AP® Statistics

2011 Free-Response Questions
Form B

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Tables begin on page 12. Questions begin on page 6. -2- .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Formulas begin on page 3.

yˆi sb = 1 x ˆ Ê yi .y b1 = (  xi .1) + (n2 .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Formulas (I) Descriptive Statistics  xi n x = ( ) sx = 2 1  xi .1)s21 + (n2 .1 Ë sx b1 = r sy sx (  yi .x yi .1)s22 (n1 .y ˆ ˜Á s ˜ ¯Ë y ¯ ( n-2  xi .x )2 )2 -3- .b1 x r = Êx 1 ÂÁ i n .x )2 ) b0 = y .1) yˆ = b0 + b1 x ( )(  xi .x n -1 sp = (n1 .

p) μ pˆ = p p(1 .p) n s pˆ = If x is the mean of a random sample of size n from an infinite population with mean μ and standard deviation s .p)n .k Ë k¯ μ x = np s x = np(1 . then: μx = μ sx = s n -4- . then: Ê nˆ P ( X = k ) = Á ˜ p k (1 .μ x ) 2 pi If X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) (II) Probability P ( A » B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) .P ( A « B ) P ( A B) = P ( A « B) P ( B) E ( X ) = μ x = Â xi pi ( Var( X ) = s 2x = Â xi .

expected )2 expected .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) (III) Inferential Statistics Standardized test statistic: statistic .p) n Statistic Two-Sample Standard Deviation of Statistic Statistic Difference of sample means s12 s 22 + n1 n2 Special case when s1 = s 2 s 1 1 + n1 n2 p1 (1 .p1 ) p2 (1 .parameter standard deviation of statistic Confidence interval: statistic ± (critical value ) ∑ (standard deviation of statistic ) Single-Sample Sample Mean Standard Deviation of Statistic s n Sample Proportion p(1 .p ) Chi-square test statistic = Â -5- 1 1 + n1 n2 (observed .p2 ) + n1 n2 Difference of sample proportions Special case when p1 = p2 p (1 .

and the histogram on the right displays the ratios for the 26 states that are east of the Mississippi River.collegeboard. 1.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) STATISTICS SECTION II Part A Questions 1-5 Spend about 65 minutes on this part of the exam. Indicate clearly the methods you use. explain how you think the mean P-T ratio during the 2001–2002 school year will compare for the two groups (west and east). Then use this procedure to estimate the median of the west group and the median of the east group. © 2011 The College Board. (b) Write a few sentences comparing the distributions of P-T ratios for states in the two groups (west and east) during the 2001–2002 school year. -6- . The histogram on the left displays the ratios for the 24 states that are west of the Mississippi River. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. Records are kept by each state in the United States on the number of pupils enrolled in public schools and the number of teachers employed by public schools for each school year. (c) Using your answers in parts (a) and (b). the ratio of the number of pupils to the number of teachers (P-T ratio) can be calculated for each state. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Percent of Section II score—75 Directions: Show all your work. The histograms below show the P-T ratio for every state during the 2001–2002 school year. (a) Describe how you would use the histograms to estimate the median P-T ratio for each group (west and east) of states. From these records. because you will be scored on the correctness of your methods as well as on the accuracy and completeness of your results and explanations.org.

