by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO☺OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS mobile : 91+9414430763

My words.....
My purpose here is to give an introduction of organisational change and development. I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....



What are the types of changes?

Evolution revolution Planned change



Four types of changes as per Ferguson ?
1. Exceptional changes (something different from the routine) 2 Incremental change (gradual but fast change) 3. Pendulum change (change from one extreme to opposite end and back) 4. Paradigm change (change in thinking)

What are change drivers ?

Change must target at the following : 1. mission 2. vision 3. strategy 4. structure 5 plans and policies 6. procedures 7. technology 8. values 9. culture 10. systems



What are the strategies for change management ?
Political strategy – if powerful people accept a change, others will accept – so contact influential persons academic approach – people are rational – so give them logic engineering approach – change the environment – people will follow economic approac – money is important fellowship strategy – develop friends, every thing will be easy military strategy – use force applied behavioural science strategy – use behavioural tools

prepare a desired situation 7 . prepare a strategy for a new system 5 DECEMBER 09 www. study the current situation 2.What is CDS model of change ? Developed by Bechhard and Horns (1987) it has 3 stages : 1.

Here we identify forces in favour of change and forces against change. We try to strengthen forces in favour of change and try to reduce forces against the change.What is force field analysis ? It is a model of change given by 8 .afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

follow up 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. explore the readiness of people to accept change 4. create awareness and create disturbance 2 feel the need for change 3. diagnosis 5. plan out interventions for changing the orgnanisation 9 .introduce intervention 7 evaluation 8.What are the stes in change management ? 1.

) dont suppress resistance. 10 . vested interests etc. welcome and honour resistance.What are the principles of change management ? Some people will always oppose change (it may be due to habit.afterschool. Let people take the initiative and participate in the change management process 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Confront the situation. Confrontation is the best strategy allow people to contribute to change process.

they will understand the change process and will accept it.afterschool. If people participate in diagnosis process.How to reduce resistance to change ? Those who initiate change. will accept it also Participation in decision making will improve their understanding If we take regular feedback from people. 5 DECEMBER 09 11 . there will be less resistance.

What are the important aspects in change management ? Communication Planning Evaluation about change management Training and development Fecilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation coercion 5 DECEMBER 09 12 .afterschool.

solution provider 5 DECEMBER 09 www. they are problem solver. they are researchers 5. they enable the organisation to develop the vision and reach it 6. they are trainers 13 .afterschool. they are catalyst 7. they are facilitators 4.What is the role of change agents? 1 they are consultants 2.

etc. approach.What competencies are required for an effective change agent ? he should be good in interpersonal skills he should be good in communication skills he should be good in functional / technical skills he should be good in personal skills like attitude. he should be good in cognitive skills 5 DECEMBER 09 14 .

afterschool. anticipating obstacles etc.What is cognitive skill? Cognition refers to thinking and reasoning cognitive skill refers to skills in analytical thinking. setting priorities. conceptual understanding. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 15 .

What are contractual skills ? A change agent is a consultant and he is in contract with the organisation. He must be clear about terms and conditions relating to the 16 .afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. He must clarify the expectations to the organisation. He must have a clear agreement about his entry and withdrawal.

What are consulting skills ? They (change agents) must understand the process of orgnaisational working. ethos. philosophy. more satisfied. constraints. They must understand the context of the 17 . values.afterschool. They must remember that organisations are for people and ultimately people must feel happy. vision. and energetic working in the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. goals. They must give priority to people.

etc.Who are leading scholars in organisational development ? Warren Bennis. Wendell 18 . Huse. French. Cecil H Bell. Udai Pareek.afterschool. Richard Beckhard. Edgar F. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

coping skills. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is OD ? It is a 19 .afterschool. self renewal capabilities and organisational values with the help of change agents. and behavioural science experts. long term change in organisation with focus on problem solving capabilities. systematic. 20 .What is Levin's model of change management ? There are 3 stages in an organisation change process : 1. unfreeze 2. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. change 3 refreeze.

