by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO☺OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS mobile : 91+9414430763

My words.....
My purpose here is to give an introduction of organisational change and development. I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....



What are the types of changes?

Evolution revolution Planned change



Four types of changes as per Ferguson ?
1. Exceptional changes (something different from the routine) 2 Incremental change (gradual but fast change) 3. Pendulum change (change from one extreme to opposite end and back) 4. Paradigm change (change in thinking)

What are change drivers ?

Change must target at the following : 1. mission 2. vision 3. strategy 4. structure 5 plans and policies 6. procedures 7. technology 8. values 9. culture 10. systems



What are the strategies for change management ?
Political strategy – if powerful people accept a change, others will accept – so contact influential persons academic approach – people are rational – so give them logic engineering approach – change the environment – people will follow economic approac – money is important fellowship strategy – develop friends, every thing will be easy military strategy – use force applied behavioural science strategy – use behavioural tools

What is CDS model of change ? Developed by Bechhard and Horns (1987) it has 3 stages : 1.afterschool. study the current situation 7 . prepare a desired situation 3. prepare a strategy for a new system 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

Here we identify forces in favour of change and forces against change. We try to strengthen forces in favour of change and try to reduce forces against the 8 .What is force field analysis ? It is a model of change given by Levin.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

plan out interventions for changing the orgnanisation 6. explore the readiness of people to accept change 4. follow up 5 DECEMBER 09 www. diagnosis 9 .introduce intervention 7 evaluation 8. create awareness and create disturbance 2 feel the need for change 3.What are the stes in change management ? 1.afterschool.

Let people take the initiative and participate in the change management process 5 DECEMBER 09 www. welcome and honour 10 . Confrontation is the best strategy allow people to contribute to change process.afterschool.What are the principles of change management ? Some people will always oppose change (it may be due to habit.) dont suppress resistance. fears. Confront the situation. vested interests etc.

5 DECEMBER 09 www. there will be less resistance. they will understand the change process and will accept it.afterschool.How to reduce resistance to change ? Those who initiate 11 . will accept it also Participation in decision making will improve their understanding If we take regular feedback from people. If people participate in diagnosis process.

tk 12 .afterschool.What are the important aspects in change management ? Communication Planning Evaluation about change management Training and development Fecilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation coercion 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

they are facilitators 4.What is the role of change agents? 1 they are consultants 2. they are researchers 13 . they are trainers 3. they are catalyst 7. they are problem solver. solution provider 5 DECEMBER 09 www. they enable the organisation to develop the vision and reach it 6.afterschool. 14 .What competencies are required for an effective change agent ? he should be good in interpersonal skills he should be good in communication skills he should be good in functional / technical skills he should be good in personal skills like attitude.afterschool. approach. he should be good in cognitive skills 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 15 . setting priorities. anticipating obstacles etc. conceptual understanding.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is cognitive skill? Cognition refers to thinking and reasoning cognitive skill refers to skills in analytical thinking. reasoning.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.What are contractual skills ? A change agent is a consultant and he is in contract with the organisation. He must have a clear agreement about his entry and withdrawal. He must be clear about terms and conditions relating to the 16 .afterschool. He must clarify the expectations to the organisation.

afterschool. values.What are consulting skills ? They (change agents) must understand the process of orgnaisational working. They must remember that organisations are for people and ultimately people must feel happy. more satisfied. They must understand the context of the organisation. goals. 17 . and energetic working in the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. vision. They must give priority to people. ethos. constraints.

Huse.Who are leading scholars in organisational development ? Warren 18 . Cecil H Bell. Richard Beckhard. Wendell L. Udai Pareek. etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. Edgar F. French.

long term change in organisation with focus on problem solving capabilities. and behavioural science experts.What is OD ? It is a planned. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. coping skills. systematic. self renewal capabilities and organisational values with the help of change 19 .

change 3 refreeze.What is Levin's model of change management ? There are 3 stages in an organisation change process : 20 . unfreeze 2. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. then add colour and then refreeze it back to ice. First you have to unfreeze it. in any organisation.Levin's model ? Suppose you want to add colour to an ice. Similarly. can you do it straight way? No. first make people prepared for the change then introduce change then again refreeze people (encourage them to adopt the new situation).tk 21 . if you want to change.

