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Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * *

Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH *

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.17 3rd and 5th graders Eligible for FRPL: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.18 3rd and 5th graders Eligible for FRPL: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH

Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

* * * * * * * * * * *

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.19 3rd and 5th graders Ineligible for FRPL: Comparison of Significance Levels, Tests Grouped by Type All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table D.20 3rd and 5th graders Ineligible for FRPL: Comparison of Significance Levels, All Tests Grouped Together All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Failure Free Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH Spell Read Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH * * * * * * * * * * Corrective Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

Word-level interventions Unadj. Bonf. BH * * *

Wilson Reading Unadj. Bonf. BH

*

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Note: "Unadj." is unadjusted p-values, "Bonf." refers to p-values adjusted using Bonferroni procedure, "BH" refers to p-values adjusted using Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure.

Table E.1 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 1.8 0.0 1.6 3.4 * Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 2.4 0.8 0.9 2.8 0.1 -2.4 3.8 * 5.2 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 1.1 1.6 1.8 2.3 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 2.7 -0.3 -0.2 0.7 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 3.3 1.2 0.9 5.6

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 88.6 95.4 335

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 90.8 94.6 407

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 0.1 5.3 1.0 -0.3 #

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact -0.1 4.5 1.1 0.4 0.5 7.7 0.7 -2.2 #

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -0.6 4.8 1.6 0.6

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact -0.1 2.1 0.9 1.8

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 0.4 6.5 0.7 -1.3

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from the 3rd grade impact at the 0.05 level.

Table E.2 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 3.9 -0.7 -0.3 4.3 * Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 4.5 -0.3 -1.1 5.1 * # 2.0 -1.7 1.8 2.1 # Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 2.4 3.7 1.0 0.2 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 5.3 -6.7 -2.5 8.0 * # Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 5.9 1.9 -1.6 7.0

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 83.1 92.0 173

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 85.9 92.7 201

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact -0.6 4.7 2.6 0.5

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact -1.1 3.8 3.0 1.0 0.9 7.2 1.3 -1.1

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -2.6 1.7 5.2 3.8

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 0.4 1.9 1.4 1.7

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact -1.0 7.8 2.4 -2.4

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.3 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 0.5 3.7 2.8 0.0 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 2.2 4.1 0.2 -1.6 # -4.5 2.5 10.7 * 4.8 # Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 1.0 -0.2 0.5 4.1 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 2.0 7.7 -0.4 -8.1 * # Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 3.6 4.8 0.6 -0.6

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 94.4 98.9 162

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 95.6 96.4 206

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 1.3 5.9 -1.1 -1.0

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 1.3 5.4 -1.4 -0.5 1.2 7.2 -0.2 -2.5

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 2.1 8.3 -2.3 -2.8

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 0.6 3.1 -0.4 1.2

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 1.3 4.9 -1.5 0.0

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.4 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 2.1 -0.3 1.4 3.4 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 3.4 0.3 0.2 2.6 -1.8 -2.1 5.0 5.6 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 2.7 4.6 1.6 -1.5 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 4.1 -3.5 -0.2 1.9 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 3.3 -0.3 -0.8 7.5

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 87.7 93.4 148

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 89.2 92.8 200

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 1.6 4.9 -0.9 0.9

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 1.2 3.8 -0.5 1.8 3.0 8.2 -2.0 -1.7

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 4.3 4.4 -2.1 2.7

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 1.8 2.5 -1.9 2.7

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact -2.6 4.7 2.4 0.0

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.5 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.2 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 2.0 2.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 -1.6 4.0 3.2 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 0.8 1.0 1.4 2.3 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 0.7 1.3 0.0 -0.2 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 4.5 5.8 0.7 -0.5

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 89.3 96.9 187

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 92.0 96.1 207

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact -1.1 5.7 1.9 -1.0

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact -1.4 5.3 2.0 -0.5 0.0 7.1 1.4 -2.7

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -4.1 6.0 3.1 -0.6

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact -0.9 2.5 2.3 1.9

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 0.6 7.2 0.6 -2.6

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.6 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack and Low Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 5.2 -0.3 -0.7 4.5 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 5.2 1.1 -1.1 3.9 5.1 -4.5 0.5 6.6 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 1.0 11.1 4.2 -8.8 # Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 9.4 -6.0 -3.4 7.2 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 5.3 -1.8 -4.1 13.2 *

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 83.0 89.8 81

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 84.3 90.2 111

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 0.7 7.0 0.5 -2.8

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact -0.1 6.6 1.1 -3.1 3.2 8.1 -1.4 -2.2

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 1.6 3.8 1.1 2.0

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 1.2 5.1 -2.1 -3.7

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact -3.0 11.0 4.2 -7.5

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.7 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack and High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 4.0 0.9 -0.3 1.0 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 5.0 0.6 -1.1 3.0 1.3 1.6 2.3 -5.0 # Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 2.6 1.2 0.4 2.6 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 2.4 -8.9 -0.1 8.4 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 9.9 9.5 -3.7 -2.1

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 83.2 93.9 92

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 87.4 95.2 90

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact -1.5 3.9 3.1 1.0

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact -2.1 3.0 3.6 2.1 0.2 6.7 1.6 -2.2

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -3.6 1.3 5.1 5.3

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact -1.4 1.1 4.9 3.7

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact -1.3 6.5 0.8 -2.7

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.8 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack and High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 1.2 4.5 0.8 -0.5 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 1.2 5.9 -0.6 -3.3 # 1.1 0.4 5.2 7.9 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -0.2 2.4 1.0 0.2 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 0.7 13.8 -2.5 -11.8 # Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 3.2 1.5 -0.5 1.7

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 95.1 99.7 95

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 95.9 96.8 117

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 0.5 7.4 0.2 -3.0

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 0.5 6.9 0.1 -2.4 0.8 9.0 0.4 -4.7

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -2.0 13.0 0.0 -9.4 * #

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 1.0 1.0 1.2 3.3

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 2.5 6.6 -0.9 -1.2

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.9 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders Eligible for FRPL All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 1.5 -0.3 0.7 1.9 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 3.0 1.3 -0.6 0.4 -2.8 -5.2 4.6 6.4 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 2.3 0.4 -0.5 0.7 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 2.9 2.0 0.2 -4.2 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 3.7 1.4 -1.3 4.6

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 88.0 95.2 193

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 89.1 93.4 230

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 2.2 8.4 -1.7 -5.5 * # #

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 2.3 7.6 -1.9 -5.1 * # 1.9 10.5 -1.0 -6.7 *

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 4.3 8.9 -2.3 -6.1 # #

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 1.9 5.1 -2.4 -3.3

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 0.8 8.9 -1.0 -6.0

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.10 Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders Ineligible for FRPL All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact 2.3 1.4 1.0 3.1 Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact 1.8 0.8 0.7 3.5 3.6 3.2 1.8 1.8 Spell Read Control B Gain Impact 1.0 3.7 1.5 1.7 Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact 0.6 -6.1 -0.4 6.7 Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 3.9 4.8 0.9 2.0

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 89.5 95.6 142

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation Sample Size

Baseline 92.7 95.9 177

All Interventions Control ABCD Gain Impact -1.2 3.0 2.1 3.1 # #

Word-level interventions Failure Free Reading Control BCD Control A Gain Impact Gain Impact -1.4 2.1 2.1 4.2 * # -0.8 5.5 2.1 -0.3

Spell Read Control B Gain Impact -4.0 2.5 4.4 5.1 # #

Wilson Reading Control C Gain Impact -1.4 -0.5 3.0 6.2

Corrective Reading Control D Gain Impact 1.3 4.3 -0.9 1.5

* Impact is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Impact is statistically different from overall impact for that grade at the 0.05 level.

Table E.11 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders All interventions ABCD Test p 3.33 4.70 0.06 0.03 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.72 2.41 0.50 0.12 Failure Free Reading A Test p 5.51 3.26 0.02 0.07 Spell Read B Test p 1.33 0.61 0.25 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 0.04 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.27 3.00 0.50 0.08

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 1.37 0.05 0.24 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 1.21 0.06 0.27 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.22 0.93 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.96 0.06 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.31 0.54 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.19 0.30 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.12 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.07 5.90 0.50 0.01 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.46 5.76 0.50 0.02 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.61 0.54 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.18 0.00 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.77 3.82 0.50 0.05 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.36 3.40 0.50 0.06

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 2.68 0.07 0.10 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.73 0.22 0.09 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.19 0.09 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 3.34 1.21 0.06 0.27

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.19 0.19 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.61 0.40 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.13 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 2.85 0.00 0.09 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.02 0.49 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 10.99 1.62 0.00 0.20 Spell Read B Test p 0.04 1.65 0.50 0.20 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 4.24 0.50 0.04 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.03 0.03 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.69 0.34 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.84 0.07 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.00 0.56 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.80 0.68 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.02 0.11 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.36 0.00 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.14 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Peabody Picture Vocabular Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.79 1.44 0.50 0.23 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.02 0.70 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 3.27 1.24 0.07 0.26 Spell Read B Test p 0.38 0.09 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 0.12 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.08 2.10 0.50 0.14

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.17 0.16 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.04 0.45 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.38 0.23 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.44 0.69 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.21 0.40 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.34 0.00 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.15 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 1.62 0.27 0.20 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.25 0.04 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 3.33 0.56 0.06 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.42 0.33 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.08 0.01 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 2.96 0.45 0.08 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.42 0.06 0.12 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.54 0.97 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 1.70 0.04 0.19 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.92 0.33 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.10 0.85 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.16 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack and Low Screening PPVT Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.09 2.15 0.50 0.14 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.17 1.21 0.50 0.27 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.01 1.65 0.50 0.20 Spell Read B Test p 1.10 2.91 0.29 0.08 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.33 0.90 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.88 5.18 0.50 0.02

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.03 0.86 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.11 0.69 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.10 0.20 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.08 0.20 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.19 0.45 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.65 1.63 0.50 0.20

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.17 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack and High Screening PVVT Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.01 0.15 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.16 0.98 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.33 1.47 0.50 0.22 Spell Read B Test p 0.01 0.35 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 2.29 0.50 0.13 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.50 0.14 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 2.75 0.18 0.09 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.76 0.59 0.09 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.21 0.25 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 2.03 1.38 0.15 0.24

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.44 0.52 0.23 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.05 0.37 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.18 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack and High Screening PVVT Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.20 0.04 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.08 1.09 0.50 0.30 Failure Free Reading A Test p 2.41 2.94 0.12 0.08 Spell Read B Test p 0.12 0.00 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.33 3.38 0.50 0.06 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.02 0.12 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.01 2.22 0.50 0.13

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.00 0.96 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.02 1.76 0.50 0.18

Spell Read B Test p 0.00 4.34 0.50 0.03

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.07 0.46 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.07 0.15 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.19 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders Eligible for Free or Reduced Price School Lunch All interventions ABCD Test p 0.19 0.68 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.09 0.02 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 3.27 3.65 0.07 0.05 Spell Read B Test p 0.04 0.04 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 1.64 0.50 0.20 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.19 1.36 0.50 0.24

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 1.22 7.89 0.27 0.01

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 1.25 5.33 0.26 0.02

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.18 4.64 0.50 0.03

Spell Read B Test p 0.87 3.50 0.50 0.06

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.82 0.82 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.16 3.23 0.50 0.07

