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Professor BJ6. Shore
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE .
Royal Family Crown Prince Ferdinand now king Crown Princess Marie queen now King Carl Carmen Sylva .
i NEW YORK THE CENTURY 1918 CO. WAINRIGHT ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS AND MAPS ' r. PRESENT. DE S.. C. AND FUTURE BY GOGU NEGULESCO SENATOR OF THE RUMANIAN PARLIAMENT TRANSLATED BY MRS. .~ j- ^j' RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE HER PAST.
Published.Copyright. September. by THE CENTUBY Co. 1918. 1918 .
and the occupa- more than three parts of the country by the enemy.INTRODUCTION Before Rumania entered the war she was almost unknown in the United States. with the intention of causing a feeling of antipathy towards her. giving false information and leading to an unjust impression of the events taking place in Rumania. Her enemies. For example. entry into the war on the twentyseventh of August. worked persistently to present the Rumanian policy as unstable and one of con- quest. Rumania had no minister or consuls here. followed in three Her months by the enemy. the tion of retreat of her armies before the fall of the capital. but in a rather poor way. relations The political and commercial between the two countries were very slight. 1916. the following re- . caused Rumania to become known.
that the war plans were delivered to the enemy by Rumanian officers. that the provision depots of the army were nian Army placed in Dobrudja a Rumanian province near the Bulgarian frontier so that the enemy might more easily capture it and leave the Rumanian Army without food. fourth. officer It has been proved that no Rumanian trea- would have been capable of such vi . that it had been decided that Ru- mania should attack the Bulgarians. this is absolutely false. agreement with the not to say im- posed by Russia. third.INTRODUCTION ports were spread about : first. while it is very well in known that any war plans were made Allies. while in reality not a German has been officer in the Rumanian Army and not a unit of the Rumatheir troops into the ever passed to the enemy. but that at the last moment this plan was changed by an attack upon Austria-Hungary. that in the Ru- manian Army there were German generals who during the struggles were passing with camp of the enemy. second.
There was no Rumanian nies. Among many other things it was said that the political men were either incapable or were being bought. formation of this unfortunate atmosif phere was all the easier for the enemies of Rumania because even European public opinion of the Allies was cold and sometimes severe towards Rumania.INTRODUCTION son and that. although in reality he is a warrior in the true sense of the word. It is none the less true that all these false affirmations were taking root . but that it was the Russian Govern- ment which transmitted these plans to the enemy. so that the officialdom over here to ex- plain things and to give the to these calum- name of Rumania was spoken with mistrust. they were pene- trating public opinion little by lie little. they all did their duty. The English vii press asked. . on the contrary. The not antipathy. throwing at the same time calumny upon her ally by false information that the Rumanian soldier does not know how to fight.
but also in the endeavor to push aside the distrust of events which took place in Russia in her allies. the representatives of the revolution published the documents proving completely that Rumania was betrayed by Russia. and The Rumanian inItalian press as- added all sorts of calumny. tonished. . in The was very severe All this its criticism. Eu- ropean public opinion received with satisfaction these proofs and convinced itself immediately that Russia had betrayed the cause of the Allies and that Rumania viii honestly did her duty. The the beginning of 1917 threw some light on this drama: the czarist regime having been over- thrown. and France. did not know what to believe. time Rumania was struggling desperately not only against numerous enemies who were encircling her on all sides.INTRODUCTION "Why did Rumania enter the war?" Russian press cried out that the tervention was a burden for the Allies.
p. 20.INTRODUCTION Especially when the Rumanian Army on the Sereth resisted for a year the drives of the enemy. and the bravery of her army. political men. "held for a long time by only her own means against more numerous adver- saries better armed than herself. of all gave the signal. fighting battles which have remained memorable and proving at every turn her loyalty towards her allies. . she has shown herself worthy of her past and of her noble ery traditions of knightly brav- In England and the neutral countries of EuGeneral de La Croix Alcan. Military France critics. and the entire press hastened to bring out the injustice done to Rumania. her loyalty. did the first sentiments of mistrust transform themselves into true feelings of admiration for the Rumanian Army first and for Rumania. 1917. i "L* Effort de la Ruraanie. isolated. in want of ammunition and sufficient food. betrayed." Paris. without support. which. she astonished them by the vigor and duration of her resistance.
as well as by the organized of her enemies in attacking and persistency maligning her. the lack of official action by the Rumanian the formation of Government. But if in Europe it has been easy to put in evidence the loyalty and the sacrifice of Ruim- mania. here in the United States the matter has been much more difficult. . pitying her for not having been supported and for being crushed by her enemies and for the betrayal of her ally. rendered very difficult favorable public opinion towards Rumania. work was organized and persistent bad im- especially work. aided by the unfortunate events which pre- pression had taken root cipitated themselves in Rumania without a logical explanation. Time was needed. the lack of widespread propaganda. needed. the whole world did her justice now. The first in public opinion.INTRODUCTION rope there was formed the same favorable current of opinion towards Rumania. in order to dissipate the first pressions. The extent of this great country.
held several lectures in circles.INTRODUCTION A few scattered do some things for Rumanians did attempt their countiy. artist. Petre Nastasesco. held lectures. a great Mr. Spiresco. Bazsesco. Mr. Messrs. her husband. one of the editors of the "New York Rumanian Times". good American Stanculeanu. Borccea and loanidu. Dr. a charming and Rumanian. young and sympathetic. Miller. published during one year a review written in English and in Rumanian. I myself published several articles. to My brother. Madame Dr. professor at the University of Bukharest. the such as the engineers. Paul Negulescu. the presi- dent of the Rumanian Commission to New the worked incessantly to interest American public in the sufferings of the Rumanian people. the charming also Mme. and many other Rumanians never ceased or wearied of trying to interest their acxi . Andronescu. thanks to the courtesy of the editor of especially of the "New York Herald" and Mme. Orghidan and York.
Xll . Angelesco. and left the mission in charge ister of a secretary.INTRODUCTION of our quaintances and friends in the question native country. and this the more justified as the was received by President Wilson with edifying and encouraging words Rumanian for minister Rumania. arrived to represent Rumania in Washington. But all these attempts kept their private character. giving. The Rumanians over here were full of hope that at hope was all last the moment had ar- rived for the true propaganda so long desired. 1918. There remains only the mili- tary attache of the legation. Dr. timid and isolated. and has had considerable success in this direction. sults. a minister. But after two months the min- departed for Europe before having really begun his work. nevertheless. some slight appreciable re- At last in January. who is for the formation of a committee with the working aim of relieving the sufferings of so many Rumanian orphans.
wife of the American ambassador in Mexico. Fletcher. ability Mrs. The delightful Mrs. former American ambassador in Russia. Mr.INTRODUCTION The gracious and noble work. E. same time the American newspapers have shown themselves very greatly disposed the in favor of At Rumania. and in periodicals in- In the daily papers xiii . is daughter of the President. H. have greatly contributed in drawing the attention of the public to either Ru- mania by individual peals sent out in the name by apof the American- efforts or Rumanian Relief Committee. Mr. Major Louis Livingston Seaman. T. In cooperation with the Rumanians here several Americans with kindly hearts and great have interested themselves deeply in Rumania. T. and ous to many others too numer- mention. McVickar. so distinguished Miss Wilson. John Riddle. Wells. directing this we feel sure that the results will be successful. Trowbridge.
INTRODUCTION teresting articles have appeared. change in public In the different American drawing rooms of and Chicago where I have had the honor of being received I have seen New York men and women the charming American women who manifest their individthat the uality in a manner so delicate and gracious gave much attention to the cause of Ruma- and through showed their desire nia their different questions to know her better. has succeeded in attracting at least in part the attention of the public to the fact that Rumania has been betrayed by Russia and that her army did its full duty. What the war? has been the motive which has de- termined the Rumanian Government to enter What has been the cause of the defeat? did the Why Government enter xiv into war . tivity. As this for myself I have become convinced of opinion. the help of the press. Private ac- but above all.
reply more completely to these questions I decided to write this book. what constitutes her economic Is it life? true that Rumania had made an before the war? alliance with Germany Do you believe that if the Allies had not failed in the Dardanelles the Bulgarians and the Turks would have given up their neutrality and that nia in any case the position of Ruma- would have been better? These are some of the many questions that prove the desire of the Americans to understand better. the language. the condition of Ru- mania. if possible. the cus- toms. the laws of Rumania.INTRODUCTION without the necessary armament and hospital supplies? In what consists the treason of Russia? Why What was peace declared? any further? is Was it im- possible to resist the origin. but a difficulty XV To .
it is but a resume. inhabiting a country rich by nature. The work is far from being complete. Wainwright and her daughter. tiful I am not very familiar with this beau- American language. In this book I have examined very closely the events which have taken place in Rumania. a people XVI . to the great aspect without exaggeration for good or without hatred. without admiration for any one person. Then two charming American ladies. I hope in publishing this book She to render a service to my native country. vigorous.INTRODUCTION arose. must become known democracy of the United States. I have made this my aim. which has a right ists to liberty and to her national unity. known under her real ill. de S. C. Mrs. My intention has been to draw the attention of the public to Rumania by a book easy to read. offered to help me as a labor of love for suffering Rumania. I hope that the American people may know that in Europe at the mouth of the Danube there ex- a people of Latin origin.
her political organThere is also an appendix containing ization. great or small. which contains besides not only details of the economic life of Rumania. In this second part I have shown the wealth of Rumania. xvu . Rumania after the war. but which touches also on her origin.INTRODUCTION with whom America can enter into economic relations profitable to both sides. testimonials of the bravery of the Rumanian Army. the right to live for all nations. Rumania in war . a people in fact which looks with confidence towards this great democracy from which spring the great principles of democracy. etc. the second. interested in this direction I For those who may be have written the third part. To facilitate the : reading I have divided the book into three parts the first. as all Rumanians desire. the necessity of having this used to better advantage and the commercial relationships which the Americans can undertake with that country. the right of self-gov- ernment.
so that again she may be given a chance xix . but valiant struggle is and shows us how worthy she of the moral and political support of these Senator's excellent book shows what are United States. the Bulgar and the Russ. Can any land blame her? Senator Negulesco's book explains how Rumania was betrayed after her hopeless. the Turk. been struck a coward's blow below the Betrayed. has belt.FOREWORD Poor Rumania! ture set up outpost of Latin culin the East. she had to drop out from the too unequal struggle. The Rumania's wrongs and how America can help to restore Rumania to prosperity and give again freedom and happiness to that corner of Europe where live our friends and former allies. surrounded by the An Hun. with death and starvation in her midst.
When you come ings.FOREWORD to live and bring forth the civilization in full fruits of her Latin freedom. When you remember how they have to shiver in the winter from the cold and winds coming from the great Russian steppes and how they XX . of the Danube and the Black light and with the Sea. to study the popular songs. The many invasions of Rumania in the past. due to her position on the road from the East to the West. you are bound to be fascinated. have tended to preserve her Latin tongue and race consciousness. tinged with the melancholy due to their suffer- and atmosphere of their woods and mountains. because when the invaders came the Rumanians fled into the fastnesses of the mountains the different districts story of the race and the people of met and talked and the recited was and sung all in the musical Latin tongue. of their great plains and rushing rivers. so that were brought to speak in the same way and to likewise maintain the same traditions of the race.
But to know them and see their generosity and and their their loyalty to their race. their traditions friends.FOREWORD swelter in summer under an almost to tropical sun admire their grit and toil in having made their land into such a prosperous you are bound and rich agricultural country. with the Venetian Republic and with Constantinople and riote colony its Phana- which gave Moldavia and MolIt is a pleasant contenia so many hospodars. as it was before it entered the war. scarlet. with Bysantium. blue and green satins with pointed toed slippers of gold xxi . to learn of their kind and gentle and brave qualities makes you love them. As you see the spiritual faith with which the rites of the grand Eastern Orthodox Church are followed by the people your sympathy draws you to them. trast for us in our dull colored clothes to think of the old boyards in purple. Americans in our young republic are We further drawn to them by the very contrast of their long past history with their ties with Rome.
its political needs. its mountains. its commercial possipeople and the poetry and history of that land of plains and bilities. Their struggles for liberty. Of the haiducs and brigands in the mountains often a sort of Robin Hood helping the poor from the spoils taken from the Turkish tax gatherer the traditions and the tales fill us with delight.FOREWORD and silver embroidery. be but the beginning of a wide interest in Rumania. Litt. for union of the two great provinces and their modern democratic constitution draw us to them. both past and present. TILESTON WELLS. D. of rich traditions and future prosperity. excellent as be- it is. But unfortunately we know and I too little of all this ! The book which Senator Negulesco puts fore us should trust will. T. XXll . which will not end without bringing the people of America to know all about Rumania.
.... 26 34 ALLIES 52 VI VII VIII THE STRUGGLE 64 THE CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT 86 THE STRUGGLE WITH THE RUSSIANS AND THE GERMAN ULTIMATUM .127 .. ARMY 253 .. .. I THE EUEOPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA GERMAN AND FRENCH INFLUENCE .CONTENTS PART CHAPTER I PAGE . . . 3 16 IV V BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF WAR THE DECLARATION OF WAR THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS BETWEEN RUMANIA AND HER . II III .. IX X XI RUMANIA AND PEACE 137 THE UNION OF BESSARABIA AND RUMANIA THE 157 CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE 160 PART XII XIII II XIV XV RUMANIA AFTER THE WAR 177 184 RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY THE RUMANIAN PROVINCES UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION 237 DIFFERENT ESTIMATES OP THE RUMANIAN ..
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Royal family Review of Rumanian troops Frontispiece FACING PAGE 8 Troops awaiting inspection by the French General Berthelot 9 . Sentinel in first line trench 128 . The troops from Transylvania taking Rumanian Danube the oath 49 64 his soldiers building a bridge across the King Ferdinand consulting about war plans general staff 65 A search-light at the front Soldiers descending into the trenches soldiers at the front resting 80 Rumanian . .... blessing . 32 33 48 King Ferdinand reviewing his troops The Royal Family watching the Bishop the troops from Transylvania of fidelity ... 81 88 King Ferdinand decorating soldiers for bravery 89 112 Special cannon for the trenches The Queen and her children visit the front ..... A regiment of infantry in the Carpathians . .113 .
street in Braila . .ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE Cooking at the front Austrian prisoners Prince Carl with a French machine gun Queen Marie in peasant costume . Peasants in national costume. a village in the mountains Returning after washing 208 209 224 new linen in the river . . 156 . . 240 . and means of transportation Poiana Tapului. 152 .164 . . . Sinai 192 193 . A business A Political Bukharest .165 Artillery on the way to the front taken prisoners Rumanians from Transylvania 172 by their own countrymen A company of bicyclists 173 . A lake of oil at Baicioi Oil wells in Campina street in 225 . . . 241 and ethnological map of Rumania and the regions inhabited by the Rumanians 248 . . .
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE PART I .
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE CHAPTER I THE EUROPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA THE CONVENTION OF 1883 European War broke August. Situated thus. between two powerful empires. Aus- tria-Hungary. it was to Rumania's interest to . Austria-Hungary on the other. because of the political-military con- vention concluded in 1883. and Italy. Russia on the one side. 1914. composed of Germany. Rumania found WHEN the great out in herself. on the side of the Triple Alliance.
The obimposed upon her ligation which this congress by forcing her to yield to the exigencies of Russia and to abandon Bessarabia to her. Latin in origin. she was always in danger of being crushed by little one or the other of her neighbors. Russia was not satisfied to see this coun- try of Rumania. and at the same time looked upon Rumania as a point of attraction and even support for all those Rumanians subject to the Crown of Hapsburg.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE ally herself with one of these two. on her throne. aimed at the realization of her plans for the domination of the lower valley of the Danube. isolated among the masses who wished to control the Orient Austria-Hungary. She had to choose between Austria and Russia. was a means for Rumania to obtain necessary peace and work out her development and her future. for alone. To obtain the friendship of one of these neighbors. had driven The Congress of Berlin of 1817 Rumania from the latter. with a zollern HohenSlavic . on the other hand. ren4 .
la Roumans. was not interested in the destiny of the side of Austria and security by and England Germany did not know Rumania." . . was Paris who showed x to Bukharest the road which led to Vienna. Rumania Italy sought her own . "Histoire des Relations entre p. France. went to Berlin to see Bismarck and sometime afterwards Prince Charles of Rumania tiano. lorga. The Prime Minister of Rumania. too much pre- occupied with her own rehabilitation after the events of 1870." On the other hand Bismarck had done his very best to attract Rumania within the orbit of the Central powers. in order to sign the political-military i agreement France et les N. Bra- prime minister of 1916. T. 248. the father of the first went to Gastein to see the Emperor of Austria.THE EUROPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA dered impossible a Russo-Rumanian friend"The antagonism toward Russia pership. sisted and as Austria was the traditional rival it of the Russian influence in the Balkans.
had always been said that this alliance was the personal work of King Charles and that he It did it of his sulting the try. for the world declared it many times. and in a solemn all manner. The consequences many. own men in is initiative and without con- This power in his counan error and an injustice to the political memory stances of a great king. interest of Political circum- and the Rumania imposed this action. from that moment the naoffi- tional claims fell to second place. that renounced endeavor to obto time tain there.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE would bind Rumania to the Triple AlThis agreement had for its aim the liance. but without re6 sult. reciprocal defense against every foreign attack. limiting itself from time by claiming in a friendly manner. cial of this agreement were "First. and the economical development of the contracting parties. that maintenance of European peace. better treatment for the people of the .
" * living un- Thus Rumania could no longer carry into effect any of her national claims.THE EUEOPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA same race and of the same language der the crown of St. a political party at- tacked the Government for showing weakness in its external policy with Austria-Hungary. p. cit. Rumania could not prepare for na- tional unity. 7 . Too small and between enemies that were too strong. 249. because any action whatsoever authorized by the officials immediately drew iN. Etienne. op. in opposition. an and if. in order to avoid diplomatic conflicts with ally. but plain to the pupils that they presented their deliverance as a dream to be realized later. It is very true that in the schools they never failed to ex- a great part of Rumania was under foreign domination. and the role changed with each party that came into power. it said nothing more. The official world avoided making any allu- sion to the Rumanians beyond the Carpathians. lorga.
the conflict that was to take place between Russia and Bulgaria. Ruma- nian fortifications were built around Bukharest and on the Namoloasa. it military preparation well understood. is was yet more diffiThe convention of 1883 had foreseen. to cultivate and to develop the sentiment of national unity. in order to prevent a possible Rusline of Galatz. but the passes of the Carpathians 8 . festations and even these intellectual mani- were prevented from passing the Austria-Hungary. to publish newspapers and write re- views and books. and Tocsani. guaranteed by the constitution. without great influence among the masses of the people. frontier into THE MILITARY PREPARATION / The cult. and It is true that throughout the country the people had full liberty. sian invasion.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE the intervention of the cabinets of Vienna Berlin. but this movement presented itself only in a slow and isolated way.
This was the situation before August.000 men. After this date it became In times of peace Rumania could concentrate 150. was Germany who had promised to procure for her all necessary armament and money in case of war.000 men. guns. and of so she was at the mercy still Germany. and munitions.000 more to 400. as was proved 9 in the campaign . but It was very nat- ural to address herself to the principal one of was Germany who had furnished her with cannons. Rumania was tions at liberty to purchase muniit wherever she pleased. She was obliged to buy everything from abroad. delicate.THE EUROPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA were never studied by the staff of the Rumanian Army and were not provided with fortifications. and in times of war she could easily mobilize from 350. and it her allies. Political circumstances had prevented Ru- mania from inaugurating any industry by which she could supply the necessities of her army. 1914.
to August. for various reasons. armament. but in order to obtain it was necessary to relinquish neutrality. The Entente were not willing to help Rumania without proof that she would join their cause. armament.000 and 800. But.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE against the Bulgarians. Therefore 000 men. 1914. and cannons in particular. 1914. had even prevented the delivery of the orders made prior to the Ruma- nian declaration of neutrality in August. they also needed much money. as a neutral. but in the two years from August. Rumania could rely for money and the indispensable material of war on Germany. 1916. to whom could she apply? The German government. To give up neutrality required money and it.These needed ammunition. Can any one conceive a more embarrassing situation? The Rumanian Government found to cut the the way Gordion knot: to declare war on 10 Austria-Hungary with the hope that the Allies . the effective force grew to between 700. As an ally of the Central powers.
military comwhile the missions were sent to France. England. in order to obtain supplies indispensable for the army from the various manufacturers already engaged in sending large orders to the Allies. Russia. struggling with bayonets against German cannon were about to move upon Austria-Hungary. 'With what did you enter into the war in the way of armament?' tell I could n't anlittle swer except to him that we had very 11 . we will quote part of a chief of the speech made by General Rudeanu.THE EUROPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA would send them money and the necessary ammunition. Japan. and the United States. Then. military mission sent to Paris for the purpose of placing military orders. "There was the most thorough mutual confidence and therefore speaking a few days after the commencement of the Austro-German counter offensive a great French statesman asked me. in the anxious moments which followed after the declaration of war and Rumanian armies. To illustrate these facts. Italy.
'But. 1917. also several French officers. But by that time Rumania was already invaded." l true that France was loyal. 32. had there arrived a few great cannons and a part of the munitions ordered from France. where everything was watched by the German submarines or of transporting through Russia. No. The difficulty of transporting by the North Sea. Scarcely by March. with what did you com- mence the war?' had It in is I replied. administration. the capital had fallen.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE armament. we commenced it with the ever-increasing confidence which we France. tell me. and the Ruma- iLa Revue Hebdomadaire. Then he repeated the question. . page 284. the difficulty was to ask her at the very for munitions and materials of war moment when she herself was in such need of them. Discours du General Rudeanu. But order to help her ally. then. nor railroads. makes one easily understand the utter lack of proper mili- tary preparation by Rumania. She made all possible sacrifices in Rumania. Directeur superieur de 1'armament Rouman. where there was neither goodwill.
and had been ac- cepted as such by the Allies. 1916. had also the reserve of the The Rumanians Rumanian National Bank. since December. greatly aided the Rumanian resisting the and they. which was called the Reorganization of the Rumanian Army. The arrival of these cannons officers. struggling bravely with their rades. which had believed itself it also abandoned by the rest of the Allies gave the French officers a chance to ap. To meet In the necessary expenses of the war Rumania had contracted a loan in London. the Rumanian Government gave orders to a commission to purchase quickly and everywhere the 13 articles . preciate the bravery of the Rumanian soldiers.THE EUROPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA nian troops had withdrawn to the Sereth. where they had been resisting the attacks of the enemy The cannons arrived. as well as the brave French officers. uplifted the morale of that army. Based upon these funds. fact this loan had been one of the conditions it of her entering the war. Rumanian com- Army in German and drive.
although the United States was not at that time one of the Allies. in the midst of transforming her industries for her own military interests she herself bought from American merchants military necessities. be- not believe that such a clause could cause at this very moment England was all . but we do exist. In Japan the same thing At the same time the funds of the 14 . and part of them were even lish filled. The mili- tary commission sent to the United States was well received by the American manufacturers. The Eng- Government was unwilling to send to America the money necessary to obtain the fulfilment and shipment of the if orders. and sending the Rumanian Military Commission to the United States could otherwise have d'etre. Orders were given. no raison happened. We do not know in the agreement for the loan there was any clause stipulating that was to Rumania buy only from England.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE that were indispensable to the army. but unfor- tunately everything stopped here.
THE EUROPEAN WAR AND RUMANIA national bank. and even her army. and her people. of disease. of cold. had been seized by the Bolsheviki. had no food. . no medical supplies. still and yet they were obliged to fight. and no ammunition. to as- sure security. so that herself with Rumania found They died of famine. sent to Moscow in Russia. no money.
From 1875 had been a commercial agreement between Rumania and Austria-Hungary. This agreement. which needed Rumanian . export of her cereals and her 16 But this neighboring empire. which gave great ment of her advantages to Austria-Hungary for the placeindustries.CHAPTER II GERMAN AND FRENCH FLUENCE IN- very important consequence ANOTHER to 1886 there of the political-military convention of 1883 was a great economical rapprochement between Rumania and Germany. about 1875. the means of com- munication in Rumania were so restricted that Austria-Hungary was able to monopolize her market. assured to Rumania the cattle. At this period.
