Action • Disrupts DNA and protein synthesis in susceptible organisms • Bactericidal, or amebicidal action

Contraindication · Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to metronidazole; pregnancy (do not use for trichomoniasis in first trimester). · Use cautiously with CNS diseases, hepatic disease, candidiasis (moniliasis), blood dyscrasias, lactation.

Generic name: metronidazole

•Amebicidal in the Brand Name: Apomanagement of Metronidazole (CAN), amoebic Flagyl, Flagyl 375, Flagyl ER, dysentery Flagyl IV, Flagyl IV RTU, MetroCream (CAN), MetroGel, Metro I.V., NeoTric (CAN), NidaGel (CAN), Noritate, Novonidazol (CAN), PMS-Metronidazole (CAN), Protostat, Trikacide (CAN CLASSIFICATION: Antiinfectives, Anti-protozoals

Adverse reaction/ side effects Headache, dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, incoordination, insomnia, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue Unpleasant metallic taste, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, GI upset, cramps Dysuria, incontinence, darkening of the urine Thrombophlebitis (IV); redness, burning, dryness, and skin irritation (topical) Severe, disulfiram-like interaction with alcohol, candidiasis (superinfection)

Nursing responsibilities • Administer with food or milk to minimize GI irritation. Tablets may be crushed for patients with difficulty swallowing. • Instruct patient to take medication exactly as directed evenly spaced times between dose, even if feeling better. Do not skip doses or double up on missed doses. If a dose is missed, take as soon as remembered if not almost time for next dose. •May cause dizziness or lightheadedness. Caution patient or other activities requiring alertness until response to medication is known. • Inform patient that medication may cause an unpleasant metallic taste. • Inform patient that medication may cause urine to turn dark. • Advise patient to consult health care professional if no improvement in a few days or if signs and symptoms of superinfection (black furry overgrowth on tongue; loose or foul-smelling stools develop)

Haemophilus influenzae. Enterococci. especially if stool contains blood. and low platelet or red blood cell count Contraindication Nursing responsibilities • Assess patient for infection (vital signs. sinuses. • Caution patient to notify physician if fever and diarrhea occur. eactionsto any of confusion and dizziness. •Instruct patient to notify physician if symptoms do not improve . enzymes produced by bacteria that may inactivate ampicillin. First dose may be given before receiving results. Adverse reaction/ side effects The use Common side effects of of Ampicillin ampicillin include iscontraindicated nausea. • Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity before therapy. Pharmacologic Mechanism • Binds to bacteria cell wall. Addition of sulbactam increases resistance to betalactamase. It also is used for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea. and resuscitation equipment close by in the event of an anaphylactic reaction. Indication Ampicillin is used for treating infections of the middle ear. or mucus. Keep epinephrine. for example. cephalexin (Keflex). itching. loss of inindividuals with appetite. Action Physiologic Mechanism • Bactericidal action. thepenicillins. Powder for injection: 250 mg. spectrum is broader than that of penicillin. 500 mg. Polycillin. • Obtain a history before initiating therapy to determine previous use of and reactions to penicillins or cephalosporins. stomach and intestines. headache. vomiting. Powder oral suspension: 125 and 250 mg/5mL. meningitis. Advise patient not to treat diarrhea without consulting health care professional. may or may not be allergic to penicillins. Persons who are allergic to the cephalosporin class of antibiotics. cefaclor (Ceclor). resulting in cell death. stool. and kidney caused by susceptible bacteria. pus. laryngeal edema. of hypersensitivityr rash. and 2 g. • Observe patients for signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis (rash. wheezing).Drug GENERIC NAME: ampicillin BRAND NAME: Omnipen. and cefprozil (Cefzil). • Use should be reserved for infections caused by beta-lactamaseproducing strains. ahistory diarrhea. severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis). endoc arditis and other serious infections. wound appearance. sputum. May occur up to several weeks after discontinuation of medication. 1g. bladder. Patients with a history of allergic reactions to other penicillins should not receive ampicillin. abdominal pain. Discontinue the drug and notify the physician immediately if these occur. urine. Principen CLASSIFICATIONS Therapeutic: Anti-infectives Pharmacologic: Aminopenicillins/ beta lactamase inhibitors PREPARATIONS: Capsul es: 250 and 500 mg. and WBCs) at beginning and throughout therapy. which are related to the penicillins. Active against: Streptococci. Penumococci. an antihistamine. pruritus. Serious but rare reactions include seizures. Persons with a negative history of penicillin sensitivity may still have an allergic response.