(b) When the data were analyzed. Each of 27 people who participated in the study received a pill before each of two therapy sessions. Three months after the administration of the pills and the two therapy sessions. and the remaining 10 people received a placebo. Sam is a frequent flier who always purchases coach-class tickets. 3. Based on this result. (a) Was this study an experiment or an observational study? Provide an explanation to support your answer. Explain why such a method of assignment might lead to an incorrect conclusion. Suppose the researchers allowed the therapists to choose which people received D-cycloserine and which received the placebo.org. -7- .10 probability that a coach-class ticket holder who flies frequently will be upgraded to first class on any flight. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. People with acrophobia (fear of heights) sometimes enroll in therapy sessions to help them overcome this fear. A study was conducted to determine whether the drug D-cycloserine. Seventeen of the 27 people were randomly assigned to receive a D-cycloserine pill.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 2. would help people with acrophobia overcome this fear. © 2011 The College Board. An airline claims that there is a 0. This outcome is independent from flight to flight. Typically.collegeboard. seven or eight therapy sessions are needed before improvement is noticed. After the two therapy sessions. would the researchers be justified in concluding that the D-cycloserine pill and two therapy sessions are as beneficial as eight therapy sessions without the pill? Justify your answer. (a) What is the probability that Sam’s first upgrade will occur after the third flight? (b) What is the probability that Sam will be upgraded exactly 2 times in his next 20 flights? (c) Sam will take 104 flights next year. none of the 27 people received additional pills or therapy. the D-cycloserine group showed statistically significantly more improvement than the placebo group did. used in combination with fewer therapy sessions. (c) A newspaper article that summarized the results of this study did not explain how it was determined which people received D-cycloserine and which received the placebo. and no randomization was used. Would you be surprised if Sam receives more than 20 upgrades to first class during the year? Justify your answer. each of the 27 people was evaluated to see if he or she had improved.

more than 20) and perception of the effect of part-time work on academic achievement (positive. (c) Given the results from the chi-square test. (b) Discuss whether the conditions for a chi-square inference procedure are met for these data. 11 to 20. CHI-SQUARE TEST Expected counts are printed below observed counts <11 11–20 >20 Total Positive 21 16.475 105 Negative 18 29. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. Average Time Spent on Part-Time Jobs Perception of the Effect of PartTime Work on Academic Achievement Less Than 11 Hours per Week 11 to 20 Hours per Week More Than 20 Hours per Week Positive Effect 21 9 5 No Effect 58 32 15 Negative Effect 18 23 19 A chi-square test was used to determine if there is an association between the effect of part-time work on academic achievement and the average number of hours per week that students work.100 23 19.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 4.700 60 97 64 39 200 Total Chi-Sq = 13.000 students attending the university. what should the advisory board conclude? (d) Based on your conclusion in part (c). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.007 (a) State the null and alternative hypotheses for this test. The data in the table below summarize the students’ responses by average number of hours worked per week (less than 11. which type of error (Type I or Type II) might the advisory board have made? Describe this error in the context of the question.600 15 20.825 35 No effect 58 50.collegeboard. Computer output that resulted from performing this test is shown below. Each student reported the average number of hours spent working part-time each week and his or her perception of the effect of part-time work on academic achievement. no effect. the advisory board surveyed a simple random sample of 200 of the more than 20.925 32 33. P-Value = 0.200 19 11. -8- .org. A parent advisory board for a certain university was concerned about the effect of part-time jobs on the academic achievement of students attending the university.938. DF = 4. negative). © 2011 The College Board.975 9 11. To obtain some information.200 5 6.

350 vaccine-eligible people indicated that 978 of the 2.collegeboard. During a flu vaccine shortage in the United States.350 people had received flu vaccine. Use your confidence interval to comment on the belief that 45 percent of the vaccine-eligible people had received flu vaccine.02 ? © 2011 The College Board.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 5. (a) Construct a 99 percent confidence interval for the proportion of vaccine-eligible people who had received flu vaccine. it was believed that 45 percent of vaccine-eligible people received flu vaccine. What is the smallest sample size that can be used to guarantee that the margin of error will be less than or equal to 0. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.org. A 99 percent confidence interval for the proportion of people who will have received flu vaccine is to be constructed. (b) Suppose a similar survey will be given to vaccine-eligible people in Canada by Canadian health officials. The results of a survey given to a random sample of 2. -9- .

