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P.No.5.1:- A tiny laser beam is directed from the Earth to the Moon. If the beam is to have a diameter of 2.50m at the moon, how small must divergence angle be for the beam? The distance of Moon from the Earth is 3.8 ×108 m . Solution:Given Data:Length of arc = S = 2.50m (Diameter of beam) 8 Radius of circular arc = r = 3.8 ×10 m (The distance of Moon from the Earth) To Determine:θ Angle = = ? Calculation:Using the relation. S = rθ θ =Sr Putting the given values, we get ; 2.50 m θ= 3.8 ×108 m

θ = 0.657 ×10−8 By Muzammal Safdar θ = 6.6 ×10−9 rad Ans : − P.No5.2:- A gramophone record turntable from rest to an angular velocity of 45.0 rev min −1 in 1.60s. What is its average angular velocity? Solution:Given Data:Initial angular velocity = ωi = 0

Final angular velocity

−1 ∴1min = 60 s and 1rev = 2π = ω f = 45.0rev min 45.0 × 2π = = 1.5π rads −1 60s

Time = t To Determine:Average angular acceleration Calculation:Using the relation

= =

1.60s

α

=

?

ω f − ωi t 1.5π rads −1 − 0 α= 1.60 s α=

1.5 × 3.14rads −1 as π = 3.14 1.60 s 4.71rads −1 α= By Muzammal Safdar 1.60s α = 2.942rads −1s −1

α=

α = 2.942rads −2 Ans : − P.No.5.3:- A body of moment of inertia I = 0.80kgm 2 about a fixed axis, rotates with a constant angular velocity of 100rads −1 . Calculate the angular momentum “L” and the torque to sustain this motion. Solution:Given Data:I = 0.80kgm 2 Moment of inertia = Angular Velocity = ω = 100rads −1 To determine:Angular momentum = L = ? τ Torque = = ? Calculation:Using the relation L = Iω Now substituting the given values, we get ;

L = 0.80kgm 2 ×100rads −1 L = 80kgm 2 s −1 L = 80kgm 2 s −1 ×

−1

By Muzammal Safdar

s s −1 −1 L = 80kgm 2 s −2 × 1 −1 Q 1kgm2 s−2 = 1J and 1 −1 = ( s−1 ) = s s s L = 80 Js Ans : − By Muzammal Safdar Now for calculating the torque we use τ = Iα Here angular acceleration is zero only because the body is moving with constant angular velocity and we know from the theory that angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity so acceleration is zero and torque is also zero because torque is the product of moment of inertia and angular acceleration.

τ = I × 0 = 0 Ans : − So, Problem No.5.4:- Consider the rotating cylinder shown in fig. Suppose that M=5.0kg, F=0.60N and r=0.20m. Calculate (a) Torque τ acting on the cylinder (b)

The angular acceleration α of the cylinder. (Moment of inertia of cylinder I = 1 MR 2 ) 2 Solution:Given Data:Mass of Cylinder = M = 5.0kg Force acting on cylinder = F = 0.60N Radius of cylinder or the distance from the point of application of force to the axis Of rotation = r = 0.20m To Determine:Part (a ) for finding torque τ = rF sin θ from the figure we know that force and radius are perpendicular to each other so θ = 900

τ = rF sin 900 ∴ sin 900 = 1 τ = rF By Muzammal Safdar Substituting the given values, we get ; τ = 0.20m × 0.60 N τ = 0.12 Nm Ans : − Part (b) for finding angular acceleration, τ = Iα (as I = 1 2 MR 2 given) τ = 1 2 MR 2 × α By Muzammal Safdar

Substituting the given values, we get ; 0.12 Nm = 1 × 5.0kg × (0.20m) 2 × α (∴1N = kgms −2 ) 2 0.12 × 2kgms −2 .m = 5.0kg × 0.40m2 × α 0.24kgm 2 s −2 = 2.m2 × α 0.24 kg . m 2 .s −2 =α 2. kg. m 2 By Muzammal Safdar

α = 0.12rads −2 Ans : − P.No.5.5:- Calculate the angular momentum of a star of mass 2.0 × 1030 kg and radius 7.0 × 105 km . If it makes one complete rotation about its axis once in 20 days, what is its kinetic energy? Solution:Given Data:2.0 × 1030 kg Mass of star = M = r = 7.0 ×105 km = 7.0 ×105 × 103 m = 7.0 ×108 m ∴1km = 103 m Radius of star = Time period of star = T = 20days = 20 × 24 × 60 × 60 s = 1728000s To Determine:Angular momentum of star = L = ?