000 lei.000 but during this tariff war the products of Austria-Hungary fell to 50.000. which belonged to the Rumanians. did not have the same interest in Rumanian cattle.000 lei. With a alleging narrow policy. Germany studied well the wealth of Rumania 17 . began to prevent the introit duction of cattle and ended by suppressing entirely. cooled the relations between Austria and Ru- mania. and Serbs. Hungary sent merchandise to the value of lei. Bulgarians. and of this Austriafive years. and Austria-Hungary's wish to impose her authority on the navigation of the lower Danube. During this time Germany came into the Rumanian market under favorable conto ditions.GERMAN AND FRENCH INFLUENCE cereals to transform into flour. greatly This fact. sanitary motives. At the same time Berlin offered make good all the loans of her ally. and in 1886 a custom-house war broke out between these two countries and lasted more than In 1885.000.000. 134. Austria-Hungary. Rumania. Rumanian imports were 293.
but specially with increasing the number of great its Rumanian customers. owing to the protective tariff of 1891 and 1893. and on the other hand. founded industries for the manufacture of merchandise that could no longer be im- ported. German com- mercial policy was preoccupied not only with keeping up. 18 .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE and the qualities of her population. on the one hand. Traveling salesmen representing the greatest try. of which they were in need. and pur- sued her policy of economical penetration into Rumania with great perseverance. procured for landlords and farmers capital and machinery. found in ready to The German business man always his own country banks that were discount his drafts. and taking great care to see that the orders for merchandise were properly executed and promptly shipped. which. giving long-time credits to German houses went everywhere throughout the coun- merchants. Several in German banks founded banks Ru- mania.
but they had no success whatever. and Austria-Hungary 138.192.076 worth of a total of im- ports. "Do not is Germany who gave . frightened by their danger- ous competitors.GERMAN AND FRENCH INFLUENCE The Austrians. lately Parliament." Replying. on the basis of the clause of "the most favored nation. Carp.000. Mr. former prime brought out forget that this fact in it minister.146 650.000 lei worth. In 1913 Germany exported lei lei into Rumania 237. Take Jonesco said very justly: 19 .819. tried to obtain in 1893 another agreement with Rumania. Mr. great profit for German merchandise. This policy of Germany resulted in great economical development of Rumania. us the money necessary for our development France gave to us only with difficulty." They sought to regain their place in her market by trying to imitate the methods of the Germans. and great Ger- man influence on both the political and financial markets.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE it be possible that we might find ourselves an alliance which at a given moment could place us in a camp hostile to that of France. She needed foreign capital to develop her true that riches. op." It is true that great benefits . that Germany should aid us in completing our economical condition in order to complete our consolidate our finances. accrued to foreign capitalists but at the same i Xenopol. cit. it is no less true that the economical and political money of life Rumania fell under the influence of Ger- many. p. once having entered into an alliance. 20 . for our arms and for our mul "We nitions of war. 207. were at the mercy of Germany for everything. all Germany gave Rumania necessary for her development. It was natural. and that we should expect France to give us money? I find that Could in the few hundred millions of Rumanian revenue taken up by France constitute a miracle. since it would have been natural if all our loans had been with those [the Germans] who were to draw profit from our economical and military development. 1 armament and to Rumania was If the it is in a period of transition.
which. chief of the liberal party and former prime minister. timid at first. encouragement of is this German in- It true that he never exercised any lines. the state profited through the levying of different taxes. Also great political personalities like the late D. King Charles. contributed by his also to the fluence. as well as the people who had at their disposal the production of a better market. tries The indus- financed with foreign capital were again a great advantage to lated Rumania as they stimu- Rumanian capital. Majoresco.GERMAN AND FRENCH INFLUENCE time the Rumanian workmen profited . which was both direct action along these dignified and reserved as constitutional king and as a private citizen. and these sentiments reflected themselves upon the country of his birth. but during forty-eight years his attitude. prime minister of the Conservative . the late T. Sturdza. drew to him the love and respect of the country. finally try in began to show itself in the line of indusan encouraging manner. very presence on the throne.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE party and one of the best-known leaders of the intellectual movement of Rumania. but also love and gratitude toward this hospitable land that had instilled in them all the great ideas of right not only their and of liberty. young men brought back from France knowledge. manifested openly their admiration for Germany. intellectual and social circles there was great sympathy for France. these Returning into scientific their own country. and Mr. Carp. former chief of the Conservative party and prime minister. Since 1848 and even before that the wealthy were in the habit of families sending their sons to Paris to take up their studies and finish their education. and their adsoil miration for France and the was so pro- pitious that the affection for this noble country . and they tried to introduce into their own midst her ideals. FRENCH INFLUENCE Beside this German In influence stood the French influence.
culture. The common origin of these two countries. the bravery and loyalty of this country throughout all the events of its history. The Rumanians never forgot that it was through Napoleon III that they were able to . to the extent that they often replaced the Rumanian language with the French language in the salons. The literature was appreciated.GERMAN AND FRENCH INFLUENCE penetrated deeply into the hearts of the intellectual class. the preponderant influence of French the good political relations that have always existed between France and Rumania. the fact that France had always been the initiator of great social reforms. and French taste was followed. were the many reasons that The laws of greater part of the institutions and the Rumania were copied from the French institutions and laws. augmented and even exaggerated the love of the Rumanians for all that was French or came from France. French manufactures were very fashionable.
is all This influ- the more interesting as France has never sought to draw near or to win the soul of Rumania. Some finances. though profoundly ence wounded. the hearts of the Rumanians. now prime minis4 . nor did they forget that through the same support she founded her national dynasty. Marghiloman. Rumania and press. but in general was placed under the protection of Austro-German enter- prises. beat none the strongly in their love for France.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE union of their principalities. years ago the Rumanian minister of Mr. took a hostile attitude towards Ruless mania. in order to form Rurealize the mania. deceived and the French by King Ferdinand of Bulgaria. Except for Napoleon III and very few others. And when between in 1912 and 1913 the conflict arose Bulgaria. It is true that some French capital was invested in the country. the political and industrial men of France never gave her much it thought. Wallachia and Moldavia.
if France always held a great influence in the intellectual life of Rumania. and the French bankers subscribed to this loan. He immediately secured one in Germany. In consequence. which nevertheless kept its German character. and if she contributed without any volition to the formation of the taste of the upper classes. went to Paris to negotiate a loan.GERMAN AND FRENCH INFLUENCE ter. she had no influence over the economical and political life. . which they refused to consider.
and former prime ministers. This council consisted of members of the Government. These men had only the right of discussion without voting. and he felt that it would not be a theless. they met simply to indicate their views to the king. presidents of the legislative body. 1914.CHAPTER III BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF WAR in the month of August. never- had the power to act independently. council EARLYCharles convoked a crown King to determine the attitude of Rumania. who. wise move to disregard the advantages of cre- ating for Rumania recognition and gratitude . chiefs of the political parties. King Charles believed that Germany would be victorious.
BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF WAR on the part of the victor. "in order to pre- vent the success of Russia." said Mr. her export and import remained at the mercy of the Hungarians. Carp said that Rumania should respect the convention of 1883 in order to gather the fruits of a policy practised for forty years. if death of Rumania. the A sharp discussion took the council. specially as Rumania was bound to the Triple Alliance by the convention of place 1883. "We the must fight. who would not fail on the very first occasion to give her a death blow. She would then be subjected to the economical policy of Russia. in order 1 to satisfy her greedy desire for monopoly. P. Carp. 27 . i Rumania had two rail outlets for the export of her wealth: by Austria-Hungary and Germany. which meant sure across ruin for the country. If the straits were closed to commercial navigation. which was her great ambition. and by sea across the Black Sea and the Dardanelles. Russia should take Constantinople. Rumania would be forever cut off from all means of export to the West. among members of Mr." success of Russia He felt that was the beginning of the According to his views.
Take Jonesco. one of the most noted members of the Conservative party. in other quarters they believed that as the con- vention of 1883 had a defensive character it had now become void since Germany and Austria-Hungary were at war and Italy was neutral. Mr. declared himself for a permanent and absolute neutrality. for neutrality. N. convinced that the propitious mo- ment had arrived to solve the tionalities for the profit problem of naof the Hungarians and . the majority of the council decided.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE After the speeches of Mr. In the midst of these discussions information was received from Rome of Italy's . Marghiloman. the all-powerful states- man of Hungary. nevertheless. Filipesco. the leader of the conservative Democrats. It trality was believed that the question of neuwas imposed upon Rumania by the atti- tude of Count Tisza. the chief of the Conservative party. chief of the Liberal party and prime minister. upheld by Mr. who had pushed the declaration of war. and Mr. Bratiano.
THE ATTITUDE OF THE POLITICAL PAETIES Although neutrality was admitted certain political circles as a fact. earnestly wished to avoid the ravages of war for his coun- But try and was unwilling to do this. 1914. an ardent pacifist. Carp into power and to grant him the dissolution of Parliament. grew more and more determined. This movement. in- began agitations for tervention on the side of the Entente. the king. the Conservative party under the late . October 10. King Charles had the authority under the constitution to call Mr. which at first was rather cautious. and when General Mackensen took command of the Austro-German armies 29 in order to attack Serbia. He ob- served loyally the state of neutrality until his death.BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF WAR intention to remain neutral. This news greatly in relation to influenced the decision of the majority. as the situation of the two countries the Central powers was identical.
Bratiano replied that it would not. Serbia. specially as the cabinet of Vienna had given him all necessary assurances that Austria was not acting in a spirit of conquest. Bratiano was not to be moved. squeezed between for the great Germano-Austro-Bulgarian forces. and direct communication between the Germane-Austrian and the BulgaroTurkish armies was established across her tory. no way towards terriAt the same time. But Mr. terri- This event had a great influence on the Rumanian policy. that she was aiming torial acquisitions. the Cabin inets of Sophia and Belgrade asked the Cabinet of Bukharest whether the violation of the treaty of Bukharest would constitute a cause war by Rumania. Some considered that henceforth there could no longer be any question of entering the war on the side of the Al30 .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Filipesco demanded the urgent intervention of Rumania in order to prevent the crushing of Serbia and the uniting of the German and Bul- garian armies. Mr. was crushed.
because Germany had become too strong in this part of the East. Marghilo- man stood out more strongly than ever for neutrality. all having under her power the strength of the Allies. At the same time Mr. On account of this difference of opinclash between these ion there the was a of two men party in midst the Conservative that brought about a secession in May. thereby mystifying their followers. the chief of the Democrats. Filipesco. Mr. renouncing his ideas of absolute and irrevocable neutrality. turned completely about and sided with Mr. but Mr. held their own counsel. A violent campaign had been undertaken by the press and in public 31 meetings among . on the contrary. Take Jonesco. The chief of the Liberal party and the prime minister. Filipesco upheld. that Rumania should enter at any cost and as soon as possible on the side of the En- tente. The Conservative party divided itself into groups of political friends. Bratiano. Mr.BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF WAR lies. 1915.
1916. Mr. with the same force as in the Ru- mania's entrance on the side of Germany. Bratiano. was publishing at this time a review which was greatly appreciated and in which he demonstrated the miserable state of affairs of Russia and the grave danger. among the pro-Allies and the pro-Germans. THE SECOND CROWN COUNCIL This merciless struggle continued until the twenty-seventh of August.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE and non-interventionists. declared himself for immediate entrance into war on the side of the Entente. Bratiano. first council. At the same time the interventionists eagerly the interventionists urged the king and the Government to give up their neutrality and to enter the war on the side favored by each of these groups. Carp upheld. 82 . his best to prevent any and Mr. Stere. when King Ferdinand convoked the second Council. Mr. should Rumania rally to the i a liberal socialist cause of Russia. Marghiloman did action of his country. 1 On this occasion the chief of the Government. and personal friend of Mr. deputy and professor at the University of Jassy. Mr.
" your country The majority of the council voted for the entrance into war on the side of the Allies. . "Majesty. to de- war against Austria-Hungary. if you approve the policy of the will lose both Government. His Majesty. He ended his discourse with these memorable words.BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF WAR His profound conviction was that Rumania could be victorious and obtain the realization of her national ideal for regaining Bessarabia only through the help of Germany. King Ferdinand. you and your throne. gave his approba- tion to this decision of the clare Government. considering that the majority of the council represented the will of the country and wishing to retain his role of constitutional king.
a character which was essentially conservative and defensive. was to guarantee the Allied countries against every attack from the outside and to consolidate the state of affairs created by former Its principal aim treaties. the Rumanian Government. in accord with these peaceful tendencies that Rumania joined Devoting herself to the work of the interior recon- struction and loyally resolved to maintain an ele- . Mr. 1916. T. without consulting parliament addressed the following declaration of war to Austria-Hungaria alliance : concluded between Germany and Austria-Hungary and Italy had. according to the official declaration of the Government. tics It was through the desire to place her polithis alliance.CHAPTER IV THE DECLARATION OF WAR ON The the evening of August 27. Bra- tiano presiding.
to this political system disappeared at the same time. Her intervention hastened peace and re-established the balance of power. as did refused to join in the declaration of war with AustriaHungary. in order to assure peace and the preservation of the state of affairs and of right created by the treaties. imposed a new line of conduct upon her.THE DECLARATION OF WAR ment of order and equilibrium in the region of the lower Danube. she contented herself with a rectification of her frontiers. In place of a group of states struggling with a common effort to work for unity. Rumania was deceived by the attitude of the Congress of Vienna. by destroying the status quo. they found themselves in the presence of powers at war one against the 35 . not having received from the Congress of Vienna the proper In the Spring of 1915 Italy declared war against Austria-Hungary. The reasons that had prompted Rumania to join herself notification. which was not what she to expect. and the Triple Alliance existed no longer. Balkan Wars. When actual war broke out. Rumania. had the right Italy. which gave her a greater security against every aggression and repaired at the same time the injustice committed against her by the Con- But while pursuing this objective gress of Berlin. Rumania never ceased to contribute to The last the maintenance of peace in the Balkans.
These radical changes were evident proof for Rumania that the objective she pursued by joining herself to the Triple Alliance could no longer be reached and her efforts more so as the act underin other directions taken by Austria-Hungary had assumed a character and that she had to . direct her views all the well as for her menacing to the essential interests of Rumania. In face of so radical a modification in the situation created between the Monarchy of Austria-Hungary and Rumania. which conformed neither to its desires nor to its inter- was adopted in virtue of assurances given by the imperial and royal Government that the monarchy. The neutrality which the royal Government im- posed upon itself following the declaration of war. ests. 36 . by declaring war on Serbia. whose aim was to effect a complete transformation in the former arrangement that had served as a basis to their treaty of alliance.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE other. was not acting in a spirit of conquest. and that she aimed in no manner at territorial acquisition. realized. These assurances have not been face to-day a state of affairs which can give birth to great territorial transformation and to political We changes of such a nature as to constitute a grave menace for the future security of Rumania. the latter retook her liberty of action. as most legitimate national aspirations.
she found in the friendly relations which were established between her and Rumania assurances for her interior tranquillity as well as for those of our of discontent of the common frontiers. She knew the degree Rumanian population. In fact Germany and Italy. who had reconstituted their state the upon the grounds of upon which rested the principle of nationality. faithful to the spirit of the Triple Alliance. a precious pledge for her interior tranquillity as well as for the amelioration of the fate of Rumanians of Austria-Hungary. 37 . Rumania. The hope that we conceived in this regard in our adhesion to the Triple Alliance has been deceived. struggled to accomplish. had seen in the relation of friendship an alliance which had established itself between the three great powers. have upheld and defended in 1883 to the grouping of Central By adhering far from forgetting the bonds of powers. which cast her back again upon us and threatened at every moment to trouble the good relations existing between the two states. blood that united the people of the kingdom to the Rumanian subjects of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.THE DECLARATION OF WAR The peaceful work that Rumania. was rendered sterile by those very ones which should it. As for Austria-Hungary. could not fail to recognize the legitimacy of the basis their very existence.
and condemned to undergo the oppression of a foreign element that constituted but a minority among the diverse nationalities composing the estate of Austria-Hungary. When war actually broke out there was born a hope that the AustroHungarian Government would be convinced at the last moment of the urgent necessity of putting it an end formed a danger not only in our friendly relations. All the injustice to which our brothers have been subjected have maintained between our country and the monarchy a continual state of animosity. but equally in the normal interto this injustice. which the Government of the kingdom succeeded in calming only at the price of great culties diffi- and numerous sacrifices.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE During a period of more than thirty years the Rumanians of the monarchy never saw reforms of a nature that would give them a semblance of satisfaction they have even been treated as an inferior race . Two years of war have demonstrated to Rumania that Austria-Hungary. for courses which should exist between neighboring states. hostile to every interior reform capable of ameliorating the existence of the peoples which she governs. was as prompt to sacrifice them as she was incapable of defending them against every foreign attack. The war in which almost all of Europe participates brings out the gravest problems which affect the 38 .
and the Entente alone was able assure her national unity. Signed EM. the freedom of the Rumanians from of Austria-Hungary. 1916. Bukharest. imbued with the desire to contribute to hasten the end of the conflict and under the imperative necessity of safeguarding her racial interests. Rumania found herself under the imperative the domination necessity of safeguarding her racial interests. in a measure to Secondly. 9 o'Clock in the evening. sees herself under the necessity of entering the ranks of those who are better able to assure her national unity.THE DECLARATION OF WAR national development and the very existence of states . Rumania. PORUMBAKO. August 27. According to this historical document the principal motives that determined the Government to take a step placing the very existence of the country in jeopardy were: First. For these reasons she considers herself from this moment in a state of war with Austria-Hungary. Minister of Foreign Affairs. the occu- .
Thirdly. to force trality. Rumania up her neuof the The political men and the press west of Europe were making appeals to all the sentiment of the Rumanians to urge them to join their cause. Beyond these motives of high national policy were yet others of a character exalted. they became severe in their criticisms. but more human. nevertheless.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE pation of Serbia by the Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces was of such a nature as to pro- duce in the Balkans great ations territorial transform- and political changes constituting a grave menace for the future security of Rumania. weighed heavily in the balance of the war. all upon the prime of the and upon the noted to give men country. blaming the attitude of a Latin 40 . to hasten the end of the European conflict. The Allies. brought the king. to inter- vene in order to prevent these transformations and political changes. She was forced. specially France. which. and much weight upon minister. therefore.
mania. after having stated that it At was specially grati- fying to France that in the war. 1918. Briand. reproduced from "Rou17. because Rumania into war was an im- portant point in his program. played a prominent role in the entrance of this matter. felt compelled to declare that he had ment on Declaration made by Mr. minister of foreign affairs." Paris. Briand at the session of Parliathe eleventh of January. "If some of these had not been agreed upon. Rumania had this intervened and that was one more reason why i she should feel herself pledged to that country." another sitting of the French Parliament Mr. then Prime Minister of France. 41 . and he made a great effort to come to an agreement with the Rumanian Government. January.THE DECLARATION OF WAR country that remained indifferent in the face of a danger threatening the liberty of the world and the Latin race. Mr. 1918. France would have run the risk of not being efficapoints ciously aided in her struggle against the ag* gressor. Pichon.
" June 19. at least with the men of the Rumanian states. Ernest Daudet. By the light of what transpired when the war broke out we must recognize that thanks to his efforts and with the collaboration of his Russian and English colleagues. Camille Blondet. in order to force trality. its neu- From the newspaper "La Rotraianie. 2 "Courrier des Etats Unis. the well-known French writer." Paris. he succeeded." said: He [King many. 42 . 1917." from the moment when Mr. 1918. and it Charles] leaned rather towards Geris against this tendency that Mr.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE informed the Rumanian Government that "the Allies all would maintain it in a complete manner it pledges made l intervened. I. the interventionists' opposition commenced a violent campaign against the Govern- ment. "La Roumanie et la Guerre. in an interesting article. political if not with the king. was forced to counteract. then representing France in Rumania. 2 Influenced in great part by this exterior action. 1 it to give up No.
the favorable moment. a grave danger to the national questions. whose ardent patriotism was unwilling to recognize obstacles and the who. Every advance of the Russians served them as a pretext to demand the partici- in the common action . were no longer of any enter the History interest. according to them. according to them. the Government was losing every occasion pation of Rumania . They all followed example of Nicholas Filipesco. Preparations. In their political meetings that Bukharest was large enough to hold the interventionists demanded immediate mobilization.THE DECLARATION OF WAR Filipesco and Take Jonesco demanded the immediate intervention on the side of the Alevery moment of delay was. never possessed those of a skilled diplomat. and their imposing manifestations no hall in the sought to obtain from the Government entrance into war without delay. lies . having all the qualities of a leader of a crowd. We must war will at any price. the danger to the very existence of the country. probably reproach those directing the nationalistic movements for not having known how to lessen the impatience and moderate the enthusiasm raised for a war against Austria.
Marghiloman had no longer any Serbesco. op. 2fc>erbesco. should show more wisdom than im2 patience. We were passing through a crisis of sentiment alism.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE and would permit the Russians to arrive alone at Budapest. And yet again: "To deserve truly the role of director of a nation.. op. 44 . cit. It is incontestable that into these feverish and violent movements drew the current the majority of those who form the public opinion of the country and have great influence over the king and this influence it and the Government.. p. These impatient ones imagined that peace would come from one moment to the other and that Transylvania would remain under the Hun1 garian joke or would pass under that of another. 203. this party. 200. Reasons on practical lines espoused by the partizans of i Mr. Take Jonesco. when they felt that the end of neutrality was de- manded too lightly. p." This was the idea that many Ru- manians expressed during the year 1915. Filipesco. was all the more dangerous in that worked on sentimental ground. cit.
The was punished with death. Bratiano. Every Rumanian in of Transylvania between the ages of sixteen and forty-five was sent the first ranks against the Russians. which was so fatal to Rumania. 45 Many of the Rumanians were hanged for slight . The pressure brought to bear from Berlin for the neutrality of Rumania was losing its influence each day with Mr. and the Government commenced In order to lean visibly towards the interventionists and the side of the Entente. A severe requisition was on the Rumanians. and the women were obliged to leave their levied wholly homes and their children to work in the trenches or to follow the troops in order to wash the clothes of the least protestation Hungarian soldiers. to understand better this policy of sentiment. the Hungarians forming only the reserve troops. we must add the provoking attitude of the Hungarian policy. the children and the old people were in want of food.THE DECLARATION OF WAR chance to influence the Government.
It was known in Bukharest that Berlin was disgusted with the fering. fact caused the illusion that Germany would never intervene in Rumanian conflict. Terror was spread among the Ru- manians of Transylvania. crossing at night the passes of the Carpathians and escaping the pursuit of Hungarian gendarmes.000 men. saved. Vienna and Budato pest were not able to come on this point. All those who could escape passed into Rumania. Vienna and Budapest. Rumania would have been and the conThis of nationalities would have ended.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE offenses. More than 50. and that Germany was insisting upon obtaining the autonomy of Transylvania and thus paralyzing policy of every move of Rumania. women. came into Rumania and related everywhere their suf- begging for delivery. and children. and the Hungarians wanted to annihilate the race. Austro-Hungarianbecause it was a matter the which concerned only relations between these 46 . flict If this an understanding problem had been solved.
"are not only correct. Prime Minister of Bulgaria. made the following declarations concerning the relations between the two countries: Rumania. cit. * we wish to remain at On the other hand. they are peaceful and sure." he said. also because Germany." boasted that she would punish Bulgaria. slavov.THE DECLARATION OF WAR two countries . and good. . Russia peace with her. "her ungrateful child. It was believed also that Bulgaria could have no Three days before Rumania's entrance into the war Radointerest in attacking Rumania. We desire absolutely on relations with "Our our side that Rumania should never be either provoked or irritated. op. loyal. to forestall an eventual attack of Bulgarians. p. 270. and insisted that at the same time she Rumania iSerbesco. who had the basis of the reconstituted her state upon principle of nationalities. could not fail to rec- ognize the legality of the Rumanian act." as she bound herself to defend Rumania on the side of the Danube.
should come to a decision as quickly as possible. The Russian minister at Bukharest, aided by
English and French colleagues, warned the
interventionist chiefs that
Government and the
Russia should cross the Carpathians alone and should penetrate into Transylvania, Ru-
lose forever the
regain her rights. The successes of the Grand Duke Nicholas against the Austrians and the
occupation of Bukowina were of such a nature
as to uphold the statement of the Russian
The Rumanian Government was keeping its own counsel, but little by little its purpose showed itself. The concentration of
troops on the
sence on the side of Russia, the sale of wheat to
the English, some purchases for the army, however discreetly made, in neutral markets or
even from the Entente, refusal to
the Germans, although they offered a price
many times greater than the normal, were
to convince the
that they could no
THE DECLARATION OF WAR
longer count on the neutrality of Rumania.
Then they changed
their political tactics.
Russia they had great influence in certain politThanks to the weakness of the ical circles.
Russian Government had fallen into
the hands of
March, 1916, Sturmer was named prime minister. The Russian Revolution, which took
place later, brought
all this to light.
an understanding existed between Berlin and Sturmer to divide Rumania as the price of
peace which Russia had planned to
Germany. From the moment that Sturmer and Berlin came to an agreement great pressure was exerted at Bukharest to hasten
mania's entrance into war, because
most favorable moment for Germany. The Rumanian Government and the Allied governments did not understand the trickery of Sturmer.
minister at Petrograd,
his position of
Mr. Diamandy, very proud of
trust granted through the friendship of
Bratiano, was only too pleased to cooperate in
forming a closer relationship between his country and the great Muscovite empire, and dazzled
he never appreciated
sent reports to his prime
minister to advise him to have full confidence
Russian policy and The late specially in the sincerity of Sturmer. Mr. Filipesco, who was the soul of interventionin
to Russia to
front and to see for himself the respec-
and their organization. He refused to go into Germany, but he went to Russia, whence he returned with a certificate of ability
Mr. Diamandy and with a sickness that sent him to his grave two months after the entrance
These are the circum-
stances that greatly influenced
as does every
Rumanian, of the realization of a national ideal, but who thought at the same time that fate had
reserved for him the favor of presiding at an 50
THE DECLARATION OF WAR
and to future
generations the grandeur of his political genius.
They feared the danger throughout the country lest this ambition should lead him to a precipiand dangerous move. Unfortunately for Rumania, this was the case.
It will be published later in the "Green Book" of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Rumania. but for the It is moment nothing is known of it. 1916. that such an agreement existed and that it assured to the Ru52 . as well as by those of her allies. the Government. or rather whispered.CHAPTER V THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS BETWEEN RUMANIA AND HER ALLIES has been asked if Rumania had made any convention ITpolitical-military allies with her before entering the war. they spoke. if it Such a conin the very vention. and the chiefs of the interventionists. being known only to the king. was concluded greatest secrecy. existed. true that after August.
N." the official newspaper of the . when the reverses of the policy of the Ruma- nian intervention were beginning to show themselves. and the fact that this article was immediately reproduced by "L'lndependence Roumaine. that is to say. when the support of the Allies did not show itself.POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS In October. without possibility of defense. in order to explain the foresight of the Government and the want of sincerity of Russia. in article written by Mr. when at last excited public opinion wished to know facts. manians every guarantee. Basilesco. deputy professor at the University of Bukha- which were laid down even the items of such a convention. they began to speak openly of the existence of an agreement with the Allies. At this time there appeared in the "Gazette de Geneve" of Geneva an rest. 1916. when the Rumanian troops to of Dobrudja and Transylvania were obliged withdraw before the overpowering forces of the enemy. when Bukharest was bombarded day and night by enemy aeroplanes and Zeppelins.
specially of the brothers Bratiano. We It is will here reproduce this article exactly. who at that moment it disposed of the fate of the country. gave an authentic character and caused the belief that an agreement existed therein. In spite of the imperative motives which were forcing the Rumanians to pass the Carpathians. the Rumanian statesmen hesitated for a long time before dragging Rumania into this war where they felt that she was about to put her very existence in jeopardy. and above all. too important both in fact and observa- tion to give a resume of it. under the conditions exposed The categorical statements of the author in that which concerned the clauses of the agreement and his estimate of the conduct of the Allies. the fact of the publication in the newspaper of the Government indicated that those who had assumed the responsibilities were not too ignorant of what this article contained.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Government. 54 . which breathes of anxiety and reproach.