The figure below shows a cross-sectional view of a grass buffer strip that has been planted along the side of a stream. A study in Nebraska investigated the use of buffer strips of several widths between 5 feet and 15 feet. Indicate clearly the methods you use. These strips are designed to filter out sediment. organic material. in parts per hundred. Each of the eight locations can accommodate a buffer strip between 6 feet and 13 feet in width. yˆ = 33. from runoff water at each location. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.org. A scientist in California wants to know if there is a similar relationship in her area.collegeboard. and chemicals carried in runoff water. Grass buffer strips are grassy areas that are planted between bodies of water and agricultural fields. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. The study results indicated a linear relationship between the width of the grass strip (x). The following model was estimated. Percent of Section II score—25 Directions: Show all your work. © 2011 The College Board. and the amount of nitrogen removed from the runoff water (y). -10- .8 + 3. in parts per hundred. (b) Would you be willing to use this model to predict the amount of nitrogen removed for grass buffer strips with widths between 0 feet and 30 feet? Explain why or why not.6 x (a) Interpret the slope of the regression line in the context of this question. in feet. because you will be scored on the correctness of your methods as well as on the accuracy and completeness of your results and explanations. nutrients. To investigate this. The scientist wants to investigate which combination of widths will provide the best estimate of the slope of the regression line. 6.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) STATISTICS SECTION II Part B Question 6 Spend about 25 minutes on this part of the exam. she will place a grass buffer strip between a field and a nearby stream at each of eight different locations and measure the amount of nitrogen that the grass buffer strip removes.

For the study plan being implemented by the scientist in California. a similar method will be used. the first or the second. Intervals that each have probability 0. Explain your reasoning. show how to construct an interval that has probability 0.6 x . Visit the College Board on the Web: www. would provide a better estimator of the slope of the regression line. a sample mean will be computed for the four observations from buffer strips of width 6 feet and a second sample mean will be computed for the four observations from buffer strips of width 13 feet. the graph on the left below displays intervals that each have probability 0. -11- . yˆ = 33. (d) Using your result from part (c).collegeboard.org. Assume the model. If data are collected for the second study plan. Although this assumption was motivated by prior experience. (e) Use the plots above to determine which study plan.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Suppose the scientist decides to use buffer strips of width 6 feet at each of four locations and buffer strips of width 13 feet at each of the other four locations.95 of containing the sample mean of the observations from four buffer strips with widths of 6 feet. in parts per hundred. are shown in the graph on the right below. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. (f) The previous parts of this question used the assumption of a straight-line relationship between the width of the buffer strip and the amount of nitrogen that is removed. If data are collected for the first study plan. The estimated regression line for those eight observations will pass through the two sample means.95 of containing the sample mean of the four observations for buffer strips of width 6 feet and for buffer strips of width 13 feet. respectively. estimated from the Nebraska study is the true regression line in California and the observations at the different locations are normally distributed with standard deviation of 5 parts per hundred.8 + 3.95 of containing the mean of the four observations for buffer strips of width 8 feet and for buffer strips of width 10 feet. (c) Describe the sampling distribution of the sample mean of the observations on the amount of nitrogen removed by the four buffer strips with widths of 6 feet. it may not be correct. Describe another way of choosing the widths of the buffer strips at eight locations that would enable the researchers to check the assumption of a straightline relationship. STOP END OF EXAM © 2011 The College Board. A second possible study plan would use buffer strips of width 8 feet at four of the eight locations and buffer strips of width 10 feet at the other four locations.

