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Q1. Define Research. What are the features and types of Research? Answer Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Features 1. It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. 2. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. 3. It adopts scientific method. 4. It is objective and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. 5. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. 6. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. 7. It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. 8. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. Types of Research - Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: A. Pure Research - It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein‟s theory of relativity, Newton‟s contributions, Galileo‟s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. B. Applied Research - It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or
testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. Exploratory Research - It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is illstructured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher‟s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.” Descriptive Study - It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. Diagnostic Study - It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. Evaluation Studies - It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time. Action Research - It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and post experimental evaluation.
Q2. How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Answer
Feasibility:-A problem may be a new one and also important.The problem should be researchable.. Facilities:. Internal Source 1. unless he gets some external financial support. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem.The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subjectmatter. but if research on it is not feasible. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. i. There is no use of wasting one‟s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. Time resource is more important than finance. 2. experience. in selecting problems for research. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. Researcher’s interest: . outlook and sensitivity. he may not develop sustained perseverance. Therefore. which may be grouped into: A. hence it should be properly utilized. suitable and competent guidance. Researcher’s own resource: . he will not be able to complete the work. Without interest and curiosity. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one.The problem must have novelty. 3.A mere interest in a problem will not do.Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility.e. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. Importance and urgency:-Problems requiring investigation are unlimited. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. External Source – 1. If it is beyond his means. This does not mean that replication is always needless. but available research efforts are very much limited. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. It should be socially relevant. . 7. their relative importance and significance should be considered. 4. data analysis facility. But in India and other developing countries.In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won. Research is a time-consuming process. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study.Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. 2. Research personnel:. Usefulness and social relevance:-Above all. In social sciences in some cases. B. it cannot be selected. Research-ability of the problem:. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration 5. Researcher’s competence: . research has not yet become a prospective profession. relevant methodology and statistical procedures.The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. 6. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher‟s educational background. etc. Novelty of the problem:. 3.
In this observation. For example. the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. Advantages: -The advantages of participant observation are: 1. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. Naturally. Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? Answer Observations may be classified in different ways. 2. the objectivity is lost. he comes to occupy one position within in. The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behaviour and heard statements. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits. In terms of mode of observation. and participation can interfere with observation. Recording can interfere with participation. change the focus of the observation. it may be classified into (c) direct observation. A limitation of this method is that the observer‟s perception circuit may not be able . and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording Non-participant observations -In this method. For example. He is also free to shift places. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. 1. Then only their behaviour will be „natural‟. if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. The participant observer narrows his range of observation. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner.The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are: Review of literature Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition Q3. and get a deeper insight of their experiences. and (f) uncontrolled observation Participant Observation . Direct observation -This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. The concealment of research objective and researcher‟s identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group‟s culture which are not revealed to outsiders. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation. 2. The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher‟s purpose. 3. The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone. With reference to investigator‟s role.
(b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. interpersonal relations. It specifies the objectives of the study. how and when to observe. :-life style.” . but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. animals etc.This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe. and the recording is done by mechanical. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what. “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz. It is the plan. structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. This method is less flexible than direct observations.to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. crowd behaviour. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? Answer The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head.g. The plan is the overall scheme or program of research. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. group dynamics. Even if he could. e. Indirect observation -This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. and manner. he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. It is primary used for descriptive research. Controlled observation . It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. residences etc. other behaviours and actions. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. Q4. Therefore. It constitutes the blue print for the collection. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. managerial style. analyzing and interpreting observations. measurement and analysis of data. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. factories. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. customs. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. photographic or electronic devices. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting. leadership styles.
various writers advance different classification schemes. g. Answer Decision process of sampling is complicated one. Hence. field studies. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey. f. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1. Exploratory. . „quasi-experimental designs‟ (Nachmias and Nachmias) 9. Probability samples only allow such computation. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. Exploratory. experiments in field settings. Deutsch and Cook). Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. and expost fact (Kerlinger) Historical method. laboratory experiment) The time dimension(one-time or longitudinal) The mode of data collection (observational or survey) The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) Q5. Experimental. and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 6. where the research objective requires statistical inference. because „research design‟ is a complex concept. c. descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. In fact. They are: a. Experimental. some of which are: 1. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. 4. 10. there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. d. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. pre-experimental. quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). 5. 2. e. descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) Sample surveys. 2. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). Exploratory. Experimental. historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz. 3. Jahoda. b. These different categorizations exist. Experimental. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous.The different types of Research Designs are:-There are a number of crucial research choices. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling. True experimental.
it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. stratified random sampling is appropriate. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. 7. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise. readership surveys etc) any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. 6. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. 4. or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. 5. probability sampling should be used. The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. Where the finance is not a constraint. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low. That is. the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent.3. If the population is heterogeneous. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited. Of course. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types: . it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. 9. marketing surveys. However.g. as a compromise. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. there is no alternative than to give up the proposed survey. Then. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied. 8. But if the area and the size of the population are small.. multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements.