pancytopenia.5°C (103°F) or lastslonger than 3 days. ~ Assess fever.Drug Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Classification: antipyretics. IV >50 kg: 1 g 46 hrly (Max: 4 g/day). leukopenia. Max: 4 g/day. <50 kg: 15 mg/kg 4-6 hrly (Max: 60 mg/kg/day) Indication Mild to moderate pain a nd fever. Adverse reaction/ side effects Hema: hemolyticanemia. alcohol. . Contraindication Hypersensitivity. nonopioid analgesics Dosage: PO/Rectal 0.5-1 g 4-6 hrly when needed.HEPATOT OXICITY(overdose) GU: renalfailure(highdoses/chr onic use). intolerance to tartrazine (yellow dye #5). Derm: rash. saccharin. andmalaise). Errorshave resulted in seriousliver damage. DURING: ~ Adults should not takeacetaminophen longer than 10 days andchildren not longer than5 days unless directedby health careprofessional. ~ Advise mother or caregiver to take medicationexactly as directed andnot to take more thanthe recommendedamount. notepresence of associatedsigns (diaphoresis. Action Inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins that mayserve asmediators of pain andfever. AFTER: ~ Advise patient to consulthealth care professionalif discomfort or fever isnot relieved by routinedoses of this drug or if fever is greater than39. table sugar. Hepa: jaundice Metabolic: hypoG GI: HEPATICFAILURE. neutropenia.tachycardia. primarily in the CNS.urticaria Nursing responsibilities BEFORE: ~ Advise parents or caregivers to checkconcentrations of liquidpreparations.

<6 mth 2.5 mL. Orazinc Verazinc. <6 mth 1 mL. these unlikely but digestion. .g. respiration. 5. zinc is needed for normal growth. 4. cigarette smoke and various pollutants. 4-8 yr2. Nutritional supplement Childn 1-3 yr 0. blood circulation. Childn 9-13 yr 2. etc) and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Nutritional supplementAdult 2. Inform patient and family that trace elements are normally received from dietary intake that. Zinc220. Action Contraindication Nursing responsibilities 1.5 mL.5 mL. Zinca-Pak Classification: Vitamins and Minerals Dosage: Syr Acute diarrhea with reduced osmolarity ORS Childn ≥6 mth 5 mL.5-5 mL. Tell your doctor during normal body activities that immediately if any of require oxygen (eg. Drops Acute diarrhea with reduced osmolarity ORS Childn ≥6 mth 2 mL. if ordered. Check levels of trace elements in patients who have received TPN for 2 months or longer. Solutions of trace elements are compounded by pharmacist for addition to TPN solutions according to various formulas. Tell patient to report signs of hypersensitivity promptly.25 mL. hypersensitive to iodine the body's natural defense Use cautiously: Lactating heartburn may occur. Explain need for zinc administration to patient and family. Normal level is 88 to 112 mcg/dl zinc. Report low levels of thee elements. Zinc helps Nausea. Free worsen. Indication Supplement to correct Zn deficiency e. Give supplement. serious side effects immune system response. notify your radicals are highly reactive and doctor or pharmacist unstable chemicals generated promptly. Zinc 15. malabsorption syndromes & in conditions w/ increased body losses. supplements won’t be needed. If against damaging free radicals any of and Pregnant Women (antioxidant effect) and helps these effects persist or boost immune function.55 mL. 3.5 mL. One major effect of zinc is on the ability of cells to properly replicate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). when patient begins eating well. 6. which is required for cells to multiply.Drug Zinc Brand Names: Eye-SedSolution 0. Adverse reaction/ side effects E-Zinc contains zinc. stomach upset.25%. 2. Hence. 6-11 mth 0. 1-3 yr 1.

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