2. till we are able to develop organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 22 .afterschool. every organisation has to change using these steps : 1. 4.What is action research model of organisational development ? As per this model. again assess the organisation – research this cycle will continue repeatedly. plan out the action – involving people 3 introduce change – action. identify problems through people – research.

planning for action 5. entry into organisation 3. stabilisation 6.What is organisational planning model ? It has following stages : 1. evaluation of organisation 7.afterschool. diagnosis of the organisational health 4. scouting for ideas for change and development by change agents 23 . termination of Organisational development process 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

They try to involve people in the change management process. but they are able to introduce change in the organisation though participation of 24 .Who are change agents ? These persons are experts in behavioural science. They may be outsiders to the organisation. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. They use their behavioural science expertise in organisational development .afterschool. These experts are experts in introducing change in organisation.

What is an intervention ? It is a set of structured activities to develop an organisation or a part of that organisation or a group of an individual.afterschool. People participate in intervations in a well planned and programmed set of activities 5 DECEMBER 09 25 .

tk 26 .What are the various types of interventions ? Dyads : here focus is on 2 persons Triads : here focus is on three persons Team interventions : here focus is on entire group / team Total organisation interventions : here focus is on the total organisation and its development 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

afterschool. diagnose the organisation 2. terminate the contract 5 DECEMBER 09 www. plan and design the interventions 3. carry out the plan 4. evaluate the results 27 .What are the steps in OD Interventions ? 1.

tk 28 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Change agents can play a very important role in organisational transformation.Key issues in OD contracts? Change agents must maintain confidentiality of data of the organisation. They must study the organisation and identify key issues. They must use the interventions which enable the organisation to improve its processes.afterschool.

afterschool.How to undertake diagnosis ? Look at aspects like : are people clear about goals are people motivated ? Is there proper communication system ? Do people have mutual trust and support ? Do people believe that they are part of a team? Is there cohesiveness and collaboration in the organisation? 5 DECEMBER 09 29 .

tk 30 .afterschool.How to undertake OD diagnosis ? Use questionnaire to collect data Undertake interviews Use observations to further collect data undertake surveys 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

afterschool. 4. at the level of the entire organisation 2.What are the levels of diagnosis ? 31 . at the level of individuals 5 DECEMBER 09 www. at the level of the teams 3 at the level of diads etc.

goal 32 .How to do diagnosis at individual level ? Is the individual motivated. role clarity. networked. sense of freedom.afterschool. well adjusted. well connected to people in the organisation and is able to have a satisfying relations with his colleagues / team membes for a healthy organisational comfort zone. understanding of organisational expectations and a well formed relationship across the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. the individual must have a sense of ownership in the organisation.

frank and adequate communication? Is there role clarity ? Is there mutual trust and support among exeuctives and subordinates and among peers? Is there clarity about how people can play an important role in development of each person – so people help each other ? 5 DECEMBER 09 www.How to do diagnosis at diad level ? Is there 33 .afterschool.

tk 34 . achievement motivation among employees 3. employee participation 4.What are the areas for organisational improvement ? The important areas are : 1.afterschool. team work 2. internal customer orientation and quality focus 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 35 .What are the different strategic interventions ? Open system planning Trans-OD Strategic change management Self designing organisations Cultural change in organisations 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. 36 .What are the different types of OD interventions ? Cultural internventions Relationship interventions Team work development interventions structural interventions Procedural interventions etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

collaborative.What are cultural interventions ? They improve culture of the organisation and enable people to understand their work culture and to improve it culture is developed as people evolve a 37 .afterschool. open and collegial culture 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 38 . From a tall organisation. we try to develop a flat organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. We try to reduce levels and improve interpersonal relations.What are structural interventions ? Here we change the structure of the organisation Hierarchies are redefined.afterschool. The organisation becomes more flexible. open and dynamic. and organisational communication is smoothened.

tk 39 .afterschool.What are procedural interventions ? Here we improve working processes in organisations. Organisational bureaucracy is redefined and organisational work processes are simplified. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Here we try to improve procedures in the organisations.

we use these types of interventions 5 DECEMBER 09 www. task interdependence understanding. 40 . role clarity.What are relationship interventions ? In order to improve mutual understanding. and overall organisational development.afterschool.