Levin's model ? Suppose you want to add colour to an ice. first make people prepared for the change then introduce change then again refreeze people (encourage them to adopt the new situation). 5 DECEMBER 09 www. can you do it straight way? No. then add colour and then refreeze it back to ice.afterschool. in any organisation. First you have to unfreeze 21 . Similarly. if you want to change.

tk 22 . identify problems through people – research. 2. every organisation has to change using these steps : 1.What is action research model of organisational development ? As per this model. again assess the organisation – research this cycle will continue repeatedly. till we are able to develop organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 4.afterschool. plan out the action – involving people 3 introduce change – action.

diagnosis of the organisational health 4. scouting for ideas for change and development by change agents 23 . planning for action 5. stabilisation 6. evaluation of organisation 7. entry into organisation 3. termination of Organisational development process 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is organisational planning model ? It has following stages : 1.

but they are able to introduce change in the organisation though participation of people. They may be outsiders to the organisation. They use their behavioural science expertise in organisational development . These experts are experts in introducing change in organisation.Who are change agents ? These persons are experts in behavioural science.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. They try to involve people in the change management 24 . 25 .What is an intervention ? It is a set of structured activities to develop an organisation or a part of that organisation or a group of an individual. People participate in intervations in a well planned and programmed set of activities 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What are the various types of interventions ? Dyads : here focus is on 2 persons Triads : here focus is on three persons Team interventions : here focus is on entire group / team Total organisation interventions : here focus is on the total organisation and its development 5 DECEMBER 09 26 .afterschool.

tk 27 .What are the steps in OD Interventions ? 1.afterschool. plan and design the interventions 3. terminate the contract 5 DECEMBER 09 www. carry out the plan 4. evaluate the results 5. diagnose the organisation 2.

They must study the organisation and identify key issues.afterschool. They must use the interventions which enable the organisation to improve its processes. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Change agents can play a very important role in organisational transformation.Key issues in OD contracts? Change agents must maintain confidentiality of data of the 28 .

afterschool.How to undertake diagnosis ? Look at aspects like : are people clear about goals are people motivated ? Is there proper communication system ? Do people have mutual trust and support ? Do people believe that they are part of a team? Is there cohesiveness and collaboration in the organisation? 5 DECEMBER 09 29 .

How to undertake OD diagnosis ? Use questionnaire to collect data Undertake interviews Use observations to further collect data undertake surveys 5 DECEMBER 09 30 .

What are the levels of diagnosis ? 1.afterschool. 4. at the level of individuals 5 DECEMBER 09 www. at the level of the entire organisation 2. at the level of the teams 3 at the level of diads 31 .

How to do diagnosis at individual level ? Is the individual motivated. sense of freedom. well adjusted.afterschool. understanding of organisational expectations and a well formed relationship across the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. role clarity. the individual must have a sense of ownership in the organisation. well connected to people in the organisation and is able to have a satisfying relations with his colleagues / team membes for a healthy organisational comfort zone. 32 . goal oriented.

frank and adequate communication? Is there role clarity ? Is there mutual trust and support among exeuctives and subordinates and among peers? Is there clarity about how people can play an important role in development of each person – so people help each other ? 5 DECEMBER 09 33 .afterschool.How to do diagnosis at diad level ? Is there open.

What are the areas for organisational improvement ? The important areas are : 1. achievement motivation among employees 34 . employee participation 4.afterschool. team work 2. internal customer orientation and quality focus 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What are the different strategic interventions ? Open system planning Trans-OD Strategic change management Self designing organisations Cultural change in organisations 5 DECEMBER 09 35 .

5 DECEMBER 09 36 .What are the different types of OD interventions ? Cultural internventions Relationship interventions Team work development interventions structural interventions Procedural interventions etc.afterschool. 37 .afterschool. open and collegial culture 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What are cultural interventions ? They improve culture of the organisation and enable people to understand their work culture and to improve it culture is developed as people evolve a responsible.

we try to develop a flat organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. From a tall organisation. The organisation becomes more flexible.What are structural interventions ? Here we change the structure of the organisation Hierarchies are redefined. and organisational communication is smoothened.afterschool. We try to reduce levels and improve interpersonal 38 . open and dynamic.