3 – 3.0014 .0039 .0003 .2611 .0073 .4364 .0778 .0035 .3557 .4 – 0.0594 .0721 .0009 .1038 .1814 .0418 .0064 .1 – 2.0104 .8 – 2.0003 .4129 .5000 .0166 .2912 .0212 .3859 .0244 .0526 .0060 .0004 .0122 .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Probability Table entry for z is the probability lying below z.0005 .0003 .0329 .0049 .0174 .0274 .0040 .0013 .0294 .1611 .0735 .2578 .0011 .0455 .1292 .4761 .0154 .0004 .0465 .0025 .6 – 1.4880 .1251 .06 .0016 .0139 .2643 .0202 .0008 .0170 .0006 .0 – 2.0004 .3192 .0033 .0918 .0034 .0007 .1003 .0427 .9 – 2.0009 .0934 .0004 .0052 .0078 .3897 .7 – 0.0031 .0197 .0681 .0250 .5 – 0.0024 .0012 .3821 .1446 .0007 .0003 .0281 .4522 .0014 .2358 .2514 .0228 .0516 .0113 .0016 .4052 .4801 .1922 .0047 .0132 .0239 .0901 .0008 .0179 .4247 .0446 .0125 .0344 .1112 .8 – 1.1515 .0003 .1 – 0.0582 .09 – 3.0019 .0116 .0571 .08 .4681 .0089 .1357 .2 – 1.0011 .3156 .3336 .0003 .3669 .4602 .0129 .0003 .1539 .2266 .4168 .2483 .2 – 3.1469 .1894 .0008 .0010 .0071 .0021 .3121 .0003 .0096 .0262 .0043 .3 – 2.4013 .7 – 1.0392 .0136 .1949 .2743 .4483 .0119 .2090 .1587 .1230 .0367 .4721 .0036 .6 – 0.0808 .0708 .2810 .0017 .0006 .0764 .1170 .0793 .5 – 2.03 .9 – 0.3228 .0375 .0003 .3520 .0030 .0026 .1867 .4 – 1.4207 .0548 .6 – 2.0075 .0537 .0655 .0643 .0002 .2546 .1711 .0630 .4090 .1 – 1.0314 .0038 .1075 .7 – 2.02 .0013 .2709 .0505 .0618 .4960 .3050 .0401 .04 .0217 .2420 .0027 .0384 .0037 .1151 .0 – 0.0048 .07 .2177 .0749 .2946 .0951 .3745 .2843 .0409 .1762 .0020 .0009 .4920 .1093 .0023 .4286 .0146 .0885 .0359 .0485 .0005 .0 .4562 .0694 .0012 .0091 .0051 .0005 .1423 .1660 .0158 .5 – 1.0307 .1788 .1190 .3632 .0006 .0045 .0823 .0015 .8 – 0.0668 .0268 .3264 .0069 .0068 .2877 .1379 .3300 .3 – 1.0256 .0066 .1210 .4404 .0011 .3483 .3015 .1314 .05 .3783 .4443 .0006 .2033 .0054 .0087 .0606 .2206 .4325 .0301 .0018 .3594 .0023 .0099 .1 – 3.1401 .4840 .0010 .2389 .0192 .4 – 2.0080 .3707 .0 – 1.0183 .1271 .0107 .0102 .1020 .3372 .0003 .1841 .0022 .4 – 3.3085 .2 – 0.0007 .0475 .2296 .0150 .4641 -12- .2676 .3409 .0019 .0006 .0013 .9 – 1.0021 .0005 .0838 .0436 .1056 .2981 .0055 .0029 .0985 .0110 .2451 .2236 .0188 . z Table A Standard normal probabilities z .0008 .0233 .0869 .0287 .0007 .2119 .3936 .2148 .1685 .0015 .2061 .3 – 0.0559 .0004 .0222 .0028 .0336 .0082 .0094 .0084 .0143 .0018 .0351 .0041 .0495 .2327 .0059 .2776 .0026 .00 .0853 .0004 .1492 .0207 .0032 .1335 .3446 .1977 .0005 .1736 .3974 .2 – 2.0968 .0062 .0057 .0010 .1131 .1635 .0162 .0322 .2005 .1562 .01 .0044 .0005 .