Yes. those Even for who are least clear-sighted the decision of 55 . avoided the catastrophe by standing aside. would have swallowed her Greece up by remaining . notably that of serving through her port of Saloniki for the bases of their armies in the East. in any case. full of She had the opportunity of either avoiding of terminating it the war or before being crushed by an honorable peace with the Central powers. what might not have happened to if she had yielded to the pressure of the Allies and had entered in this terrible furnace at the time of the attack on Serbia? The Austro-Germans. She did not do this. even if reestablished in her former frontiers. the Bulgarians. more prudent. it will be hard for her to rehabilitate herself. Serbia was crushed . this small nation gave the opportune cause. the Turks. which they had dared to undertake only after being encouraged and excited by them. Greece. neutral she has been able to render services to the Allies which she has already rendered and which she renders yet to-day. but how involuntary she was in the great conflagration ! of Serbia was.POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS The example warning. The help of the Allies was delayed . they had been acquired by the Central powers long before the second Balkan Wars. As to the Bulgarians.
as they have since said openly. for the richer. had committed the imprudence of entering the war at the time of the attack upon Serbia. should guarantee to Rumania not only the new territorial acquisitions which she claimed.000. Bratiano only made the decision. to attack Rumania rather than Serbia as the booty would have been fate as Serbia. and the military advantages incomparably superior. C.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Bulgaria was evident from the start . 53 . of ink were used What oceans by the best writers of the Allies to pursuade the Rumanian Government to enter the war! M. Rumania however. J. it became manifest to all on the day that Germany consented to grant her a loan of 300. first was that all but the integrity of her territory. If Rumania. England. in her turn. when he was assured that the entrance of into the European War would be effectively! opportune and that every condition to which he had subordinated his offensive would be fulfilled. What The are these conditions ? the Allies. the prey more easily seized. They wished to avoid the risks run in 1879 when after a glorious war Rumania saw herself bereft by her own ally of a part of her territory.000 marks. Italy. Russia. she would have met with the same Germans would have preferred. France.
After our intervention of 1913 and after the Treaty of Bukharest. at Grivitza. at Vigin. but had the conviction that the Bulgarians would not fail to jump on our backs as soon as we should cross the Carpathians. at Plevna. at Opanez.POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS for military assistance. as a second condition essential to her entrance into the war. men Coburg and France. except. that on is This why Rumania 57 . some incurable Bulgarophile. They would act toward us as they did against the Serbs. We have known since the day that we had shed our blood on the plains of Bulgaria. would be our implacable tude. perhaps. during which the Bulgarians published openly their It bedetermination to take Dobrudja from us. which made of small Bulgaria a great and powerful state. enemies for the very reason that they owed us gratiThis belief was confirmed in the Balkan Wars. no Rumanian. whom we had called to life. in his protestations of friendship for stipulated. that the Bulgarians. came an absolute certainty at the time of the con- ference at London and of that at Petrograd. The second condition asked which the Allies promised her. It was in vain that I shouted in the ears of the they were all firm in their belief in the word of Ferdinand of greatest in authority in Paris .
which was supposed to be so powerful that with no help it would be sufficient to crush the Turco-Bulgarians. At all cost it must be marched forward and that vigorously 58 . It existed at the very moment when the Allies made their agreement with Rumania to set in motion this army. they said. who for a long time had been massed on the Rumanian frontier. and should take up arms against the Germano-Turco-Bulgarians. al- though up to the present it may not have made its weight felt. On Army of Saloniki. As to what concerns the Russian Army. which. the this battle front a Russian front. It remains virtually stationary.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE the one side a Russian army of several hundred thou- sand strong should pass the Danube. should cross Dobrudja. we are ignorant of its force.000 strong. landed in Dobrudja. Why? They give as a pretext the uncertainty in the movement of the policy of Greece. making of this war a Russian war. was more than 400. it is to be hoped that it will be strong enough to hold the enemy forces. should and this is the third condition in its turn attack the Turco-Bulgarian Army simultaneously with the Rumanian offensive in the Carpathians. But we must say that this situation does not date from to-day. But what is the Army of Saloniki doing? That is the question at Bukharest. and of the other hand.
against whom the Austro-Germans are concentrating to-day still are all their forces and all their hatred. the realization of the famous formula of Mr. to leave or to 59 . We waiting for this general offensive. the one that determined the Rumanian The fourth Government. that victory will be determined. We do not share the fol- lowing opinion. Briand of a concerted action upon a united front in order to prevent the interior manoeuvers of a common enemy.POLITICAL if AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS find ourselves before irreparable dis- we are not to asters. it is here that the greatest efforts must be made. and why does he not does not the open for himself the road to Constantinople through Dobrudja and Bulgaria? Is this not the key of the war? It is in the Balkans. was the general offensive. it is by the opening of the straits. But another question faces the Rumanians. condition stipulated and formally the Allies. it is by the taking of Constantinople. Grand Duke Nicholas transport Why his numerous troops in Europe. the one that brought them promised by to Bukharest. This way alone will permit the Allies to furnish arms and munitions to the Russo-Rumanian armies and to fulfil thus the fifth condition of the treaty of Rumania with the Allies. which "The London Times" of September 14 gives to the Rumanian.
in order to march against the Bulgarians. they repeated it again to-day. We must speak plainly: if the Allies should commit in regard to Rumania the same fault that they permitted in regard to Serbia if they leave the transDanubian Rumania without defense while the Ruma. a Balkan war is not the war of the Rumanians . nians shed their blood in Transylvania against the Austro-German armies preparing. 19. Germany will then be playing a sure game. "^Independence Roumaine. October 60 . and opening the road for the Russian Army. it Rumania documents According to these appears that the Rumanian Government was not forced to enter into war by threats of the Central powers or of the Entente. 1 The secret Bolsheviki have published lately the documents relating to the entrance of into the war.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE weaken the Transylvanian front. they demand that each should respect the given word. as i it attempts to make believe. as they engaged to do. this they told the Allies before their entrance into war. 1916. cutting." Bukharest. that the Allies should go into the Balkans to fight the Turco-Bulgaro-Germans.
The Rus- representative of the Allies. to admit that any government. could be satisfied to ask absurd conditions from others who are struggling at 61 . this last condition until On the eighteenth of August. and consequently. on the twenty-eighth of the same month tance. the Government acted criminal. she entered the war. as these same documents explain. These documents are of the greatest impor- According It is to them. would have refused August. Rumanian manner almost very nevertheless. the Allies signed the protocol which admitted these demands of Rumania. 1916. 1916. even the most incapable one. that it asked only should be guaranteed the possession of the provinces which it wishes to regain. and that the Entente should continue the war until Rumania should realize her pretentious.POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS According to the same documents it would seem that the Rumanian Government made no agreement of that it alliance. and specially sia. in a trifling difficult.
without assuring in the military first place indispensable cooperation. Pichon was made at a date when we had already the proof that Rumania could not conquer the countries with which she was at war. 1917. The declarations of Mr. Pichon are perfectly in accordance with the agreement contained in 62 .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE the time under the same difficulties as themselves. then be that this declaration refers to a political-military convention that guarantees to Rumania through military assistance on the part of the Allies not only the new territorial acquisitions which she claimed. because this declara- tion of Mr. Mr. declared that the Allies must maintain absolutely every agreement made with does the this Rumanian Government. the French minister of foreign affairs. What declaration refer to? To the agreement indi- cated by the publications of the Bolsheviki? That 's hardly probable. It must December. but also the integrity of her territory. Pichon.
then.es of the Allied countries lately refused to recognize the validity of who a concluded peace. worse than 'the crime that of allowing the country to it an abyss? We cannot believe out seeing the "Green Book." and we may admit that a militarypolitical agreement was settled upon between the Allies and Rumania on the eve of her enThis hypothesis is all the more plausible as it agrees with the attitude of trance into war.POLITICAL AND MILITARY CONVENTIONS from "L'Independence the article reproduced Roumaine." with- 63 . The Rumanian Government has not those hesiall tated to punish with the greatest severity who failed in their imprudence. all the representativ. slip into duty even through How. committed on top of so of treason. can we admit that it many imprudences the gravest thoughtlessness.
garian Army. 1916. passing eightit the night of der to cross the Carpathians. repulsing everywhere the advance forces of the Austro-Hun- The Rumanian population eagerly welcomed the army of King Ferdinand. Allies greeted this move with enthusiasm and even spoke of the end of the World War. thanks to the intervention of Rumania.CHAPTER VI THE STRUGGLE DURING the August 27. Rumanian Army received the orenthusiasm. With admirable een mountain peaks. penetrated deeply into the territory of Transylvania. first and the the impressions were favorable for the action of The press of the Rumanian Government. 64 .
to make itself felt in a most disquieting 65 .THE STRUGGLE But hardly had the first impression of the entrance into war come to pass. than the reality AUSTRIA HU began way.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE September 1. 1916. Germany declared war on Rumania. had left in Dobrudja only a few divisions. occupied Turtukai. composed of Germans. was advancing under the command of General Mackensen to66 . Thirty to forty thousand men. provided with heavy cannons and all the modern material of war. and there were also Rumania two to three divisions on the line of Kus- tendje. On The Rumanian Government. a small fortified city situated near the Bulgarian frontier. and Turks. military measures to safeguard the frontier at the south of against Bulgarian attacks. in Rus- would any all case. An army of one hundred and eighty thousand. and at the same time Bulgaria took a hostile attitude. Bulgarians. according to the peaceful dec- made formally by the Bulgarian prime minister in regard to Rumania and specially laration upon sia the assurances from Petrograd that take. counting upon General Sarrail's offensive of Saloniki against the Bulgarians. mostly of the militia.
for want of strong artillery. when for water. them unmercifully. threw boiling water on the unfortunate men. with all his subordinate officers. for want of sufficient ammunition. For the caused great stupefaction. but the sec- ond regiment of Graniceri (Elite Infantry) In a single specially distinguished themselves. being this For nine days this all time For want of cannons. Colonel Sheinesco. was killed. little army of Turtukai resisted heroically attacks of a greatly superior adversary. the Rumanians were forced to attack with the bayonet. The Bulgarian population ducted itself in of Turtukai con- a most atrocious manner to- wards the wounded Rumanians. the wounded asked And the They beat women. Out of 3500 men there remained day this 170. the head of the regiment. repulsing adversary. out of 50 officers only 7 survived.THE STRUGGLE wards Turtukai. regiment made seventeen attacks with bayonets. 67 The remain- . many times the advances of their All fought bravely.
After the fall of the stronghold of Turtukai two Russian and one composed of Serbian volunteers arrived from Russia. thus: Who is menacing Rumania from that side? We cannot shift our troops from one place to another! All we can do is to send you two or three divisions. The Premier of Rumania sent Sturmer a very touching tele- gram. divisions I would not like to go any further without expressing my highest admiration of that Ser68 . After this first shock general headquarters withdrew several divisions from the Transyl- vanian front in order to send them with haste to all Dobrudja line of to help the forces which were on the advance of Kustendje and prevent the Mackensen. everything was lost. To this telegram Sturmer replied imperti- nently. otherwise. pointing out that. asking urgently for the help formerly agreed upon.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE ing troops of Turtukai withdrew to the east.
ordering all his it lasted Colonel Brosteano distinguished himself men to sing the national head hymn. where another sanguinary batOn the line of Cobadin the tle took place. The Rumanian troops. resisting heroically a numerically superior foe in the many terrible days. . 1916. great losses in the enemy's These struggles the first in Dobrudja lasted from days of September until the end of October. were obliged to withdraw toof greater wards Cusgun. Rumanians also took the offensive. causing lines. blowing up the famous bridge on this river. attacks and battles in Dobrudja.THE STRUGGLE bian division which has fought so bravely side by side with the Rumanian Army. surprised by the re69 . A great battle took place at Dobrici greatly. because Mackensen. obliged to when the Rumanian troops were withdraw on the left bank of the Danube. he dashed into the attack at the of his regiment. under the pressure numbers and of perfected instruments of war. he was grievously wounded.
While the troops of Dobrudja were ing themselves so heroically. ample ammunition.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE sistance of the Rumanians. The Germans had withdrawn from front (Franco-English) front divisions the West and from the Russian (about forty-two 800. under the command of a general provided with heavy artillery. had planned that other armed forces should pass the Danube into Rumania at other points and should thus put sacrific- the capital itself in danger. the armies of Transylvania were also in very great danger. composed of Germans. Ausand Hungarians. This formidable force of over a million and a half men. and had sent them under the command of General Falkenhayn to reinforce the Austro-Hungarian troops that were facing the Rumanian Army. and asphyxiating bombs.000 to 450.000 men) composed of the very best troops.000 70 . which then had no more than from 400. trians. began to drive back the Rumanian army.
for of a total of 800. the administrative service.V BLACK $ l"' S " N SEA 3 Bhad in such pro- out cannons.THE STRUGGLE fighters.000 men we must deduct the sanitary service. . and the divisions sent into Dobrudja. without sufficient munitions. the dead. The Rumanians were 71 obliged to withdraw. and was with- AUSTRIAH U M G A R. in fact. without any of the modern instruments that the other armies of war fusion. the wounded.
The died by the side of Rumanians stopped at the little city foot of the peak near to the azin to fight again. General Dragalina died as a hero. but the The Rumanians resisted German cannons drove them back. His son. his father. desperately. Having reached pathians. where memorable battles took place. Rumanian territory. of Tay- In defense of their native . hoping to find re- mountains in order to better and to await the Russian reinforcements the and the promised material of war. but specially in the valley of Zin. Falkenhayn had decided to cross by the Vulcan Pass. which was defended by General After rigorous and repeated attacks. the Germans penetrated into Dragalina.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE yielding ground step shelter in the sist. sanguinary struggles occurred all along the Carpathians. in which many of their best divisions were sacrificed. by step. passes of the Car- they showed extraordinary resistance. a young officer of artillery.
any They were determined nians. facing forces that were too "It was the same with the offensive of as Sarrail with the general 73 offensive. under the were great command of a young girl. It . on both sides. the Russian offensive did not begin. attacked on two fronts. because it felt itself at the end of its strength. the Rumanians. and during all this time the Rumanian Government pleaded everywhere for help. 1916. took up arms and losses ran to meet the enemy. The The drive of the Germans on ceased the side of the Carpathians never for a moment. were great. left alone. Unfortunately. the help and the munitions did not arrive.THE STRUGGLE land the inhabitants of this city. General Sarrail at Saloniki did not move. to overcome at price the stubborn resistance of the Ruma- This resistance lasted until the beginning of November. On all other fronts absolute calm reigned.
* 74 . 1918.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE seemed as though the allies of Rumania were seated on a balcony to watch how little Rumania was about to knock down the giant l Germano-Austro-Bulgaro-Turk. 1916." At the AUSTRIA-- HUM LACK SEA end of October. the army of General Mackensen began to cross the Danube at eral points and penetrate Rumania. By sevthis movement i the situation of the Rumanian arm- "Journal of Geneva." February 15.
THE STRUGGLE ies of the north. The Rumanian troops were therefore obliged to forces of Mackensen. withdraw. that their being is caught beto say. between the SS IA TAN2A BLACK SEA who was advancing from the south. became very There was danger of tween two fires. and the forces of Falkenhayn. who was pushing forward from the north. which were defending the critical. to unite with the troops withdrawn 75 . peaks of the Carpathians.
abandon76 . the Em- Germany decorated Hindenburg and Mackensen for the great deeds accomplished on the field of battle of Rumania. and to try to defend the capital. The enemy forces invaded Rumania by the north and by the south. The Rumanians withdrew to the left bank of the river Arjish. and there fought a great battle. At the most critical moment the commander of the Rumanian Army urged which were standing three Russian aside. to and when the Rumanians were forced peror of withdraw before the greatly superior forces of the enemy. the struggle. Their intervention might have given us the Berlin was very anxious over the victory. and the two armies came together under the command of General Mackensen. During three days and three nights victory was disputed between the adversaries. to enter divisions.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE also from Dobrudja. The Rumanian troops withdrew. They refused categorically. result of this great battle.
Buzen. where the front was narrower and their rear covered by the Russian frontier. Many other hard fights took place at Bocov. their capital.THE STRUGGLE ing Bukharest. and they afterwards withdrew on the line of the Sereth. the Government. near the Russian frontier. For more than a year the Rumanian Army opposed so vigorously that they the German armies were not able to ad- vance further. in order to save it from bombs. the diplomatic corps. 1917. sent by France. 1917. which completed the defense of the Rumanian front. which had for a long time been lost in Siberia through the connivance of 77 . and it was occupied by the enemy on the second of December. Rimnik and Fo^sani. there also arrived some large guns. and at the end of March. Here on this line of Sereth in the month of January. 1916. The royal family. there at last arrived several Russian divisions. and many citizens withdrew to Jassy. Yet the Rumanians did not regard themselves as vanquished.
Here in Sereth a series of battles took place. the Germans wished to pass at any cost. but their effort to break the line was useless. Although the Rumanian Army was very short of modern materials of war. -V men was enormous on both sides. although she lacked even food. the resistance and heroism of this army reached the limits of what man 78 . nevertheless.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE the Russian administration.IXXH U N G /\ R. and the sacrifice in AUSTR.
taking care of wounded and sick without fear of con- tracting contagious diseases from those affected. former military The Commander attache of the Ru- manian legation Chicago. Seldom. the bravery of the soldiers and their definace of death have astonished the officers of the Allied armies attached to the In all the Allied armies Rumanian Army." Xo. related the the "Rumanian Review of February. In Rumania. to surpass bril- in heroism. specially. 1918. Each regiment wanted to distirguish each soldier and each officer." a girl of only sixteen. at following facts in Washington. liant Even a young girl gave a example of courage and bravery. very seldom. women have distinguished themselves by their spirit of devotion and sacrifice. She demonstrated that the ties as woman has these quali- highly developed as the best of soldiers and that she is able to face death with the same disdain as any other hero. In this extraordinary war many acts of bravery have happened in all the countries involved.THE STRUGGLE can do. Teiusanu. are women found who have soldiers' qualifications. 7. itself. In Rumania we have nowa" Jeanne d'Arc. days a real 79 .
and her brothers had been killed at the front. Despite the measures which had been taken to prohibit the Boy Scouts from approaching the front line. who was a corporal in the 8th Company she had lost of the 18th Regiment of Infantry. Her flaming patriotism inspired her to go to fight in defense of her beloved country and to relieve the soul's grief that her enemies had caused. But patriotic that she won you the story of the facts as they occurred and were seen by myself in my capacity as commander of the company of this heroine. 1916. She was so flamingly the admiration of all. she Targu-Jiu where her family had a small When the war broke out in in Rumania in August. Ecaterina did not leave her third brother.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE but of extraordinary courage. because two brothers (officers) in the battle of Turtukai a few days previously. daughter of a captain of cavalry. came to farm near Schela. During the vacation of June. 1916. she enlisted Boy Scout company to render service as a dresser of wounds and a stretcherthe bearer behind the front. 80 . living at Schela in the territory Her mother was which had been oc- cupied by the invaders in their first invasion. She was a sophomore in one of the colleges in Bukharest. Miss Ecaterlet tell me ina Theodoroiu. Several times she was sent away by the colonel.
and slept by the side of her only living Afflicted brother. she succeeded in finding us again at three o'clock in the morning. captured and it being known she was Though disarmed. seen her receiving instructions from her brother. herself as a volunteer soldier. with which she killed the guard on her way to the enemy camp. able to conceal a revolver. until he. too. she was taken to the prisoners' camp without that she was a girl. etc. paying fixing close attention to bayonet. howThus equipped. producing a double fracture of the right. I was leaving Krajova and she was transported 81 . the brave girl disguised putting on an overcoat. who were preparing a surprise attack upon our unit. I was in the same train with shell her.THE STRUGGLE who But said that her place was not at the front. and giving precise information about the enemy. she decided to beyond fight for her country until she. measure by this last blow. I have ever). in which she was fighting. Twenty successive days she fought. ate. and bearing a gun. Plunging into the fight. After twenty days of fighting it happened that a shattered both her legs. cap. was slain in battle. should die. knapsack (empty. guided by the sounds of the machine-guns of Section 2 of my company. the directions of firing. too. Then she crawled cautiously through the undergrowth of familiar ground and.
She was princesses themselves. to the surprise of all who did not know her. boots. Recovered from her fracture after four and a half months. It is be- 82 . skill and with what she With what pride commanded her platoon! The men spired fighting. and she was also awarded the Military Virtue. as one who knew most about her. King make a report in detail upon her. and in the front. I have since been requested Ferdinand. When she was brought to Bukharwas given her by Queen Marie and special care by His Majesty. deified more courage her. she insisted on going back again to It was allowed as an exception.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE to the hospital. and short hair. and campaign equipment. to I was the awarded "Virtutea certaseasca en aur pentru fapte de razboi" [The Boy Scout Virtue in gold for heroic deeds]. there appeared a young sub locotenent with breeches. when. an order specially created for the bravery of the Boy Scouts of the Jiu. her incomparable bravery inin the soldiers while they were great and what interminable ovations were her in the theatre hall of Botoshani. est. the meantime she was advanced to the rank of sub locotenent [second lieutenant]. given being authorized myself to read the high degree of the decoration of the How Boy Scout Theodoroiu.
undertook a very vigorous offensive.THE STRUGGLE yond my power to describe here the manifestations of sympathy that were given her by her college mates." Miss Sub Locotenent was not seriously wounded. lesson In the month of July. the Rumanian troops. who had been refused permission to follow her ex- ample. as this great deed must remain unique. but she did not want to quit her unit. Taking part in the battle of "Marasesti. her name and pictured face ought to be found in all the Rumanian schools and homes. led by General Averesco. and in two days they arrived at the frontier of Transylvania. In order that the beautiful example of the Jeanne d'Arc of Rumania may remain for posterity as a and a true proof of the forefathers' virtues. kilometers This offensive might have driven the enemy out 86 . 1917. but the heroine has not had the happiness of wearing "galoanele de Locotenent" because she was killed at the head of her company in one of their bayonet charges. taking many important than thirty positions on a depth of more (seventeen miles). She was proposed for advancement to the grade of locotenent [lieutenant].
the Marasesti front (the line of Sereth) Rumanians had only five. the eighth of August. The Germans deter- mined upon a most violent offensive. German dun. . but all the attacks were repulsed with frightful losses. which lasted fifteen days and fifteen nights. Several days later the Germans commenced a strong offensive. The battle now entered the acute phase. 1917. Okna and 84 Panciu. August fourteenth was a day of great carnage. At the same time on the same front great battles had taken place at Cassinu. and was by the Russian failure in Galicia. the prime it minister ordered the cessation of the offensive. The 89th Prussian Division was completely decimated. Oituf. Unfortunately. because Petrograd had justified demanded it. The efforts of the Germans were again at other points repulsed. prisoners declared that they had never on the seen such a bitterly contested battle since Ver- The Germans had twelve divisions .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE of the country.
THE STRUGGLE The deeds of heroism and courage performed by the Rumanian troops in these different fights surpass all power of imagination. rushed to the attack with such enthusiasm that they put the enemy to flight. struggled with incomparable endurance. 85 . abandon- ing their equipment. who. but still courageous. We must cite the case of the heroic officers 32nd Regiment. They endured without hesitation the most terrible artillery bombardment. greatly inferior in number. found the Rumanian army at the end of its resources and its strength. and jackets. whose and soldiers. The attacks en masse made with extreme and Prussian sistance violence soldiers by the Bavarian were broken by the re- and bravery of the Rumanian soldiers. It is a miracle that in such circumstances the Rumanian Army could hold during more than one year against The beginthe crushing blows of the enemy. ning of the year 1918. helmets.
86 . and shortly afterward reduced to famine and obliged to make a separate and disastrous see itself invaded peace. to cast itself into the furnace and in three months by the enemy. substances and provisions. and spea brilliant future. a country to which neutrality had brought unquestionable profits. with an exit how army. critics and recognized this have tried to explain phenomenon. One could not was possible for a rich country. and which was not forced to enter the war. a situation to be envied. Distinguished political men. writers.CHAPTER VII THE CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT defeat of the Rumanians was a sur- THE explain rich in cellent cially prise to the whole world.
thanks to 87 . the question is. cir- cumstances to ask immediate help of Rumania against highly praised the European public opinion Rumanian Army.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT THE RUSSIAN TREASON First of all To-day it is czar and the Revolutionary Russia betrayed Rumania. For sions moment one can only draw conclufrom facts known up to the present. by betraying Rumania. But. in the order to explain the reasons of a betrayal which exists as a sure and incontestable fact. In 1877. facilitated the operations of many against herself? In reality all questions form a great problem which only the future can explain. when Russia was obliged by Turkey. known that the Russia of the What was her in- How can one ex- plain the fact that Russia entered into war Gerthese against Germany and afterward. why should Russia act in that way? terest in betraying an ally ? we invoke the Russian treason.
and tried to foster in Petrograd a senti- ment of mistrust in regard to Rumania. and visited King Charles. there 1911 the czar wished to being at that time a question of a marriage between one of the daughters of the czar and the Crown Prince of Rumania. In make a rapprochement with Rumania. Army was saved from dis- This fact produced a bad impression sentiment of jealousy or at Petrograd. even of hatred toward Rumania manifested it- A on the part of the colossus of the North. instead of showing gratitude and a protective spirit toward her small ally. The Bulgarians were furious. And at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 official self Russia.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE which the Russian aster. dragged from her a part of her territory. circles and the political Russian showed themselves unfavorable. her. Since then the relations between Russia and Rumania have been little Bulgaria speculated quite a over the affection that Russia showed cool. in In other ways Russia always saw 88 Ru- .
When the events of the great war began believe to their to develop. who made them the last side. specially as 89 . sians. were nervous at seeing that London and Paris to insisted upon making an appeal Rumania. when the Allies saw themselves de- ceived by Bulgaria. The Rus- who were announcing their arrival in Berlin in a very short time. the moment that she would be on statesmen of the Allies felt that the only solution which would give any satisfaction for her defeat in the East was to win Rumania over. the a lively cabinets of London and Paris began action in this direction. because Rumania was the ally of the Central powers she proposed to . although Russia held absolutely against this solution. and she never showed herself delighted to undergo any of the influence of Russian civilization. Starting with this idea.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT mania an obstacle to her policy of expansion towards Constantinople. prevent all passage of Russian armies through her territory towards Constantinople.
found just and equable by London and Paris. in hand the direction of the Russian Army. wanted to prove that she right in her appreciation of the value of Rumanian intervention. because il was in Petrograd when that great man. nevertheless. Government had was the to be accepted who. was absolutely against the intervention of Rumania. known as a Germanophile. her Allies. and under this prejudice. which saw in this extension of the territory of their neighbor a policy con- trary to the interest of Russia. and that of the This policy since was March. fell own interest. had been named Prime Minister of Russia. Miljukoff. the more easy. 1 all upon the second plan. Sturmer. Even General Alexeief who had .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE they considered this intervention a decisive blow for Austria-Hungary and the approach The claims of extenof the end of the war. Rumania. the 90 . But in the end the conditions fixed by the Rumanian by Russia. 1916. angered the political circles sion of of Petrograd.