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.20 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price School Lunch All interventions ABCD Test p 0.31 1.47 0.50 0.22 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.10 1.24 0.50 0.26 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.55 0.23 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.40 0.20 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 0.81 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.13 0.21 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 3.00 2.84 0.08 0.09

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.20 3.91 0.13 0.05

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.73 0.01 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 3.57 2.08 0.06 0.15

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.15 2.25 0.28 0.13

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.14 0.17 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.21 Tests for Differences in Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders All interventions ABCD Test p WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation 0.24 3.70 0.50 0.05 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.02 1.23 0.50 0.27 Failure Free Reading A Test p 1.78 4.43 0.18 0.03 Spell Read B Test p 0.01 0.23 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.20 0.09 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.01 3.15 0.50 0.07

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table E.22 Tests for Differences of Impacts for Students with Low Baseline Word Attack Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 1.98 2.54 0.16 0.11 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.24 4.41 0.50 0.03 Failure Free Reading A Test p 4.55 0.29 0.03 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.01 0.73 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.20 7.78 0.50 0.01 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.24 1.95 0.50 0.16

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 2.29 0.31 0.13 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.48 0.24 0.11 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.10 0.08 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 2.72 1.66 0.10 0.19

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.13 0.01 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.67 0.22 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table E.23 Tests for the Difference in Impacts for Students with Low Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.00 0.30 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.05 0.21 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.07 0.12 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.01 0.29 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 0.07 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.17 1.03 0.50 0.31

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 1.35 0.53 0.24 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.82 0.53 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.84 0.06 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 1.76 0.62 0.18 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.80 0.02 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.15 0.28 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table E.24 Tests for the Difference in Impacts for Students with Low Baseline Word Attack and Low Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.94 0.39 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.40 0.26 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.99 0.19 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.33 5.46 0.50 0.02 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.27 0.88 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 1.01 3.11 0.31 0.07

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.07 0.65 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.00 0.85 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.28 0.00 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.00 0.03 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.60 0.85 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.47 0.99 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table E.25 Tests for the Difference in Impacts for Students with Low Baseline Word Attack and High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.64 0.30 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.52 0.17 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.13 4.22 0.50 0.04 Spell Read B Test p 0.04 0.07 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 2.44 0.50 0.11 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.81 1.24 0.50 0.26

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 2.94 0.66 0.08 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.93 0.83 0.08 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.25 0.00 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 2.08 2.03 0.15 0.15

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.54 0.21 0.21 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.09 0.10 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table E.26 Tests for Differences in Impacts for Students with High Baseline Word Attack and High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.00 2.12 0.50 0.14 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.05 4.40 0.50 0.03 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.15 0.86 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.00 0.30 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.07 4.42 0.50 0.03 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.00 0.83 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.56 2.41 0.50 0.12

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.60 1.89 0.50 0.17

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.02 0.52 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.40 6.37 0.50 0.01

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.02 0.01 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.37 0.00 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table E.27 Tests for Differences in Impacts for Students Eligible for Free or Reduced Price School Lunch All interventions ABCD Test p 0.01 0.12 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.19 0.61 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.71 0.88 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.34 0.04 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 1.81 0.50 0.17 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.33 0.21 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

Grade 5 WJ-III Spelling WJ-III Calculation

All interventions ABCD Test p 3.65 0.05 11.34 0.00

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 3.14 10.19 0.07 0.00

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.81 1.99 0.50 0.15

Spell Read B Test p 3.73 6.03 0.05 0.01

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.90 3.24 0.16 0.07

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.00 2.71 0.50 0.10

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table F.1 Comparison of Impacts and Variances from Two- and Three-level Models All Interventions Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances -0.08 0.92 0.03 0.80 0.55 0.10 0.21 0.03 -0.11 0.60 0.80 0.81 0.45 0.74 Word-level interventions Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances -0.19 0.92 0.02 0.81 0.60 0.17 0.19 -0.10 -0.15 0.60 0.80 0.81 0.44 0.75 Failure Free Reading Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.26 0.89 0.08 0.79 0.38 -0.11 0.27 0.40 0.03 0.55 0.78 0.77 0.43 0.72 Spell Read Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances -0.45 0.87 -0.03 0.79 0.70 0.05 -0.14 0.10 -0.37 0.51 0.74 0.76 0.39 0.72 Wilson Reading Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.23 0.92 -0.19 0.79 0.38 -0.29 -0.07 0.34 0.43 0.57 0.78 0.78 0.42 0.72 Corrective Reading Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances -0.35 0.95 0.28 0.82 0.73 0.75 0.80 -0.73 -0.51 0.64 0.85 0.84 0.46 0.77

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All Interventions Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.23 0.90 -0.12 0.77 0.11 0.04 -0.50 0.42 0.08 0.72 0.92 0.82 0.74 0.91

Word-level interventions Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.25 0.90 -0.13 0.76 0.43 0.10 -0.50 0.31 0.14 0.73 0.93 0.82 0.76 0.91

Failure Free Reading Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.16 0.92 -0.08 0.79 -0.84 -0.13 -0.48 0.76 -0.12 0.67 0.92 0.84 0.67 0.92

Spell Read Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances -0.11 0.90 -0.04 0.78 1.06 0.14 -0.31 0.22 -0.24 0.67 0.94 0.84 0.68 0.91

Wilson Reading Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.81 0.91 -0.11 0.78 0.77 0.42 0.07 1.36 -0.08 0.67 0.96 0.83 0.75 0.94

Corrective Reading Diff. In Ratio of Impacts Variances 0.06 0.87 -0.23 0.72 -0.54 -0.25 -1.27 -0.66 0.75 0.75 0.91 0.77 0.74 0.86

Table K.2 Test Statistics for Tests of Instructional Hours Across Interventions Dependent Variable Hours in groups of 3 students Hours in groups of 3 Students Hours in groups of 3 Students Hours in groups of 2 Students Hours in groups of 2 Students Hours in groups of 2 Students Hours in group of 1 Student Hours in group of 1 Student Hours in group of 1 Student Total Hours Total Hours Total Hours Test Corrective Reading vs. Failure Free Spell Read vs. Failure Free Wilson Reading vs. Failure Free Corrective Reading vs. Failure Free Spell Read vs. Failure Free Wilson Reading vs. Failure Free Corrective Reading vs. Failure Free Spell Read vs. Non-Spell Read Wilson Reading vs. Failure Free Corrective Reading vs. Failure Free Spell Read vs. Failure Free Wilson Reading vs. Failure Free Numerator DF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Denominator DF 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 F Value 0.93 0.64 0.83 0.18 0.85 0.19 2.18 0.41 1.55 0.36 0.47 0.34 p-Value 0.35 0.43 0.37 0.67 0.37 0.66 0.15 0.53 0.23 0.55 0.5 0.56

Table K.3 Test Statistics for Tests of Number of Substitute Hours Dependent Variable Substitute Teacher Hours Substitute Teacher Hours Substitute Teacher Hours Effect Corrective Reading vs. Failure Free Spell Read vs. Failure Free Wilson Reading vs. Failure Free Numerator DF Denominator DF 1 23 1 23 1 23 F Value 1.35 0.41 1.49 p-Value 0.26 0.53 0.23

Table K.4 Test Statistics for Tests of Specialist One-on-One Hours Dependent Variable One-One-One Specialist Hours One-One-One Specialist Hours One-One-One Specialist Hours Effect Corrective Reading vs. Failure Free Spell Read vs. Failure Free Wilson Reading vs. Failure Free Num DF 1 1 1 Den DF 23 23 23 F Value 0 0.4 1.71 p-Value 0.95 0.54 0.2

Table M.1 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders All interventions Standard Error 1.14 1.19 0.70 0.88 1.90 1.63 2.01 335 All interventions Standard Error 0.73 0.76 0.60 0.65 1.57 0.80 1.20 407 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.31 1.38 0.81 1.02 2.19 1.88 2.32 242 Word-level interventions Standard Error 0.84 0.87 0.69 0.75 1.79 0.92 1.39 281 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.09 2.22 1.30 1.62 3.46 3.08 3.70 93 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 1.37 1.42 1.10 1.23 2.97 1.49 2.23 126 Spell Read Standard Error 2.08 2.22 1.29 1.62 3.46 3.05 3.71 92 Spell Read Standard Error 1.39 1.43 1.11 1.23 2.92 1.49 2.26 104 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.30 2.37 1.38 1.75 3.75 3.25 3.97 71 Wilson Reading Standard Error 1.48 1.54 1.20 1.31 3.16 1.65 2.46 91 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.28 2.43 1.43 1.78 3.85 3.35 4.13 79 Corrective Reading Standard Error 1.40 1.47 1.18 1.24 3.03 1.52 2.32 86

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.2 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack Scores All interventions Standard Error 1.76 1.54 0.78 1.23 2.14 2.34 2.70 173 All interventions Standard Error 1.06 1.12 0.71 0.88 2.80 0.99 1.99 201 Word-level interventions Standard Error 2.07 1.80 0.91 1.44 2.51 2.73 3.17 115 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.23 1.29 0.82 1.01 3.23 1.14 2.29 144 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 3.09 2.70 1.31 2.14 3.51 4.25 4.73 58 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.00 2.08 1.31 1.66 5.26 1.86 3.70 57 Spell Read Standard Error 3.19 2.80 1.42 2.26 3.80 4.31 4.93 47 Spell Read Standard Error 1.87 2.00 1.24 1.54 5.04 1.71 3.58 62 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.85 3.27 1.68 2.59 4.60 4.88 5.72 31 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.06 2.24 1.40 1.71 5.55 1.97 3.99 44 Corrective Reading Standard Error 3.75 3.30 1.61 2.62 4.52 5.10 5.80 37 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.10 2.19 1.44 1.74 5.66 1.92 3.95 38

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.3 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack Scores All interventions Standard Error 1.32 1.23 1.10 1.08 3.51 1.86 2.49 162 All interventions Standard Error 1.27 0.92 0.91 0.95 2.07 1.08 1.76 206 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.51 1.42 1.28 1.24 4.05 2.15 2.88 127 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.46 1.07 1.04 1.09 2.39 1.25 2.03 137 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.55 2.34 2.06 2.09 6.62 3.41 4.66 35 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.43 1.73 1.71 1.80 3.96 2.05 3.35 69 Spell Read Standard Error 2.30 2.10 1.91 1.83 6.09 3.13 4.14 45 Spell Read Standard Error 2.49 1.87 1.75 1.90 4.17 2.11 3.48 42 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.64 2.53 2.27 2.20 7.23 3.90 5.21 40 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.62 1.93 1.87 1.97 4.35 2.32 3.68 47 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.57 2.40 2.18 2.09 6.93 3.62 4.86 42 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.38 1.68 1.69 1.76 3.79 1.95 3.30 48

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.4 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low PPVT Test Scores All interventions Standard Error 1.79 1.43 0.95 1.44 3.19 2.01 2.48 148 All interventions Standard Error 1.52 1.26 1.03 1.29 3.47 2.57 2.16 200 Word-level interventions Standard Error 2.00 1.58 1.04 1.62 3.55 2.27 2.76 110 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.75 1.45 1.19 1.48 3.95 2.99 2.48 147 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 3.18 2.52 1.67 2.57 5.56 3.57 4.36 38 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.30 1.87 1.56 1.99 5.42 4.20 3.26 53 Spell Read Standard Error 3.19 2.50 1.64 2.58 5.57 3.61 4.34 36 Spell Read Standard Error 2.09 1.68 1.43 1.82 4.85 4.24 2.92 57 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.38 2.59 1.64 2.67 5.73 3.90 4.52 43 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.70 2.15 1.86 2.27 6.18 5.06 3.70 54 Corrective Reading Standard Error 3.28 2.53 1.73 2.65 5.77 3.70 4.40 31 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.85 2.31 1.93 2.43 6.50 5.00 3.97 36