9898 .7823 .6591 .9974 .9861 .8925 .02 .06 .9115 .9842 .5714 .9984 .9931 .9292 .9545 .9881 .9993 .8729 .07 .3 2.9993 .9719 .7357 .9222 .9963 .9964 .9 2.8665 .9406 .7967 .8599 .9573 .9995 .9732 .9864 .9868 .9887 .9846 .6 1.9761 .9994 .8907 .9564 .08 .9357 .9996 .9985 .0 1.9994 .9995 .6406 .9987 .9996 .6554 .8315 .9987 .9893 .5636 .9671 .9332 .6844 .6950 .9938 .6480 .5239 .6700 .6103 .9925 .9936 .5 2.9992 .9857 .9979 .9941 .9959 .9162 .8461 .8 0.9525 .9968 .9990 .7291 .9265 .9974 .9989 .7881 .6808 .9706 .7422 .9993 .9991 .8888 .9997 .9918 .9713 .9394 .7 2.9997 .2 0.7157 .9066 .1 0.9979 .9976 .8944 .9826 .9429 .9625 .9990 .7517 .9878 .1 2.9082 .8159 .9554 .7764 .7123 .9997 .5832 .7995 .6443 .5910 .6217 .9641 .7642 .8508 .5871 .7454 .8078 .8869 .0 3.00 .9131 .9949 .9916 .6879 .9967 .5557 .9988 .6 0.9981 .5319 .9994 .9633 .9049 .9996 .6064 .9991 .0 2.9970 .7611 .9686 .8643 .9756 .9896 .9726 .9306 .8340 .9977 .9616 .9929 .9808 .3 3.09 0.9744 .9890 .8389 .8849 .9441 .04 .9991 .8 2.9319 .7190 .9972 .9495 .7088 .7734 .9772 .9992 .9817 .9207 .9997 .5 0.9927 .6331 .9952 .5675 .9969 .9463 .9934 .8980 .9996 .9192 .9986 .9943 .9997 .5398 .3 0.6664 .9987 .9946 .4 0.9966 .8289 .5279 .6985 .9535 .9236 .9251 .5517 . z Table A (Continued) z .8997 .5359 .3 1.8749 .9986 .9984 .7704 .9975 .9591 .9995 .9978 .1 3.5000 .5040 .9994 .9957 .9505 .9992 .7 1.9909 .8186 .9608 .7580 .9980 .9997 .8023 .8106 .9854 .5596 .03 .9983 .6517 .8830 .9960 .9961 .5120 .7054 .9850 .9 1.8686 .9998 -13- .9996 .6 2.2 1.8708 .9911 .9474 .9940 .6915 .9932 .9981 .6628 .7486 .9678 .05 .8554 .8962 .9992 .01 .9875 .1 1.7324 .4 .9962 .9993 .7852 .9994 .9971 .8810 .5160 .9996 .9920 .8051 .8485 .9778 .9 3.7257 .9582 .6141 .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Probability Table entry for z is the probability lying below z.9699 .9955 .5753 .9345 .9177 .9997 .9988 .9997 .9901 .9793 .7794 .8133 .5948 .5438 .9147 .9985 .9798 .9834 .6179 .9484 .8238 .7549 .6736 .9995 .9515 .9982 .9750 .9738 .9649 .7224 .5080 .5199 .5 1.5793 .9664 .9279 .8531 .4 1.9599 .9656 .4 2.8790 .9990 .9997 .9948 .5478 .6026 .7910 .6255 .6368 .6772 .9015 .9904 .9418 .9989 .9370 .9995 .8212 .9452 .9838 .9973 .9884 .8365 .9977 .2 2.7 0.7673 .7939 .9995 .9812 .2 3.8 1.9913 .9997 .6293 .5987 .9906 .9965 .9693 .0 0.9953 .7389 .9871 .9803 .9767 .9821 .9956 .9788 .8621 .8438 .8413 .9032 .9982 .9099 .9951 .9989 .9783 .8264 .9922 .7019 .9382 .9830 .8577 .9945 .8770 .