Miljukov. Cantacofino. Mr. When the army of Dobrudja found itself crushed by the German-Bulgarian-Turkish large body of the forces. 1917.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT From the first moment of the Rumanian in- tervention the attitude of the Russians manifested itself hostile to that country. demonstrating that this Government wished to make a separate peace with Germany. when artillery was most needed. that the manner in which they were acting could only be called "incapacity or treason. I made a call on Mr. 1916. later minister of foreign affairs of the Provisional Government. for his ardent appeal that urgent help should be sent to Rumania." Chicago. Minister of the Rumanian Legation at Petrograd. I thanked him as a Rumanian for his beautiful defense of my country. Miljukoff handed me a copy of his speech. the Rumanian Army being in chief of the cadets. all the 91 . As I was leaving. gave a violent discourse against the Government presided over by Sturmer. Speaking of the manner in which Rumania had been helped. and left with high esteem and admiration for this great man. Paul Negulescu. Miljukoff showed that the munitions and the armament were being transported under bad conditions. to send to the Rumanian Government. "Surely there is treason!" Such was the atmosphere of the Russian political world at the beginning of November. There was no answer to all the Rumanian Govern- ment's entreaties for help from Russia. that Russia was sending very few troops. has not been published in the official journal. which. August. particularly cavalry. I entrusted it to Mr. according to the order of the Government. Mr." At this speech deputies of the opposition called out. then member of the opposition. "American-Rumanian Review.
thus leaving the their Germans a free hand to strike blow at Rumania. in the great battle of Arjish the com- mander of the Russian forces. never came. When the Rumanian armies of Transylvania were driven by the Prussian forces of Falkenhayn and threatened by Mackensen. which the Russians divisions. and then only by sending two to three about 50. who in- vaded Rumania in the south.000 men. were to send into Dobrudja to cover the southern front of Rumania. to enter into the fight. they absolutely refused. . the Russians responded to this desperate appeal of the Rumanian Government too late. mostly cavalry. the Russians remained immovable to the appeals of Rumania and to the urgings of Paris and of London.000 men. Rumanian Army asked the who were then very close to Bukharest. The army of 500. and in the end complete inaction reigned even on the Russian front. when.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Transylvania. according to the agreement made among all the Allies.
CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT Facts speak for themselves: almost complete Russian inaction in the Carpathians and in Moldavia continual promises. "This is where we will resist!" And he pointed to the line of Sereth. and one of the highest Muscovite authorias he was being solicited to help the Rumanians during the battle of Bukharest. Many superior officers. replied clearly. delays. regard to Rumania. among Bielaief. of an offensive by the army of Lechitsky. looking at a map of Rumania. But there is still more. then passive attitude of the Muscovite contingent brought into Moldavia. never ceased them General spreading hostile insinuations in finally ties. a great chief at Stafka said. "Not one man and not one cannon I" Such speeches and these are not the 93 . When the Rumanians had hardly been attacked and were not yet subjected to any check. never carried out. Throughout the course of the campaign the attitude of the war office and that of the Russian generals was in every respect most singular. .
from its correspondent at Jassy. while at Jassy. he received the order to direct himself. 1918. but after learning of the invasion of Wallachia. towards the Transyl- . in spite of all. above all. the latter declared that he had received the order to direct his troops towards the Moldavian frontier. while Numerous facts corroborate this opinion. he asked authority at Stafka march upon Bukharest. of military incapacity. 1916. relates the following: During the last days of November.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE only ones that we could repeat are sufficient to demonstrate the evident ill-will of the war office of Nicholas II. Some hours afterwards. this to astounded general declared. in order to take part in the imminent battle. in a letter of December 6." January 29. We his must add staff to this the criminal indifference of a Sakharof gave a repugnant example of thoughtlessness and inconsistency and. The London "Times. I was present at a conversation between a Frenchman and a Russian general commanding a corps of the army. who lost Dobrudja.
that has betrayed Rumania and cause of the Allies. et la Defection Russe. if it is true that the Government of Petrograd has executed true that its it occult program. that her cooperation had been nil. when the Rumanian back on the line of Sereth after the invasion of Rumania at the south. pp. i"Le Mystire Roumain Stienon. there they found Russian forces already installed and fortified. to ful. is to say." Charles 95 . troops In fact. it is none the its less has crushed under foot it engagethe ment. libitum?- Such facts could be enumerated ad General Alexeief had decided to do nothing for Rumania fell unless the line of battle should be at Sereth.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT vanian frontier. but. Thus was Petrograd content cuted its to have exe- have proved that the Rumanian intervention was not use- program that . and that. she sition or to had no right to territorial acqui- any aggrandizement. therefore. 207-208.
said to the secretary of the American embassy.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE fought seriously only on the line of the Sereth after the occupation of more than half of Rumania is evidence of their intention to stop there the advance of the Germans. The fact that the Russians This rather suspicious fact has been explained by different political men and by a secret convention. an at96 . to divide Rumania with tier. The new regime gave publicity to secret acts in order to prove the former regime's treachery to Rumania. Mr." Events precipitated themselves in Russian. the line of the Sereth as a fron- They bring as a proof the fact that the German minister at Bukharest. who accompanied him. which was supposed to exist between Sturmer and Berlin. "Here is the Sereth. the new Russian frontier. it could no longer follow Rumania. The czar's regime having been overthrown. program in regard to Kerensky had become the idol of its the Russian people. Andrews. on leaving.
already so sorely Rumanian populaThe Russian tried. Their anarchist propaganda penetrated deeply into the ranks of the army of the situation. to pillage the tion. The chiefs of the army. disorder showed self it- everywhere. Trotzky. which participated in several fights. the Rumania began to new commander of the in Russian forces took severe measures to bring order in his army. and destroyed everything. the soldiers commenced to abandon the front in order to officers. Among these documents there found a report made by a former minister of war and published in the "Pravda.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT mosphere of confidence make itself felt. commissioner for foreign affairs. Unfortunately this experience was very Lenine and Trotzky became masters short. armies scattered. published the secret treaties between Russia and her allies. giving place to ruin and to disaster. the were no longer obeyed. devastate." the is 97 .
in retreat from Galicia view of the intervention of Rumania and in the war. attitude according to the state of military operations. 98 . and the appearance of our advance guard on the other side of the Carpathians.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE newspaper of the Bolsheviki. This document shows clearly the mentality of the Russian political circles in November. and the parleys. and it also shows the antipathy and the bad faith that fed the Russian statesmen in regard to Rumania. which fluc- tuated very frequently and very noticeably. decided for us the question of intervention. Ihe capture of Lemberg and Przemysl. took place. also. the abandoning of Bukowina. 1916. From this the state of mind of the Rumanian leaders modified itself. At the end of May of the same year our and Poland. of Austria. stopped. sometimes on the one and sometimes on the other side. and to win as soon as possible at the Our successes in Galicia and Bukowina in 1914 and at the beginning of 1915. At had adopted the beginning of the European War Rumania officially a neutral attitude. This was inspired by two principal motives: the desire not to arrive too 'late to share in the division expense of the belligerents. At the end of 1915 at the beginning of 1916 the policy of Rumania.
which saw Rumania a decisive blow for Austria-Hungary and the beginning of the end of the war. General Alexeief in the intervention of adopted the point of view of the Allies. leaned very clearly to the side of our At this period the Rumanian Government concluded a series of very advantageous commercial agreements with Austria-Hungary and Germany. enemies.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT after the crushing of Serbia. The offensive of General Brusilov in the spring and summer of 1916 turned the neutrality of Rumania again to the side of the powers of the Entente. and presented an opportunity for again taking up the interrupted parleys concerning in- tervention. This circumstance forced the military. and commercial departments to adopt a very prudent attitude in regard to the question of the importing from Russia into Rumania military equipment and different provisions. 191$. Later. In August. which might fall into the hands of our enemies. financial. a military and political agreement was signed with Rumania. It is to be noticed that from the begin- ning the chief of staff of the commander for military reasons considered the maintenance of Rumanian neutrality more advantageous for us than her active intervention in the war. and the intervention of Bulgaria. which assured her territorial acquisition (Bukowina and the whole of Transylvania) and which manifestly did not cor- 99 .
In political and military points of view the Rumanians have exaggerated their value and feel now a bitter deception. From the point of view of Russian interests. to give to the people and to the Government an exaggerated idea of their importance.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE respond to the measure of her participation in the military operations. for she had pledged herself only to declare war on Austria-Hungary and had limited herself to operations in Transylvania. even if it should be a separate peace. Under and imposed upon themselves the task of concluding as soon as possible peace. in great part. The easy victories of 1913 is and Rumania's diplomatic success after the Balkan War contributed. a very . The misfortune that has struck Rumania the natural consequence of the complete insufficiency of military preparation and the ambiguous policy of Bratiano. The follow- ing events have demonstrated how much our allies deceived themselves in overestimating the Rumanian the influence of the unexpected catastrophe there arose in Rumania itself elements that were opposed to the continuation of the war intervention. had developed in such a fashion that the political and military agreement of 1916 with situation in Rumania might have been completely 100 realized. the following considerations should guide us in the appreciation of the actual If matters Rumania.
and Bukowina (acquisitions in virtue of the Treaty of 1916). the failure of the plans of the great power of Rumania in these mentioned propositions do not oppose particularly the political interests utilized of Russia. with a population of nearly 13. in the sense desired by us.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT strong state might have been created in the Balkans. Banat. Consequently.000. Dobrudja (actual Rumania). the question relating to Constantinople straits. she was compelled to intrust the defense of all Rumanian territory almost exclusively to the Russian troops. of Transylvania. Wallachia. Qur successes on the Rumanian front have for us an extraordinary importance. This military aid of Russia has now taken such pro- portions that the promise of territorial indemnity to 101 . and the 1916. composed of Moldavia. The the actual events in conditions of Rumania have Treaty of wholly modified the In place of the relatively modest support that Russia felt bound to give in Dobrudja. and their ambition would have been to realize their national dreams in Bessarabia would have held with and the Balkans.000. This circumstance must be by us in view of the consolidation of these forced bonds which unite Russia to Rumania for as long time as possible. as unique a possibility as for answering once and for all. Later this state difficulty any friendly sentiments toward Russia.
those close to Nicholas II evidently saw in the invasion of Wallachia and the intervention of the Muscovite army a means of revising the agreements concluded with Bukharest in favor of Petrograd. This. this Besides. Russians should be happy by the want of success of the latter. Without temerity one can affirm that the 102 . since the publication of the document of Polivanov could not be contested.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Russia for her entrance into war. 1916. provided for in the agreement just mentioned. note is a moral proof of the czarist treason It asserts that the toward King Ferdinand. should undoubtedly be subjected to a revision. Revision 1 That is the essential word. was the starting point for the discontent of Russia. It is beyond doubt that the treaty made in August." POLIVANOV. From this we understand that the voluntary delay of the Muscovite troops contributed to this result only one step. the key of Russian policy towards Rumania.
"Courrier des Etats Urns" of February i Ch. 331.Admiral Fournier. op. Before the Russian treason was opinion was thrust forth and presented as the cause for the de- known this feat. Vice. as constituting the principal cause of the Rumanian defeat. 1 BAD WAR PLANS should have attacked Bulgaria and should have remained on the defensive to the Rumania northwest against Austria-Hungary. Stienon. 1917.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT revelations of the future will only bring forth more clearly the truth already partly seen. wrote: in an article appearing in the 6. p. former chief of the French Navy. cit. an opinion which has been heard on This is all sides and which has often been repeated here in America. In any case the document of Polivanov is one of the most important that the Russian insurrection has brought to light. 108 .
losing in the allies. Unfortunately. and the plan of attack against Bulgaria was replaced by a plan of an offensive in Transylvania. driving back the Hungarians by degrees. in the rear. The Russians thought intervention on the side that in case of a Rumanian new of the Entente their allies would keep the de- fensive in Transylvania in order to attack Bulgaria en masse (we were holding her most effective troops before Saloniki). was directly covered on its flank by Wallachia and Moldavia and. the active part of the Russian Army. by Dobrudja. other views prevailed. it widened the front until the day when it met the German reinforcements. who was one of the most esteemed chiefs of his own country. They estimated that they would have time to execute the necessary change of front to support and to cover the offensive of their neighbors before the heavy arrive at its German reinforcement could destination. which had hastened to the help of their Then this valiant army was broken and thrown back again to the frontier. turning Army its then back on the principal enemy and weakening itself as. facing the north to help the offensive of General Brussilov. Almost the whole of the Rumanian penetrated into Transylvania. 104* .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE As long as Rumania kept her neutrality. This plan was also extolled by General Averesco.
uniting with the first body of troops that had arrived from the army of General Sahkarov. surprised by the rapid Rumanian reverses. The actual resistance of this front. the taking of Bukharest and the invasion of a great part of Rumania was inevitable.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT retreat a great part of third of its effectiveness. the uninter- rupted and progressive flow of reinforcements which reached it. the points of support which it can find in the rear. were invading Dobrudja and were marching upon Bukharest. making use of the ambiguity with which they had cleverly surrounded their real intentions. But the available troops were such that it was not possible to cover the flank in Wallachia and the rear in Dobrudja rapidly enough to arrest the advance of the invaders. which for several hundred kilometers was guarded by one Under these conditions single division of militia. the commanders suspended the offensive of Brussilov's army in order to direct great reinforcements into Rumania. its artillery and almost a In the meantime the Bul- garians. It was on the Sereth that the Russians. permits one to hope that the most pressing peril is now almost averted. having easily crossed the Danube. As for the Russian succession of the Army. formed a defensive front enlarged by several good Rumanian divisions. 105 .
One certain fact remains of that which the vice-admiral wrote. it reflects exactly the views of the czarist policy. who did me the great honor to me at dinner and at breakfast at general headquarters.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE The czar himself. has in a private audience given me the receive assurance that in a very few weeks the military situation in the Balkans would commence to change. where he had the honor of being invited to breakfast and to dinner by the czar. which tried to cast upon Rumania all the responsibility of her defeat and to justify the want of help which was due to Rumania from Russia. The opinion expressed in this article is certainly the result of the interview which he had with the czar and with other important personages of Russia. and that is that the czar and those of his entourage were surprised by the entry of the Rumanian Army into Transyl106 . This article was written after the vice-admiral had visited Rumania and Russia.
Herewith are the words of the staff. Twice our staff de- manded that Government commence by an operation against Bulgaria. We were told that twenty thousand men would amply suffice for a demonstration of a purely political character. Boris Sturmer. the conception.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT vania. op. former chief of the Rumanian the one who had the responsibility. 169. then the president of the council. that. The French staff shared entirely our opinion but Russia the Russian 1 placed upon this an absolute veto. cit. chouk would have been security for our capital. therefore. replied that never would Bulgaria be Then we asked for willing to fight against Russia. there was another plan known to the Russian staff the offensive in Bulgaria. 107 . which would have taken the form of the occupation of a strip of land on the The taking of Roustright banks of the Danube. two hundred thousand men of the Russian troops for the Dobrudja front.. and the execution of the war plan: to The Russian Government submitted us an elaborated plan of campaign in which the probable role of Bulgaria was not taken into account. p. At our objection Mr. i Comnene.
In the "Figaro" of July signature of "Polybe. 1917." 7. by the Russian Stavka and the not dictated. We must leave to specialists to appreciate 108 . proves that Genthis it eral Iliesco was not a big enough man for is position. under the we read: I have acquired the conviction. Bratiano and his chief of staff were guilty of having accepted a plan of war imposed upon them when the very existence of the country was at stake. Which one true one? of these two hypotheses this is the Either of General Iliesco sia? bad plan was the work or it was imposed by Rusto is It first is difficult know it the truth. Government of Petroif grad.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE This declaration was made to the representatives of the press in April. that the principal mistakes of strategy and of general tactics which have been committed by the staff of Bukharest were advised. having seen the official papers. but if the hypothesis true. proves that Mr. if the second hypothesis true. 1917.
Had the Rumanian Army peneon trated into Bulgaria. to say. and nothing would have prevented Falkenhayn. and then the itself in Rumanian Army would have found Bulgaria facing the forces of Mackensen. the Army of Saloniki would not have been any more energetic. If the whole of the Ruma- Army was not able to resist in the Car109 . Russia would have had the same attitude to- wards Rumania.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT which of these two plans would have been the better. Rumania would have been left as alone just she has been. who was in Transylvania. and we must recognize from circumstances that the result would have been the same whether the offensive was carried against Bulgaria or whether it was carried against Austria. leaving small forces the offensive on the side of the Carpathians. on the other fronts there that is would have been the same calm. from entering Rumania by the passes of the Carpathians and then covering nian all the lines of retreat of the Rumanian Army.
have the mastery in war. crushed between the forces of Macthe kensen and Falkenhayn and abandoned by Russia. the Rumanian Army was at least able to withdraw on the Sereth and to prove its courage and resistance at least it has escaped the ridiculous posi. WANT OF MATERIAL PREPARATION The material preparation wholly incomplete. a According to the plans already exe- work imposed by the Russian Government or made by General Iliesco. aviation.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE pathians the drives of Falkenhayn. 110 . cuted. machine-guns. artillery. how could one believe that only a part of this army could have had any better result? Perhaps if there had been an offensive in Bulgaria the whole of Rumanian Army would have been made prisoners. Despite this. of the army was Heavy tion. after two years' reflecthe national army years so fertile in lessons. tion of being enveloped on every side by the enemy and obliged to surrender.
CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT and only. were There 75's in rather insignificant numbers. had munitions stored for about three months. A war in the mountains. some 105's.. and these insufficiencies all flowed from the same principle adfalsely preconceived. the lifting of tactics. Will one ever be able to say how much. selves especially are the most Latin. but which remain unknown at Bukharest. it is true.. neither the officers nor their men had learned the latest perfections in The defilement of a battery. gave birth to failure. and one saw then the incredible inexperience of the artillery. the Duke of Aosta was cutting to Presumption pieces the army of General Buroevic. But Brussilov had just annihilated in Galicia 600. Thus before starting to fight the army carried within itself one element of her defeat. but as early as October they were fighting in the plains. all told. eight old 150's. lends itself poorly to the application of new procedures.000 Austro-Hungarians on the Somme the English and . How many times did it 111 . As a barrage . the powerlessness of the versary to parry. the French were decimating the German divisions . before Gorizia. so many procedures which have be- come the classics on our lines. among those of our allies who how much we have lowered ourin a systematic by misconstruing qualities of an enemy? manner the for the technical personnel.
the subject of the sanitary corps. And one single shot of a 77 bearing upon a exigencies. Thus for several months the Rumanians knew nothing of what was happening with the adversary. and he. Everywhere there was the . . It was. shelter brought about a general crumbling up. As for aviation. necessary to teach officers the art of campaign fortification. the defenders of the city remained stupefied. . then. The arrival of the French escadrille overcame this cause of inferiority at least. same negligence. it did n't even exist . thus calling holes that were incapable of any protection. was perfectly posted. of assault rushing behind movable barrage of artillery. as at Zinnicea. or was unwilling to. several out-of- date equipments without value. . and the efficiency of the railroads. the transportations. but not an effort was made to adapt it to the new The staff was ignorant even of a trench. The country possessed a large and disciplined army. how to repress spying. an evil too well-known in France for us to ignore its ravages. that our unfortunate allies And seeing the waves could not even form a battery. Truly one might think that The same remarks can be made on two years of neutrality served for nothing. on the contrary.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE not happen under the steady bombardment of the Germans. The committee on general safety was incapable of doing its task and did not know.
~ <U X ed 33 u a .
howhad worked without ceasing. Rumania. We Therefore. op. cit. sad. out of which 560. are unfortunately very just. . zComnene." 2 Western allies. 114. General Iliesco made the following declaration to the Prussian representative in April. if These observations.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE But the beginnings of the Rumanian Army were 1 the continuation became more discomforting.000 were Our list of officers had to be tripled. 168. who. 1914. From 180. cit. General Rudeanu. Already.000 men. p.. in the month of August. we had began to prepare and reorganize our army. had neither munitions nor machine-guns. taking into consideration the im- mense difficulties of transportation and of communi- cations with our ever. "was not ready.. let not this affirmation surprise you. made with great competency. op. p. fighting men. 1916. 319. 1917: war Rumania war by the side of the Allies. head of the Rumanian iStienon. in July. It was an arduous task and a long one.000 men we had to bring our Early in the beginning of the great felt sure that she would have to enter into the army to 820.
12. on the conone of the irrefutable proofs of the weakness with which the Government presided trary. itself during moments in the history of this coun- This Government has frivolously declared through two authorized organs that it declared war on Austria-Hungary without the army being ready. but sufficient want of a good material preparation would have proved the earnestness of the Government. this want of 115 ." * These declarations. enemy. and the army would have been i in a better position to resist the attacks of the See p. far from having the character of a justification. but "with the confidence that we had in France. declared also that Rumania commenced the war without great armament. constitute.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT Military Mission to Paris. over by Mr. Bratiano conducted the gravest try. the It must be understood that preparation has not constituted the cause of the Rumanian defeat.
said in the council of generals that absolute folly to believe that one could possibly fight on two fronts totaling 800 miles with an army of from 500. 116 .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE preparation could not contribute to the cause of the defeat because it was impossible for Ru- mania to resist alone those who attacked her. General Hiritesco.000 men even though they were the very best that the world could provide and armed sufficiently with the completest modern instruments of war. a small and isolated country. one of the and most brilliant of Rumanian genit is erals. or rather Petrograd. Her army could not be valuable except with the immediate and complete help of the Russian is Rumania armies.000 to 600. with General Averesco and wisest Herj en. former Second Chief of the General Staff of the Rumanian Army and. was not willing that the Russian Army should move at the very moment when Rumania was playing the most dangerous game. but fatality.
that he was wavering." as illegitimate possessors of Transylvania. p. "that I have cit. without bravery and without resistance. for the Hungarians it. but Mr." he says. 318. led "Neither hatred nor idea] them to These observations might lead one to believe that the Rumanian soldier fought reluc- tantly. Stienon does not draw these conclusions on the contrary. the Bulgarians. or the Germans that they had only antipathy . Stienon.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT WANT OF MORAL. he ." l To tion explain this thesis one of the critics of the author of "Le Mystere Russe" states that Roumain et la Defecthe Rumanian soldier had no reproach for the Turks. 117 . i book Rumanian "I believe. PREPARATION But what do we understand by moral preparation? "The Rumanians lacked also the hatred of the enemy. op. recognized at every step in his excellent the bravery and the sacrifice of the soldier..
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE neglected no occasion to praise the individual I recognize valor of the Rumanian soldier. that the morale preparation of the soldier to hate his enemy is useful though it is not indispensable. One never knows the attitude which those in ally is useless power of a country may take sometimes at the last moment. There the people were brought up to love and respect "Holy Russia. iStienon. 118 . This sentiment of love and gratitude was so deep that in Russia everybody believed before the war that never would a Bulgarian soldier dare to touch a soldier of the Russian czar. And 319.'* It might happen that the preparation of the soldier to hate or to love his future probable enemy or and even dangerous. Bulgaria gave a striking example of such a case." The least among the Bulgarians knew that Russia had liberated them from the yoke of the Turks and had always protected them. cit. But the failure to do so does not l constitute a cause for the Rumanian defeat. op.
in the newspapers an article in which he writes. and well has he caught the spirit of his race in the demoniacal words of the Bulgarian 'Hymn of Hate': 'Let not one stone rest on another. for the very reason that Mr. the Kipling of Bulgaria. let there remain on the ruins your hand has sown only skeletons and ghosts. Let not one child rejoice. for of all Bulgarian authors. the Bulgarian soldiers fought with the same bitterness against the Russians as against the Rumanians and the in November.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT even in Bulgaria they feared the effect of such an education. 1917. ton to dismiss this damning revelation of the Bulgarian mind by saying that the author of the Bulgarian 'Hymn of Hate' is an unknown scrivener and that this hymn is an obscure utterance. Arnaudoff is a leader of Bulgarian thought he enjoys his high position as a member of the Bulgarian Board of Education.' which reveals to the world the real mind of the Bulgarian peoQuite futile it is for the Bulgarian minister in Washingple. In fact. Nevertheless in the struggles which took place in Dobrudja. not one old man lean on iMr. Ivan Arnaudoff is one of the most widely read and best qualified to express the spirit of Bulgaria. among other things: "I have read with interest in the Press of November 10 an excerpt of the Bulgarian 'Hymn of Hate. Oscar Spiresco published New York his grandson's shoulders. Throw their skulls to the starving dogs.'" 119 . on the other hand an element of the Bulgarian religion tried to inspire hatred the Bulgarian population against the among Rumanians. Ivan Arnaudoff is the mentor of his people.
if necessary. content with having re- 120 . They did not hesitate to disembowel. or to allow their prisoners to die of hunger. sowing death among them without any hesitation. whether they Serbs. he takes care of him. or Bulgarian. but the difference between the Rumanian and the Bulis garian lies in the fact that after the battle over the Rumanian is never capable of touching he be Hungarian.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Serbs and . it is important to remember that the soldier and the Bulgarian population showed themselves just as ferocious against the Russian prisoners as against the Serbian or Rumanian. and he yields him willingly. on the contrary. Turk. Nevertheless he the the same spirit as against the threw himself with bayonet in hand against the Germans with Hungarian or the Bulgarian. or whether they were Russians. to cut out the tongue. were But or Rumanian soldier has never known hated the German soldier. to put out the eyes. his prisoner may his last piece of bread. whether they were Rumanians.
preferring to be killed by his superior officer rather than to betray his duty as soldier. surely his order would be obeyed by that very army which excels elsewhere in its discipline. the children. to have them desert their duty. Advise the Rumanian soldier to escape to the enemy. not even his orderly. His agents did their utmost to cor- rupt the Rumanian soldiers. or the old dis- give the order to his troops to massacre the prisoners. but he went alone. Trotzky has had the pretension to introduce Maximalism into Rumania. who was driving the automobile as chauffeur and who refused to enter the enemy lines. who has been conShould a Rumanian officer dare to women. to betray his native land. to no longer lis- ten to his leaders. the men of the enemy. No one was willing to follow him. The Rumanian soldier is not only the work 131 .CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT lieved the sufferings of one quered. but with no success. he does not listen. During this war one single Rumanian officer deserted to the enemy. all this is useless.
Even before the war. has characteristics inherited from its an- cestors and influenced more or its less by circum- stances in the past of people. by the clarion which calls he leaves everything and runs to place himself under the flag. the peas- ism. also of 1916. As an example we will cite but two cases Electrified of the thousands that took place. during ant gave startling proofs of his great patriot- the mobilization of 1913. each one of these retains the characteristics of his ancestors.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE of discipline it is rather his personal character that guides him. the bugle was announcing in all the streets the . The Bukharests have noted with enthusiasm the case of a peasant who was the conductor of a tramway. or rather each . race. Each nation. He was in the principal street of Bukharest as a group of recruits was passing. the Rumanian brave and gentle for the same reason. The Bulit is garian is brave and ferocious because a is characteristic of his to be so . The Rumanian soldier is profoundly conscientious.