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.5 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with High PPVT Test Scores All interventions Standard Error 1.41 1.78 1.06 1.30 2.44 1.99 2.76 187 All interventions Standard Error 1.05 0.89 0.75 0.95 2.18 1.18 1.48 207 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.64 2.07 1.23 1.52 2.85 2.30 3.21 132 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.24 1.05 0.89 1.12 2.58 1.38 1.76 134 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.52 3.24 1.92 2.34 4.44 3.66 5.01 55 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 1.94 1.65 1.36 1.78 3.99 2.14 2.69 73 Spell Read Standard Error 2.46 3.17 1.88 2.27 4.35 3.61 4.87 56 Spell Read Standard Error 2.22 1.89 1.57 2.00 4.61 2.37 3.17 47 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.02 3.76 2.22 2.79 5.28 4.10 5.85 28 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.31 1.98 1.62 2.07 4.75 2.55 3.36 37 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.93 3.70 2.21 2.75 5.05 4.15 5.80 48 Corrective Reading Standard Error 1.95 1.66 1.43 1.79 4.09 2.22 2.73 50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.6 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low WA and Low PPVT Scores All interventions Standard Error 2.68 1.75 1.25 1.64 3.79 1.97 3.24 81 All interventions Standard Error 2.10 1.82 1.41 1.83 4.69 3.50 3.04 111 Word-level interventions Standard Error 3.07 1.99 1.40 1.81 4.23 2.23 3.68 55 Word-level interventions Standard Error 2.54 2.19 1.70 2.20 5.50 4.14 3.66 82 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 4.66 2.98 2.21 2.82 6.60 3.35 5.61 26 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 3.25 2.80 2.16 2.84 7.34 5.97 4.63 29 Spell Read Standard Error 4.79 2.99 2.23 2.90 6.73 3.35 5.75 23 Spell Read Standard Error 3.04 2.56 2.02 2.63 6.51 5.84 4.31 37 Wilson Reading Standard Error 6.84 4.51 3.05 3.93 9.15 4.83 8.16 15 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.77 3.24 2.63 3.26 8.06 6.84 5.40 26 Corrective Reading Standard Error 5.20 3.28 2.44 3.12 7.36 3.69 6.29 17 Corrective Reading Standard Error 4.01 3.44 2.70 3.51 8.75 7.08 5.72 19

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.7 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low WA and High PPVT Scores All interventions Standard Error 2.20 2.07 1.35 1.64 3.34 2.56 2.81 92 All interventions Standard Error 1.47 1.53 1.00 1.64 4.07 1.41 2.51 90 Word-level interventions Standard Error 2.60 2.44 1.59 1.95 3.96 3.00 3.36 60 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.68 1.77 1.16 1.91 4.73 1.63 2.87 62 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 3.72 3.54 2.32 2.79 5.55 4.53 4.67 32 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.85 2.87 1.90 3.04 7.46 2.66 4.77 28 Spell Read Standard Error 3.95 3.70 2.59 2.98 6.25 4.65 5.06 24 Spell Read Standard Error 2.91 3.02 1.97 3.18 7.95 2.70 4.93 25 Wilson Reading Standard Error 4.67 4.41 2.80 3.53 7.02 5.28 6.01 16 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.05 3.20 2.09 3.49 8.46 3.04 5.21 18 Corrective Reading Standard Error 4.73 4.54 2.80 3.61 7.11 5.58 6.06 20 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.90 3.00 2.01 3.18 8.08 2.72 5.02 19

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.8 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders with High WA and High PPVT Scores All interventions Standard Error 1.65 1.99 1.65 1.51 4.24 2.33 2.66 95 All interventions Standard Error 1.55 1.40 1.15 1.30 2.72 1.57 2.54 117 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.93 2.35 1.95 1.77 4.94 2.76 3.11 72 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.89 1.71 1.40 1.58 3.37 1.90 3.08 72 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.89 3.44 2.80 2.60 7.51 3.86 4.61 23 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.73 2.46 2.08 2.32 4.72 2.81 4.57 45 Spell Read Standard Error 2.55 3.20 2.60 2.34 6.85 3.53 4.11 32 Spell Read Standard Error 3.41 3.10 2.55 2.83 6.12 3.33 5.43 22 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.91 4.66 3.91 3.53 9.53 5.63 6.22 12 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.67 3.32 2.67 3.11 6.69 3.75 6.03 19 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.96 3.75 3.13 2.77 8.13 4.32 4.79 28 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.60 2.45 1.98 2.22 4.42 2.74 4.47 31

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.9 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders Eligible for FRPL All interventions Standard Error 1.78 1.79 0.94 1.38 3.34 1.98 2.58 193 All interventions Standard Error 1.38 1.15 0.86 1.25 2.74 1.17 1.97 230 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.99 2.02 1.03 1.53 3.72 2.24 2.85 144 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.55 1.29 0.97 1.41 3.09 1.32 2.22 162 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.83 2.87 1.42 2.14 5.18 3.33 3.94 49 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.06 1.69 1.27 1.86 4.17 1.82 2.99 68 Spell Read Standard Error 2.96 3.13 1.45 2.30 5.53 3.53 4.21 52 Spell Read Standard Error 2.20 1.76 1.37 1.96 4.27 1.86 3.13 56 Wilson Reading Standard Error 3.02 2.99 1.36 2.15 5.43 3.48 3.99 47 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.39 1.96 1.51 2.22 4.79 2.13 3.46 60 Corrective Reading Standard Error 3.24 3.38 1.59 2.47 6.04 3.88 4.64 45 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.28 1.86 1.39 2.08 4.66 1.92 3.31 46

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.10 Standard Errors of Impact Estimates for 3rd and 5th Graders Ineligible for FRPL All interventions Standard Error 1.67 1.30 1.43 1.24 3.44 2.09 2.98 142 All interventions Standard Error 1.12 1.11 0.81 1.02 2.42 1.19 1.69 177 Word-level interventions Standard Error 2.08 1.60 1.76 1.55 4.18 2.52 3.65 98 Word-level interventions Standard Error 1.32 1.29 0.95 1.18 2.81 1.39 1.98 119 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.49 2.02 2.21 1.77 5.67 3.47 4.70 44 Failure Free Reading Standard Error 2.21 2.21 1.58 2.05 4.87 2.34 3.35 58 Spell Read Standard Error 2.55 2.06 2.23 1.82 5.69 3.48 4.73 40 Spell Read Standard Error 2.16 2.10 1.53 1.93 4.62 2.22 3.26 48 Wilson Reading Standard Error 5.09 3.76 4.18 3.85 9.57 5.66 8.48 24 Wilson Reading Standard Error 2.51 2.48 1.77 2.27 5.32 2.72 3.83 31 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.74 2.21 2.44 1.94 6.04 3.78 5.25 34 Corrective Reading Standard Error 2.20 2.16 1.65 1.98 4.74 2.30 3.27 40

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE Sample Size

Table M.11 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders All interventions ABCD Test p 19.26 6.27 10.55 9.67 6.65 0.55 5.33 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.50 0.02 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 27.07 10.31 10.19 7.42 7.25 0.14 3.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.50 0.05 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.06 0.35 1.08 2.62 0.29 0.79 2.04 0.50 0.50 0.30 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.15 Spell Read B Test p 9.66 10.22 2.38 0.17 0.09 0.01 1.74 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.18 Wilson Reading C Test p 14.66 5.94 3.15 3.05 2.52 0.09 1.11 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.08 0.11 0.50 0.29 Corrective Reading D Test p 5.17 0.02 5.32 6.61 7.73 0.07 1.02 0.02 0.50 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.50 0.31

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 13.13 3.50 0.69 4.41 1.63 2.61 0.02 0.00 0.06 0.50 0.03 0.20 0.10 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 20.83 3.09 1.57 2.82 2.40 3.09 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.21 0.09 0.12 0.07 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.46 0.57 0.30 1.92 0.01 0.04 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 14.42 8.30 0.01 2.81 1.50 0.16 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.09 0.22 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 8.84 0.86 3.13 0.14 0.00 2.28 0.27 0.00 0.50 0.07 0.50 0.50 0.13 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 1.79 1.69 0.08 3.10 2.59 1.35 0.02 0.18 0.19 0.50 0.07 0.10 0.24 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.12 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack scores All interventions ABCD Test p 6.65 4.73 4.83 2.81 0.59 0.33 6.15 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.50 0.50 0.01 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 10.05 8.87 5.21 2.73 0.66 0.23 5.02 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.09 0.50 0.50 0.02 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.22 1.00 0.19 0.26 0.02 0.12 1.36 0.50 0.32 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.24 Spell Read B Test p 3.53 7.81 0.17 0.12 1.93 0.16 2.17 0.06 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.16 0.50 0.14 Wilson Reading C Test p 4.07 3.08 4.60 2.75 2.48 0.41 0.64 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.09 0.11 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 2.46 0.58 1.64 1.92 0.86 0.03 2.64 0.11 0.50 0.20 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.10

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 9.83 2.08 5.93 2.09 0.26 0.98 0.38 0.00 0.14 0.01 0.14 0.50 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 14.78 2.00 3.94 2.06 0.10 1.92 0.17 0.00 0.15 0.04 0.15 0.50 0.16 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.15 0.22 2.37 0.20 0.26 0.20 0.31 0.50 0.50 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 18.42 10.86 0.01 3.16 1.32 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.07 0.25 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 2.04 1.82 2.24 1.68 0.09 0.22 1.04 0.15 0.17 0.13 0.19 0.50 0.50 0.31

Corrective Reading D Test p 2.26 0.76 3.51 4.81 0.62 2.15 0.12 0.13 0.50 0.06 0.03 0.50 0.14 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.13 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 10.75 5.10 7.20 3.95 1.24 0.45 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.27 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 15.02 6.97 6.22 1.27 1.71 1.61 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.26 0.19 0.20 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.01 0.00 1.24 4.40 0.00 0.89 0.32 0.50 0.50 0.26 0.03 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 7.27 8.00 0.72 0.23 0.15 0.09 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 6.55 5.16 1.64 0.02 0.70 4.58 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.20 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 3.24 0.03 5.33 2.05 1.17 0.10 0.01 0.07 0.50 0.02 0.15 0.28 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 1.61 2.13 0.43 3.33 6.53 0.10 0.91 0.20 0.14 0.50 0.06 0.01 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.93 1.14 0.00 1.06 5.32 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.29 0.50 0.30 0.02 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.18 1.29 1.98 3.87 1.38 0.08 2.98 0.50 0.26 0.16 0.05 0.24 0.50 0.08