Kinetic energy = K.E = ? Calculation:For part (a) Using the relation for angular momentum L = I ω − − − − − (i ) for this we need I and ω so we use, 2 I = MR 2 5 which is the moment of inertia of a sphere and we use this here only because we treat star just like a sphere and 2π ω= By Muzammal Safdar T using these values in eq (i), we get; 2 2π L = MR 2 × 5 T 2 × 2 × MR 2 × π L= 5T Substituting the given values, we have; 2 × 2 × 2.0 ×1030 kg × (7.0 ×108 m)2 × 3.14 5 × 1728000s 30 25.12 × 10 kg × 49 ×1016 m2 L= 8640000 s 1230.88 × 1046 kgm2 L= By Muzammal Safdar 8640000 s L = 1.4246 ×10−4 × 1046 kgm2 s −1 L= L = 1.4246 ×10−4+ 46 kgm2 s −1 s −1 s −1 1 1 L = 1.4246 ×1042 kgm2 s −2 × −1 (∴ −1 = ( s−1 )−1 = s) s s 42 L = 1.4246 ×10 J × s (∴1kgm2 s −2 = 1J ) L = 1.4246 ×1042 kgm2 s −1 × L = 1.4246 ×1042 Js Ans : − For part (b) using the relation of kinetic energy 1 K .E = I ω 2 − − − − − −(ii ) 2 substituting the values of I and ω in eq(ii), we get; 1 2 2π K .E = × MR 2 × 2 5 T

2

**2 × MR 2 × 4π 2 By Muzammal Safdar 2 × 5×T 2 Substituting the given values, we have; K .E = K .E = K .E = 2 × 2.0 × 1030 kg × ( 7.0 ×108 m ) × 4 × (3.14)2
**

2

2 × 5 × (1728000 s ) 2

16 ×1030 kg × 49 × 1016 m2 × 9.8596 10 × 2.98594 ×1012.s 2 7729.9264 ×1046 kgm2 K .E = 2.98594 ×1013.s 2 K .E = 2588.774858 ×1046 × 10−13 kgm2 s−2 K .E = 2588.774858 × 1046−13 J ∴1J = kgm2 s−2 K .E = 2588.774858 × 1034 J K .E = 2.5 × 103 ×1033 J By Muzammal Safdar K .E = 2.5 × 1036 J Ans : − P.No.5.6:- A 1000kg car traveling with a speed of 144 kmh −1 rounds a curve of radius 100m. Find the necessary centripetal force. Solution:Given Data:Mass of the car = M = 1000kg 144 × 1000m −1 Q 1km = 1000m Speed of car = v = 144kmh = 144km hr = 3600 s 144000 m = = 40ms −1 Q 1hr = 3600 s 3600 s Radius of the curve = r = 100m To Determine:Centripetal force = Fc = ? Calculation:Using the relation. mv 2 Fc = By Muzammal Safdar r Substituting the given values, we have; 1000kg × (40ms −1 ) 2 100m 1000kg ×1600m 2 s −2 Fc = 100m 1600000 kgm 2 s −2 Fc = By Muzammal Safdar 100 m Fc = Fc = 16000kgms −2 Fc = 1.6 ×104 N ∴1N = 1kgms −2 Fc = 1.6 ×104 N Ans : −

P.No.5.7:- What is the least speed at which an airplane can execute a vertical loop of 1.0km radius so that there will be no tendency for the pilot to fall down at the highest point? Solution:Given Data:Radius of loop = R = 1.0km = 1000m g = 9.8ms −2 Acceleration due to gravity = g = To Determine:Speed of airplane = v = ? Calculation:Using the relation 2 ac = g = v r or , rg = v 2 ==> ==> ==> ==> ==> rg = v 2 v = rg By Muzammal Safdar

Substituting the given values, we get; v = 1000m × 9.8ms −2 v = 98000m.m.s −2 v = 98000m 2 s −2 By Muzammal Safdar v = 98.99ms −1 v = 99ms −1 Ans : − P.No.5.8:- The Moon orbits the Earth so that the same side always faces the Earth. Determine the ratio of its spin angular momentum (about its own axis) and its orbital angular momentum. (In this case, treat the moon as a particle orbiting the Earth). Distance between the Earth and the Moon is 3.85 ×108 m . Radius of the Moon is 1.74 × 106 m . Solution:Given Data:Distance between Earth and Moon = r = 3.85 ×108 m Rm = 1.74 ×106 m Radius of the moon = To Determine:Ls Ratio of spin and orbital angular momentum = = ? L0 Calculation:Using the relation Ls = I ω 2 where I = MRm 2 is the moment of inertia of sphere and 5 we will use this here only because we treat Earth as a sphere. So, Ls becomes;