The Rumanian peasant telligent. which to report to It is noticeable that in all the mobilization only three or four per cent. country calls he has understood. failed to answer the call. he heard the clarion calling to arms. in- and always ready It to face death. him. and went to place himself in the ranks of those who were mobilized. is does not frighten him. for this land which he so loves. as a peasant was passing peace- fully with his cart loaded with merchandise. and that is all. to his home. left The conductor stopped everybody seated therein. is conscientious. It not necessary for him to hate the enemy in order to be able to All that he needs is to know that his fight.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT general mobilization. his car. that he must fight for her. begs the first passer-by to drive back and enters the group of recruits. He leaves it his cart. At Sinaia. he knows how to do his . although he yet had forty-eight hours' time in his regiment.
and when at last he had to fight against the Russians. his companions of yesterday. and it is that which constituted the his ideals for moral education. to those people with more . the Germans. A soldier must be filled with His ideal the desire to do his duty. those least capable of reasoning. indifferent if his enemy is HunThis has been garian. largely proved during this war. Bulgarian. that he has he sacrifices which himself without a murmur and without bitterness. or Russian. Before this world war one might have be- lieved that the faculty of facing death belonged rather to the least civilized people. the Austro-Hungarians. to sacrifice himself for his native land. the Turks. he struck them with such ardor that they were forced to surrender or take to flight. must be to respond call of his with courage and abnegation to the country. manian soldier has fought with the The Rusame hero- ism against the Bulgarians.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE duty he . fights.
would not be capable of enduring the miseries of a war. agriculture. accustomed to a more intellectual and more agreeable life. civilized from top to bottom and from bottom to top. all the peoples in the struggle the greater and the surprise is all when we see that the of the United States. one could have be- lieved that the man of to-day. conducts itself on the field of battle with an enthusiasm and a heroism which equals that of the most brilliant armies of warlike countries. a people do when badly led? sian soldier is good when he is well disciplined 125 But what can The true Rus- . this young army of a civilized country. among army stroke try.CAUSES OF THE RUMANIAN DEFEAT or less warlike education. business. organized at one among men educated specially in indus- commerce. . But this war has given us great manifested itself surprises. although this population the least and the least happy. heroism has everywhere. The Russians civilized alone have not reached this is height.
who are to-day but who to-mor- row may redeem by errors their sacrifices so many and so many crimes. for certain things may happen to bring out the patriotism of the true Russians scattered without leadership. Perhaps there is yet time.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE and well led. 126 .
CHAPTER VIII THE STRUGGLE WITH THE RUSSIANS AND THE GERMAN ULTIMATUM Bolsheviki. Immediately a part of the Rumanian Army was detached from the Sereth front and sent against Russia. lage and the devastation of the country. gave the order for their army to This retreat finished the pilleave Rumania. 1187 . and then a Russian army of several divisions advanced against Rumania. King if at with arrest Rumania did not consent to make peace with the Central powers on the side of the Bolsheviki. Rumania refused this ulti- matum of one ally. not content with all the THE misfortunes which Russia had caused Rumania. at the same time the Rumanian minister was Petrograd Ferdinand was threatened arrested.
All of Bessarabia was occupied by the troops of King Ferdinand. 20. The Bolsheviki protested against pation.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Many sians battles took place between the Rus- and the Rumanians near Galatz. the rest of the Russian Army withdrew in disorder. and they were sending an ulti- matum wanted to to Rumania to determine whether she make peace or continue the war to 128 .000 Russians were made prisoners. leaving a great deal of ammunition in the hands of the Ru- manians. and the Rumanian flag was raised on the public buildings of the towns and villages of Bessarabia. threatening to send against this occu- Rumania much tice larger forces. who were forced to Rumanian withdraw into Bessarabia. soldiers The attacked with great enthusiasm the Russians. and a great battle took place near Reiney in Bessarabia. at the same time the armis- between Rumania and the Central powers had expired. The Rumanians pursued them.
Never- more than likely that Rumania is not an immediate offensive. "Journal des Debats. it might certainly hold. at least during some time. Gauvin).THE STRUGGLE WITH THE RUSSIANS the bitter end. The enemies' troops are not very numerous in comparison to the theless. it is exposed to troops of King Ferdinand. If it is more reassured on the Russian side. then. They are probably not in a condition to bring about a decisive stroke. Herewith this is the opinion of the French press upon great event. We feel this. We should send them rather encouragement than counsel. The communications of the West with Jassy and Kief are so slow and subjected to so many risks that we miss the most precious elements of appreciation. ties to If it should be attacked also on the side of Ukraine. 1918 (A. to have time to appreciate the possibilities open to it." February 11. against the Bulgaro- Touranians. "Le Temps. for one can hardly well appreciate the situation except on the spot. 1918 (Edito- 129 . The Rumanian Government appears." February rial). 11. their deeply for our brave Rumanian friends in new trial. one dares not think of the extremi- which it would be reduced.
The governments of Germany and Austria-Hun- gary are in haste to grasp the provisions of Ukraine. affirmed by the parleying of Brest-Litovsk and confirmed by the resolutions of Berlin. which is wanting neither in officers nor in material of war. One cannot compromise with pitiless masters like the Austro-Germans. Valiant Rumania. This is the desired policy of the enemy. that is to say. But we must consider all the hypotheses.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE The role of Rumania. They think. a robust army. is becoming again important. The summons sent to the Rumanians is an attempt at intimidation rather than an attack. that the best means to defend their people against the Maximalist propaganda is to But between the Central powers feed them better. who has a 130 . there exists a much more serious obstacle than the Maximalist anarchy against which the German newspapers fulminate . a patriotic nation. He would like to set aside the watchman who is in front of the granary. probably. even the one that Rumania should really be obliged to choose between a war to the bitter end or a separate peace. there is Rumania. an organized state. where the shipment of wheat to reach the Danube might take place. Thus called it is not surprising that General Mackensen has upon Rumania to negotiate peace. and the port of Odessa. which has not been very grievous for these long months past.
Jean Bratiano. has but one policy that which Mr. has just handed in his resignation. Mr. who has been in power during the past four years. has a strength of several hundred thousand men. Orlando defined after the to follow enemy offensive of Venetia. "Re* sistere. to the armistice which united the whole of the One has not forgotten that Rumania has adhered RusBut the heroic Rumanian Army. In order to give all freedom of action to his king. At this hour so tragic in her destiny Rumania cani N. 1916.THE STRUGGLE WITH THE RUSSIANS right to her liberty and her unity. resistere!" "Le Petit Journal. the Rumanian Government. which sian front. By holding themselves as they have done until now they have forced Germany and her Allies to hold themselves motionless far from the Western front. both men and material. and who on the twenty-ninth of August. when he exclaimed. A. had associated Rumania with the destinies of France and her allies. 1918. but one should have wherewith it. in a the King and Queen of Ruunanimous burst of patriotism have held mania. themselves aside from the negotiations of Russia with the Central empires." February 10. resistere. The advice is good. to eat in order to follow 131 . president of the council.
tainous and difficult. This army. for us to judge exactly it is difficult Rumania and her army. but it is to render their appetite more insatiable. well rehabilitated. France can only remind herself of the valor of her unfortunate ally. to the profit of our enemies. demands On the Rumanian front. 1918.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE not ignore. no more than she has already done since the day when the grievous hours commenced for her. mountroops and material. that to yield to her enemies is not to appease them. The ultimatum to Rumania. the reply of King Ferdinand alone will show the value. King Ferdinand prepares at Jassy the reply to the Mackensen ultimatum. as he did with us. "L'Homme From Paris the situation of Libre/' February 10. Whilst Trotsky seeks to enter upon "the game of secret documents" with the German Government. It remains to be known what the state of revic- tualizing this army in provisions and munitions. guards jealously the soil which the Austro-Boches have hesitated to attempt to take away from her. Awaiting this decision. there are unknown questions and difficult to solve. Let us await what her wisdom and her heroism shall dictate to her. . any advance appears yet more is hazardous. like an ultimatum to the Government of Petrograd.
and America. despite with an effective force greatly superior to all those Paris. without doubt. the great land. The German preme policy displays at this moment a suto obtain the disarmament of the only attempt great force which yet threatens between the Carpathians and the Ural. 1918 (Gustave That Ukraine should anger us. 10. must her critical condition. It is cowardly of Ukraine to stab in the back the heroic Rumanian Army." February 11. we are large enough after this treason not only to defend ourselves against Germany. thought of the French cabinet and. The decision rests with their consciences. All our thoughts are with Rumania. with her back to the . the army. Poor Rumania! we. Italy. will remain The last faithful to the duties of her alliance. has been expressed to King Ferdinand and to his counselors. upheld rather than weakened by the heroic sacrifices already sustained. but to bring her to her knees. of the other Allied cabinets. which. major democracies of the West." February Herve).THE STRUGGLE WITH THE RUSSIANS "Echo de tinax). hope that. "La Victoire. EngFrance. 1918 (Per- We who are opposed to her.
with this withdrawing from the breeches absolute irresponsibility the Ukrainians drive By unfortunate Rumania to capitulate herself. has handed in his resignation and that Mackensen has just sent an ultimatum to the Rumanian Rumanian Government to demand the conclud- ing of peace within four days. when one is a great nation. Bratiano. February 11. Reduced to a quarter of her territory. to be the ally of Russia ! ! "La Victoire. By her capitulation Ukraine delivers the Rumanian Army. awaited against all hope a resurrection of the Russian Army in the fight. Rumania could only continue to fight if Southern Russia continued to revictualize her at the expense of the Allies both as to food and munitions. to Germany. It is gay. Already it is announced that the President of the Council. 1918 (Gustave Herve) of anything more frightful than the situation Rumania since Ukraine has consented to kiss the German boot? Is there Neither the situation of unfortunate Serbia nor the situation of unhappy Belgium has anything to ! be compared to this ." .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE frontiers of southern Russia. to be our ally It is gay. hands and feet bound. when one is a little nation.
Italarmy. The fate Rumanian Army is otherwise atrocious. into Antof the werp. Ukraine makes peace with the Central empires. Greek and French troops. without tory in the vicinity of and without despair. the Yser. and Mackensen gives her four days to surrender. it is not she who should be blamed. but encompassed solidly by the English and French troops the noble little army knows well that the hour of deliver. If unhappy Rumania. To see an Allied nation assassinated and to be powerless to bring her any direct aid. into Brussels. occupied by the Belgian army. To-day it is a blow with a club on her rear.THE STRUGGLE WITH THE RUSSIANS Independent Serbia is reduced to a shred of terri- Monastir. betrayed by the Ukrainians. the hour of vengeance. 1916. there is left of free Belgium only a few hundred kilometers in the neighborhood of fear. ance will will enter ring for the whole of Belgium and that she one day in triumph into Ghent. solidly ian. can await. Since October. but the Serbian flanked and surrounded by English. but those who have reduced her to this harsh extremity. and into Liege. what a heartache for all the Western Allies And more particufor us Frenchmen who have so many causes to larly 1 love this new martyred people !" 135 . has been driven to capitulate.
the contrary. Some one said one day that she was making but a "half war. also against the Russian troops." and. Japan is one of these people it is the "Empire of the Rising .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE "Le Figaro. 1918 (Polybe)." February The Rumanian Army. and again elsewhere." 186 . rich fields where are pastured herds of ostriches. at Jassy. In the course of a long and frightful tragedy she has given proof of a tried endurance and of a valor worthy of an epic poem. I acknowledge. few divisions are established A a region as fertile as Ukraine. but while playing it he allows his cards to be seen! This should be enough to dictate to the Entente her duty. Never has glory made solidly in Bessarabia. Everywhere there is something to be done. Will she permit that another sun shall rise out of the shadow to mount the heavens of extreme Asia? Sun. with infinite fields of wheat. There are no circumstances in the world where it should await events. has never been more strong. or better yet provided with artillery. alas." It is a whole war that she has fought against the "Quadruplice. on 11. better disciplined. more of a halo for the "head of Auroch" of arms of Moldavia ! in the coat Mackensen. plays his game. at Petrograd. There is something to be done without delay for all the peoples of the Entente.
a Isolated and without help. the Rumanian squeezed in front Army strangled in the rear by Mackensen. had all was with honor: we did retain the honor of our valiant army. lost save The disaster was complete. which struggled its heroism ally. against against all manner of own privations we . but not desired. which operated on the Russian front. but which had been liberated by the desertion of the army of Lenine. unable to obtain food or materials of war. and kept 137 .CHAPTER IX RUMANIA AND PEACE RUMANIA found itself has concluded a peace peace imposed. and menaced on the north by German forces. still* against the enemy. by Russia.
the admiration of the whole world for this brave
population which suffered with resignation the invasion of the enemy, sickness without medical
and pillage by the Russian
Army. The government of Bratiano, which with Take Jonesco, made the war, became frightened at the result of their
at the critical to
resigned and fled
the king then appealed
chief of the Conservative
party, in order that he might take
sponsibility of the situation.
He accepted this
charge and concluded a peace. Mr. Marghiloman has been from the very beginning of the
constantly on the side of neu-
A protest of several Rumanian organizations
against the Treaty of Bukharest was received
from Paris through
against the Treaty of Bukharest, signed
by the committee of the Paris
Rumanian colony, by
RUMANIA AND PEACE
Rumanians from Transylvania and Bukowina, and by the delegates of the Committee of
the committee of
Oppressed Nationalities says
"The Rumanian people have been crossed from the list of free nations. The peace imposed upon Rumania by the Central powers
the very negation of
the political and economic independence of our counIt is an act of hatred and vengeance done with try.
violence and with utter disregard of the most mentary principles of justice.
"The Rumanian people cannot accept it. Her enemies imposed upon her what they call a peace based on German friendship. In fact, it is the most
and insulting subjection: military subjection through the loss of the Carpathian range; political subjection through German interference in all the great state administrations; commercial subjection
through the theft of Dobrudja, the only maritime province of Rumania, and through the domination established by the Germans over the Danubian navigation; industrial subjection through the monopoly of the most important mineral wealth of the country the oils ; financial subjection through the control
by the Germans over the chief product of
the political and economic slavery to Germans intend to subject Rumania.
Might succeeded over
Germany has trampled
under foot the sacred principles of liberty and justice for which all nations, united, fight.
FREE RUMANIANS PROTEST
the land of noble
France raise their voices in protest against the The Bukharest act is not a peace it is an evident contradiction of the idea treaty;
The of peace as the civilized world understands it. clauses of this treaty excluded very plainly the free consent of Rumania. It is one more act of hard violence imposed by a pitiless enemy.
The Rumanian people, left without arms before the German bayonets, no more enjoying any freedom in
and opinions, cannot express a protest peace of spoliation and subjection. But
allies in full
they turn to their great
Rumanian nation are
solidly with those of the great
at the door of the Balkan Peninsula, is the barrier against German invasion toward the only
south and toward Asia.
In the name of the Ru-
manian people we declare that to-day as yesterday we are the allies of the Entente powers, and we pro-
RUMANIA AND PEACE
claim that the Treaty of Bukharest, with
and added conventions,
and void. 1
true that peace under the conditions imdisastrous for
Rumania, but what
could be done?
The question was how to keep out of this miserable situation.
the time peace
was conAll Mr.
cluded, the disaster was complete.
Marghiloman could accomplish was bits from the wreckage.
By this peace Rumania loses in the first place
a large part of her territory,
comprising the land between the Danube and
the Black Sea, where Kustendje
her only deep-sea port. Rumania, by reason of her geographical position, had as sole communication for her exports to
Western Europe two ways, one by rail across Austria-Hungary, the other by the Black Sea. The first route is too costly and
places her at the
mercy of Hungary, who
henceforth than in the
past; the second remains
through the Black
By the treaty of peace New Dobrudja passes
into the hands of Bulgaria,
and the northern
Ancient Dobrudja, goes to the Central
Ancient Dobrudja belonged to Rumania
before the fourteenth century;
under the domination of the Turks
and afterwards was ceded
had a population of 300,000, of which 70 per cent, were Rumanians the rest were composed of Turks,
by the Congress of Berlin.
Bulgarians, Germans, and Italians.
by the peace of Bukharest Rumania obtained a small part of Bulgaria, about 5000 square
name of New Dothe Rumanian element
in the minority, the majority of the popula-
Turks and Bulgarians. Rumania spent large sums of money
RUMANIA AND PEACE
development of Ancient Dobrudja. The Turkish villages were transformed into fine cities.
Kustendje became a
opened great possibilities in this province. Great installations for the depots of grain and petroleum destined for export were made
port was bound to the Docenters of the country by a pipe-line.
brudja represented the lungs of Rumania. She could breathe she had no access to the sea
except here. Besides all
to submit to
rectifications of boundaries
on the side of
gary the conditions are not as yet the demands will no doubt include her great wealth of forests, petroleum, and minerals.
true that the treaty of peace
without 'indemnities" of war, but the value of
the land annexed
so great that
any indemnity. tions, no indemnities," adopted
The formula "No annexain
and even by the chancelors Michaelis and Hertling.012. has been completely set aside on the occasion of this unfortunate peace. . from Austria 138. from lei Germany alone she buys 237. made the same impression on the industrial and commercial two Rumania has been one of 590.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE by the Reichstag.100. establishing factories in the country.146 worth. She imports each year merchandise to the value (which represents approxi- mately $100.076 lei At the same time German capital conof tributed greatly to the home manufactures Rumania.810. Besides annexation the Central powers reserve for themselves the right of requisition of all kinds of food on the production of 1918 and many more humiliating and burdensome conditions.640 lei of their best customers. It is understood that this peace had produced cir- great satisfaction in the military-political cles of if it Austria and Germany.000) and worth.122. but circles of these we doubt countries.
" March 1918 (Wm. as well as in the production of petroleum. She cannot recover from her disaster. no interest in crushing a country which had been one of their best markets capital. even if they should be outrageous. 1918: M. and exceedingly profitable for the By in the loss of Dobrudja Rumania is closed on every side. . 1 We herewith reproduce the text of the treaty of peace published in an American newspaper. we bow with respect before her misfortune. and she is condemned to a sure and slow death." 145 May 9.RUMANIA AND PEACE thus avoiding the heavy taxes which had been imposed by the Rumanian Government to protect these newly established industries. then. As for us. with no access to the sea. for she cannot do otherwise. be some people who will find in themselves the ably sad courage to reproach her for this. "The i New York Times. Rumania will sign There will probpeace. even if they should take away her outlets and her independence. Germany and Austria should have.). Whatever may be the conditions. "Journal de Geneve.
146 . live peace and friendship. on the other. Diplomatic and consular relations bewill tween the contracting parties be resumed imme- diately after the ratification of The the peace treaty. on the one hand. and Turkey. and Rumania. Bulgaria. admission of consuls will be reserved for a future agreement. declare the state of war ended and that the Article contracting parties are determined henceforth to together in Article II. Germany.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE RUMANIA SHACKLED BY TREATY WITH FOE Text of the Document shows the Kingdom pletely under Teuton domination is com- JOY EXPRESSED BY KAISER He says the German people are fighting for a happy future step by step The peace treaty just signed between Rumania and the Central powers consists of eight clauses. says a Vienna dispatch to-day. Austria-Hungary. It reads: CLAUSE I Reestablishment of Peace and of Friendship I.
of the Jaeger divisions. including the staff. The remaining strength. the in two infantry Bessarabia. will remain on a war footing danger arising from military operations now being carried on in the Ukraine by the Central powers until the ceases to exist. two cavalry regiments. Of the di- Rumanian divisions 1 vision now employed to 10. and all the military The demobilization of divi- sions 11 to 15 will be continued as stipulated in the treaty of Focsani signed on March 8. Army. which peace is is The demobilization of the Rumanian now procee'ding. will immediately after signed be carried out according to the prescriptions contained in Articles I and VII. together with the necessary technical transport troops. Article IV. and one division will be Each battalion of pioneers. The total number of the 147 . including the which are the remnants of dissolved Jaeger battalions. last. the supreme military authorities. The regular military bureau. institutions will remain in existence as provided by the last peace budget. and including two cavalry divisions Rumanian Army.RUMANIA AND PEACE CLAUSE II Demobilization of the Rumanian Forces Article III. shall be maintained in eight divisions. Moldavia at the reduced peace composed of four infantry regiments.
The divisions remaining mobilized in Bessarabia must. The Rumanian Army is entitled to exchange shall be unserviceable material at the depots of the occupied region. and 150 for each gun. shall Article horses. and cars.000 men. small arms. in agreement with the Allied supreme com- 148 . shall not exceed 9000 men. All other not be called up for training until a general peace has been concluded. V. Rumanian troops that did not exist in time will at the end of their term of active peace Reservists military service remain as in peace time. The amount of ammunition to be left to the Rumanian Army in Moldavia is 250 rounds for each rifle. machine-guns. apart from the mobile divisions. in case of demobilization. and ammunition which are available owing to the reduction or the dissolution of the Rumanian units shall be given into the custody of the supreme command of the Allied (Teutonic) Forces in Rumania until the conclusion of a general peace. the entire artillery of the Rumanian Army.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE infantry of the eight divisions shall not exceed 20. They guarded and superintended by Rumanian troops under supervision of the Allied command. the total number of cavalry shall not exceed 3200. be reduced to the same peace standard as the eight divisions mentioned in Article IV. Guns. 2500 for each machine-gun.
will be attached to the Rumanian powers. and a Rumanian general-staff officer. remain in Moldavia until the evacuation of the occuExcepted from this provision are military bureaus and men mentioned in pied regions. Rumanian naval forces Allied will be complement and in equipment. will be attached as Article VII. are Bessarabia are clear. liaison officer to the chief A forces in the occupied The Article VIII. general staff officer of the Allied with staff. formally active officers require. with staff. and to demand from the depots the equivalent The divisions in Rumania of ammunition spent. which remain mobilized will receive their ammunition requirements on a war basis. in order to return to these regions. in accordance with Article IX. in so far as their crews. who are required for the supervision of the arms and material laid down in these regions. commander-in-chief in Moldavia. permission of the chief army command of the Allied forces. Rumanian Article V. Excepted herefrom are river forces not to be limited until affairs 149 .RUMANIA AND PEACE mand. The demobilized Rumanian troops to Article VI. reserve officers The men and who have been demobilActive and ized can return to the occupied regions. left to their full command of the Rumanian districts. these forces are to be brought to the usual whereupon peace standard.
CLAUSE III Cessions of Territory Outlined in Articles X. fell I of the peace preliminaries. is 150 . on a basis of special arrangement. traffic and the restoration of mine-free after Immediately the signing of the peace treaty these river forces will. in who first to be dismissed in order that they in their may find em- ployment former occupations. ac- cording to Paragraph to be added by Rumania. Bulgarian territory that to her by virtue of the peace treaty concluded at Bukharest in 1913.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE required for the purposes of river police. and XII Article X. and naval forces on the Black Sea employed for the protection of maritime fairways. All men serving in the army and navy time were employed in connection with peace harbors or shipping shall on demobilization be the Article IX. be placed at the disposal of the The nautiauthorities intrusted with river policing. the following stipulations are laid down: (a) Rumania cedes again to Bulgaria. with frontier rectifications. and a cal naval officer is to be attached to this commission in order to restore connection therewith. Black Sea commission will reserve the right of disposing of the naval forces on the Black Sea. which. With regard to Dobrudja. XI.
to be composed of equal numbers of representatives of the powers concerned. by way of Tcher- navoda and Kustendje. to the St. George branch of the river. The Danube frontier be- tween the regions ceded to Bulgaria and Rumania follows the river valley. Article frontiers XI shall says that Rumania agrees that the rectification in undergo favor of Austria-Hungary tinues : as indicated on the map and con- mixed commissions. The Danube frontier between the territory ceded to the Allied powers and Rumania will be formed by the The Allied powers and Rumania will river valley. Thus the demarkation water (b) tion of level. undertake to see that Rumania shall receive an assured trade route to the Black Sea. 1918. between the confluence of the stream and the Black Sea.RUMANIA AND PEACE A commission composed of representatives of the Allied powers shall shortly after the signature of the treaty lay down and demarkate on the spot the new frontier line in Dobrudja. Directly after the signature of the treaty further particulars shall be decided upon regarding the definition of the valley. that is to say. 151 Two . shall take place in autumn. at low Rumania cedes to the Allied powers that porDobrudja up to the Danube north of the new frontier line described under section (a) .
with regard to the allegiance of the Rumanian inhabitants of these regions and the the property of manner in which they are to be ac. Those states to which the ceded territories fall shall make agreements with Rumania on the following points : First. 152 . not surUntil the ratification of the treaty pass six divisions. summed up as follows The occupied Rumanian : territories shall be evacu- ated at times to be later agreed upon. Article XII. with regard to split by the new frontier. of which tlement of damages caused by the war. embodied in articles XIV to XXIV. with regard to administrative and juridical matters. The fifth clause relates to the evacuation of occupied territories. and special arrangements are to be made for the set- IV XIII deals with war indemnities. declares that the contracting parties mutually renounce indemnification of their war costs. thirdly and fourthly.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE are immediately after the ratification of the peace treaty to fix a new frontier line on the spot. with regard to the effect of the changes of territory on dioceses. Clause Article fifthly. The strength of the army of occupation shall. apart from the formation employed in economical functions. corded the right of option communes secondly. Property in the ceded regions of Rumania passes without indemnification to the states which acquire these regions.
Punishable acts against the army of occupation will be judged by its military and also offenses against the orders of the tribunals. Allied powers will retain jurisdiction. as well as the power of police supervision.RUMANIA AND PEACE the present occupation administration continues. Up to the time of evacuation a civil official of the occupation administration shall always be attached to the Rumanian ministry in order to facilitate so far as possible the transfer of the civil administration to the ities Rumanian authorities. posts. and telegraphs will remain under military administration and will. Persons can only return 153 . in accordance with proper agreements. The Rumanian author- must follow the directions which the command- ers of the army of occupation consider requisite in the interest of the security of the occupied territory. occupation administration. and distribution of their troops. be at the disposal of the authorities and population. over those belonging to the army of occupation. railways. As a general rule the Rumanian courts will resume jurisdiction The in the occupied territories to their full extent. as well as the security. For the present. maintenance. but immediately after the signature of the treaty the Ru- manian Government has the power to supplement the as corps of officials by such appointments or dismissals may seem good to it.
ritories the evacuation these undertakings shall remain under the military administration. Austria-Hungary. fodder. Money spent by the Allied powers in the occupied ter- on public works. and Turkey. Bulgaria. beans. as well as with regard to the withdrawal of Rumania. and oil products. shall be made good on their transfer. and. requisition is The army of occupation's right to restricted to corn. and meat from the products of 1918. wool.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE to the occupied territories in proportion as the Rumanian Government provides for their security and maintenance. including industrial underUntil takings. Rumania shall conclude a new Danube navigation act with Germany. peas. From army the ratification of the treaty onwards the of occupation shall be maintained at the expense separate agreement will be made with regard to the details of the transfer of the civil administration. always observing proper regard for an orderly plan of procuring these commodities. further. regulating the legal . CLAUSE VI Regulations Regarding Navigation on the Danube Article XXIV. cattle. as well as satisfying the home needs of Rumania. A of the regulation of the occupation administration. to timber. oil.