Spell Read B Test p 1.30 1.06 0.02 1.28 8.66 0.02 0.14 0.25 0.30 0.50 0.26 0.00 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.10 0.03 0.32 0.11 0.02 0.50 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.65 0.49 0.56 0.10 1.66 0.35 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.19 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.14 Test Statistics and Pp-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Peabody Picture Vocabular Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 7.52 2.51 1.87 6.19 0.02 0.49 4.31 0.01 0.11 0.17 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.04 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 9.31 2.54 1.66 6.28 0.00 0.10 3.62 0.00 0.11 0.19 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.05 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.15 0.34 0.47 0.73 0.15 0.92 1.24 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.26 Spell Read B Test p 5.45 2.70 0.00 0.73 0.18 0.03 0.88 0.02 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 3.87 1.33 0.12 3.37 0.03 0.16 0.65 0.05 0.25 0.50 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 1.68 0.03 4.01 3.65 0.05 1.40 3.33 0.19 0.50 0.04 0.05 0.50 0.23 0.06

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 6.99 4.21 2.16 9.18 0.08 0.57 0.31 0.01 0.04 0.14 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 10.14 2.87 4.19 7.10 0.12 0.61 0.44 0.00 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.09 2.52 0.64 3.51 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.50 0.11 0.50 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 4.66 3.89 0.28 3.46 1.53 0.10 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.50 0.06 0.21 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 5.85 0.84 7.62 1.55 0.09 0.07 0.23 0.01 0.50 0.01 0.21 0.50 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 3.99 0.84 2.25 5.42 0.34 0.72 2.52 0.04 0.50 0.13 0.02 0.50 0.50 0.11

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.15 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 15.43 2.10 5.65 4.74 7.55 1.01 4.07 0.00 0.14 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.31 0.04 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 20.59 4.66 6.38 2.36 8.81 0.52 2.32 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.12 0.00 0.50 0.12 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.01 0.90 0.14 3.46 0.11 0.69 2.31 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.12 Spell Read B Test p 9.59 8.36 1.86 0.14 0.15 0.09 1.30 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 Wilson Reading C Test p 14.82 1.23 4.11 0.73 3.20 0.40 1.61 0.00 0.27 0.04 0.50 0.07 0.50 0.20 Corrective Reading D Test p 1.09 0.00 1.03 1.85 7.93 0.10 0.09 0.30 0.50 0.31 0.17 0.01 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 8.34 2.87 0.21 0.09 0.31 3.99 0.04 0.00 0.09 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.04 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 11.01 3.17 0.10 0.02 0.50 4.35 0.18 0.00 0.07 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.01 0.06 0.16 0.13 0.02 0.12 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 8.73 11.14 0.12 0.55 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 2.89 2.30 0.00 0.62 0.11 5.53 1.23 0.08 0.13 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.02 0.27

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.87 1.92 0.03 0.13 3.36 1.19 0.59 0.50 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.06 0.28 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.16 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack and Low Screening PPVT Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 1.67 2.43 0.10 1.67 0.06 0.52 3.87 0.19 0.12 0.50 0.19 0.50 0.50 0.05 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.64 3.20 0.05 1.01 0.00 0.00 2.39 0.10 0.07 0.50 0.32 0.50 0.50 0.12 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.06 0.01 0.09 1.12 0.27 2.70 2.25 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.10 0.13 Spell Read B Test p 5.80 2.12 0.50 0.01 0.35 0.33 0.50 0.02 0.14 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.15 0.55 0.10 0.03 0.37 0.27 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 1.35 0.83 1.98 2.64 1.60 1.55 3.78 0.24 0.50 0.16 0.10 0.20 0.21 0.05

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 3.21 5.08 0.41 3.92 2.72 2.53 1.04 0.07 0.02 0.50 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.31

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 5.37 3.66 0.10 2.53 1.79 3.47 1.30 0.02 0.05 0.50 0.11 0.18 0.06 0.25

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.63 1.82 0.88 1.97 1.47 0.02 0.00 0.50 0.17 0.50 0.16 0.22 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 7.48 5.71 0.26 2.28 0.58 0.57 0.92 0.01 0.02 0.50 0.13 0.50 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.06 0.33 0.12 0.68 0.32 1.18 0.00 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.28 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 1.85 1.82 0.41 1.20 2.05 2.54 2.21 0.17 0.17 0.50 0.27 0.15 0.11 0.13

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.17 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with Low Baseline Word Attack and High Screening PVVT Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 3.32 1.22 1.58 2.10 0.16 0.95 6.90 0.06 0.27 0.21 0.14 0.50 0.50 0.01 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 4.13 3.26 2.29 1.78 0.24 0.99 5.03 0.04 0.07 0.13 0.18 0.50 0.50 0.02 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.00 1.35 0.04 0.38 0.00 0.05 2.17 0.50 0.24 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.14 Spell Read B Test p 1.26 5.40 0.04 0.00 1.49 0.31 1.11 0.26 0.02 0.50 0.50 0.22 0.50 0.29 Wilson Reading C Test p 7.93 1.17 4.19 3.24 2.20 2.60 7.26 0.01 0.28 0.04 0.07 0.13 0.10 0.01 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.14 0.00 0.11 0.15 0.18 0.15 0.03 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 5.76 0.15 1.98 0.00 0.02 0.48 1.00 0.02 0.50 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 7.76 0.51 1.03 0.01 0.18 0.63 0.31 0.01 0.50 0.31 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.00 0.23 1.24 0.10 0.27 0.00 1.20 0.50 0.50 0.26 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.27

Spell Read B Test p 7.86 7.38 0.00 1.13 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.32 2.22 0.17 2.04 0.00 1.35 3.05 0.25 0.13 0.50 0.15 0.50 0.24 0.08

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.68 0.01 1.65 0.46 1.36 0.04 0.53 0.50 0.50 0.20 0.50 0.24 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.18 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders with High Baseline Word Attack and High Screening PVVT Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 15.10 1.62 2.85 0.11 2.67 2.29 0.47 0.00 0.20 0.09 0.50 0.10 0.13 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 21.43 2.95 2.79 0.31 3.24 4.48 1.23 0.00 0.08 0.09 0.50 0.07 0.03 0.27 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.18 0.32 0.24 3.54 0.02 0.80 0.46 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 24.52 5.26 0.26 0.79 0.13 0.08 1.06 0.00 0.02 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.30 Wilson Reading C Test p 4.20 1.69 0.77 1.00 1.60 11.09 0.43 0.04 0.19 0.50 0.50 0.20 0.00 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 4.40 0.11 2.57 0.93 2.25 0.27 0.18 0.03 0.50 0.10 0.50 0.13 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 3.91 6.14 0.43 2.18 2.30 2.42 0.20 0.05 0.01 0.50 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 4.59 4.97 0.29 0.74 1.30 1.81 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.18 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.00 0.94 0.13 2.40 1.11 0.55 2.54 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.12 0.29 0.50 0.11

Spell Read B Test p 3.98 3.46 0.07 0.94 1.35 0.83 0.75 0.04 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.24 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.75 0.61 0.08 0.55 0.02 0.48 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.71 1.61 1.23 0.19 1.52 0.55 0.02 0.50 0.20 0.27 0.50 0.22 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.19 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders Eligible for Free or Reduced Price School Lunch All interventions ABCD Test p 7.04 0.97 1.37 0.84 0.37 0.16 0.00 0.01 0.50 0.24 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 8.76 1.66 1.23 0.21 0.68 0.28 0.07 0.00 0.19 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.21 0.07 0.49 1.91 0.04 0.02 0.41 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 8.04 3.95 0.18 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.15 0.00 0.04 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 3.95 1.42 0.79 1.39 1.37 0.54 0.29 0.04 0.23 0.50 0.24 0.24 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 1.01 0.35 3.17 0.02 0.61 0.16 0.14 0.32 0.50 0.07 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.18 0.30 0.21 8.56 1.31 0.07 4.40 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.03

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.99 0.62 0.47 7.21 2.16 0.01 2.79 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.01 0.14 0.50 0.09

Failure Free Reading A Test p 1.21 0.09 0.10 3.02 0.07 0.22 3.28 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.50 0.07

Spell Read B Test p 0.13 2.74 0.75 3.92 4.05 0.19 3.80 0.50 0.09 0.50 0.04 0.04 0.50 0.05

Wilson Reading C Test p 1.61 0.37 3.85 0.19 0.02 0.15 1.44 0.20 0.50 0.05 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.23

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.12 0.49 0.02 9.80 0.88 0.46 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.20 Test Statistics and P-values of Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders not Eligible for Free or Reduced price School Lunch All interventions ABCD Test p 21.56 16.48 6.25 5.73 4.87 8.56 10.24 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.00 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 27.66 25.31 6.89 6.26 4.04 7.15 8.39 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.00 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.48 2.29 0.05 0.02 0.81 1.47 1.85 0.50 0.13 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.22 0.17 Spell Read B Test p 10.50 9.18 1.20 0.07 0.04 0.65 1.59 0.00 0.00 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.20 Wilson Reading C Test p 14.77 21.88 3.45 1.79 1.01 11.85 5.10 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.18 0.32 0.00 0.02 Corrective Reading D Test p 3.36 0.02 2.20 12.76 5.76 0.89 1.58 0.06 0.50 0.13 0.00 0.02 0.50 0.21

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 10.86 1.13 0.00 0.00 0.02 3.25 0.51 0.00 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.07 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 14.91 0.66 0.25 0.32 0.01 2.96 0.88 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.08 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.04 0.49 1.04 0.94 0.01 0.37 0.05 0.50 0.50 0.31 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 17.01 5.21 0.35 0.33 0.02 0.34 0.30 0.00 0.02 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 2.66 0.74 0.07 0.03 0.00 3.85 0.53 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.05 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 1.03 0.05 0.00 1.93 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.31 0.50 0.50 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.21 Tests for Differences in Impacts for 3rd and 5th Graders All interventions ABCD Test p Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE 2.77 1.04 3.43 1.25 1.27 0.00 3.58 0.09 0.31 0.06 0.26 0.26 0.50 0.06 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 3.38 2.64 2.39 1.16 1.12 0.16 1.97 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.28 0.29 0.50 0.16 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.02 0.69 1.23 0.16 0.22 0.42 2.14 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.14 Spell Read B Test p 0.21 1.06 1.10 0.37 0.30 0.01 1.41 0.50 0.30 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.23 Wilson Reading C Test p 2.40 5.50 0.03 2.11 1.41 0.14 0.33 0.12 0.02 0.50 0.14 0.23 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 1.44 0.24 2.31 0.96 1.30 0.05 0.56 0.23 0.50 0.12 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5.