306 2.782 1.353 2.249 2.598 4.856 .057 3.685 .435 3.990 1.250 3.058 1.106 3.061 1.848 .792 3.725 1.33 10.086 2.076 1.333 1.860 .037 1.000 .345 1.878 2.036 3.687 .174 3.482 2.861 .356 1.299 1.971 2.690 .328 1.664 1.134 1.500 2.328 2.551 3.032 3.508 2.920 2.093 2.813 2.819 2.861 2.518 2.447 2.686 .156 1.449 2.845 2.646 3.282 1.315 1.496 3.82 6.078 3.091 636.296 1.056 2.197 3.421 3.711 .756 2.153 3.073 4.674 3.887 2.734 1.081 2.169 3.686 3.679 .224 2.221 4.855 .055 3.317 4.119 3.060 1.372 1.659 3.058 1.941 .688 .943 1.850 3.611 3.029 3.054 31.078 1.727 .676 1.120 2.860 1.999 2.602 2.069 2.396 3.453 5.581 2.703 .925 5.174 3.205 2.9% Confidence level C -14- .533 1.921 2.753 1.099 2.947 2.638 1.069 1.963 1.110 2.869 5.645 12.646 3.100 1.467 2.326 63.286 3.859 .043 1.896 2.771 1.787 3.552 2.064 1.042 2.457 2.460 3.123 2.646 1.725 3.485 3.091 3.167 2.612 2.10 .962 1.851 .746 1.89 4.326 3.679 .074 1.088 2.581 3.764 2.866 .316 1.158 2.505 3.330 1.056 2.733 3.697 1.717 1.796 1.408 5.303 2.8% 99.005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 80 100 1000 ⬁ 1.059 1.363 1.873 .684 .846 .341 1.015 1.372 3.492 2.131 2.055 1.883 .771 2.683 .408 3.365 2.870 .930 3.675 .691 .785 4.313 1.895 1.898 2.576 127.841 4.92 8.689 .104 3.699 1.195 3.355 3.047 1.252 3.318 1.703 1.922 3.678 .030 2.323 1.050 1.886 1.6 31.056 1.291 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 95% 96% 98% 99% 99.854 .021 2.704 2.282 6.450 3.143 2.876 .779 2.3 14.700 .228 2.583 2.048 2.833 3.319 1.879 .262 2.055 1.119 1.365 3.684 1.868 .109 2.686 .154 2.567 2.067 1.232 3.688 .71 4.787 2.624 2.182 2.501 4.865 .057 1.310 1.386 1.015 3.479 2.863 .741 .841 1.706 .845 .906 .144 4.776 2.812 1.042 1.527 3.416 3.0025 .862 .067 3.374 2.20 .350 1.849 3.173 5.292 1.960 15.833 1.397 1.041 4.303 3.66 9.282 2.001 .681 .02 .857 .147 2.721 1.403 2.714 1.639 2.707 3.083 1.978 .290 1.773 4.376 1.697 .264 2.920 .052 2.423 2.250 1.462 2.467 3.660 2.190 1.807 2.314 2.145 2.364 2.747 3.311 1.965 3.297 4.325 1.539 2.314 1.671 1.098 3.047 3.208 4.571 2.045 2.21 7.856 .135 3.757 2.3 22.610 6.415 1.038 3.132 2.428 3.761 1.330 2.528 2.708 1.552 3.189 2.965 4.437 4.695 .745 3.683 .108 1.690 3.889 .045 1.497 3.201 2.684 .692 .660 1.763 2.09 7.25 .915 2.012 2.390 3.476 1.061 .261 3.750 2.858 .821 2.473 2.740 1.858 .025 3.060 2.650 2.05 .677 .852 3.678 2.60 12.385 3.300 3.485 2.718 2.984 1.819 3.183 2.579 3.718 .222 3.541 3.162 2.01 .684 .768 3.390 2.074 2.781 4. Probability p t* Table B t distribution critical values Tail probability p df .088 1.797 2.064 2.883 3.807 318.694 .711 1.359 2.079 1.701 1.15 .690 3.893 5.685 .499 3.937 2.683 .179 2.977 2.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Table entry for p and C is the point t* with probability p lying above it and probability C lying between −t * and t*.321 1.998 2.303 1.896 .729 1.587 4.816 .674 1.063 1.150 2.235 2.140 4.831 2.517 2.0005 .093 1.398 2.177 2.765 .197 2.871 2.626 2.318 4.066 1.383 1.337 1.5% 99.080 2.604 4.000 1.025 .849 .681 2.172 2.160 2.009 2.706 1.842 .959 5.101 2.440 1.214 2.854 .707 3.071 1.307 3.855 .