The conditions referred to provide among other things that the commission shall henceforth only comprise representatives of states situated on the Danube or the European coasts of the Black Sea. The commission's authority extends from Braila downwards to the whole of the arms and mouth of the Danube and adjoining parts of the Black Sea. under conditions subsequently set forth. inclusive of this port. and on conditions that the prescriptions under Section B shall apply equally for all parties to the Danube act. including the harbors. The sections follow (A) Under the name Danube Mouth Commission the European Danube Commis: sion shall. be maintained as a permanent institution empowered with the privileges and obligations hitherto appertaining to it for the river from Braila downwards. (B) Rumania guarantees to the ships of the other contracting parties free navigation on the Rumanian Danube. with due regard for the prescriptions subsequently set forth under Sections A to D.RUMANIA AND PEACE position on the Danube from the point where it be- comes navigable. Negotiations regarding the new Danube navigation act shall begin at Munich as soon as possible after the ratification of the treaty. Rumania shall levy no toll on ships or rafts of the contracting 155 .
156 .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE parties and their cargoes merely for the navigation of the river. Neither shall Rumania in the future levy on the river any tolls save those permitted by the new Danube Navigation Act.
and Mr. C. come the telegrams fol- FROM lowing notices of the ex- changed between Mr. Arion. Marghiloman. and in of the Rumanian people I have proclaimed the union in the midst of indescribable enthusiasm. C. 1918. at seven o'clock. minister of foreign affairs. Marghiloman telegraphed from Kisineu (a large city in Bessarabia) : After two days of deliberation the Diet of Bessarabia has voted solemnly the reunion of Bessarabia to Rumania on the ninth of April. by eighty-six voices against ten. Mr. in the evening. Switzerland. Prime Minister of Rumania.CHAPTER X THE UNION OF BESSARABIA AND RUMANIA Basle. the name I have taken cognizance of this vote. At eight o'clock in the evening divine service took 157 .
all my I congratulate you with The wounds heart for this brilliant success. Rumania it until when Russia occupied without any other claim than that of force.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE place in the cathedral. Mr. happy. AEION. Long live Bessarabia! Long live Rufers mania It ! C. Marghilo- man and for at the same time a great consolation Rumania. After the fall of 158 . This province was a part of 1812. I am A. MARGHILOMAN. three parts of the population is Rumanian. is incontestable that the union of Bes- sarabia with Rumania constitutes a claim to glory for the Government of Mr. Arion replied: Right has conquered. C. Everybody rejoiced. The important act which ratifies this union con- new strength for Rumania. of the country shall find some amelioration. who has become greater.
and which commences this declaration: people's republic. as well as of the right of self-determination of peoples. Bessarabia was proclaimed an independent republic under the name of The Republic of Moldavia. which more than a hundred years ago had been torn away from old Molis now permanently uniting with the Rumanian fatherland on the basis of historical and national rights. frontiers. the Danube." 159 . Pruth. On the occasion of her union to Rumania the National Council of Bessarabia adopted a resolution which contains the conditions under this which with union is made. lying between the the Dniester.BESSARABIA AND RUMANIA the czarist regime. 1 i The "New York Tribune. The Moldavian and the old Austrian davia. and the Black Sea.
Marghilo- man. and published in several in July. 1917. presided over by Mr. Our hospitals are 160 . hope has been destroyed. to conclude peace. cities in newspapers of various the United States: Death. has broken down my coun- and invasion. famine and sicktry ness. Lands have been taken away from us. in : all its forms. flames.CHAPTER XI THE CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE TO peal enable the reader to understand the causes that determined the Rumanian Government. That which yet remains of our country is overrun by the sword. we reproduce the ap- made by the Queen of Rumania to the American people. and cities and villages devastated. the terrible inpouring of those who saved themselves from the brutalities of the enemy.
Do not leave my hands empty. is too For a long time I have had good and faithful friends among the Americans. fore the tears of a nation in torment. call to me in their incredible misery! And again: QUEEN MARIE CABLES PRESSING NEEDS OF THE RUMANIANS Jassy. our food Step by step.) Having heard of the generous suggestion in the Chicago "Daily News" that an appeal be made on 161 . sure that they will help my people by sending me what I am unable to procure. and medicinal so that I may not remain powerless besupplies. Must I insist more? is desperate.CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE In vain do we struginsufficient. (Delayed. Rumania grief-stricken. I await help from the great and generous hearts of America. gle against overfilled. I feel. soldiers and wounded. we struggle for the blessed land of our native country great. But we have not yet no lost courage. Rumania. food. July 26. the storm which already crushes us. no suffering want of food faces us. therefore. sacrifice is But the terrible too hard. Many words are useless. when mothers and children. clothing. .
wife of the American Minhas received a long letter from the Queen of ister. and stuffs and rubber implements of all sorts. many thanks. trousers. behalf of my We are greatly in need of shirts. 1917: DOLEFUL CONDITIONS IN JASSY Queen herself working day and night to suffering. shoes. through the Embassy of Petrograd. boots. Once more. From Chicago "Daily NQWS. even now. ethyl. syringes. Rumania. thermometers. cordially thanking her for the bandages she made for the wounded Rumanians.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE hospitals. Basset Digby: Mrs. india- rubber sheeting. draining-tubes. ether. with numerous platina iridium needles. strengthening food and conserves of all sorts. The Queen says that. there is great need of volunteer 162 . stockings." July 27. Ira Nelson Morris. The safest way of sending parcels would be to my address. alleviate On July 16 the "Daily News" published the following cable despatch from its correspond- ent in Stockholm. chlorure. sheets. I wish to express to it and to all workers in this cause my heartfelt thanks. as well as chloroform. flannel.
but the Queen's letter. corroborates the news from numerous sources that the health situation in northern bad. save numerous lives. Pending the call for bedding and garments for American troops in France. I am not at liberty to quote the exact text. Rumania will intelligent censorship desirability of obtaining wide publicity of this fact. will be lavished on the donors by the sufblessings ferers. which is in her own handwriting.CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE The need is so dire that help for the sick troops. I have recently found numerous letters in the Rus- sian press describing the health situation in Jassy as appalling almost as bad as at Nish in the spring of 1915. the urgent crisis at Jassy demands prompt and generous aid. as hushing it up would simply be dealing a cruel blow An extremely recognize the is to our suffering Allies. If every American woman now making bandages and garments for the Red Cross would put aside one day's output next week for pest-ridden Jassy. depriving them of aid from abroad. 163 . where Queen Marie herself is working from early in the morning till late at night as hard as any other hospital nurse. compelling the constant destruction of bedding and hospital garments. Contagious disease is rampant. it would greatly improve the situation.
been able to appreciate the suffering of can only explain this by laying the blame on the former Rumanian Government. a com- . Following these touching appeals. apparently. and MonteRumania. 164 In New York. weak results. and nobility of heart. Official entrance into war. of the United who have generosity. without the support of the could only obtain Rumanian Government.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE and earn the deep gratitude of the Queen and of the nation. have tried to do some- thing in this direction. Serbian. at 43 Cedar Street. and who have given hundreds of millions of dollars to relieve the suffering of the French. but their work. We which did not place before the American public the Rumanian cause before and after her propaganda for Rumania has not reached the United States. Belgian.00. Chicago subscribed $35. Rumanians. The people wealth. negrin population have not. In other cities the results were almost States nil. Individuals.
Queen Marie in peasant costume .
CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE mittee was formed. now. We shown to the are profoundly grateful to all these charitable people for the interest they have in relieving the suffering of the Ruma- nian population. This comre- up to month of April. 1918. Wells was a member of the under the direction of Lieu165 special mission. T. as honorary secretaries. under the patronage of Queen Marie of Rumania. McVickar and Madame Constantin Orghidan. Mr. 1917. We also feel very grateful American Red Cross. . aided by the delightful Mrs. Breck Trow- bridge and Mr. H. during the ceived. in March. published an article by Mr. Gideon Wells. Mr. a professor at the University of Chicago. our very sympathetic Consul. Tileston Wells. mittee. some $10. the Rumanian Relief of America. which sent a commission to Jassy with doctors and medicinal supplies. and under the direction of two distinguished Americans.000. The "Rumanian Review" of Chicago.
all were working unceasingly and together for the salvation of their country. whether Hun. if anything. Mr. cold. and of many needed materials there were none. Wells's article tenant-Colonel said. From the royal lead- ers to the peasants. Anderson. and privalife. or epidemic and famine. grew as capital we saw the good zeal rest of Moldavia. Everywhere there was and an evident spirit of industry. and for that alone. yet reorganization was going forward despite these 166 . discipline. followed by one of the most serious epidemics of modtion of almost all the necessities of ern times. sent into Rumania by the Red Cross to relieve the suffering of the population. Everywhere there was a lack of every material supply. expected and overwhelming military disaster. in part: One of the most striking impressions we all had on reaching Jassy was the sense of order and highspirited endeavor that prevailed in the provisional an impression which.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Henry W. augmented by famine. The spirit of unselfish devotion shown by all was most impressive. There was sufficient of nothing. and loyal purpose that refused to yield to disaster or to submit to any invader. the Rumanian still people were unconquered. After suffering unSlav.
If there were no nails to be had. and there seemed to be no difficulty that could not be overcome in some way. clay and mud were made to serve. . we found many of the refugees and the families evacuated from behind the line suffering 167 . a dearth of rubber goods of all kinds. Even in September and October. barracks were built without nails. for there had been practically no new supplies to be obtained in Moldavia or to bring from outside. . clothes as The people had such had survived since the beginning of the war. enough corn until April. Likewise the food for the population was at a minimum there was enough wheat to last only until January. supplies for the day's work. meat enough only to provide a luxury to be enjoyed but once a week.CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE handicaps. and other food supplies only occasional and not to be relied upon. or had been brought or worn in fleeing from Wallachia. were correspondingly surgical supplies with barely enough dressings and ordinary meager. The and no reserves to meet serious emergencies or an unexpected rush of freshly wounded soldiers. . the months of harvest and plenty. If there was no wood. The ingenuity of the peasants in using the materials that came to their hands was everywhere manifested. a severe shortage of chemicals.
always idle except in foraging. circumstances did not permit one to take other measures to aid Rumania. . always a reminder to the Ruma- own unmerited misfortunes. . 168 . always hungry. 1 The brave struggle Rumania has made to stand on her own feet since her disaster arouses the admiration i Unfortunately.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Diseases due to deseverely from their privations. but always an example of the results of disorder." and dysentery were especially abundant. and even the army could not be supplied with proper And everywhere were scattered clouds of footgear. especially to deficiencies in qualthose unfority. and there together was no prospect of remedying this deficiency with The full warm Shoes were almost unobtainable. ficiencies in the diet. rather than by what America will try to do. Pellagra. . clothing. "war dropsy. disorganizanians of their tion. were extremely prevalent among tunate people. violate no confidence in saying that we found both the American Red Cross and the American willing and anxious to do all that they can to help their sorely afflicted Ally and possibly the measure of what they do for Rumania will be de- Government termined by what the conditions in Russia permit. and lack of national We unity. supply in most places was known to be alinadequate for the coming winter. Russian soldiers.
Having read the appeal of the Queen and it is the recollections of Professor Wells. without the possibility of any communication with the Allies. and want of hospital supher situation must have been in much worse parleys were interval in February. the popula- tion of plies Rumania was clothing.CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE of all who know of it. the population of Rumania was con- Surrounded demned to die of hunger. H. warm In the cities the population had families become so dense that many were forced to sleep in the streets. in garrets. 1918. easy to understand that if in July. and makes them zealous to help her because of her own zeal to help herself. when peace place. in cellars. GIDEON WELLS. commenced amelioration entirely especially as in the no had taken by enemies. The surplus of refugee population from the parts occupied by the enemy increased the number of those who themselves had neither food nor clothing nor the wherewithal to themselves. 1917. or in 169 .
Famine had villages the situation arrived there.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE the hallways of houses almost too overcrowded.000 persons of those who 000 inhabited cities perished. defend the honor of became infected and died for the want of medical and surgical help. Children perished. were seen throwing themselves into rivers or wells to put an end to their mental and physical torture. murder. made desperate by their inability to feed their starving children. who fought their country. and fuel increased this danger. soldiers more than 150. medical supplies. In the if was even worse. In the winter of 1917 and 1918 the losses were equally severe. such a thing were possible. to complete the chain of suffering which a people had all this pillage. and the want of food. Mothers. Epidemics made numerous victims. In less than three months of the winter of 1916. 300. to and many wounded.- died of diseases. the violation of women by drunken Russian soldiers. Add to 170 .
I thank you and the other Rumanian delegates for the difficult and devoted labor which you have accomplished for the defense of our rights in these grievous hours. No century of civilother country has suffered so this vitally as Rumania. no other country has suffered to the degree that she has as a result of the indifference and even the criticism of former friends. King Ferdinand. 171 . at the opening of Parliament in Jassy.CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE been forced to undergo in ization. at the same time. the King replied: In taking cognizance of the treaty of peace at Bukharest. declared that the prolongation of the war had sapped Rumania's strength to the point of exhaustion and that a forced peace was necessary for her existence. No other country has seen her sons disappear in such great numbers and with such frightful rapidity as Rumania. And. To the telegram in which Prime Minister Marghiloman announced to the King that peace was concluded.
Rumania has been Hungarian forced to lay down her arms. 1918. and also by the treason of the revolutionary Government represented by Lenine. She has done this The German dagger at her ra . Trotzky. Following are some of the newspaper comments on Rumania's action: Rumanian has just signed a peace of disaster. ("L'Evenement. the Austrosword at her heart. she had no other option than to submit to the will of her conquerors. represented by the Emperor and Empress and Rasputin. She could not hope for any other. throat. Under the conditions where the treason of the Czarist Government. May 10. It is plain that the causes that determined to conclude peace were famine Rumania and absolute helplessness.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE As the King and as a in the future of my Rumanian. and I thank you for the assurance of confidence which you have in the prosperity and the strength of the country under my direction and that of the dynasty. had led her. and Krilenko. I put all my hope brave and valiant country and people. Without this peace the very existence of the country was at stake." Paris.
because.) so grievous (this peace). the Germans in front. Isolated. that her honneur sauf is resplendent in the somber disaster. she saw herself encircled sylvania. 1918. being able to accept no help Allies. on seeing this Rumania so abominably mutilated. she has been played and betrayed by her." May. which astonished the world by the prodigies that she was able to accomplish against 173 . She is the great victim of Russia. she has not been upheld in by perils." It is Paris. the Bolsheviki and the Russians Austro-Hunwho had become from her hostile. abandoned. resolute and confident. Thrust into Tran- Dobrodgea. dismembered. and bound her wounds. 1918. she was about to when.) treaty. having take up again the struggle. so much nobility. she threw into battle. a nificent when mag- army. signed under the of necessities. poor Rumania was forced to lay down feet of her conquerors. The German-Rumanian ("New York Herald. May 14. 14. is the greatest diplomatic pressure absurdity of which Germany has been guilty. one recalls the period. the garians behind.CAUSES THAT DETERMINED PEACE with so much dignity. yet so near. humiliated. the broken pieces of her valiant sword at the ("Le Petit Nicois.
without the Russian treason. or of one man. ("Le Gaulois. It did not content itself. It was not a treason of a day. whose solemnly promised concourse was indis. .) 174 . to lay down to refuse to her arms while she had yet the means to defend herself had she not been knifed in the back. May 10. alas. by making a pact with the enemy. in fact. pensable. the most odious.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE We an enemy ten times superior in numbers. 1918. . had counted. it was a slow and progressive defection of an entire country. it obliged her. I believe." Paris. Of all the crimes of which Bolshevism will bear the heavy responsibility in history. Rumania the help that the Government of the Czar had engaged itself to send. this one is.
" II order to reorgan- disorganizes.PART "War ize. but it is in Emerson. .
the Danube.CHAPTER XII RUMANIA AFTER THE WAR Rumanian THE mania people. more so as the treaty of Bukharest represents every chance of being Let us hope that. will decide that Rumania must be reconsti- tuted within her natural limits between the Tisza. RuShe the will recover will not perish. and the Dniester. at the conclusion of a general peace. driven into an abyss by the want of forethought of her statesmen. Europe and America. have shown so resistance that. all from her deep wounds modified. much energy and whatever may happen. in order 177 . convinced that the application of the principle of nationalities is the sole basis for a durable peace.
mistress of two slopes of the Carpathians.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE to form in the southeast of Europe a kingdom causing thus to disappear forever the fatal troubles of people subjected by force. and of timents of courage and dignity. laying thus the solid basis of prosperity and the influence of the real Rumania as a sovereign State. The great countries that are called to-day to set the humanity must aid complete economic and for new basis of Rumania to obtain life her political independence. in order that a country may have a free and progressive that it political life. it is necessary life: should have also a free economic because the political life is closely bound to the economic life. We dream of a great Rumania. Until to-day. only Germany has known Ru178 mania and pursued a policy of economic pene- . but free by their senof progress civilization. But. uniting together all her scattered sons to make them work in all directions of human activity with the cour- age and ardor of free men.
lignite. the waterfalls. manufacturers. indispensable elements. business men. a political life separated from her economic life. because Germany. the marvelous culture. Financiers. in this possibilities of agri- and the vitality of her people. The neglect of the statesmen to take account of this situation contributed very largely to the disaster of Ru- mania. But war Rumania has drawn to herself the attention of the whole world because of her sacrifices and the bravery of her peasants.RUMANIA AFTER THE WAR tration. forests. the sole supplier. and those Rumania dependent upon who wished to give to Ru- mania. have seen the country deprived of so many industrial. in this war. the picturesque beauty of her mountains. and statesmen of other countries have not hitherto attempted to understand the wealth of Rumania her petroleum. had cut off the supply. 179 . She completely succeeded by making the economic life of herself. salt. by forcing her to give up her neutrality.
so daring and so clear- their energies toward Rusighted. a large capitalists will found banking houses. Business men will find important outlets for their merchandise. will be better American capitalists. Rumania one of the chief sufferers in this war. they will undertake to establish closer relations with this country. enemy.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Let us hope that henceforth she known and better appreciated. manufacturers will construct factories in Ru- mania. will turn mania. because two-thirds her territory has been the theater of battles and was occupied by the troops. and this will be the manifest itself. devastated everything in an effort to impede the advance of the enemy and to prevent the food supply from what falling into the little enemy's hands. The Rumanian yielding ground step by step in their retreat. be opened. And in- remained was destroyed by the 180 . to recover first field of activity will The from act in Rumanian State must borrow which this collaboration will is her disaster.
etc. Rumania's railways must be multiplied. bridges. and her quarries. mines. not only a question of rebuildthat has been destroyed: Rumania will it is Owing to the lack of road-beds. approximately twenty.four hunIn order to develop her forests. must be improved by dredging 181 . railways. Here also all is to be rebuilt. the system is of railways dred miles. The waterways canals. houses.RUMANIA AFTER THE WAR vader. ing all achieve a great development in her economic life. For agricultural development it will be necessary to increase the amount of arable land by draining and the delta of the swampy grounds Danube. Rumania hopes to be aided struction of her country. must all be reconstructed factories. This roads. everything. be un- derstood. In the parts not occupied the movement of the Rumanian army and the pillaging of the Russian army formed a real zone of operation. in the reconlet it But.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE In the cities and villages. The petroleum industry should be developed. besides. which will bring great returns while rendering as well 182 . buildings must be put up. systems of lighting and of tramways must be organized. In order that Rumania may recover from her disaster. greatly We must not lose sight of the important part that petroleum has played in The petroleum of Rumania has been this war. and above all that she may be able to utilize her wealth. Other indispensable industries of the country must be re-built and created. There can be no doubt that Rumania cannot reconstruct herself alone. this industry is the sole source of energy re- necessary in order that Rumania might commence the activity of her shipping and her manufactures. owing to its quality and the geographical location of the country. especially valuable. Rumanian capital be- ing too small. she will for a long time yet have need of foreign capital.
foreign influence in her economic especially when this eco- nomic influence does not follow the fluence. and. the energies of the country will succeed in eman- cipating Rumania from life. 183 . with time. political in- and all the more will the financial intervention of America be desirable for Ru- mania because the United States has no cal interest to pursue in that country politi- beyond proving that they intervene always for the defense of the liberty of people especially the small ones as well on the political ground as upon the economic.RUMANIA AFTER THE WAR great service to Rumania.
on the south.CHAPTER XIII RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY THE LIMITS THE BOUNDARIES of THE To Kingdom Rumania lies in the southeastern part of Europe. and on the northeast from Russia by the river Prutu. between the Carpathian Mountains on the north and west. Serbia and Bulgaria. separated thence to the Black Sea by a conventional line . and gary. and the Black Sea and the River Dniester on the the north and the west is east. separated by the Danube as far as the city of Turtukai. Although Rumania has a very ancient history. the Danube on the south. Austria-Hun- by the Carpathians. she has remained undeveloped and has 184 .
and even due wholly to the warlike char- acter of her people. 185 . and her religion with courage and THE ORIGIN In the southeastern part of Europe existed until the year 107 A. often making incursions even into the possessions of the Roman Empire itself. conquered them. this lack of Europe until The reason for development is the continual wars that she has had to wage against barbarian invasions and rapacious neighbors to gain possession of her fertile who wished Rulands. D. The Dacians were a warlike and courageous people.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY taken little part in the life of within the last fifty years. the Kingdom of Dacia. and took possession of their lands and made it a Roman province in the year 107. her language. the centuries her liberty. mania's past her existence is filled is with suffering. until the Roman Emperor Trajan declared war on them. who defended throughout sacrifices.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Because of the density of population in the Roman Empire. half of the third century. Out of this amalgamation of the inhabitants of ancient Dacia and the Roman colonists was formed the people known as Rumanians. and pleas- ant climate promised them an easier and richer life. many Roman to establish themselves in this colonists came new province. The Roman province of Dacia lasted hardly more than two hundred years.. Germany made conThe Roman Emperor Aurelian. leaving the province of its fate. rich mountains. tinual attacks for. whose fertile fields. bringing them across the Danube into the mid- dle Moecia. The Latin element in Dacia that is the colonists brought by Trajan found them- selves left alone to resist the invasion of the 186 . Dacia to to say. in the latter upon it. in the years 270 to 275 A. D. seeing that he could no longer defend this province. recalled his armies and his public functionaries.
ous small States. and for many years they were obliged to 187 . Towards the Roman-Dacian population the Rumavari- nians of to-day grouped themselves into States. After an invasion had subsided. and strengthened themselves in natural fortresses in order to resist the enemy. were governed by a prince elected by the people. that being the shortest est route. The Dacians withdrew into the Carpathians. These many invasions lasted from the the end of the thirteenth century third to the fifteenth centuries. they would descend from their mountains into the plains again. WALLACHIA AND MOLDAVIA These two States. the formed the State of Moldavia in 1360. Wallachia and Moldavia.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY Asiatic peoples who overflowed into Europe and easi- through Dacia. The chief of one of these little chief of another State formed in the year 1320 the State of Wallachia.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE great wars against their rapacious the Rusneighbors. and Transylvania. and the Hungarians never ceased in their efforts to conquer Wallachia and Moldavia. when these two little States. succeeded in uniting to his crown Wallachia. realizing that united they could withstand more easily the attacks of their neighbors. The Turks. having one reigning prince. through many memorable battks. Mihai the Brave. the Rumanian princes succeeded in retaining their country. Colonel Cuza. PRINCE CUZA On February a few days 5. Unfortunately. Prince of Moldavia. earlier. for Prince Mihai was killed by the Valon Bast a. But. These troublous times in Moldavia and Walof the lachia continued until the year 1859. sustain sians. the realization of this dream Rumanians was of short duration. In 1600 the Prince of Wallachia. constituted themselves into one single State. elected. was 188 . 1859. the Poles. Moldavia.
selling certain portions paying for them at a fair valuation. the ambitious and intriguing Boi'ars. taking away from of their great landowners lands. and for them to the peasants. and he laid the foundation for a modern Rumania. He also aided in building up the army.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY also elected Prince of Wallachia. and created personal and free peasant property. He introduced new laws con- forming with the times. he detested the noble class. who paid them in annual instalments. He secularized the lands belonging to the Greek monasteries. He openly manifested 189 . at the same time. who never forgot their great protector. Prince Cuza greatly loved the peasants. He organized schools. taking for a model the Napoleonic code. brought order into the administration and finances. Prince Cuza was the author of great reforms. Then was proclaimed the union of the two principalities under the name of RUMANIA. and placed them in the hands of the State.
he for his country." he kissed the peasant on the cheek. made no avoid objection to this move. 190 On July . "because a Bo'iard has slapped my "Go and tell the Boiard that where he face. by popular vote. he shook One day. And February 24. saying: "Well. On 1866. His of the father. reigning prince. On He abdicated. was the head House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. ant. Carol de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was elected the April 8. a conspiracy in the palace put an end to the reign of Prince Cuza." slapped you a prince has embraced you. 1866. Great patriot that he was. how are you?" "I am sad.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE these sentiments. meeting a peas- hands with him. and related to the King of Prussia. PRINCE CAROL. Charles Antoine." responded the peasant. seeking to all difficulties and being partially convinced himself that a foreign-born prince might be of greater value.
Moldavia and Wallachia asked Turkey. From the start he tried to assure the Ru- manian nation a path of evolution that was active. This policy continued after the union of the two principalities. the protection of The Rumanian means of as- princes considered this the only suring the autonomy of their country. wise. 1866. In 1868 he married the Princess Elizabeth of Wied. Prince Carol took the oath to respect the Constitution of the country. tury. to this time Up the Rumania had been under In the suzerainty of Turkey. too fifteenth cen- weak to resist the attacks of their neighbors. THE WAR OF 1877-1878. In 1877 war between Russia and Turkey broke out. paying special attention to the organization of the army. Russia sought to liberate Bulgaria 191 .RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY 30. they were merely obliged to pay a sum of money each year to the Turks. principalities The kept their absolute liberty. and well balanced.
the Turkish fortress Plevna. Smardan. center of their operation. taking crossed the command of his army. 1877. and on she entered the May 17. Grand Duke Nicholas.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE from the Turkish domination. war on the side of Russia. Bulgaria being Russian armat that time a Turkish province. the Com- mander of the Turkish forces. ies passed into Turkey (the Bulgaria of to- day) through Rumania. On May 10. The Rumanian Army met with great Rahova. which was the success at Nicopol. The Turks 192 . and Opanef and on November 28. Danube in order to pass into Turkey. 1877. . driven towards the Danube by a vigorous attack of Osman-Pasha. Great battles were fought. Grivitza. Then the chief of the Russian Army. Prince Carol. 1877. but finally the Russian Army was in grave danger. Rumania proclaimed her independence of Turkey. appealed to Prince Carol to intervene in order to prevent the Christians from being crushed by the Turks. fell.