Table M.22 Tests for Differences of Impacts for Students with Low Baseline Word Attack Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.01 0.10 0.83 0.00 0.31 0.68 3.02 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.08 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.08 0.58 0.47 0.28 0.48 1.23 3.03 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.08 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.09 0.65 0.48 1.26 0.01 0.09 0.22 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.26 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.00 0.38 0.19 0.34 1.18 0.22 1.07 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.28 0.50 0.30 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.05 0.00 0.06 1.41 0.02 3.21 0.47 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.23 0.50 0.07 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.08 0.62 1.14 0.04 0.17 0.10 1.96 0.50 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.16

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.95 0.03 4.06 0.12 4.31 0.21 0.98 0.50 0.50 0.04 0.50 0.04 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 1.18 0.15 1.49 0.04 3.05 0.66 0.14 0.28 0.50 0.22 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.01 0.12 4.16 1.20 1.44 0.28 2.04 0.50 0.50 0.04 0.27 0.23 0.50 0.15

Spell Read B Test p 2.45 2.65 0.00 0.05 8.69 0.07 0.05 0.11 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 1.19 0.20 1.10 0.03 0.06 1.27 0.50 0.28 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.26

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.13 0.06 3.25 1.53 0.00 2.32 0.09 0.50 0.50 0.07 0.21 0.50 0.12 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table M.23 Tests for the Difference in Impacts for Students with Low Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.08 0.02 0.68 0.16 2.41 0.07 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.12 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.27 0.53 1.10 0.64 3.50 0.13 0.01 0.50 0.50 0.30 0.50 0.06 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.14 1.14 0.02 0.40 0.01 0.01 0.20 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.00 1.44 0.97 0.17 0.33 0.19 0.06 0.50 0.23 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 1.28 0.07 1.85 0.44 1.20 0.83 0.30 0.26 0.50 0.17 0.50 0.27 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.08 0.01 0.17 0.13 2.81 0.53 0.90 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.09 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.27 0.49 0.77 4.78 0.00 0.02 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.50 0.50 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.44 0.11 1.94 3.88 0.01 0.02 0.09 0.50 0.50 0.16 0.05 0.50 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.02 1.05 0.69 1.26 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.50 0.31 0.50 0.26 0.50 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 0.40 1.40 0.34 0.45 0.91 0.04 0.00 0.50 0.23 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.50 2.89 3.90 1.96 0.19 0.55 1.16 0.50 0.09 0.05 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.28

Corrective Reading D Test p 1.17 0.00 1.18 2.60 2.24 0.09 3.05 0.28 0.50 0.28 0.10 0.13 0.50 0.08

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table M.24 Tests for the Difference in Impacts for Students with Low Baseline Word Attack and Low Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.27 0.07 1.68 0.05 2.48 0.03 0.18 0.50 0.50 0.19 0.50 0.11 0.50 0.50 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.21 0.00 1.99 0.02 2.22 0.01 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.15 0.50 0.13 0.50 0.50 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.08 0.41 0.05 0.06 0.52 0.26 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 1.27 0.57 2.33 0.20 0.69 0.22 0.08 0.26 0.50 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 3.36 0.06 0.88 0.20 1.80 0.32 0.37 0.06 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.18 0.50 0.50 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.26 0.89 0.00 0.49 0.05 0.85 2.34 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.12

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.27 1.83 0.15 1.69 5.09 1.29 0.82 0.50 0.17 0.50 0.19 0.02 0.26 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.72 1.30 0.02 1.23 3.93 1.94 0.84 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.27 0.04 0.16 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.33 0.65 1.69 0.57 1.64 0.05 0.04 0.50 0.50 0.19 0.50 0.20 0.50 0.50

Spell Read B Test p 1.16 0.31 0.54 0.37 1.83 0.56 0.77 0.28 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.17 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 0.77 0.08 1.20 0.31 0.12 0.15 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.62 0.74 0.36 0.31 4.50 2.15 2.03 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.14 0.15

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table M.25 Tests for the Difference in Impacts for Students with Low baseline Word Attack and High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 0.04 0.20 0.03 0.00 0.27 0.75 2.81 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.09 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.18 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.26 1.49 2.33 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.22 0.12 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.17 1.63 0.42 0.11 0.02 0.21 0.55 0.50 0.20 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.53 0.52 0.03 0.01 1.33 0.52 0.57 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 1.94 0.05 1.42 1.90 0.47 4.96 5.33 0.16 0.50 0.23 0.16 0.50 0.02 0.02 Corrective Reading D Test p 2.34 0.04 0.59 1.03 0.28 0.62 0.19 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.31 0.50 0.50 0.50

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.44 0.53 1.34 0.80 0.26 0.01 1.81 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.18

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.34 0.07 0.34 0.25 0.05 0.02 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.11 1.19 1.91 1.01 0.47 0.01 3.47 0.50 0.28 0.16 0.32 0.50 0.50 0.06

Spell Read B Test p 0.87 2.63 0.09 0.12 1.25 0.05 0.02 0.50 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.26 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.00 2.35 0.26 2.12 0.01 0.39 3.41 0.50 0.12 0.50 0.14 0.50 0.50 0.06

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.01 0.20 1.63 0.12 0.66 0.04 0.78 0.50 0.50 0.20 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table M.26 Tests for Differences in Impacts for Students with High Baseline Word Attack and High Screening Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores All interventions ABCD Test p 1.12 0.02 0.32 1.32 1.09 2.43 5.76 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.30 0.11 0.02 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 1.66 0.01 0.30 3.38 1.57 3.59 6.55 0.19 0.50 0.50 0.06 0.21 0.05 0.01 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.02 0.03 0.04 1.07 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 4.65 0.05 0.01 0.92 0.39 0.09 4.04 0.03 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.04 Wilson Reading C Test p 0.01 0.02 0.14 3.89 0.61 10.63 1.61 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.05 0.50 0.00 0.20 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.16 0.29 0.23 0.07 0.70 0.35 2.20 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.13

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 0.07 1.32 2.60 0.00 0.27 1.53 0.32 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.21 0.50

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 0.14 1.14 2.87 0.13 0.03 0.90 0.02 0.50 0.29 0.09 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.03 0.17 0.04 0.49 0.64 0.75 2.28 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.13

Spell Read B Test p 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.00 0.46 0.65 0.53 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.23 1.09 2.36 0.98 0.17 0.06 0.22 0.50 0.30 0.12 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.15 0.28 3.59 3.88 0.01 0.46 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.05 0.05 0.50 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table M.27 Tests for Differences in Impacts for Students Eligible for Free or Reduced Price School Lunch All interventions ABCD Test p 1.35 3.10 2.03 0.83 1.28 6.63 5.97 0.24 0.07 0.15 0.50 0.26 0.01 0.01 Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.74 5.44 2.82 2.10 0.87 6.30 6.16 0.09 0.02 0.09 0.14 0.50 0.01 0.01 Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.52 0.60 0.03 0.98 0.60 0.79 0.43 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Spell Read B Test p 0.00 0.00 1.27 0.01 0.13 0.56 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.26 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Wilson Reading C Test p 5.07 9.83 2.20 0.34 0.09 11.86 5.32 0.02 0.00 0.13 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.02 Corrective Reading D Test p 0.14 0.42 0.07 4.39 1.20 1.10 1.48 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.27 0.29 0.22

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

All interventions ABCD Test p 2.98 0.11 0.15 4.55 0.60 2.04 4.17 0.08 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.50 0.15 0.04

Word-level interventions BCD Test p 2.93 0.00 0.02 5.22 1.06 1.64 3.45 0.08 0.50 0.50 0.02 0.30 0.20 0.06

Failure Free Reading A Test p 0.36 0.53 0.38 0.18 0.06 0.56 1.08 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.30

Spell Read B Test p 6.68 0.46 1.11 0.88 2.13 0.51 2.95 0.01 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.14 0.50 0.08

Wilson Reading C Test p 0.09 0.09 1.20 0.17 0.01 3.00 1.75 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.08 0.18

Corrective Reading D Test p 0.20 0.08 0.01 9.12 0.20 0.06 0.16 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50

Note: "Test" refers to the Chi-Square test statistic for a general linear hypothesis test (Wald Test) with 1 degree of freedom. "p" is the p-value produced by HLM5 software and is automatically set to 0.5 for values that exceed 0.5. Impacts are compared to the impacts for all students in that grade.

Table N.1 Change of Gain Scores for a One-unit Increase in Heterogeneity for Treatment Students with Low Baseline Word Attack All interventions ABCD Diff 0.05 -0.29 -0.12 0.17 0.28 0.02 0.03 All interventions ABCD Diff 0.33 0.08 -0.03 0.03 -0.44 -0.01 0.17 * * Word-level interventions BCD Diff 0.04 -0.29 -0.19 0.08 0.43 0.02 0.09 Word-level interventions BCD Diff 0.29 0.14 -0.03 0.04 -0.40 0.00 0.21 Failure Free Reading A Diff 0.10 -0.29 0.09 0.44 -0.15 0.01 -0.15 Failure Free Reading A Diff 0.47 -0.08 -0.03 -0.01 -0.56 -0.03 0.08 * * Spell Read B Diff -0.18 -0.38 -0.55 * -0.02 0.53 -0.35 0.68 Spell Read B Diff 0.10 0.21 -0.16 -0.14 -0.23 -0.08 -0.05 Wilson Reading C Diff 0.44 0.06 -0.11 0.10 0.15 0.30 -0.81 Wilson Reading C Diff 0.34 0.21 0.26 0.19 -0.07 0.04 0.45 Corrective Reading D Diff -0.15 -0.56 * 0.10 0.15 0.60 0.10 0.39 Corrective Reading D Diff 0.43 -0.01 -0.20 0.07 -0.90 0.03 0.21

Grade 3 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Grade 5 Word Attack TOWRE PDE Word Identification TOWRE SWE Aimsweb Passage Comprehension GRADE

Note: Heterogeneity is measured as the range in baseline word attack scores within a treatment instructional group. "Diff" refers to the difference in impacts for a one-unit increase in instructional group heterogeneity * Difference is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.1 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade with Low Baseline Word Attack Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 8.6 49 3 72 28 0 48 46 6 46 42 11 81.1 82.4 92.1 86.1 81.5 84.6 84.4 31.9 87.8 83.9 86.2 90.4 86.9 87.1 87.9 85.2 85.5 85.2 7.1 7.2 7.7 8.4 6.7 35 8.7 55 0 83 17 0 45 41 14 53 60 15 79.1 84.7 94.3 84.3 82.9 83.1 80.7 25.9 82.7 80.6 81.0 95.5 83.5 83.8 83.2 84.9 81.8 82.9 7.1 6.8 6.8 7.7 7.0 24 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 9.0 67 4 63 37 0 78 11 11 53 46 11 83.0 83.1 92.8 85.6 82.0 85.6 86.8 41.2 92.7 87.6 88.1 97.3 91.5 90.1 92.2 90.3 88.8 88.3 7.6 7.3 8.0 8.4 5.1 28 8.7 73 0 59 41 0 66 15 19 43 31 6 83.1 81.4 97.3 85.8 82.1 84.5 85.1 37.7 86.2 83.2 85.1 92.4 86.8 85.8 87.0 82.6 84.0 81.3 7.0 7.6 7.4 8.6 6.0 22 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 8.7 52 0 61 39 0 39 44 17 48 57 4 82.6 82.9 93.9 86.5 82.1 86.3 83.0 37.2 88.1 82.5 82.5 95.8 85.8 86.4 89.7 88.9 86.1 86.9 7.7 7.2 7.6 8.1 7.7 23 8.8 15 0 97 3 0 65 35 0 55 45 15 79.7 82.5 90.7 85.1 82.8 82.9 81.5 27.7 88.1 84.0 76.2 84.3 86.6 78.5 84.6 87.6 79.0 75.5 7.3 6.9 5.7 7.2 5.8 9 Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 8.6 58 0 64 36 0 42 31 27 42 42 15 81.7 82.2 97.5 86.2 81.9 85.4 81.8 35.0 89.4 87.6 87.6 91.2 87.3 81.3 87.0 88.1 81.8 82.3 7.8 6.7 7.8 8.2 7.8 21 8.6 60 0 78 22 0 47 6 47 43 67 17 76.4 84.2 95.0 82.0 81.6 85.4 77.5 17.7 80.5 74.6 74.9 86.3 85.3 81.5 82.1 86.4 80.3 82.7 7.5 5.4 7.0 7.9 5.2 18 8.62 0.49 0.03 0.72 0.28 0 0.48 0.46 0.06 0.46 0.42 0.11 8.65 0.55 0 0.83 0.17 0 0.45 0.41 0.14 0.53 0.6 0.15 9 0.67 0.04 0.63 0.37 0 0.78 0.11 0.11 0.53 0.46 0.11 8.74 0.73 0 0.59 0.41 0 0.66 0.15 0.19 0.43 0.31 0.06 8.73 0.52 0 0.61 0.39 0 0.39 0.44 0.17 0.48 0.57 0.04 8.85 0.15 0 0.97 0.03 0 0.65 0.35 0 0.55 0.45 0.15 8.63 0.58 0 0.64 0.36 0 0.42 0.31 0.27 0.42 0.42 0.15 8.6 0.6 0 0.78 0.22 0 0.47 0.06 0.47 0.43 0.67 0.17