Ls =

2 MRm 2 × ω − − − −(i ) 5

and in case of orbital angular momentum we will treat that the moon is a particle orbiting the earth and now we will use the moment of inertia as I = Mr 2 Now, L0 = Mr 2 × ω Now the ratio of these momenta will be 2 MRm 2 × ω Ls 5 = By Muzammal Safdar L0 Mr 2 × ω Ls 2 × MRm 2 × ω = L0 5 × Mr 2 × ω Ls 2 × R 2 = By Muzammal Safdar L0 5 × r 2 Ls 2 × (1.74 ×106 m)2 = L0 5 × (3.85 × 108 m) 2 Ls 2 × 3.0276 × 1012 m 2 = L0 5 × 14.8225 ×1016 m 2 Ls 6.0552 ×1012 = By Muzammal Safdar L0 74.1125 ×1016 Ls 6.0552 × 1012 = L0 7.41125 ×10 ×1016 Ls 6.0552 ×1012 = L0 7.41125 ×1017 Ls = 0.817 × 1012 × 10−17 L0 Ls = 0.817 × 1012−17 L0 Ls = 0.817 × 10−5 By Muzammal Safdar L0

Ls = 8.17 ×10−1 ×10−5 L0 Ls = 8.17 ×10−1−5 L0 Ls = 8.17 ×10−6 Ans : − L0 P.No.5.9:- The Earth rotates on its axis once a day. Suppose, by some process the Earth contracts so that the radius is only half as large as at present, how fast will it be rotating them? 2 (Moment of inertia of sphere I = 2 5 MR ) Solution:Given Data:T1 = Time period = 24 hr I = 2 MR12 Moment of inertia = 5 1 R2 = R1 Radius of earth = (Given) 2 To Determine:T2 = How fast will the Earth be rotating = ? Calculation:Using the relation. I1ω1 = I 2ω2 By Muzammal Safdar or ,

ω1 I 2 = − − − − − (i ) ω2 I1 Substituting the values of I1 , I 2 ,ω1 and ω2 ,we get; where, I1 = 2 × MR1 2 and I2 = 2 × MR2 2 5 5 2π 2π ω1 = and ω2 = T1 T2 Now eq (i ) becomes; 2π 2 MR2 2 T1 5 = By Muzammal Safdar 2π 2 MR12 T2 5

2π 2π T1 T2 2 MR2 2 = 2 MR

2 1

5 5

1 T1 R2 2 = 2 1 R1 T2 T2 R2 2 = T1 R12 so, 1 R T2 2 1 = 2 T1 R1 1 2 R T2 4 1 = T1 R12

2

By Muzammal Safdar as we know that R2 = 1 R1 2

By Muzammal Safdar

1 2 R T2 4 1 = T1 R12 T2 1 = By Muzammal Safdar T1 4 or , T1 4 where T1 is 24hr so, T2 = T2 =

24 hr 4 T2 = 6hours Ans : − P.No.5.10:- What should be the orbiting speed to launch a satellite in a circular orbit 900km above the surface of the Earth? (Take the mass of Earth as 6.0 × 1024 kg and its radius as 6400km ) Solution:Given Data:6.0 × 1024 kg Mass of Earth = M = Radius of Earth = R = 6400km = 6400 × 103 m = 6.4 × 103 × 103 m = 6.4 ×106 m ∴1km = 103 m Height of circular orbit = h = 900km = 9.0 ×105 m To Determine:Orbital Speed = v = ? Calculation:Using the relation.

GM − − − − − −(i ) r Where r = R + h v= and r = 6.4 × 106 m + 9.0m × 105 r = 6.4 ×10 × 105 m + 9.0m ×105 r = 64 ×105 m + 9.0m × 105 r = (64 + 9.0) ×105 m r = 73 ×105 m Now eq (i ) becomes v= 6.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg −2 × 6.0 × 1024 kg 73 ×105 m ∴1N = kgms −2 By Muzammal Safdar

40.02 × 10−11+ 24 kg . m .s −2 m2 . kg −2 . kg v= 73 ×105 m v = 0.548219178 × 10−11+ 24 ×10−5 m2 s−2 v = 0.548219178 × 10−11+ 24−5 (ms−1 )2

v = 0.548219178 × 108 (ms −1 )2 By Muzammal Safdar v = 54.8219178 × 10−2 ×108 (ms −1 )2 v = 54.8219178 × 10 −2+8 (ms −1 )2 v = 54.8219178 × 106 (ms −1 )2 v = 54.8219178 × (103 ) 2 .(ms −1 )2 By Muzammal Safdar v = 7.4 ×103 ms −1 ∴103 = 1k so, v = 7.4kms −1 Ans : − By Muzammal Safdar Prepared By Muzammal Safdar Visit http://www.fscphysicsofpk.blogspot.com/ for online access Contact muzammalsafdar@gmail.com/

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UsefulNot usefulThis document contain numerical of physics of F.Sc Physics (11th year) of Pakistan punjab text book.

This document contain numerical of physics of F.Sc Physics (11th year) of Pakistan punjab text book.

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