Here we try to improve procedures in the organisations.What are procedural interventions ? Here we improve working processes in 39 . Organisational bureaucracy is redefined and organisational work processes are simplified.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

afterschool.What are relationship interventions ? In order to improve mutual understanding. role clarity. we use these types of interventions 5 DECEMBER 09 www. task interdependence understanding. and overall organisational 40 . communication.

Name some important OD interventions ? Grid OD Process consultation Survey Feedback Socio-techical system Confrontation meeting Third party peace making Life goal planning T group Organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 41 .afterschool.

what is their perception about themselves 1.Example of Process consultation OD consultant organises 2 day workshop. what is their superior's perception about others 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. Johari Window. what is their perception about their superiors 1. what is their superiors' perception about them 1. The executives are then allowed to form group and discuss about some issue and write about these issues : 42 . He invites participants to use tools like FIRO-B. etc.

afterschool.. People clarify the doubts. leadership and motivation processes improve 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Thus there is greater openness. Perception sharing brings the two groups together. Thus communication. Thus orgnanisational processes are 43 . The perception sharing exercises enables executives and subordinates to openly share and discuss their perceptions.contd. The consultant summarises the perceptions of the subordinates with the superiors and the perceptions of the superiors with the subordinates.

interpersonal skills... 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Group status awareness : where people become aware about each other.Start with Micro Lab : with the objective that people have informal interaction.afterschool. enthusiasm. and they are aware of their energy level. Use questionnaires like TORI (gibbs) to identify the awareness about group goals 44 Example of Team building exercise . .. and wilingness to relate with others.

. 45 . participation and support in the group conflict management training trust building (use FIRO-B and other tools) interpersonal relationship training survey feedback . perception sharing... Agenda building & group work decision making process & analysis in group setting (use tools like desert survival. ) here we try to study the level of openness.afterschool.contd. action planning 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

afterschool.. expectations Afterwards a core group is prepared to identify issues and prepare an action plan for those issues. its various departments. its working. These issues are presented to the management for implementation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. positives 46 . 2-3 representative of each department are invited for a session people are divided in 5-6 groups where they share their perceptions about the organisation.. These perceptions are shared by them openly in 3 stages : 1. negatives 3.Example of organisational mirroring ...

First discussion take place in smaller groups and later there are detailed discussions in the groups about possible solutions. Frank and open sharing is necessary.afterschool. The group then prioritises the issues and tries to solve them 5 DECEMBER 09 www. People from different departments come together and discuss important issues which hinder their performance and they also share possible 47 .Example of confrontation meeting It is used when there are intergroup problems in the orgnisation.

We collect feedback about these aspects and provide the feedback to the employees so that they can participate in organisational development processes 5 DECEMBER 09 www. teamwork. customer relationship.What is survey feedback ? It is a widely used tool of OD here we prepare a scale / questionnaire / schedule to know about following aspects in the organisation : openness. leadership. innovation. team work etc. creativity. 48 .afterschool.

Example of confrontation meeting Convene a meeting of all department representatives Assure people about open and frank communication Divide people in small groups adn ask them to identify problems before their department and the organisation each group makes presentation problems are noted down and prioritised 49 .afterschool.. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

. Groups are formed to discuss the problems and to work out solution for the problems they prepare solutions in an open and frank discussions these solutions are forwarded to top management follow up action 5 DECEMBER 09 50 .contd..

tk 51 .afterschool.Example of organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

Here we used two opposite concepts to identify the perception of the respondent example : how do you like the job of manager productive _1_.3..-9 unproductive challenging1_.5.7..-9 routine 5 DECEMBER 09 www.3.What is semantic differential scale ? 52 . Tanxenbaum (1957) popularised this concept.. Suci ..afterschool.7.5.

afterschool.What is summative scale ? It is also called Likert scale (1932) here we prepare a number of statement and ask the person to give rating for those statements the rating may be from most favourable to most 53 . which have ability to differentiate people it is the most popular attitude measurement scale 5 DECEMBER 09 www. The statements are prepared on the basis of a sample of statements.

aspx DIAGNOSIS STUDIES 5 DECEMBER 09 54 to study organisational culture / climate / job satisfaction? We can use following : questionnaire scale (like litert scale) HRD climate survey FIRO-B http://www. 55 .html 5 DECEMBER 09 RESOURCES http://www.

who fill them up and then we analyse these and try to find the level of job satisfaction / HRD climate etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 56 .afterschool.How to use these resources ? These resources consist of questionnaire / scales which are given to the employees.