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

#

* * * *

*

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.2 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade with Low Baseline Word Attack Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 10.6 62 3 71 29 0 56 32 12 47 39 14 80.1 77.3 93.2 85.4 76.7 85.1 80.1 63.5 90.5 87.8 89.8 91.0 87.6 89.7 91.8 87.1 87.0 90.3 6.8 7.3 7.0 7.8 8.2 29 10.6 54 0 91 9 0 54 29 18 44 41 14 82.3 75.1 94.8 83.9 76.8 83.1 82.6 60.0 86.2 90.2 88.1 90.3 89.8 94.4 96.5 93.3 92.1 89.6 6.6 6.3 8.1 8.9 7.1 30 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 11.0 65 0 69 31 0 54 43 3 56 33 6 81.2 74.8 90.8 83.9 73.1 85.0 80.5 71.1 87.9 86.6 85.4 93.0 89.3 91.2 94.2 89.9 90.2 91.1 7.1 5.6 7.4 8.2 9.4 36 10.7 40 0 59 41 0 43 53 4 29 30 7 84.2 75.4 92.8 82.7 75.3 85.1 85.4 80.2 91.1 87.8 86.3 91.7 93.2 96.2 96.1 92.1 94.9 94.5 6.5 6.0 8.4 8.4 7.9 28 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 10.8 62 0 68 32 0 74 26 0 60 36 0 80.4 77.6 95.3 83.8 78.2 84.3 80.0 64.2 88.1 88.9 85.7 93.8 88.4 87.1 88.3 87.8 86.1 83.9 6.8 6.0 6.7 6.7 9.3 25 10.4 65 0 50 50 0 53 41 6 44 38 15 84.0 79.5 99.7 86.1 76.0 86.4 82.5 70.9 93.1 91.6 88.4 95.4 82.9 86.7 89.8 83.0 89.7 90.3 6.4 7.0 7.0 8.0 6.6 19 * Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 10.8 32 0 79 21 0 40 40 21 44 44 21 78.2 74.7 93.2 82.5 74.4 85.2 78.8 59.5 87.6 84.4 83.3 91.5 92.9 91.3 92.8 91.9 89.5 86.3 6.3 6.5 8.9 9.5 4.8 29 10.8 68 6 87 13 0 54 40 7 35 48 11 80.7 72.2 94.8 84.1 74.3 81.3 80.0 66.2 88.4 87.7 79.4 94.8 87.2 87.2 88.4 86.4 86.6 84.5 7.0 6.5 7.2 8.0 5.5 13 10.62 0.62 0.03 0.71 0.29 0 0.56 0.32 0.12 0.47 0.39 0.14

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

#

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

10.59 0.54 0 0.91 0.09 0 0.54 0.29 0.18 0.44 0.41 0.14

11.01 0.65 0 0.69 0.31 0 0.54 0.43 0.03 0.56 0.33 0.06

10.72 0.4 0 0.59 0.41 0 0.43 0.53 0.04 0.29 0.3 0.07

10.81 0.62 0 0.68 0.32 0 0.74 0.26 0 0.6 0.36 0

10.41 0.65 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.53 0.41 0.06 0.44 0.38 0.15

10.78 0.32 0 0.79 0.21 0 0.4 0.4 0.21 0.44 0.44 0.21

10.76 0.68 0.06 0.87 0.13 0 0.54 0.4 0.07 0.35 0.48 0.11

Table R.3 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade with Low Baseline Word Attack All Interventions Treatment Control 8.7 56 2 66 34 0 53 33 14 47 46 10 82.0 82.6 93.8 86.1 81.8 85.4 84.2 35.9 89.4 85.3 86.2 93.3 87.9 86.5 89.2 87.8 85.6 85.6 7.5 7.1 7.8 8.3 6.8 107 8.7 54 0 77 23 0 55 25 20 48 50 13 79.9 83.2 94.7 84.4 82.4 83.9 81.5 28.1 84.3 80.7 80.1 90.7 85.4 83.0 84.4 85.0 81.6 81.3 7.2 6.8 6.8 7.9 6.2 73 Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 8.8 60 1 63 37 0 56 27 18 48 48 10 82.4 82.8 94.6 86.1 82.0 85.8 84.0 38.0 90.2 86.0 86.2 94.9 88.4 86.2 89.8 89.1 85.7 85.9 7.7 7.1 7.8 8.3 6.8 72 8.7 54 0 75 25 0 60 17 23 46 46 12 80.2 82.5 94.9 84.5 82.1 84.3 81.9 29.1 85.0 80.8 79.7 88.5 86.3 82.6 84.9 85.1 81.6 80.4 7.2 6.8 6.8 8.1 5.7 49 8.74 0.56 0.02 0.66 0.34 0 0.53 0.33 0.14 0.47 0.46 0.1 8.7 0.54 0 0.77 0.23 0 0.55 0.25 0.2 0.48 0.5 0.13 8.8 0.6 0.01 0.63 0.37 0 0.56 0.27 0.18 0.48 0.48 0.1 8.73 0.54 0 0.75 0.25 0 0.6 0.17 0.23 0.46 0.46 0.12

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

* * *

* * * *

* *

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.4 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade with Low Baseline Word Attack All Interventions Treatment Control 10.8 56 1 72 28 0 56 36 9 52 37 10 80.1 76.0 93.0 83.9 75.4 84.9 79.9 65.1 88.5 86.9 86.1 92.4 89.5 89.9 92.0 89.2 88.3 88.4 6.8 6.3 7.5 8.0 8.1 119 10.6 56 1 70 30 0 50 42 8 38 38 12 82.9 75.7 95.5 84.2 75.6 84.1 82.8 69.8 89.9 89.3 85.7 93.1 88.3 91.2 92.8 88.7 91.0 89.9 6.6 6.5 7.7 8.3 6.8 90 * Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 10.9 54 0 72 28 0 55 37 8 54 37 8 80.1 75.6 92.9 83.4 75.0 84.9 79.8 65.6 87.9 86.6 84.9 92.8 90.1 90.0 92.0 89.9 88.8 87.7 6.8 6.0 7.6 8.1 8.0 90 10.6 57 2 64 36 0 49 46 5 36 38 11 83.1 75.8 95.8 84.3 75.3 84.4 82.8 72.8 91.0 89.1 85.0 93.9 87.9 90.2 91.6 87.3 90.7 90.1 6.6 6.5 7.6 8.2 6.7 60 * 10.82 0.56 0.01 0.72 0.28 0 0.56 0.36 0.09 0.52 0.37 0.1 10.62 0.56 0.01 0.7 0.3 0 0.5 0.42 0.08 0.38 0.38 0.12 10.88 0.54 0 0.72 0.28 0 0.55 0.37 0.08 0.54 0.37 0.08 10.62 0.57 0.02 0.64 0.36 0 0.49 0.46 0.05 0.36 0.38 0.11

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.5 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade with High Baseline Word Attack Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 8.5 61 0 85 15 0 29 50 21 42 36 19 89.1 87.2 96.1 93.1 89.0 99.5 91.3 47.9 96.0 89.9 96.6 95.8 90.1 87.6 90.0 90.9 90.0 87.0 7.7 8.4 7.6 8.6 7.8 21 8.7 64 4 78 22 0 36 44 20 43 22 0 86.8 85.9 95.1 92.0 86.6 99.6 90.9 46.5 98.2 92.3 95.8 99.1 90.0 86.4 92.3 85.2 91.1 92.6 6.6 8.3 8.5 8.8 7.1 15 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 8.6 78 0 67 33 0 37 28 35 40 26 15 87.5 87.9 97.8 92.7 89.6 100.7 91.4 51.4 97.3 87.9 90.5 101.0 86.6 92.6 96.4 89.3 94.8 92.2 9.0 9.7 8.6 9.3 8.4 32 8.5 39 3 81 19 0 29 35 36 26 17 27 86.8 90.1 98.5 89.2 88.2 101.2 88.7 46.6 95.3 84.9 94.7 98.9 83.5 89.0 89.5 85.5 89.5 87.6 10.2 10.0 7.8 8.5 9.1 14 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 8.6 28 4 50 50 0 54 24 22 27 16 5 90.3 88.8 87.6 93.9 90.9 101.5 93.9 59.1 98.4 93.5 94.6 97.8 91.1 93.5 98.7 91.9 94.5 91.4 8.2 8.5 8.7 9.1 8.8 31 8.4 25 0 44 56 0 52 48 0 70 2 0 87.8 88.3 90.3 92.8 88.4 101.7 85.9 49.7 95.9 87.0 95.4 97.8 86.7 90.2 91.6 88.0 87.2 92.0 7.0 8.8 8.2 8.2 11.5 12 Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 8.7 54 4 84 16 0 41 49 9 42 19 22 88.4 88.8 97.6 92.7 91.5 101.1 91.4 50.6 98.3 91.6 93.0 101.8 92.0 88.9 93.0 94.1 90.0 88.7 8.1 8.7 9.2 9.6 8.6 27 8.7 38 13 86 14 0 66 25 9 53 22 6 87.4 89.7 97.9 92.9 89.7 103.0 89.9 49.5 98.1 92.7 95.9 98.6 91.0 85.1 87.2 87.0 88.7 85.2 7.6 9.0 8.4 9.1 7.6 17 8.46 0.61 0 0.85 0.15 0 0.29 0.5 0.21 0.42 0.36 0.19 8.67 0.64 0.04 0.78 0.22 0 0.36 0.44 0.2 0.43 0.22 0 8.57 0.78 0 0.67 0.33 0 0.37 0.28 0.35 0.4 0.26 0.15 8.53 0.39 0.03 0.81 0.19 0 0.29 0.35 0.36 0.26 0.17 0.27 8.63 0.28 0.04 0.5 0.5 0 0.54 0.24 0.22 0.27 0.16 0.05 8.37 0.25 0 0.44 0.56 0 0.52 0.48 0 0.7 0.02 0 8.74 0.54 0.04 0.84 0.16 0 0.41 0.49 0.09 0.42 0.19 0.22 8.75 0.38 0.13 0.86 0.14 0 0.66 0.25 0.09 0.53 0.22 0.06