Name some important OD interventions ? Grid OD Process consultation Survey Feedback Socio-techical system Confrontation meeting Third party peace making Life goal planning T group Organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 41 .

Johari Window. what is their perception about themselves 1. 42 .Example of Process consultation OD consultant organises 2 day workshop. what is their superiors' perception about them 1.afterschool. He invites participants to use tools like FIRO-B. what is their perception about their superiors 1. what is their superior's perception about others 5 DECEMBER 09 www. The executives are then allowed to form group and discuss about some issue and write about these issues : 1.

.tk 43 . Thus orgnanisational processes are surfaced.contd. Perception sharing brings the two groups together. Thus communication. People clarify the doubts. Thus there is greater openness. The perception sharing exercises enables executives and subordinates to openly share and discuss their perceptions.afterschool. The consultant summarises the perceptions of the subordinates with the superiors and the perceptions of the superiors with the subordinates. leadership and motivation processes improve 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

interpersonal skills. Group status awareness : where people become aware about each other. enthusiasm.Start with Micro Lab : with the objective that people have informal 44 Example of Team building exercise . and wilingness to relate with others.afterschool. .... Use questionnaires like TORI (gibbs) to identify the awareness about group goals etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.. and they are aware of their energy level.

participation and support in the group conflict management training trust building (use FIRO-B and other tools) interpersonal relationship training survey feedback .. Agenda building & group work decision making process & analysis in group setting (use tools like desert survival.contd.. action planning 5 DECEMBER 09 www. ) here we try to study the level of 45 . perception sharing. etc.afterschool..

afterschool. 2-3 representative of each department are invited for a session people are divided in 5-6 groups where they share their perceptions about the organisation. negatives 3.. expectations Afterwards a core group is prepared to identify issues and prepare an action plan for those issues..Example of organisational mirroring . These issues are presented to the management for implementation 5 DECEMBER 09 46 .. its various departments.. its working. positives 2. These perceptions are shared by them openly in 3 stages : 1.

Frank and open sharing is 47 .Example of confrontation meeting It is used when there are intergroup problems in the orgnisation. The group then prioritises the issues and tries to solve them 5 DECEMBER 09 www. First discussion take place in smaller groups and later there are detailed discussions in the groups about possible solutions. People from different departments come together and discuss important issues which hinder their performance and they also share possible solutions.

afterschool. customer relationship. motivation. teamwork. 48 . team work etc. We collect feedback about these aspects and provide the feedback to the employees so that they can participate in organisational development processes 5 DECEMBER 09 www. leadership.What is survey feedback ? It is a widely used tool of OD here we prepare a scale / questionnaire / schedule to know about following aspects in the organisation : openness. creativity.

tk 49 .Example of confrontation meeting Convene a meeting of all department representatives Assure people about open and frank communication Divide people in small groups adn ask them to identify problems before their department and the organisation each group makes presentation problems are noted down and prioritised . 5 DECEMBER 09 www...afterschool.

tk 50 .contd..afterschool.. Groups are formed to discuss the problems and to work out solution for the problems they prepare solutions in an open and frank discussions these solutions are forwarded to top management follow up action 5 DECEMBER 09 www..

afterschool.Example of organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 51 .