What are the various OD exercises that we can use ? Grid training Role analysis action research TQM BPR MBO T-GROUP Team building intergroup development 5 DECEMBER 09 57 .

sociological analysis / sociometry 5. culture / climate studies 5 DECEMBER 09 www. political analysis 3. economic analysis 2. behavioural science analysis 4.How should organisations restructure ? Undertake organisational analysis using various perspectives like : 58 .

What are the key dimensions of a good culture / climate / ethos ? Level of openness level of collaboration level of trust and suppor level of autonomy and freedom level of proaction in the organisation support for creativity and experimentation level of centrality / peripheral status of employee 5 DECEMBER 09 59 .

tk 60 . and organisation development here we are using two things : action (change in organisation.afterschool. collective efforts for organistional development) and research (interaction with people to know about what they like and what they dont and their perspective about how to develop organisation) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is action research ? It was developed by Kurt Levin in 1947. It is a tool for organisational study. development. 61 . We develop people on 2 dimensions : 1. There are 6 different stages for development of the organisation in grid training here we start with individual and group development and then for the entire organisation.What is grid traininig? Blake and Mouton popularised this. focus on people / communication / human relations a person who is good in both these dimensions is a good leader 5 DECEMBER 09 www. focus on goal / task / organisational purpose 2.

What is BPR ? Business process reengineering : it denotes radical change in the organisational processes and practices so that we are able to completely alter the way we work here we take help of computerisation / automation / reengineering 62 .afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What is TQM? Total quality management = it is a philosophy. predictability and awareness across the organisation.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. People care for internal and external customers and try to meet the expectations of these. where we install a system. which tries to deliver what is promised. There are detailed documentation at every stage so that people work as per systems and processes and there is very high level of 63 .

T.What is role analysis / RAT /RNT ? Role analysis technique / role negotation technique / role contribution technique Role analysis enables organisations to study people processes in an organisation. likes the role. finds resources / support to execute the role. Rao in India 5 DECEMBER 09 www. feels empowered.V. and how well he is able to integrate the 64 .afterschool. Here we look into dimensions like how well the person understands his role. This technique has been popularised by Prof Udai Pareek and Prof. 65 .What is quality circle ? It is a Japanese management technique. where employees voluntarily form a quality circle. where they discuss about organisational quality problems and try to develop solutions for those issues and suggest them to the management. It works at the initiative of people 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

This data is then given back to people.What is survey feedback ? Here we take survey of employees of what they think is important / challenging / problematic / critical issue relating to organisation. so that they can plan to change the situation and improve the organisation it enables people to think about the ideal form of their organisation and enables them to play a proactive role in development of their own organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 66 .afterschool.

A number of tools and techniques are used under expert guidance in this 67 . It is a tool for developing people.afterschool. (to some extent similar to beauty contests) 5 DECEMBER 09 www. organisation and overall work culture. All the employees gather at a specified location for this exercise for a few days.What is assessment centre ? Here employees gather for some time and many psychometric tests ar eused to assess and develop people.

It is futuristic not historic. but what we want to do in future. We dont look at what we had done 68 . but zero base bugeting requires them to think afresh.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Traditionally people just inflate the last year's budge and present it back.What is zero base budgeting ? Here we start budgeting from scratch.

efficiency. Here we look at motivation.afterschool. commitment of people so that we can develop the entire organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 69 .What is people analysis ? Here we study people processes in the organisation and we try to study people factors. morale.