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

#

# *

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.6 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade with High Baseline Word Attack Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 10.5 44 0 84 16 0 27 54 20 37 16 10 87.7 85.5 95.8 94.8 86.9 101.1 87.8 92.9 94.1 94.8 97.8 97.3 91.6 95.8 98.3 92.7 95.1 93.6 7.7 8.7 8.8 8.7 9.6 33 10.7 49 5 78 22 0 47 37 16 45 36 19 87.3 83.5 95.6 93.2 85.9 101.0 87.9 87.3 97.1 93.8 95.3 95.7 93.5 93.5 93.6 95.3 91.9 93.0 7.7 9.4 8.1 8.8 9.4 37 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 10.6 40 0 84 16 0 46 32 22 45 17 4 87.6 83.6 93.7 91.6 84.8 98.9 86.2 91.7 96.5 94.6 95.9 97.8 92.5 95.8 98.0 90.0 95.5 95.9 7.8 8.2 8.4 9.0 8.3 25 10.7 78 0 76 24 0 77 13 11 59 42 12 86.5 86.1 91.4 94.0 86.4 103.0 86.3 80.4 95.5 93.3 98.2 99.7 88.1 88.0 92.6 83.8 91.8 91.0 9.3 9.9 7.4 8.1 10.2 19 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 10.8 47 4 44 56 0 72 20 8 49 26 0 87.2 85.9 88.1 91.7 87.1 102.0 88.2 85.3 93.0 95.1 96.4 94.2 93.2 95.1 98.3 92.8 94.0 94.8 6.9 7.5 8.8 8.6 9.0 31 10.7 68 0 70 30 0 39 30 32 39 19 19 Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 10.7 61 0 85 15 0 25 47 28 40 20 11 86.1 83.9 96.5 91.4 85.6 100.0 87.2 88.4 95.1 91.2 92.3 96.0 93.8 93.2 95.2 91.4 93.7 91.7 8.1 7.7 7.9 8.4 6.9 32 10.6 61 0 88 12 0 50 23 27 45 29 32 86.3 85.8 102.1 * 93.7 86.3 102.8 85.5 81.6 97.3 96.1 * 92.6 95.4 86.8 93.3 96.9 89.5 91.6 89.8 7.2 8.8 8.6 9.0 6.0 18 10.52 0.44 0 0.84 0.16 0 0.27 0.54 0.2 0.37 0.16 0.1

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

85.9 85.8 100.4 * 95.2 * 88.0 104.7 87.4 92.2 100.9 * 99.8 97.5 95.0 92.1 94.3 96.9 89.2 90.8 93.5 7.7 7.9 8.7 8.8 10.1 19

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

10.71 0.49 0.05 0.78 0.22 0 0.47 0.37 0.16 0.45 0.36 0.19

10.61 0.4 0 0.84 0.16 0 0.46 0.32 0.22 0.45 0.17 0.04

10.7 0.78 0 0.76 0.24 0 0.77 0.13 0.11 0.59 0.42 0.12

10.8 0.47 0.04 0.44 0.56 0 0.72 0.2 0.08 0.49 0.26 0

10.67 0.68 0 0.7 0.3 0 0.39 0.3 0.32 0.39 0.19 0.19

10.65 0.61 0 0.85 0.15 0 0.25 0.47 0.28 0.4 0.2 0.11

10.61 0.61 0 0.88 0.12 0 0.5 0.23 0.27 0.45 0.29 0.32

Table R.7 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade with High Baseline Word Attack All Interventions Treatment Control 8.6 56 2 70 30 0 42 36 23 37 24 15 88.8 88.2 94.7 93.1 90.3 100.8 92.0 52.6 97.6 90.7 93.4 99.3 89.8 91.0 94.9 91.5 92.6 90.1 8.3 8.9 8.6 9.2 8.4 111 8.6 40 4 72 28 0 45 40 15 50 15 8 87.3 88.6 95.1 91.8 88.3 101.5 88.6 48.2 96.8 89.0 95.4 98.5 87.7 87.9 90.2 86.6 88.9 89.4 7.8 9.0 8.2 8.6 9.0 58 Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 8.6 54 2 66 34 0 44 33 23 36 21 14 88.7 88.4 94.4 93.1 90.6 101.1 92.2 53.7 98.0 90.9 92.7 100.2 89.7 91.8 96.1 91.6 93.2 90.9 8.4 9.0 8.8 9.4 8.6 90 8.5 33 5 70 30 0 48 38 14 51 13 10 87.4 89.3 95.2 91.8 88.7 102.0 88.0 48.7 96.4 88.2 95.3 98.4 87.1 88.2 89.6 87.0 88.3 88.6 8.1 9.2 8.2 8.6 9.6 43 8.61 0.56 0.02 0.7 0.3 0 0.42 0.36 0.23 0.37 0.24 0.15 8.56 0.4 0.04 0.72 0.28 0 0.45 0.4 0.15 0.5 0.15 0.08 8.64 0.54 0.02 0.66 0.34 0 0.44 0.33 0.23 0.36 0.21 0.14 8.54 0.33 0.05 0.7 0.3 0 0.48 0.38 0.14 0.51 0.13 0.1

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.8 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade with High Baseline Word Attack All Interventions Treatment Control 10.6 49 1 75 25 0 40 40 20 42 20 7 87.1 84.7 93.7 92.4 86.1 100.6 87.4 89.5 94.6 93.8 95.5 96.3 92.8 94.9 97.3 91.8 94.5 93.8 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.6 8.4 121 10.7 63 1 79 21 0 54 25 21 47 32 21 86.6 85.3 97.4 93.9 86.5 102.7 86.7 85.0 97.5 95.5 95.7 96.4 90.0 92.3 95.0 89.7 91.6 91.7 8.0 9.1 8.2 8.7 8.7 93 Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 10.7 51 1 71 29 0 46 34 20 44 21 5 86.9 84.5 93.0 91.6 85.9 100.4 87.3 88.3 94.8 93.4 94.7 95.9 93.3 94.5 97.0 91.4 94.3 93.9 7.6 7.8 8.3 8.6 8.0 88 10.7 68 0 79 21 0 56 21 22 48 30 22 86.3 85.9 98.1 94.2 86.8 103.4 86.3 84.1 97.7 96.2 95.8 96.7 88.7 91.8 95.5 87.5 91.5 91.2 8.1 8.9 8.2 8.6 8.5 56 10.64 0.49 0.01 0.75 0.25 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.42 0.2 0.07 10.67 0.63 0.01 0.79 0.21 0 0.54 0.25 0.21 0.47 0.32 0.21 10.69 0.51 0.01 0.71 0.29 0 0.46 0.34 0.2 0.44 0.21 0.05 10.66 0.68 0 0.79 0.21 0 0.56 0.21 0.22 0.48 0.3 0.22

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

*

* * *

*

*

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.9 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade Eligible for FRPL Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81.5 84.6 90.7 88.0 84.2 89.1 84.7 32.1 90.0 84.4 91.1 93.2 86.6 84.9 87.2 87.4 85.5 84.3 7.4 7.8 7.4 8.2 6.8 30 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80.1 85.5 92.4 84.0 83.5 85.4 82.3 29.7 84.2 82.9 84.2 96.1 87.3 85.7 84.5 84.2 84.1 85.2 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.9 6.5 19 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 82.6 84.8 92.7 88.4 85.1 92.3 87.3 39.2 92.8 84.1 88.2 98.6 90.7 91.3 95.0 91.2 91.5 90.1 7.9 8.0 8.5 9.1 6.3 31 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81.9 83.6 95.9 85.1 83.5 90.5 84.8 36.6 86.8 80.6 85.9 94.0 90.4 87.3 88.7 84.8 85.8 83.2 7.2 8.5 7.4 9.3 7.3 21 * Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85.1 84.5 86.4 89.8 86.7 94.6 87.0 44.8 91.6 86.4 88.1 97.2 87.5 90.8 95.9 91.9 91.8 90.1 7.6 8.0 8.3 8.7 8.5 31 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 86.0 86.5 89.5 90.9 86.3 94.9 85.3 43.2 92.2 86.1 89.9 93.4 87.7 87.2 90.5 89.1 85.3 88.7 7.2 8.0 7.6 8.1 9.9 16 Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84.9 85.4 90.7 86.7 85.8 93.1 86.6 41.0 93.3 86.3 89.4 93.6 91.9 86.9 93.6 93.8 86.6 86.8 7.6 7.2 8.6 9.0 7.2 24 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84.4 87.6 93.3 89.0 86.9 96.7 85.8 40.6 91.9 84.5 85.5 96.2 89.0 85.3 85.8 86.2 87.1 84.9 7.8 8.3 8.6 9.5 6.6 21

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

#

#

#

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.10 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade Eligible for FRPL Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.0 81.1 89.4 88.4 80.8 91.3 82.7 71.8 91.3 89.1 92.8 91.7 87.5 91.5 93.4 89.2 89.7 89.4 7.3 7.1 7.8 8.1 9.0 32 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.9 79.2 95.2 88.2 80.5 92.0 83.9 73.0 90.4 91.9 89.8 91.7 92.2 93.5 93.7 95.5 90.9 91.0 7.0 7.8 8.1 8.8 8.3 36 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81.1 77.0 88.0 85.2 75.5 88.8 80.5 72.8 88.4 85.8 85.4 91.3 89.2 91.5 94.1 91.0 90.3 91.6 7.3 6.2 7.5 8.1 8.4 32 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85.6 83.0 89.7 90.6 82.4 97.4 86.2 82.6 92.9 91.9 92.9 98.0 91.8 91.0 94.1 89.6 93.1 92.7 8.6 8.6 8.0 8.4 9.8 24 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81.7 80.2 86.5 86.5 81.4 93.0 82.5 68.8 89.4 89.3 90.0 92.3 87.5 91.0 92.8 88.0 89.7 88.3 6.5 6.8 7.6 7.6 10.1 33 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.9 81.7 86.6 89.3 81.8 94.0 84.4 74.6 88.6 86.4 93.4 91.8 86.1 92.0 97.6 83.9 90.3 91.0 6.5 6.7 8.0 8.7 8.3 27 Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81.9 79.1 90.0 85.9 79.2 92.4 82.5 69.8 92.2 85.4 88.1 96.3 94.3 92.2 95.8 93.4 93.0 90.5 7.5 6.9 9.0 9.0 4.3 31 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.4 78.6 94.7 88.3 79.3 90.8 83.0 73.7 91.9 87.6 80.9 94.5 87.8 89.3 92.7 89.2 87.6 85.1 7.4 8.1 7.8 8.3 4.9 15

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

*

* *

* *

*

#

*

* *

* *

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.11 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade Eligible for FRPL All Interventions Treatment Control 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.4 84.8 90.1 88.3 85.4 92.2 86.4 39.1 91.8 85.2 89.2 95.8 89.0 88.6 92.8 90.9 88.9 87.8 7.7 7.8 8.2 8.7 7.2 116 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.4 85.8 92.4 87.6 85.2 92.1 84.6 38.2 89.1 83.8 86.9 94.7 88.5 86.5 87.9 86.5 85.5 85.8 7.2 8.0 7.6 8.6 7.9 77 * Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 8.7 53 3 41 59 0 82 17 1 69 33 3 84.1 84.9 89.9 88.4 85.9 93.3 87.0 41.6 92.5 85.5 88.5 96.7 89.9 89.9 94.9 92.2 90.2 89.2 7.7 7.7 8.4 8.9 7.3 86 8.5 36 3 62 38 0 68 30 2 72 23 1 84.4 85.9 92.3 88.7 85.6 94.0 85.3 40.6 90.5 84.1 87.6 94.3 88.8 86.8 88.8 87.1 85.9 85.9 7.4 8.2 7.8 8.8 8.3 58 * 8.73 0.53 0.03 0.41 0.59 0 0.82 0.17 0.01 0.69 0.33 0.03 84.12 84.86 89.94 88.41 85.86 93.33 86.99 41.65 92.49 85.54 88.54 96.71 89.92 89.87 94.89 92.19 90.2 89.17 7.74 7.74 8.44 8.93 7.31 86 8.52 0.36 0.03 0.62 0.38 0 0.68 0.3 0.02 0.72 0.23 0.01 84.36 85.9 92.35 88.68 85.62 94.03 85.27 40.6 90.51 84.06 87.6 94.29 88.81 86.77 88.8 87.1 85.9 85.95 7.37 8.24 7.78 8.78 8.29 58