Sinaia. At this place the King has his summer residence .
Rumania. THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN In the month of July. Russia de- manded that Rumania should be obliged to 1 yield part of Bessarabia. and Turkey. Osman-Pasha. refused to surrender his sword to any other than Prince Carol as an homage of the bravery of the Rumanian Army. To the surprise of victorious Rumania.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY were forced to capitulate before the RussoRumanian forces but the Turkish commander. which the Congress of Paris had returned to Rumania in 1856." In 193 . . Neither the treaty between Rumania and Russia by which was guaranteed the integrity of the Rumanian territory nor the services rendered by Rumania to Russia had the slightest effect. in spite of all i the protestations of the Rumanians. See page 350 entitled "Bessarabia. None of the members of the Congress made any opposition to this injustice. the Congress of Berlin opened to regulate the peace be- tween Russia. 1878.
stopped on his way to pick up the pieces of his son's body and landed on the coast of the Black Sea to bury these pieces. and threw the body into the sea. and the ruins of the Roman village Traianenses Tropacenas. Tomi derives its name from the King Metes. known then under the name of Scythian Minor. re^vw to cut. There is found the famous monument Tropaeum Trajani. and Dobrudtime. The unhappy father. received the name of Tomi. the statue of Ovid. the king of Colchis.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE exchange Rumania obtained Dobrudja. This coast and the small village which was formed later on. The decision of the Congress made a pro- found impression on Rumania. They believe that the name of Dobrudja is derived from the Slavic name "Dobrice. specially at Tomi and Kallatis (Mangalia). fleeing with her lover at sea and being pursued by her father. She. cut her little brother Absyrtus into pieces." which means "stony region. a Turkish province situated between the Dan- ube and the Black Sea. King of Metes. We find today many traces of this domination." Dobrudja is a large part of Rumania situated on the borders 194 . ja i was a Turkish province sparsely peopled Nine centuries be- Dobrudja has been known a long fore Christ the Greeks created commercial relations. a name which is supposed to come from the Greek verb. especially as Bessarabia was Rumanian land 1 inhabited by rich in agricultural Rumanians and productions. and general indignation was manifested against the action of the Russians. The Romans had in their possession Dobrudja. the father of the beautiful Medea.
it was in a lamentable state. and intelligent agricultural and mineral exploitations sprang up. Kustendje became a first-class port. The small and dirty cities became large and beautiful. Railroads traversed the province in all directions. oil tanks. The rest is comprised of Turks. of which Rumanians in ancient Dobrudja represent seventy per cent. etc. without cities. without roads. 1 without communicating It pre- any cultivated sented a single advantage the sea. a pipe-line connecting the oil wells of Rumania with the port of Kustendje was built. Tartars. The Rumanians made great efforts to develop it. an ancient Rumanian province under the rule of the rumanian Prince Mircea in the year 1418. 195 . roads. iThe father of the one who was Prime Minister in 1916. so they transformed Dobrudja into a veritable garden. Later it became a Turkish Province. In New Dobrudja the majority of the population consists of Bulgarians and Turks. have cost vast sums to Rumania. and a bridge. as are all the Turkish provinces. which was a European work of art. Germans. stretched across the Danube. It was rather a wild lands. Schools. In 1913. of the Black Sea and at the mouth of the Danube. as well as depots of grain destined for export. hospitals. linking together Dobrudja and the mother country. on the occasion of the Treaty of Bukharest. Bulgarians. country. The population of Dobrudja was approximately three hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants. When the Congress of Berlin gave this province to the Rumanians.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY by Turks and Tartars. a rectification of the frontier of Rumania and Bulgaria was admitted by giving to Rumania a small portion known by the name of the New Dobrudja. The decision of the Congress of Berlin in- fluenced the political orientation of Rumania.
manifested a profound hatred toward Rusand directed all his policies toward Ber- THE KINGDOM OF RUMANIA In 1881 the proclaimed the representatives of the nations Rumania. which was recognized by the foreign powers and.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE she felt herself estranged forever sia. the capital pre- sented a fairy-like aspect. festooned with flowers. came to Bukharest. from Rusall The Prime Minister Bratiano his life sia. lin. ornamented with flags and triumphal arches. on the tenth of May. This was a great fete-day for all Rumanians. Divine services were held throughout the country. Prince Charles was Kingdom of crowned King of Rumania. 1881. arrayed in brilliant native costumes. chains of variegated-colored under which Prince Charles passed amidst an enthusiastic crowd on his way to receive the royal 196 . thousands of peasants.
RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY
crown, forged from the cannon taken as trophy
from the enemy
war of 1877.
King Charles having no
nephew, Prince Ferdinand, son of
was proclaimed hereditary prince of the throne.
THE WAR OF 1912-1913
of 1912 mobilization
in the Balkans, they did not
yet believe at Bukharest that
events precipitated themselves,
and on the eighth of October, 1912, Montenegro declared war on Turkey, followed shortly
countries, wishing to deliver their
from under the domination of the Turks and
not being able to obtain willingly the amelioration of their conditions, declared war on Turkey
and, by a
empire of the
so rotten that
sultan, being at this
quickly ended by the reduction of the Ottoman Empire into a much smaller territory.
Shortly after the declaration of peace disputes arose among the former allies because
Bulgaria wanted to take everything.
unwilling to share the spoils of war with the On the twenty -ninth of June, 1913, others.
the Bulgarians attacked Serbia,
and a new war
broke out, with Bulgaria on the one side and
the Serbs, the Greeks, and the Montenegrins
of the aggrandize-
of Bulgaria at the expense of the other
Balkan countries disturbed Rumania, in whose interest it was to have equilibrium maintained
the countries in the Balkans.
the same time
internal conflicts in the Balkans
about general trouble.
Under these condiby Rumania imposed itself.
For a long time
she had been telling the Bul-
RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY
garians that she could not accept a Bulgarian hegemony founded upon the crushing of Serbia
A short time after the Bulgarian
Danube and penetrated deeply
towards the capital with such rapidity that the Bulgarians had not even the time to recover
THE PEACE OF BTJKHAREST
Bulgaria capitulated, and the plenipotentiaries
of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and
Bukharest in August, 1913, to conclude
the peace. It was in the power of the allies to crush Bulgaria under the weight of their
Prime Minister of
Greece, and Mr. Pachitch, Serbian prime minThe repister, were in favor of this solution.
Rumania, through the voice of
great man, Titu Majorescu, prime min-
sions of the allies.
modify the pretenRumania was not pursuing
a policy of conquest.
the assent of all
She had intervened with
to bring about calm in
the Balkans and maintain equilibrium.
the diswas her attitude throughout demanded only a rectiShe cussions of peace.
fication of the frontier
side of Bulgaria.
Peace was concluded; they hoped that henceforth calm might be assured for Europe, but
one year afterwards, in August, 1914, the great European War broke out.
THE WAE OF
King Charles, being a determined pacifist, was absolutely against a war between the powEurope; and before the great war broke out he was approached by the Austro-Hungarian minister at Bukharest, Count Czernin,
and sounded on the attitude of Rumania in
case of a
Austrian minister at Bukharest that he could
not count upon Rumania. On the eighteenth of July, 1914, the Austrian minister tele200
RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY
graphed to the Government at Vienna
that, in case
Russia should be
could not, unfortunately, count
l upon any military support from Rumania." In August, 1914, after the beginning of the great European War King Charles convoked
immediately the crown council.
The majority pronounced themselves neutrality; King Charles was convinced of
true interest of
strength and of the weakness
of the Russians, and he felt that
bowed before the
opinion of the majority of the council, that Had he truly wished say, for neutrality.
mania to enter the war on the side of Germany, he had only to name as prime minister, Mr.
Carp, former prime minister, who was a determined partizan of the entry of Rumania into
the side of the Central powers, and
at Vienna in
The Austrian "Red Book," which appeared
Comnene, "Notes sur
1916, according to niania," p. 155.
dissolution of Parliament.
Mr. Carp could obtain the Parliamentary majority, the attitude of Rumania would have
Charles did not wish this; he preferred neutrality.
During the whole
of his reign of forty-eight
years he always maintained his dignity as man and as king. No one could ever boast of any
friendship with the king.
same towards everybody, amiable, deliberate, showing great tact and forethought. His fine
gave him great prestige at home and abroad. During his reign he received at
Bukharest, at Sinaia, his
among whom were
Austria-Hungary, Francis Joseph, and the czars of Russia, Alexander II and Nicholas II.
died in October, 1914, leaving a will that
profoundly impressed the country, because a
great part of his fortune was bequeathed to
and wrote under the name of "Carmen Sylva.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY charities and to institutions important to the country." She loved the people and in the to this great man. In March. war of 1877 and 1878 she consecrated herself to the care of the wounded and the relief of suffering. enlarged As for me. my dear 203 . the Is not great God has my fireside. because she recognized that the role of the delicate woman as a mother was the most and the most noble. 1890. Her great regret was that she had no children. The path of the woman is nowhere more charming than at her fireside in the midst of her children. she uttered these beautiful words : Woman must be silent in the Church! Not even to-day have I changed this opinion and I will always say that the activity of a woman should never de- part from the holy interior of the family. QUEEN ELIZABETH Queen Elizabeth was a worthy companion She was an accomplished musician. having been urged to deliver a speech in the academy.
1915. She often used to dress. a story about if. specially in these extremely try- ing moments through which to pass. The Rumanian people profoundly death of this great regret the man and of his good and gentle queen. snakes and brave men and while speaking. According to these words we can appreciate the character and the soul of Queen Elizabeth. in the costume of the peasant. She worked constantly to encourage the domestic industry of the peasant woman. I will nevertheless try to spin a long and thin thread from which the one who listens to me may be able to weave. She died in October. a great and charmis ing cause here I dren. King Charles and Queen Elizabeth are both buried in the monastery Curtiu of Arjish. specially when she was young. fireside? If I have decided to speak it be- am at home in the midst of my chil- I have to read you a story. I am not holding a distaff in my hand. Rumania has had . with its dear children.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE country. according to wishes that they had expressed.
who is the son of Leopold of is the eldest brother of King over Charles. daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha." p. The queen. relations entre la France et la 205 . They have five children. "Histoire des Roumanie. known for her beauty. He it is "who reigns to-day Rumania and shares his efforts and his suffering with those of the soldiers fighting for national unity." * who are QUEEN MARIE King Ferdinand married the Duchess Marie. iN.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY KING FERDINAND King Ferdinand Hohenzollem. . Jorga. her kindliness. 245. the sixth having been killed during this war by a bomb thrown into Bukharest by an aeroplane of the enemy he was seven years of age. has devoted herself to the relief of the sufferings of her people during this terrible Calvary. and her energy.
The sound of the words is agreeable as they are rich in vowels ble with of to-day. simple. at the same time it is also with no special accent. 206 . The language is the same in the Between the cultivated class and the people there exists a very slight difference in speech. influenced somewhat by Slavic and Greek. kingdom and in all the provinces inhabited by Rumanians and subjected to foreign domination. ever. the Rumanians of Transylvania can be very well understood by those of the kingdom and of Bessarabia. The dialects are not numerous and of very little importance. It represents a mixture of Latin with Dacian. The grammar is easy and the spelling. is Its base. It resembles greatly the Italian comparaFrench and Spanish.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE THE LANGUAGE The Rumanian language forms part of a group of the Latin languages. In other words. how- Latin.
It is tion of a head called metropolite. and the members elected 207 . D. It is is The basis of this religion New tles. the religion is orthodox. He is posed of senators. by a college comdeputies. resident at Bukharest. The ceremonies are decided according to rules established by the twelve synods of Nicsea. Luke. ritual. The orthodox religion forms a part of the orthodox Greek Church.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY THE RELIGION In Rumania the not obligatory. Testament written by the four aposMatthew. Mark. Among the religions of the United States the Episcopal is very close to the orthodox in belief. The Rumanian under the direc- Church is independent. and adornment of the church. which separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1054 A. of the synod. and John.
and their picturesque beauties equal those of Switzerland and the Pyrenees. In summer one can go to many the temperature also is attractive places in the foot-hills of the mountains. THE CUSTOMS the The customs of Rumanian people are very important from an ethnological standIn reality. 208 . these customs owe their point. The seasons are about like those of the eastern part of the United States. The tempera- ture varies from ten degrees Fahrenheit below zero during the winter to one hundred above zero during the summer. As a rule the sky is blue and the months of the spring and of the autumn are very beautiful. . where very agreeable.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE THE CLIMATE The climate of Rumania is Continental. One can make pleasant excursions into the Car- pathian Mountains.
called The people Covrigi. and even Macedonia." . with which they strike the passers-by.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY Rome. that they visit give these special kind of bread children fruits and a SORCOVA morning of the New Year groups of children run about through the During the early streets carrying paper flowers called Sorcova. and they are upheld not only in the Kingdom of Rumania. Russia. but among all the Rumanians who are origin to the old customs of found in the provinces subjected to AustriaHungary. little as well as in the villages. singing seasonal hymns. groups in the and go through the night from house to house. COLINDETZA On Christmas Eve the children of the people organize themselves into cities. wishing them a "Happy New Year.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE PAPARUDA After Easter the young gypsy their dresses with foliage girls cover and go in groups in the different courtyards of the houses. illuminated star made of paper. silver. The people little that they are visiting sprinkle a water upon them and give them pennies. in commemoration of the Star of Bethlehem. VICLEIMUL During the carnival before and after Christmas the men of the people run through the during the evening. dancing and singing and invoking the god of rain. STEAUA Before Christmas groups of children carry into the streets a large. They sing in chorus and are called into the different houses and are given petite monnaie. dressed in fantastic costumes representing Herod and the three streets 210 .
Each member of the family it takes on the egg of the one standing next to him. OUAROSI On king's Easter Day in every family." customary for the king to knock his egg on the one held by the chief prelate of the It is one of them and knocks Church. woman was . They. There that exists among the people the belief when Jesus Christ rose from the dead a Jewish going to her house holding eggs in her apron.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY Wise Men of the East. at the same time wishing him a "Happy Easter. hard-boiled eggs colored red are served at the table. also. on her way she met a man who said to her. from the down to that of the very poorest peas- ant. They are called into the different homes while singing in chorus and acting and relating the birth of Christ. "The Christ is risen. are given petite monnaie." and she replied.
drawing-rooms of the late Rumanian Queen Elizabeth (Carmen Sylva) and also the present Queen Marie have given a great impetus to the industry of home The . European French styles predominat- ing in the cities. The women. and this they also embroider. they embroider flowers in With this material they make skirt embroidering a waist and with bands at the bottom of the skirt. these eggs would turn red.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE "Jesus Christ would rise from the dead. fine texture and on it color and in gold. In the cities they wear dress. this Over they wear a shorter skirt of heavier material. When and red. is The national costume and by the the worn only in the villages peasants. dress very pretThey weave their own linen of extremely tily." at that moment she saw that the eggs were NATIONAL COSTUME The peasants still hold to one special costume. specially. their dress.
from peaks over 8000 feet in the Carpathian Mountains to low foot-hills. The beautiful blouses worked by the Rumanian peasants have been greatly admired by the don. and Berlin. The shepherds of Rumania and of Transylvania wear a caciula (woolen cap) and among the society zeghea (cloak) exactly like those worn by the Dacians and the Romans of old Dacia. women of Lon- The two queens took great pleasure in dressing from time to time in the costume of the peasant in order to develop this taste women. On a stone column erected in Rome by the Emperor Trajan one can see sculptured the shepherds of Dacia in costumes identical with those worn by the shepherds to-day. which finally lose them- . Paris.489 square miles or a surface approximately the size of the State The elevations vary greatly. area of 53.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY weaving among the peasants. THE AREA Rumania has an of Illinois.
508. Numerous and empty small rivers traverse the country into the Black Sea and the Danube River. both of which are included in the boundary of the country. and the land for this purpose.009. the remaining one and one-half cities millions residing in the seventy and small towns of the country. the latter date being that of the latest official census.541 and in 1914 Of figures had increased to 7. specially adapted It has been conceded that is the most productive land in the world to .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE selves in the plains below. AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the principal occupation of is the country. six million persons are number more than in the rural communities.717. In 1860 the inhabitants these this numbered 3. POPULATION The population in Rumania was a little more than doubled during the period of years between 1860 and 1914.
although still partial to his oldtime plow and oxen. After the war and A there will undoubtedly be a very great for demand kinds. The Rumanian peasant an excellent farmer and. there were 15. .RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY be found in Rumania. it has been plowed very deeply. and southern Russia. The soil is black and rich.000. On account due to the presis ence of the clay. and they yielded a harvest of $269. CULTIVATED ACREAGE Previous to the war. southern Hungary. he makes use of many modern ers agricultural machines. mixed with clay and very deep. American-made machinery of all specially of auto-tractor plows.000.000. Rumania held the tinction of ranking third dis- among European In 1911 countries in the export of cereals. specially reapbinders.000 acres under cultivation in that country. of the compactness of the soil. majority of these machines are of American make.
of little more than 5.000.387 bushels. netting a total of 20.715 acres. Holland.636. CORN Equally important is the annual maize crop. with a cultivated acreage in 1912 of 1. and Italy. Barley is next in the list . France. one of the most important of the In the year 1912 there were approxiis mately 5. WHEAT Wheat crops. producing an average of from 14* to 16 bushels per acre.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE The majority to of cereals exported went Belgium.000 acres planted in wheat.000.234. which yielded in the same year an average of 17.000 BARLEY of staples.25 bushels per acre from a cultivated area acres. Huge granaries were constructed at Brai'la and Kustendje to store these grains for export.
cabbages.419 and produce annually an average of 22. VINEYAEDS The vineyards occupy an area acres of 241.000 gallons of wine. potatoes. hemp. the acreage tilled being about 400. peas. onions.000.008 oats crop for the acres cultivated.000. lentils. etc.832 bushels from a total of 943.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY OATS same year amounted to 20. millet.132. OTHEE CEOPS Numerous other crops are produced in being buck- smaller amounts. among them wheat. sugar-beets.000 acres and yielding anfor breweries nually in the neighborhood of 11 bushels per acre. . The EYE Rye is cultivated to a considerable extent and for export.000. valued at $9. flax.
FORESTS Rumania possesses 7. elm.000.000 of which belong to the Government and the remainder to private persons.000. peaches. prunes. apples. is Excellent timber for construction work ex- ported in large quantities into various parts of Western Europe. 3. beach. willow. fir. and English walnuts. DOMESTIC ANIMALS Before the war Rumania possessed an adequate supply of domestic animals for all pur218 . Fully 50. maple. pears.000 acres of large and very old forests. larch.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE FBUITS Other specially fruits are also extensively cultivated.000. as are also resinous woods and those suitable for furniture. cherries. walnut.000 trees bearing these fruits are to be found. in addition to which are smaller fruits of various kinds and delicious flavors. pine. The trees include oak.
donkeys. 4. of which 79.000- 000 pigs.000 horses. the export of in the past. poultry. In 1916 there were in the country besides ani- nearly 2.000. 8.000.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY poses.000 sheep. 25. and other small mals. Chambers of in eleven of commerce were organized 219 in 1886 the larger cities of the country. is the fresh caviar of Rumania greatly appre- ciated in Europe. in beautiful lakes. . meat was not highly developed FISH Rumania abounds fish.000 of other nationalities.000 Jewish. COMMERCE There were in Rumania before the war ap- proximately 120. On account of difficulties of customs. and 16. bulls.000 were Rumanian.000 business firms. 2.000 cows and goats.000. which are plentifully supplied with many varieties of and the exporting of fish is one of the imSpecially portant industries of the country.
527 lei. which in 1913 represented the value of 34.136 217. barley.226 and maize 115.020 341. and millet. Then follow oats. The countries that import from Rumania are: Belgium Austria Italy the most cereals 1.170 162.- lei.074. among which wheat represents a value of 208.020 " " " " " .115 lei.335 tona 516.764.412.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE EXPORTS The exports of Rumania cially of cereals are composed spe- and their products.152.895 Holland France England Germany 220 128.044. To the export of wheat we must add flour.- The 269 cereals mount up lei to a value of 448.055 148. rye. to a total value of 670. In 1913 Rumania exported 705.335 lei.
. the money derived from the sale of petroleum goes entirely to foreign- owned companies.. flowers. wool.. tona. live stock. animals used for food.. fruit. grains. skins.732 " 664 377. .RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY To the exports we must add vegetables. Mineral Paraffine oils . and Germany. In 1913 the export of refined petroleum Benzin amounted to 428. wood. trees.. Benzin is exported specially to France and Germany. etc. On the other hand..098 . but we must also note that the money that is derived from the sale of the cereals reverts to the Rumanian producers. 841. .688 " By-products Refined petroleum Italy. Recently the production of petroleum has greatly increased. is exported to England.._.726 tona " 7. Petroleum comes next to cereals as export merchandise. Egypt.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE IMPORTS Rumania imported the value in 1913 merchandise to lei of 590. As a total.626. metals.180 Explosives Vehicles 18.168 14. and manufactured goods of this class lei 14.589 Silk and goods We will not enumerate all the other articles in which Germany occupies the second rank.056. bristles. leads in the importation into Ru- followed by Austria-Hungary.640 ($1. the other countries are far behind.635 Machinery Woolens. Rumania imto the value Germany lei.109).489.215.217. manufactured and other mineral products of 89. ports from metals. in 1913 Germany imported mer222 .026.012.392 4.608 35.341.489 " " " " Skins and silk manufactured skins articles from 10.643. Germany mania.
With France the commercial relations are . and Italy.. acid. linen.- 819. The necessary equipment of armament for the army is bought in very small part from Austria. France.192. lains. of the German She sends specially raw taric celluloid. mineral waters. agricultural Fine materials are imported into Rumania by Germany amounting Austria twenty-six per to forty-six per cent. England seven- teen per cent. tar- implements.. France and Italy nine per cent. shoes. and tanned skins.. as the greatest part comes from Germany. After Germany came Austria. carbonic acid. woolen goods.076 lei in 1913. oak lumber. porceglassware. white celluloid. but she holds her own with diffi- culty in the Rumanian market on account competition. dyes. cent.146 lei. horseshoe nails.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY chandise into Rumania to the value of 237. which imported merchandise to the total of 138.
The following table represents the imports and exports of the two countries during the years 19091916. according to the Rumanian statistics.000 lei. and to the amount of 16.135.200. Year Import 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 $ .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE very the slight.788 lei.000. according to statistics. With the United States the following com: mercial relations existed The trade Rumania. extended over a period of more than forty years. relations between the United States and while small.000 according to French statistics. have. and she bought from Rumania to the amount of about 50. In 1913 she sold to Rumania to amount of 34.
a large amount of American goods were bought each year in other countries. toys.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY Year 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 Import 647. The imports from the United States consisted mostly of agricultural machines and implements. on account of the lack of Rumanian diplomatic and commercial representation in the United States. leather.819 2. the lack of direct shipping between 225 . The development of trade relations between the United States and Rumania has been slow.079 These figures represent merely the direct trade between the United States and Rumania.377 489. beans. specially in Germany.597 906..364 964.001 112.417. the insufficient advertising of the United States in Rufacilities mania.306. in addition.481 2. but.591 91.045 Export 9.340 470. walnut lumber. etc. copper ore. cheese. petroleum. cotton-seed oil etc. by the Rumanian merchants. furs. laces. grass seed. also metals.620 97.398 36.773 348. tobacco.437 20.881 391. while the exports into the United States were fish. and leather goods.181 273.
and Holland. Italy. Belgium.000 tons of domestic and foreign vessels enter and clear from Ru- manian ports annually. "Rumanian Review. Andrenescu.000. isting was due to private initiative without official and this is a proof that many American goods are highly prized in Rumania and a better market might be secured if the work were better orinterference. 1918. France. and the difficulty of language and The small amount of trade already exof banking. February I. 1 ganized. Rumania 1906 adopted a protectmaintaining at the same time special in protective commercial arrangements with England. iDr.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE the two countries. 7. TARIFF To protect and to encourage her own manu- factures. SHIPPING Rumania's shipping effectives consist of nearly 800 merchant vessels of different sizes. CM . D. and an average of 9. ive tariff." of Chicago.
Merchandise passing through these three customs houses annually amounts to nearly 94. and Galatz.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY CUSTOMS The located three customs houses of at Rumania are Bukharest. INDUSTRIES Industry is yet very young in Rumania. Braila. Slanik and Doftana. Targu-Ocna. Considerable amounts of salt are exported yearly.000 tons.000 tons. for the encouragement of national industry. salt deposits in Ru- The principal ones are located at Ocnele-man. 1887. The annual output of salt is estimated to be 125. Among these industries we must count in the very first . It hardly commenced in 1886 when under the protection of an autonomous tariff a law was passed on the 21st of April. SALT There are several large mania.000.
155 lei. and the manufacture of woolen goods. soap. the canning of fruits and vegetables. We must take into account that in almost all of these industries foreign capital. etc.000 lei " . German capital.000 60. The total production represents a value of 550. wood. It supplies specially the interior necessities of the country. sul- phuric acid. the flour industry. particularly share. 160.000 lei.000. takes a large Naturally a great part of the benefits derived from these capitals reverts to Germany. After these above-mentioned industries comes the manufacture of linen goods. dyes.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE rank. The following German Holland is a Irst of the distribution of capital according to nationality. cement. Here we have given a very slight resume of our principal industries. meats. glasswares.000. paper.044. sugar. the product of thirteen factories.000. metals. vegetable oils. with the exception of petroleum. of which is exported to the value of 34.
RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY French English Italian 45. and possesses is very rich their quality extraordinary. When the wells have been driven tremendous eruptions have taken place.000 " " Rumanian PETROLEUM Rumania wells.000 6.000. to refine it in numer- ous distilleries that have been built near the petroleum centers. Much foreign capital has come into Rumania to extract the petroleum. petroleum These are only partly exploited. .000.000 " " " " Belgian 10.000.000.000 115.000. Afterward it is sold either for interior consumption or for exportation.000. Some of these wells have produced such a quality and quantity of petroleum that they have been worth five to six millions of dollars.000 25.000.000 Austria-Hungarian American 25.000 10. throwing up the petroleum to a great height.