What is benchmarking ? Here we put an external / internal organisation as benchmark for the employees so that they can develop themselves in those lines and try to change the organisation / its processes / culture / techniques citibank tried to benchmark against the work culture and commitment of workers of SEWA in India when it entered in India.afterschool. (read Dabbawala case study) 5 DECEMBER 09 70 .

tk 71 .afterschool.What is right sizing? When the organisation has excess manpower. they go for right sizing. Here they retrench / transfer / relocate / restructure so that they are able to have an appropriate shape of organisation right sizing is a better work for more negative words like retrenchment 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

afterschool.What is in-basket ? It is a game / tool / technique for developing people / executives in 72 . Executive receives a basket of papers / problems on which decisions must be taken. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. The executive tries to take decision and thereafter receives feedback about his decision from his seniors / experts / trainers. Here employee is given a number of situation and he has to take decision on each of the situations.

Later we try to strengthen the forces in favour of change so that we may change the 73 .afterschool.What is force field analysis ? It is a tool for organisational study / organisational development / organisaitonal diagnosis here we identify forces which are in favour / against the change issue. It is the most important tool for organisational change management 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Here we try to look at the strength of each force.

counselling and announcements 5 DECEMBER 09 74 .afterschool.Prepare a schedule for assessment centre ? Day 1 : orientation day 2 : in – basket exercise day 3 : role play day 4 group discussion day 5 : analysis.

In diagnostic workshops.What are diagnostic workshops ? These help us in developing people.afterschool. we assess the competence of people 5 DECEMBER 09 75 .

tk 76 . motivating and challenging to the employee and adding aspects like skill variety.What is job designing ? Preparing a job design which is stimulating. etc. interesting.task significance. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. task identity.

tk 77 . improve work culture.afterschool.What is QWL ? Quality of work life when we are able to improve the quality of work life. work environment. it is called QWL 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What is flexibilisation and casualisation Flexibilisation= Creating flexible work culture (employee can choose work as per his convenience) casualisation = here employer may or may not give job in this 78 . there is a casual job 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 79 .What is ZERO HOUR ? Employer may not give job – during zero hour – it is part of casualisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 80 . Thus trained workers can produce in huge quantity.afterschool.What is Macdonaldisation? Here the job is broken in small components and each worker is trained in one small component and thus there is a possibility of replication of work on huge scale. Same working conditions and environment is created all over the world (it is similar to Taylorism of Scientific management) 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Jobs are systematically structured.

afterschool.What is commodification ? Today we find every product is being converted into commodities work is also converted to commodification by converting the work into a repeatitive activity 5 DECEMBER 09 81 .

What is compressed workweek?

Instead of 7 days work, just work for 4 day – but work more per day





Rescheduling work arrangement

People can reschedule their time as per their requirements instead of 10 to 5 work, you may work 7 to 2



tk 85 .afterschool.What is telecommuting ? Here a person can work while travelling or at home laptop and remove equipments help 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

she may divide the work with another lady and continue her job and home responsibilities 5 DECEMBER 09 86 . Suppose a lady is having home responsibility.What is job sharing ? Dividing the job between 2 or 3 persons to complete.afterschool.

afterschool.What is call centre ? Here there is one organisation which provides BPO services and handles customer queries / grievences etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 87 . 88 .What are components of QWL Fair compensation good working condition opportunity for growth social integration human capability development social relevance of work life work and social life space 5 DECEMBER 09 www.


What is role analysis ? To study the role in which an employee works and to study the level of understanding of the employee about his / her role is called role analysis. If people are clear about their role. Role may be different from 90 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. they will be able to get more satisfaction and organisation will also prosper.afterschool.

and other stakeholders Job : .What is difference between 91 .afterschool. task etc. customers. superiors. job. subordinates.a module of work assigned to an individual Task – basic element of a job work – productive activities position – a place in the formal hierarchy of the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. ? Role = setof expectations of colleagues.

What are steps in role analysis ? Identify roles to study prepare a task force / team to study roles identify role sender collect information about expectation from a role identify key performance areas(KPA) (role definition) identify competencies for the KPA identify gaps between capabilities and competencies plan out development activities 5 DECEMBER 09 92 .afterschool.

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