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.12 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade Eligible for FRPL All Interventions Treatment Control 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81.9 79.3 88.4 86.5 79.3 91.4 82.0 70.8 90.3 87.4 89.1 92.8 89.5 91.5 94.0 90.3 90.6 90.0 7.1 6.8 8.0 8.2 8.0 128 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84.2 80.6 91.7 89.1 81.0 93.5 84.4 76.0 91.0 89.6 89.2 94.0 89.6 91.5 94.4 89.8 90.5 90.0 7.4 7.8 8.0 8.5 7.8 102 Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 10.8 54 1 51 49 0 76 24 0 83 32 4 81.6 78.8 88.1 85.9 78.7 91.4 81.8 70.5 89.9 86.9 87.8 93.2 90.2 91.5 94.2 90.7 90.9 90.2 7.1 6.6 8.0 8.2 7.7 96 10.6 56 0 53 47 0 86 14 0 67 38 6 84.4 81.1 90.4 89.4 81.2 94.1 84.6 77.1 91.2 88.8 89.0 94.9 88.7 90.7 94.7 87.7 90.4 89.6 7.5 7.8 7.9 8.4 7.7 66 * 10.84 0.54 0.01 0.51 0.49 0 0.76 0.24 0 0.83 0.32 0.04 81.56 78.75 88.08 85.89 78.73 91.41 81.82 70.48 89.94 86.92 87.83 93.22 90.22 91.52 94.18 90.7 90.93 90.16 7.06 6.64 8.02 8.21 7.73 96 10.64 0.56 0 0.53 0.47 0 0.86 0.14 0 0.67 0.38 0.06 84.36 81.09 90.44 89.43 81.18 94.1 84.57 77.11 91.23 88.76 88.99 94.88 88.67 90.73 94.7 87.7 90.35 89.58 7.53 7.85 7.89 8.44 7.68 66

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

* *

*

* *

* *

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.13 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade Ineligible for FRPL Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87.1 83.6 97.1 89.5 84.3 91.1 89.7 44.7 91.7 88.2 88.6 91.3 89.9 90.2 90.6 87.1 89.1 87.9 7.2 7.5 8.0 8.8 7.5 25 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84.0 84.8 96.8 90.4 85.0 93.1 86.7 37.5 92.9 87.0 88.9 97.6 84.5 83.8 88.7 85.8 86.4 87.8 7.1 7.8 7.8 8.3 7.7 19 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 89.2 86.9 99.3 90.8 87.5 95.9 92.0 56.7 98.4 92.7 91.0 100.1 86.4 91.8 93.8 87.8 92.8 90.8 8.9 9.5 8.2 8.6 7.7 25 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87.8 86.6 100.1 89.6 85.9 92.5 88.6 46.9 93.6 87.6 92.7 96.3 79.8 87.0 87.3 82.7 86.8 84.8 9.7 8.7 7.7 7.8 7.2 15 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 89.3 88.6 96.4 91.7 87.3 94.7 92.0 55.9 97.1 91.9 91.1 96.5 90.6 89.6 92.9 88.5 89.4 88.9 8.5 7.9 8.0 8.8 8.0 22 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70.7 81.7 100.3 78.3 85.3 88.0 72.0 18.3 99.7 83.0 66.7 82.3 76.3 69.0 72.0 75.3 70.0 70.3 6.0 8.7 3.7 5.7 3.3 2 * Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85.7 86.1 105.0 92.9 88.4 94.6 87.4 45.9 95.1 93.5 91.7 100.3 87.5 83.7 86.5 88.7 85.7 84.6 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.9 9.3 20 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 79.8 86.5 100.1 86.4 84.7 92.4 82.1 27.6 87.3 83.7 86.4 89.0 87.5 81.2 83.6 87.3 82.0 83.2 7.2 6.1 6.8 7.4 6.4 14

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

#

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.14 Baseline Characteristics of the Four Intervention Groups and the Control Group, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade Ineligible for FRPL Failure Free Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85.3 82.0 100.3 92.4 83.3 95.8 85.7 86.5 93.6 94.1 95.2 97.1 92.2 94.4 97.1 90.9 92.8 94.9 7.2 9.0 8.2 8.3 8.9 29 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 86.7 80.5 95.2 90.1 83.5 94.0 87.7 77.5 94.4 92.5 95.0 95.4 91.3 94.4 96.5 92.9 93.4 92.1 7.6 8.4 8.0 8.8 8.4 29 Spell Read Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87.0 80.1 96.8 89.2 80.6 92.9 85.6 87.4 95.0 94.7 94.7 99.3 92.3 94.9 97.7 88.6 94.7 94.7 7.5 7.2 8.1 9.0 9.6 27 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84.9 77.5 94.9 85.0 78.3 89.0 85.4 77.6 93.6 88.6 90.8 92.4 89.6 93.8 94.9 86.5 93.9 93.1 7.0 7.0 7.9 8.0 7.9 21 Wilson Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87.6 84.7 100.1 90.2 85.1 94.1 87.0 85.4 92.8 96.6 93.3 96.9 96.4 91.5 94.6 94.3 91.0 93.0 7.5 6.7 8.0 8.0 7.6 20 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Corrective Reading Treat. Cont. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.5 80.7 100.2 89.1 82.3 94.8 84.7 81.9 91.4 91.1 88.7 91.7 92.5 92.6 92.4 89.8 90.7 88.1 7.1 7.5 7.7 8.7 7.7 24 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84.3 81.3 103.6 90.9 83.0 96.4 83.2 76.1 95.0 97.7 93.4 95.9 86.1 92.2 93.8 86.9 91.4 90.1 6.8 7.5 8.3 8.9 6.7 16

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

* *

*

85.9 82.8 115.6 * 90.9 80.5 94.7 84.9 86.6 105.5 * 105.3 * 91.0 99.2 87.8 87.7 87.4 87.9 90.1 93.5 7.5 8.2 7.4 8.0 7.9 11

#

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. # Difference across the four interventions (with treatment and control groups pooled within each intervention) is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.15 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 3rd Grade Ineligible for FRPL All Interventions Treatment Control 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87.8 86.2 99.5 91.2 86.8 94.0 90.2 50.7 95.5 91.5 90.6 97.0 88.5 88.9 91.0 88.0 89.3 88.0 8.2 8.4 8.2 8.8 8.1 92 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83.3 85.7 99.0 88.4 85.2 92.4 85.2 36.7 91.9 86.1 88.2 94.0 83.3 83.3 85.9 84.7 84.4 84.7 7.9 7.7 7.3 7.7 6.9 50 * Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 8.7 62 0 96 4 0 8 47 45 5 34 24 88.1 87.1 100.4 91.8 87.8 95.1 90.4 52.8 96.9 92.7 91.3 99.1 88.0 88.4 91.1 88.3 89.4 88.1 8.6 8.7 8.3 8.8 8.3 67 8.8 58 1 91 9 0 18 23 59 3 41 30 83.0 86.1 100.1 87.3 85.3 92.1 84.5 36.3 91.4 85.6 87.8 92.1 82.7 83.1 84.5 84.0 83.4 82.9 8.3 7.6 7.0 7.5 6.5 31 * 8.7 0.62 0 0.96 0.04 0 0.08 0.47 0.45 0.05 0.34 0.24 88.07 87.14 100.37 91.81 87.77 95.1 90.44 52.85 96.91 92.7 91.26 99.1 88.03 88.38 91.1 88.32 89.4 88.05 8.6 8.66 8.26 8.78 8.34 67 8.84 0.58 0.01 0.91 0.09 0 0.18 0.23 0.59 0.03 0.41 0.3 82.98 86.15 100.1 87.31 85.33 92.08 84.47 36.34 91.44 85.56 87.85 92.07 82.75 83.05 84.46 84.05 83.38 82.86 8.31 7.6 6.99 7.46 6.55 31

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

*

* *

* *

* *

* *

*

*

* *

* * *

* * *

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Table R.16 Baseline Characteristics of Full Sample and Three Word-level Interventions, by Treatment Status, Analysis Sample: 5th Grade Ineligible for FRPL All Interventions Treatment Control 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85.6 81.7 99.3 90.2 82.7 94.4 85.6 85.2 93.2 93.9 92.9 96.1 93.1 93.5 95.5 90.6 92.4 92.6 7.3 7.7 8.0 8.5 8.5 100 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85.4 80.5 102.1 89.2 81.3 93.5 85.2 79.3 97.0 95.9 92.6 95.7 88.7 92.1 93.2 88.5 92.2 92.0 7.2 7.7 7.9 8.5 7.7 77 Word-level Interventions Treatment Control 10.7 50 0 96 4 0 19 51 31 10 25 11 85.8 81.5 99.0 89.4 82.4 93.9 85.6 84.8 93.0 93.8 92.0 95.8 93.4 93.1 94.9 90.5 92.2 91.7 7.3 7.2 7.9 8.6 8.3 71 10.6 70 2 92 8 0 14 56 30 14 30 29 85.0 80.4 104.4 88.9 80.6 93.4 84.5 79.9 97.8 97.0 91.8 95.7 87.8 91.3 92.2 87.1 91.9 92.0 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 7.5 48 10.71 0.5 0 0.96 0.04 0 0.19 0.51 0.31 0.1 0.25 0.11 85.79 81.53 98.99 89.41 82.43 93.93 85.62 84.76 93.04 93.83 92.03 95.77 93.44 93.12 94.85 90.53 92.22 91.68 7.35 7.19 7.92 8.6 8.34 71 10.64 0.7 0.02 0.92 0.08 0 0.14 0.56 0.3 0.14 0.3 0.29 84.97 80.45 104.36 88.88 80.63 93.35 84.46 79.86 97.78 96.96 91.78 95.75 87.81 91.35 92.2 87.06 91.85 92.02 7.09 7.52 7.88 8.35 7.5 48

Baseline Means Student Characteristics Age Male (%) Hispanic (%) Race--White (%) Race--African American (%) Race--Other (%) Family income less than $30,000 (%) Family income between $30,000 and $60,000 (%) Family income over $60,000 (%) Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch (%) Has any learning or other disability (%) Mother has bachelor's degree or higher (%) Screening Tests TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised Baseline Tests WRM Word Identification TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency WRM Word Attack TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency AIMSWeb (Raw score) WRM Passage Comprehension GRADE Woodcock Johnson Spelling Woodcock Johnson Calculation Other baseline tests administered RAN Colors RAN Letters RAN Numbers RAN Objects RAS Numbers and Letters RAS Colors, Numbers, and Letters CTOPP Blending Words CTOPP Elision CTOPP Rapid Digit Naming CTOPP Rapid Letter Naming Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV Sample Size

*

*

*

*

Note: Weights used to account for differential randomization probabilities and nonresponse. Note: All test scores are shown as standard scores, unless otherwise indicated. All standard scores have mean 100 and standard deviation 15, except for CTOPP and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-IV, which have mean 10 and standard deviation 3. * Difference between treatment and control groups is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.