267 barrels of benzine. third. primary schools.380. etc.285. also 2. 201.- 763 barrels of kerosene.630.700 barrels of petroleum valued at $1. intermediate schools.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE The annual production of petroleum is about 2. professional or advanced col230 .286.000.268 1.- (or 8.000.320 barrels of mineral oil.000 and 891.000 barrels. second.420 barrels of re- fined petroleum valued at nearly $2. where all the children from seven to fourteen years are obliged to follow the courses for four years.000.560 $3. this course is eight years in the college .243. for those who have the means.653. 2.941. barrels of benzine valued at INSTRUCTION AND THE CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE In Rumania there are three grades of instruction: first.000 metric tons or 14.864.386.000. In the same year were exported 1. In 1911 there were manufactured from 570 tons of raw petroleum barrels) : 1.
and other branches of education.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY lege work for which we have two universities. Sentiments like love. The Rumanian peasant has been described by all foreigners visiting Rumania as possessing a lively intelligence. and to share with repast. with four. and a lively imagination. Popular poetry. and the stories are full of wit sacrifice. agriculture. the folk-lore. courage. abnegation. pre- dominate everywhere among the works of these people. subtleness of mind. are always traveler. music. happy to receive in their whether he be Rumanian or who asks for shelter. industry. altruism. one at Bukharest. They homes a foreign. Besides these there are special schools for engineering. and the other at Jassy. and charm. but never thinking of asking or of receiving money for such hospitality as they may be able to give. fine arts. with five faculties. great courage. military training. 231 . exceedingly him the modest happy to have been able to do a good deed.
having the rank of a kingdom. count. speech in public meetings. all citizens are equal before the law and have the same right and the same obligation. baron. domicile. is modeled on the Belgian Constitution. voted and put into effect in 1866. etc. The principal point of the constitution is in- dividual liberty. This right is reserved wholly to title members of the royal family. such as prince. the liberty of thought. Property. . The rules that govern the country are deter- mined by a constitution. No one since 1866 has the right to bear any the of nobility. teed. The Law of Laws.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT Rumania is a constitutional monarchy. and primary instruction both compulsory and free. Military service is obligatory. hereditary. and letters are inviolable. and of the press is guaran- All distinctions of classes have been abolished.
the attorney. and the execu- The that legislative power. belongs to the king and to the people. The people and elect their repre- sentative deputies senators. the one makes the laws. which control each other and counter-balance their influence: the legislative tive.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY The sovereignty of the state is represented by three bodies. of which there are five. to attend to small lawsuits. For small lawsuits there are the Circuit Judges. who travel from village to village. and the examin- ing magistrate. in each department there are courts composed of three judges. power. For the more important cases amounting to more than 3000 lei. Against the decision of the court the case can be carried to a court of appeals. who must discuss also be and make the laws. that is to say. The judiciary power administers the laws. but these laws approved by the king. There is also the supreme . the judiciary.
For crime used.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE court. constitution. The king is aided by a prime minister and by nine other ministers. The government has all the responsibilities in the conduct of the state. His person is never responsible for his one responsible is the minister who signs the acts. is who. because it has also all the rights. the only out his signature. He army. They form the gov- ernment. . controlled by rules fixed by the All administrative functionaries hold their office by the is will of the king. which has general control over all the courts of appeal. and they must be graduates of the law college. in turn. which have no value withacts. which is indicated to the king by the majority of the Parliament. The judges are elected by the king after be- ing recommended by the minister of justice. the jury system of twelve citizens is The executive power belongs to the king. He is also the chief of the inviolable.
The military education of a soldier and of an officer is complete and very strict. the head of each department there is a pre- fect named by the king to represent the Gov- ernment. and 500 cannons. THE ARMY In time of peace there are 150.000 In time of war 400.RUMANIA OF YESTERDAY having the power even to refuse to sign an act demanded by the king. By in- creasing the age limit to 46 years from 700.horses. it is divided into thirty-three departments.000 fighting men can be obtained. a dainty . To At facilitate the administration of the coun- try. There are three military school for officers.- 000 to 800. which It is has half a million inhabitants. 3500 officers. the war college. etc.000 men can be mobilized. THE The capital of CITIES is Rumania 235 Bukharest.000 men in the Rumanian Army. 15. 000 to 450.
libraries. the most important commercial center. Krajova. a port on the Danube. generally from one to stories high. style and taste reigns every- In Bukharest there schools. Ployeschi. the former capital of Moldavia. the only port on the Black Sea in deep water. Very nearly every house has a flower garden in front. as well as the most important commercial center. factories and petroleum distilleries. Braila. Galatz. and in the rear fruitThe public buildings are trees are grown. and the Parisian where. Life is gay and elegant. etc. with pretty houses. Kustendje. . Next comes Jassy. is a university. the center of agriculture and commerce. special is It the principal in- dustrial center of the country. two large and beautiful.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE city. with an important industrial center.
and Bessarabia. Bukowina. that is to say. continuing to the east by Moldavia. a compact mass on The Rumanians form the territory between the river Tiza in Hun- gary to the north of the country of the Maramoureche to the south to the Danube. . . in order to tive that understand better the mo- determined Rumania to enter the war. 237 Bukowina.CHAPTER XIV THE RUMANIAN PROVINCES UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION is to the interest of the reader to know ITthe Rumanian regions under foreign domination. and Bessarabia as far as the Dniester. including Banat.
when the Hungarians came there. they found a coun- try completely vacated. have raised a question they pre: tend that when in A. and the Rumanians came there after them. sus- 238 . abandoned this 270 Emperor Aurelian province he withdrew all the D. No one. 107. and Tiza. not even the Duchy Hun- garians. historians. in order to justify their claims over Transylvania. is situated between the Carpathians the former of Transylvania. so they say. Roman and Dacian population living there all the Roman colonists established in those regions for more than one hundred and fifty years and the autochthon population. D. in the eleventh century.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE TRANSYLVANIA One of the Rumania states. These arguments. in consequence. and transported them into middle Moecia on the other side of the Danube. contests the fact that Transylvania is a part of ancient Dacia occupied by Roman But the Hungarian colonists in A.
when the means of transportation are very much easier. and the rich class. and the Carpathians offered them a country. fairly good protection historian in their own The Hungarian tries Keza says that at the time of the Hungarian invasion these coun- were inhabited by a Rumanian popula239 . and others. but the great portion of the people were obliged to remain at home. and Rumania. De Bertha. This phenomenon was even put into evidence in our day. When the Germans penetrated into Belgium. it is not possible to believe that the whole of the population left the land to which it belonged. France. A. the rich class and those in authority could save themselves. were contested by both Hungarian and Ger- man historians. the functionaries. Serbia. The colonists could not find there any better to bar- conditions.UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION tained by Rossler. being just as much exposed barian invasions. The orders of the Emperor Aurelian could not be obeyed except by the army.
which nian." It is perfectly clear that Transylvania. Wal- Moldavia. a country purely Rumanian. and Transylvania were re240 . was purely Ruma- and that they had to struggle with the of Transylvania. Rumanian Dukes In 1910 the minister of commerce of Budapest published a book entitled "Hungary. The anonymous chronicler of the Hungarian king Bela explains that when the Hungation rians came into Transylvania they found the principality of Gelu." in which it ists is also explained that the Roman colonand who ac- who were established there quired "by the sweat of their brow" lands. houses. After the battle of Mohacs (1526) Transylvania succeeded in becoming independent. and in the year 1599 the principalities of lachia. vineyards.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE made up of shepherds and older colonists. could not have abandoned with their families all that they possessed in country. has been invaded by the order to "search for a new Hungarians.
defeated at Sadowa. Austria. In exchange for this reconciliation they de- manded that Austria cede Transylvania to 241 . The Emperor Francis Joseph even recognized this State by a document dated June 15. being attacked sometimes by the Turks. sometimes by the Hungarians and by the Poles. assassinated by the Austrian Basta. In 1866. was obiged to become reconciled to the Hungarians. because the prince was Mihai the Brave. All the emperors who succeeded Leopold I respected this treaty. This treaty formed the fundamental pact of Transylvania until 1867 and established the autonomy of Transylvania. Transylvania continued to keep her independence.UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION united under the rule of the Wallachian Prince This great Rumanian event lasted but a short time. 1863. the reigning House of Austria. In 1691 the relations be- tween Transylvania and the House of Austria were settled in the Diploma of Leopold I. but. she was obliged to form an alliance with the House of Hapsburg.
By this act Transylvania. proposed to transform the Rumanians into Hun- Hungary. to autonomy. pretending to be the masters. and religion. and the Hungarians. lost all garians. which put an end to the autonomy of Transylvania. forgetting that he did not have the right to cede a country which did not belong to him. THE PERSECUTION OF THE RUMANIANS In order that the Hungarians might carry out their program. annexed to her rights. they sought through force Rumanians forget their nationality. forgetting the incon- testable rights of the Rumanians to Transyl- vania. and when the Rumanians created by their own means thirt}^-five thou- . and signed the treaty of 1867. language. The Hungarians began their persecution by to make the forbidding the teaching of the Rumanian language in the schools. The emperor.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE them. accepted the proposition of the Hungarians.
man or an orator had the audacity to write or speak. on different pretexts. to speak perfect his he was obliged even to change Hungarian and name from a Rumanian to a Hungarian charged if and he was immediately dishe was caught speaking his own one. the Government. The Ru- manians were even obliged. even in a most guarded demanding the equality of rights for the Rumanians.UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION sand elementary schools in which they also taught Hungarian. closed these schools. which happened very rarely. to send their children of three years to special schools from the age where only the Hungarian language was taught. language. under various penalties. Rumanian man- newspaper ner. When a Rumanian wished to occupy a public office. The liberty of the press and of public meetIf a ings was entirely restricted. he was at once arrested and cited before a Hungarian court on the accusation of having made an attempt against the secur- .
The hatred of the Hungarians for the manians was always kept alive by the authorities and by the press.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE ity of the state. In order to better edify the reader. condemned years. to Without exception. the Rumanians had the right to the vote. he was prison for from one to five Despite the electoral law. I will reproduce a few examples of the manner in which the Hungarians edited 244 . Under this system the Hungarian Rumanian population. could send to the Parlia- ment tives. Hungarian authorities terrorized the voters in order to assure the success of the candidate. which represented a quota of four million inhabitants. at Budapest but one or two representaThe elections took the form of a veri- table civil war in which on the one side stood the unarmed Rumanian voter and on the other side the Hungarian policeman armed to the teeth. the vote being verbal. but. and not hesitating to kill the Rumanian Ru- voter for the slightest cause.
The Hungarian newspaper "Koloswar." of the twenty-eighth of February. 1891. guage does not please you. wrote: "Brutal force alone can make an impression on this boorish mass. 1891. published with satisfaction the Caransebes correspondence of following : "The 23rd of June along the streets of Orsova passed at a gallop a carriage in which all 245 . If our lanhere." number 146. the Rumanian. cruel and savage." The Hungarian newspaper "Elenzek. We will sweep thee out Go to the devil. the Rumanians. of We must gain it the authority herself." of August 3. get out of many trees in our forest and a crowd of crows await your bodies. and also give the opinions of several foreign persons of note who were impartial.UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION their papers against the Rumanians. a peo- ple ungrateful and perfidious. is athirst for the blood of the Magyar. for of the country." power to impose upon Rumania The Hungarian newspaper "Szatmar. wrote: "This wild beast. 1887.
the present Prime Minister of France." Georges Clemenceau. which he found to be absolutely legitimate. he had been forced to run behind the carriage for three miles and. the followMadame : Juliette "One knows what is taking place ing words in spite of the promises of emancipation by Kossuth. with a thorough knowledge of the different nationalities of Hungary. after having written the history of the Ruma- nian claims. had fallen and was being dragged in that condition." by the Hun- Adam wrote in the "Nouvelle Revue" of May 15. Kingdom of it For more than 246 forty years . being unable to longer stand on his legs. Behind this car- riage was tied a Rumanian peasant. for the small Slavic nationalities of the St.-Etienne. in spite even of those of Deak. 1894. protested with vigor against "this sovereignty force erected on the principle of public rights in Transylvania garians.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE tyere seated two policemen.
that. wrote in 1894 the following words: "The claims of the Rumanians. The laws Transylvania are a continual threat of trouble. but the Rumanians of Transylvania and of Banat have the intangible spirit of the race and they propose to remain of exception which regulate Latin. whom the followers of the Germanophile Tizsa insist upon Magyarizing.) ." p. Four million Rumanians of the good will under the regime of a government which has live exceptional favors only for those of the Ger- man race. are all the more just and more moderate. on reading them. a former minister of France." ("Voix Latines. and because of this one is astonished." Mr. at the end of the nineteenth century a European people should be so reduced as to be obliged to claim the exercise of rights as essential and incontestable.UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION has been the same for Transylvania. on the soil of Transylvania. co-existing in equal number if not superior to the Hungarians. Flourens. 109.
"The Hapsburg Monarchy. who writes under the nom-de-plume of Scotus Viator. who by their acts against nationalities "have lost their rights to the title of civilized people. SetonWatson. tolerated the tactics of Tisza and of the Hungarian Prime Minister who followed him to Magyarize the Rumanians ." on page 66 and page 429 the following: Francis Joseph. * Here. While attempting vainly to Magyarize a prolific race. R. as in the question of the Slavs of the South." which conthe crown against the "barbarous conduct" of the Hungarians.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE well-known Englishman. published in 1908. at the risk of alienating as important a race as the Rumanians in Transylvania." Mr. Henry Wickham Steed writes in his book. W. the short-sighted Chauvinism of the Hungarians must again be blamed. well gifted and in no way inferior to themselves even from an intellectual point 248 . and he showed himself indifferent to the use of corruption and of pressure as a means of government. Political Persecution in A "The tains a real speech for Hungary.
Boundaries of the 5 Rumanian ...... Hungary ....provinces of Austria State Boundaries .
MAM A I I BLACK iConstanza Baicic 26? .POLITICAL and ETHNOLOGICAL MAP RU AND THE REGIONS INHABITED BY RUMANIANS.
" and were indignant at the measures applied in Transylvania "with a rigor and with unusual meannesses. p. 170." (Vol- ume 12.) BANAT Banat consist of three counties.UNDER FOREIGN DOMINATION of view. Krass6. and Torontal. when it was occupied militarily by the Austrians. Rambaud branded clared Magyarization. in the greater majority. 249 . upon whom the Moldavians called. the Magyars In their "Histoire Generate" Mr. is Rumanian as and Serbian. Turkey. their existence is bad as BUKOWINA Bukowina formed a part of Moldavia until the year 1775. and in Transylvania. In this part the popu- lation. although long persecuted. Temes. with the excuse that it was necessary from a strategic point of view. Lavisse this policy "of de- and Mr.
250 . The the ancient documents of these days show that Kaunitz. to the Empress of Austria.000 florins to assure the moral cooperation of the Turks. There tomb of the Moldavian Prince Stefan the Great. although the province did not belong to them. who protested. the former capital of Moldavia. the minister of Maria Theresa. Ghika. BESSARABIA Bessarabia formed a part of Moldavia until the year 1812.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE not only approved the occupation. there also is found the monastery of Putna where is situated the is monuments. when it was occupied by the Russians through the Peace of Bukharest. In Bukowina are found many old Rumanian found Suceavea. The Russians fought the Turks. had given grand vizier of Turkey 10. but killed the Moldavian Prince Gr. and the latter gave Bessarabia to Russia.
IXX Rumania's territory at different times 251 .1600 1777 1812 1856 1878 1913 XUSTRIAHU B U UG AR.
and the Black Sea. they forced the Russians to return to Moldavia three departments of the southwestern part of Bessarabia. The population retains Rumanian language.000. MACEDONIA In Macedonia there are six hundred thou- sand Rumanians. The soil is fertile its and rich. religion. of which three fourths are Rumanians. It is situated between the rivers Pruth. although the Russians attempted to make them forget both language and their origin. who guard their language.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE By the treaty of Paris in 1856. Dniester.000 persons. and love for their mother country in spite of the persecution of the Turks and the Bulgarians. customs. following the Crimean War. Danube. Bessarabia has a population of about 3. but by the Congress of Berlin of 1878 the Russians took these three departments back again. .
in order to stop the troubles of the . which penetrated Bulgaria as Sophia. All French-Belgian- German in the military critics recognized.CHAPTER XV DIFFERENT ESTIMATES OF THE RUMANIAN ARMY THE to history of the Rumania proves to us that Rumanians who have been called to shown themselves fight against barbarians or against too rapa- cious neighbors have always be true warriors. that the Ru- an army of the first order. when for the first time the attention of the Rumania drew whole world. made up of excellent soldiers and distinguished manian Army is officers. specially Russo-Turco-Rumanian war of 1877- 1878. In 1913 the same critics praised highly the as far same army.
In 1916 the Rumanian troops advanced into Transylvania under good conditions and later. This year of retreat was witnessed by the French Vice. 1917. so swiftly and skilfully that the Bulgarians were paralyzed and obliged to accept the Peace of Bukharest. I met only magnificent their discipline is excellent form. being pushed by the greater forces of the enemy and threatened by the invasions of the Germano-Turco-Bulgarian south. He wrote in the Paris newspapers: In my automobile trips on the roads of Rumania. who was by step. i "Courrier des Etats Unis. in perfect order at this period in Rumania. singing. but yielding armies at the ground only step and with sanguinary battles. one hears no loud voices everywhere there reigns an . At the canteens. perfect." February 6. and in perfect good humor. where thousands of men fill their cups with hot tea poured from large copper caldrons used for this purpose. in covered with marching troops in perfect order. 254 . 1 impressive silence.Admiral Fournier.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Balkans. withdrew. soldiers admirably equipped.
which King Charles had modeled on the French and Ger- man professional schools. or or from the military and Spe- War School of Bukharest. introducing a regime very like that of Germany and if the democratic spirit of Rumania was not willing to allow these mili. but he sober. soldier is The Rumanian not only very couris ageous and vigorous in the attack. cial German. attested by a competent observer. He is able to march for whole 255 . resisting fatigues and the inclemencies of the weather. Italian schools. tary institutions to become an instrument of domination and tyranny. explains itself not only by the warlike tem- perament of the Rumanian soldier. but also by the fact that during more than forty years King Charles was occupied with the organization of the army.THE RUMANIAN ARMY This truth. Belgian. it formed The greater number of the officers came from either special French. it is none the less true that in accord with public liberties the basis of her national force.
RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE days and nights in rain or under the sun. to the attack with Queen Marie. We reproduce the telegram published 20. they bear it with the same courage with which they struggle for their native land. one of the greatest qualities of Their contempt for suffering has never been surpassed. said: my soldiers. They endure the most horrible wounds with perfect equanimity. content with very little to eat. all Tokens of appreciation reach the army from sides. All those who have had the opportunity to view closely this army have felt high admiration for its endurance and its bravery. and always ready to rush spirit and enthusiasm. Pain does not terrorize the brave men of Ru- mania." Nowhere else have strangers been better able to appreciate the valor of the Rumanian Army than in the great battles fought on the line of Sereth. without a murmur. in "The London Times" of September 256 . "Heroism is in an interview with a rep- resentative of the Associated Press.
high commissioner of the proGovernment of the southwest front." continued Mr. Jablanofsky. who sacrificed themselves with heroic grandeur to the common cause. "History. in connection with the declaration made by one of the representatives of democracy on this subject. the high commissioner declared that Crimea and Odessa owed not having fallen under the power of the Germans entirely to the valor and the tenacity of the Rumanian armies. has just returned after passing several days at Odessa where he had been called to regulate several questions on the subject of revictualizing. "will place on the same footing with the immortal conquerors of the soldiers Marne and of Verdun the Rumanian peasant who fought one against five under the crush- ing blows of huge bombs without one hour of rest." "The London Times. visional the Russian Mr. gives these details of the admirable resistance of the Rumanian soldiers: 257 . Being questioned on the events happening at the Rumanian front." relating the defense of the sector of Marasesti. Jablanofsky.THE RUMANIAN ARMY 1917. in order to save from invasion that which yet remains free of the territory of our Rumanian Ally.
the 12th Bavarian Division was almost annihilated. which would place the whole of Moldavia in the power of the Germans. after ejecting strong asphyxiating gases. Rumanian forces. The Rumanians. despite their heavy losses. One Rumanian division resisted for three days the violent attacks of three German divisions. the ber. The losses of the enemy were enormous. attacked August the enemy. The following days the enemy attacked on the whole front of the Marasesti with twelve divisions.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE The of the defense of the sector of the Marasesti to the is north of Focsani the most glorious feat of arms Rumanian Army. resisted heroically. The fourteenth of August the enemy. The 258 . which resisted forces far superior in number and possessing an element of surThe principal objective of the Germans was prise. returned to the assault. very much inferior in numThat attempt also failed. Mackensen chose the eighth of August to attack. which attempted to cross the bridge at any cost. to reach the bridge of Cosmesti and to cross the line of Sereth without difficulty. there remained but 2000 men. on which date the Russians were relieved by the Rumanians. realizing the usemore to the west. The losses of the Rumanians were equally heavy. The twelfth of lessness of its efforts.
thrown into full com- bat. in the presence of the and of Prince Charles. The enemy reached of Panchiu. in a speech made before the French Parliament on the occasion of the reception of the Rumanian mission. resists for promised help of the Rus- many months 259 the Germano- . After the battle the 84th Prussian Division. was obliged to retire. decimated. the Rumanian wire entanglements. counter attack of the last Rumanian reserves threw them back in disorder. Dechanel. without the sians. and prisoners Germans threw down their guns six hundred Austro-Germam filed out in parade before the king. the A and surrendered. president of the French Chamber. two German divisions and one last The Austrian attacked the Rumanians on the northeast The Rumanians.THE RUMANIAN ARMY French Captain Verneuille was killed in the midst of the fight. struggled with a bravking ery beyond all commendation. said: "The Rumanian army. Mr. attempt of the Germans was on the nineteenth of August. This German check was the most serious that the enemy had to undergo on the Oriental front.
struggle. Lacour Gayet. which 1 2 According to "Roumanie" Paris. very enduring.. against more numerous and better armed adversaries she astonishes them . rude peasants.000 fighting men. virtually all of them. 260 . the sustained ten months of heroic Rumanian Army has She had an army of 450. by the vigor and duration of her resistance and she shows herself worthy of her past and of her noble traditions of chivalric bravery. a stirring picture of the valor of the Ru- manians: Since the twenty-seventh of August. "Effort de la Rumanie. 9. relieving thus the other The French General La Croix writes in his book. cit. September 8. 1916. Comnene op. 183. 2 Mr. incomparable with bayonet." p. member of the Institute.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE Austro-Bulgaro-Turkish armies with bravery and heroic fronts. excellent soldiers. They had to defend a front of 1350 kilometers. has outlined in the "Journal" of March 1917. 1917. 20: She [the Rumanian Army] held out for a long time alone by her own means." x tenacity. p.
cannot say enough in praise of the Rumanian Army. it puting Mr. among other things he extols the virtues of the Rumanian Army. Stanley Wascheburn. their disposal. . its soldiers. calls "their obstinacy in iComnene. and on this stretch of ground. she forced the enemy to buy 1 it with the most cruel losses. against at least triple forces well-fed all the time and with a formidable material of heavy artillery at She yielded ground only by disstep by step . In "The London Times" of November 7. without being During nearly she held reinforced. but there the Russians have a million and a half fighting men. Our AngloFrench front. too feeble for so extensive deeds. 1916.THE RUMANIAN ARMY was threatened in every part except on the side of the Russian frontier. p.000 men have we? This Rumanian Army. and what he cit. from the North Sea to the Vosges. op. Do we know what a front of 1350 kilometers means? It is the length of the Western front of Russia. measures only 100 kilometers. 181. has done marvelous four months. who has witnessed the struggle of the Rumanians. a front. how many times 450. relatively small. their endurance..
It is a testimony from an enemy. 187. p. which bears witness that the Rumanian Army has struggled everywhere with courage and impetuosity and that she has been the cause of enormous losses to Germans." This pamphlet is a most precious document for the Rumanians. .RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE resistance and their superb morale even in the most tragic hour. op. 1916. cit. op. The German author writes: iComnene. 181." General von Falkenhayn. 2Comnene. p. "La Guerre Centre la Rumanie.. declared to the correspondent of the York. cit." The German Commander Franz Karl Enders of the German Army has just published a book. interviewed in Berlin on the twenty-eighth of November. "The desperate bravery of which the Rumanians have Associated Press of New given proof in their constantly repeated assaults is recognized by all the German 2 troops.
.. However. and it is only after furious attacks that we have the been able to conquer on the Argesh. to the military attache of to the G. . there were painful hours for the brave German troops.. German Army will keep of the Rumanian War a of fighting filled with difficulties. accustomed to hate with all passion the odious Accustomed to love those who are small and i"La Roumanie. We glorious. 1918. it could not have been avoided unless the Ru- manians had had double forces. 1 Major Tokinoly. a recollecrecollection tion of fights without precedent which have cost us many hard sacrifices. made Rumanian press of Jassy the following declarations: The whole of Japan follows with emotion efforts of and sympathy the superhuman know your sufferings. they have reTheir armies sisted step by step the German drive. As to the taking of Bukharest. 263 ..THE RUMANIAN ARMY The Rumanians are holding fast. As for us. Rumania. of the Japan Rumanian Army. but the conduct of their operations has been forced to yield before ours and before our plans. January 24. but in which she was able to show her power . Q. G." Paris. have fought with bravery. .
Then Franco-English-Italian press. . of men. can there yet be any question in what manner we you giving new birth to your native land ? All of the Nippon press speaks with merited praise of the heroism of the Rumanian Army.RUMANIA'S SACRIFICE tyranny against which you have risen with bravery. of a representative of Rumania at Tokio shows clearly enough the reciprocal intention The nomination of solid friendly relations. as well as the press of the neutrals. have recognized without reserve that the Rumanian soldier is a brave all man who has attracted the attention of all political the military critics. They deplore the distance and the impossibility of giving you all our help. in fact. like the Rumanian people. industrious and honest. of the whole world. see Our newspapers do not hesitate to show your marvelous qualities. the Austrian and German press." Jan. and it would be only to tell you banalities to assure you that all our solicitude is 1 yours. 17. Military critics have de- clared that the bravery of the soldiers cannot i"La Roumanie. 1918. will be happy to form close relations with a We brave people.
and it is just with the bayonet that the self. Rumanian soldier has distinguished him- He fought as in the ages when "the material" had the upper hand in battles . and is fatal to him and to his heroic enthusiasm. THE END 265 . the Rumanian soldier was able to resist and to inflict great losses upon the enemy. and the great cannons. with enor- mous bombs. in a war where the upper hand belongs to human the machines of war.THE RUMANIAN ARMY be better appreciated than in a struggle with the bayonet. Nevertheless. he replied from the trenches with asphyxiating gases.
Negulesco, Gogu Rumania's sacrifice
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