48 54.29 41.50 79.34 53.1 131.72 37.56 102.55 30.82 29.14 12.69 29.89 58.08 39.7 2.91 34.70 82.21 24.42 37.06 22.28 33.27 18.41 7.12 18.71 4.33 26.11 41.60 12.7 128.8 7.00 26.32 16.73 30.34 13.44 72.11 114.34 30.62 48.82 16.99 49.3 .04 27. (χ2 ) Table C c 2 critical values Tail probability p df 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 80 100 .84 14.72 46.42 83.71 34.37 20.42 46.79 42.89 63.99 27.11 28.77 25.31 42.16 76.81 18.27 58.07 3.34 24.66 95.16 22.50 27.9 124.73 51.65 38.95 23.35 71.97 47.2 .51 52.39 12.22 4.87 28.56 36.38 35.56 46.16 68.74 37.3 140.92 18.20 28.32 32.20 34.47 26.64 42.8 149.59 54.67 66.74 26.67 31.62 54.41 29.93 48.79 32.09 16.6 129.47 21.45 16.64 3.81 63.1 6.03 12.41 20.59 14.14 34.53 32.14 30.87 29.14 31.39 20.92 43.3 153.01 33.56 43.24 60.20 46.73 62.14 45.61 22.70 39.82 45.98 31.99 7.88 42.41 57.58 118.38 112.27 41.1 .95 36.77 55.32 2.77 25.31 19.22 53.55 19.07 12.58 40.61 6.27 49.25 40.98 44.81 16.81 21.34 120.08 101.74 8.76 28.42 40.7 .39 6.88 10.025 5.02 .20 19.67 33.90 25.86 44.44 14.62 33.41 32.63 15.66 38.75 12.5 .18 52.95 39.44 50.85 15.31 43.28 49.25 1.29 8.14 11.0025 .62 30.30 59.99 17.0005 9.97 56.99 7.68 25.05 25.43 29.57 35.39 15.73 20.79 22.83 24.58 108.51 22.70 14.79 5.66 28.91 34.15 19.43 34.49 21.86 16.34 42.40 86.15 88.001 .85 37.45 10.31 45.68 21.6 -15- .05 55.30 60.68 15.34 71.60 22.71 36.85 34.03 13.63 31.31 23.09 40.01 17.61 84.35 11.48 38.2 .46 45.80 11.97 90.99 52.17 19.02 20.12 37.29 49.28 18.43 45.64 46.17 36.96 60.05 3.68 31.62 56.51 16.76 67.09 89.80 44.16 38.64 50.14 36.53 32.10 26.22 11.25 47.46 24.19 26.28 21.46 27.59 25.03 35.42 18.31 20.31 46.65 41.19 37.21 11.46 37.98 24.32 6.98 88.20 1.43 31.35 33.12 27.62 24.12 27.48 36.68 21.01 .30 106.02 13.38 9.57 42.88 44.81 36.34 37.95 56.33 66.19 44.80 45.64 5.59 50.49 91.87 30.28 15.53 15.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Probability p Table entry for p is the point ( χ 2 ) with probability p lying above it.32 26.02 7.98 18.34 43.36 14.77 16.00 33.33 69.19 31.63 9.83 52.04 23.01 50.25 19.00 22.26 29.61 124.66 99.14 28.11 39.11 5.83 13.4 12.83 14.00 41.43 34.25 7.13 32.78 38.25 22.40 42.53 19.22 27.3 10.40 96.89 40.41 34.69 76.84 11.63 7.26 32.93 26.56 9.82 36.76 23.85 30.99 18.18 45.96 48.48 56.24 13.81 9.26 51.98 59.92 39.41 111.55 13.69 35.81 32.13 109.20 17.12 15.30 28.32 31.55 20.50 49.30 29.69 47.84 9.53 36.1 144.34 93.72 26.72 41.02 36.07 15.57 38.60 21.12 9.58 32.03 16.29 14.47 20.04 26.00 53.03 49.00 32.48 21.15 .49 28.3 135.17 35.77 4.42 33.02 27.48 20.92 23.75 18.80 34.67 23.70 73.84 5.82 9.88 33.17 27.98 17.92 35.005 5.64 12.03 22.54 24.30 27.17 74.59 28.59 31.16 25.36 23.10 2.04 10.09 21.11 24.72 23.88 29.77 79.82 31.93 40.97 40.36 40.78 9.80 48.98 14.62 18.27 35.95 116.86 59.24 29.67 13.49 11.78 45.24 10.

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