What is semantic differential scale ? Osgood. Suci ..-9 unproductive challenging1_. Tanxenbaum (1957) popularised this concept..3.afterschool. Here we used two opposite concepts to identify the perception of the respondent example : how do you like the job of manager productive _1_.3..-9 routine 5 DECEMBER 09 52 ..

afterschool.What is summative scale ? It is also called Likert scale (1932) here we prepare a number of statement and ask the person to give rating for those statements the rating may be from most favourable to most unfavourable. The statements are prepared on the basis of a sample of 53 . which have ability to differentiate people it is the most popular attitude measurement scale 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

aspx DIAGNOSIS STUDIES 5 DECEMBER 09 54 .How to study organisational culture / climate / job satisfaction? We can use following : questionnaire scale (like litert scale) HRD climate survey FIRO-B http://www.html 5 DECEMBER 09 55 .com/Firob.ADDITIONAL RESOURCES http://www.afterschool.discoveryourpersonality.

who fill them up and then we analyse these and try to find the level of job satisfaction / HRD climate etc.How to use these resources ? These resources consist of questionnaire / scales which are given to the employees.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 56 .

What are the various OD exercises that we can use ? Grid training Role analysis action research TQM BPR MBO T-GROUP Team building intergroup development 5 DECEMBER 09 57 .afterschool.

How should organisations restructure ? Undertake organisational analysis using various perspectives like : 1. behavioural science analysis 4.afterschool. culture / climate studies 5 DECEMBER 09 www. economic analysis 2. sociological analysis / sociometry 5. political analysis 58 . 59 .What are the key dimensions of a good culture / climate / ethos ? Level of openness level of collaboration level of trust and suppor level of autonomy and freedom level of proaction in the organisation support for creativity and experimentation level of centrality / peripheral status of employee 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

It is a tool for organisational study. and organisation development here we are using two things : action (change in organisation. development. collective efforts for organistional development) and research (interaction with people to know about what they like and what they dont and their perspective about how to develop organisation) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is action research ? It was developed by Kurt Levin in 60 .afterschool.

tk 61 .afterschool. focus on people / communication / human relations a person who is good in both these dimensions is a good leader 5 DECEMBER 09 www. We develop people on 2 dimensions : 1. focus on goal / task / organisational purpose 2. There are 6 different stages for development of the organisation in grid training here we start with individual and group development and then for the entire organisation.What is grid traininig? Blake and Mouton popularised this. 62 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is BPR ? Business process reengineering : it denotes radical change in the organisational processes and practices so that we are able to completely alter the way we work here we take help of computerisation / automation / reengineering etc.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is TQM? Total quality management = it is a philosophy. where we install a system. There are detailed documentation at every stage so that people work as per systems and processes and there is very high level of 63 . predictability and awareness across the organisation.afterschool. People care for internal and external customers and try to meet the expectations of these. which tries to deliver what is promised.

feels empowered. finds resources / support to execute the role.What is role analysis / RAT /RNT ? Role analysis technique / role negotation technique / role contribution technique Role analysis enables organisations to study people processes in an organisation. This technique has been popularised by Prof Udai Pareek and Prof. T. Rao in India 5 DECEMBER 09 www. likes the 64 . and how well he is able to integrate the role.V. Here we look into dimensions like how well the person understands his role.

tk 65 . It works at the initiative of people 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. where they discuss about organisational quality problems and try to develop solutions for those issues and suggest them to the management.What is quality circle ? It is a Japanese management technique. where employees voluntarily form a quality circle.

What is survey feedback ? Here we take survey of employees of what they think is important / challenging / problematic / critical issue relating to organisation. This data is then given back to people.afterschool. so that they can plan to change the situation and improve the organisation it enables people to think about the ideal form of their organisation and enables them to play a proactive role in development of their own organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 66 .

A number of tools and techniques are used under expert guidance in this method. It is a tool for developing people. All the employees gather at a specified location for this exercise for a few days.What is assessment centre ? Here employees gather for some time and many psychometric tests ar eused to assess and develop people.afterschool. organisation and overall work 67 . (to some extent similar to beauty contests) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What is zero base budgeting ? Here we start budgeting from scratch. It is futuristic not historic. Traditionally people just inflate the last year's budge and present it back. We dont look at what we had done 68 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. but zero base bugeting requires them to think afresh.afterschool. but what we want to do in future.

tk 69 .What is people analysis ? Here we study people processes in the organisation and we try to study people factors. commitment of people so that we can develop the entire organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. morale. efficiency.afterschool. Here we look at motivation.

tk 70 .What is benchmarking ? Here we put an external / internal organisation as benchmark for the employees so that they can develop themselves in those lines and try to change the organisation / its processes / culture / techniques citibank tried to benchmark against the work culture and commitment of workers of SEWA in India when it entered in India. (read Dabbawala case study) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

Here they retrench / transfer / relocate / restructure so that they are able to have an appropriate shape of organisation right sizing is a better work for more negative words like retrenchment 5 DECEMBER 09 71 .afterschool.What is right sizing? When the organisation has excess manpower. they go for right sizing.

Executive receives a basket of papers / problems on which decisions must be taken. Here employee is given a number of situation and he has to take decision on each of the situations.What is in-basket ? It is a game / tool / technique for developing people / executives in 72 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. The executive tries to take decision and thereafter receives feedback about his decision from his seniors / experts / trainers.

afterschool. Here we try to look at the strength of each force. It is the most important tool for organisational change management 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Later we try to strengthen the forces in favour of change so that we may change the organisation.What is force field analysis ? It is a tool for organisational study / organisational development / organisaitonal diagnosis here we identify forces which are in favour / against the change 73 .

afterschool.Prepare a schedule for assessment centre ? Day 1 : orientation day 2 : in – basket exercise day 3 : role play day 4 group discussion day 5 : analysis. counselling and announcements 5 DECEMBER 09 74 .

we assess the competence of people 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What are diagnostic workshops ? These help us in developing people. In diagnostic 75 .afterschool.

motivating and challenging to the employee and adding aspects like skill variety.What is job designing ? Preparing a job design which is 76 . etc. interesting.afterschool.task significance. task identity. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What is QWL ? Quality of work life when we are able to improve the quality of work 77 . improve work culture. it is called QWL 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. work environment.

What is flexibilisation and casualisation Flexibilisation= Creating flexible work culture (employee can choose work as per his convenience) casualisation = here employer may or may not give job in this 78 .afterschool. there is a casual job 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 79 .What is ZERO HOUR ? Employer may not give job – during zero hour – it is part of casualisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 80 . Jobs are systematically structured. Same working conditions and environment is created all over the world (it is similar to Taylorism of Scientific management) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. Thus trained workers can produce in huge quantity.What is Macdonaldisation? Here the job is broken in small components and each worker is trained in one small component and thus there is a possibility of replication of work on huge scale.

afterschool.What is commodification ? Today we find every product is being converted into commodities work is also converted to commodification by converting the work into a repeatitive activity 5 DECEMBER 09 81 .

What is compressed workweek?

Instead of 7 days work, just work for 4 day – but work more per day





Rescheduling work arrangement

People can reschedule their time as per their requirements instead of 10 to 5 work, you may work 7 to 2



tk 85 .afterschool.What is telecommuting ? Here a person can work while travelling or at home laptop and remove equipments help 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 86 . she may divide the work with another lady and continue her job and home responsibilities 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.What is job sharing ? Dividing the job between 2 or 3 persons to complete. Suppose a lady is having home responsibility.

afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is call centre ? Here there is one organisation which provides BPO services and handles customer queries / grievences 87 .

afterschool.What are components of QWL Fair compensation good working condition opportunity for growth social integration human capability development social relevance of work life work and social life space 5 DECEMBER 09 88 .


If people are clear about their role.What is role analysis ? To study the role in which an employee works and to study the level of understanding of the employee about his / her role is called role analysis. Role may be different from job. 5 DECEMBER 09 90 . they will be able to get more satisfaction and organisation will also prosper.afterschool.

task 91 .a module of work assigned to an individual Task – basic element of a job work – productive activities position – a place in the formal hierarchy of the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is difference between role. and other stakeholders Job : . ? Role = setof expectations of colleagues. job.afterschool. customers. superiors. subordinates.

What are steps in role analysis ? Identify roles to study prepare a task force / team to study roles identify role sender collect information about expectation from a role identify key performance areas(KPA) (role definition) identify competencies for the KPA identify gaps between capabilities and competencies plan out development activities 5 DECEMBER 09 92 .afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.Download 93 .com/doc/28617263/Syllabus-of-M http://www.. http://www.

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