random sample is drawn. The amount of sampling error associated with any sample drawn can easily be computed. In this method. and each discipline group may again be divided into juniors and seniors. Suitability: This type of sampling is suited for a small homogeneous population. B. university students may be divided on the basis of discipline.. all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected. giving them numbers in serial order 1. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs. (ii) a table of random numbers or (iii) a computer. Probability or Random Sampling Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. Stratification process involves three major decisions. It gives proper representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally higher. and so on. and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. simple to understand. Stratified random sampling may be classified into: a) Proportionate stratified sampling: This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter‟s share in the total population. The stratified random sampling is appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. E. This method is therefore very popular. the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata. Disadvantages: It is often impractical because of non-availability of population list or of difficulty in enumerating the population.g. does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. and b. because it is less precise than other methods.g. It is also known as random sampling. Preparation of a List of all elements. Simple Random Sampling: This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. and from each stratum. The following are the types of probability sampling: I. But it is greater than that in other probability samples of the same size. They are stratification base or bases. II. E. 2. does not ensure proportionate representation and it may be expensive in time and money. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. Stratification is necessary for increasing a sample‟s statistical efficiency.. if the Management Faculty of a University consists of the following specialization groups: . An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected. providing adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying different methods to different strata. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population. Stratified Random Sampling: This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. number of strata and strata sample sizes. It is used when generalization is the objective of study. Drawing sample numbers by using (i) lottery method. a. Advantages: The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods.
is subject to classification errors and its practical feasibility is doubtful.1 3 30 Advantages: Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample. .4 12 30 x 0. 21st ……… Strictly speaking. when certain groups are quite heterogeneous. 11th. requires prior knowledge of composition of the population. Disadvantages: The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate representation. It is also known as fixed interval method. Then the strata sample sizes would be: Strata Production Finance Marketing Rural development Sample size 30 x 0. b) Disproportionate stratified random sampling: This method does not give proportionate representation to strata.0 The research wants to draw an overall sample of 30.4 0. it is very expensive in time and money and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors. Suitability: This method is used when the population contains some small but important subgroups. It necessarily involves giving over-representation to some strata and under-representation to others. iii) Systematic Random Sampling: This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection. The desirability of disproportionate sampling is usually determined by three factors.2 0. It consists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k. viz. It possesses characteristics of randomness and some non-probability traits. 1st. (b) internal variances among strata.Specialization stream Production Finance Marketing Rural development 100 No. E. easy to carry out. this method of sampling is not a probability sampling.g..1 1. (a) the sizes of strata.3 0.3 9 30 x 0. of students 40 20 30 10 Proportion of each stream 0. while others are homogeneous and when it is expected that there will be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in the population. Disadvantages: A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the distribution of the population.2 6 30 x 0. Advantages: The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates giving appropriate weighing to particular groups which are small but more important. and gives a self-weighing sample. and (c) sampling costs. gives higher statistical efficiency.
a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage.. and large scale surveys of political and social behavior. cost and sampling errors. it does not require more time. It is not a separate method of sampling. As the geographical areas are selected as sampling units in such cases. public opinion polls. In a multi-stage sampling. easy to instruct. Multi-stage and sub-sampling In multi-stage sampling method. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. Suitability: The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management surveys. ecological studies. requires less time. easier to check. promotes the convenience of field work as it could be done in compact places. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. Area sampling This is an important form of cluster sampling. rural credit surveys. their sampling is called area sampling. the use of simple or stratified random sampling method would be too expensive and time-consuming. and this method sometimes gives a biased sample. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit.Suitability: Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as students in a class. villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. Then from each selected sampling unit. sample is spread evenly over the population. and determine the number of stages. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. It is appropriate where the population survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. That is.e. In larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts. Disadvantages: The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of the resulting sample. First. In such cases cluster sampling is usually adopted. Advantages: The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling. The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters. The sampling error in this method of sampling is greater and the adjacent units of study tend to have more similar characteristics than do units distantly apart. it‟s cheaper. Advantages: The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient. each element does not have equal chance of being selected. and it is statistically more efficient. socio-economic surveys. a sample of population elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified random selection. talluks. units of study can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible. the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. Cluster Sampling It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. easy to use. examine the nature of clusters. attitude surveys and so on. Where the element is not readily available. telephone directory etc. Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. demographic studies. but forms part of cluster sampling. at each stage. Disadvantages: The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth elements selected. Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements. Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size . cost of this is much less. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. houses in a street.
the overall probability of any person will be the same. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element.g. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors. “The statistics based on the sample of „n‟ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. it is then. PPS leads to greater precision than would a simple random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction at the second stage. The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-availability of a list of population. when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large. Advantages: The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate representation. but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. Instead. convenience and low cost. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population.The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely used. Thus PPS is a better method for securing a representative sample of population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling. This is also known as sequential sampling. a teacher may select students in his class.. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. interviewing people whom we happen to meet. If one primary cluster has twice as large a population as another. Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. it is give twice the chance of being selected. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster are convenient for field work. e. called multi-phase sampling. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available.. It is practical. The selection probability is unknown. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population. Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity. The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. It may be classified into: Convenience or Accidental Sampling It means selecting sample units in a just „hit and miss‟ fashion E. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. when probability sampling required more time.g. If the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected clusters. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets . Disadvantages: PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are not known.
Quota sampling This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex. and readership surveys which do not aim at precision. opinion polls. It is difficult to apply when the population is large. Suitability: It is very useful in studying social groups. Advantage: It is less costly. It is based on the judgement of the researcher or some expert. Snow-ball sampling This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants.accidentally are included in the sample. it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list. informal groups in a formal organization. strict control if field work is difficult. Suitability: This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population. This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies. Advantage: It is the cheapest and simplest. and subject to a higher degree of classification. social class. Disadvantage: It is impossible to estimate sampling error. does not ensure the representativeness. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study. but to get quickly some crude results. . Advantage: It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. Suitability: It is used in studies like marketing surveys. age. A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results. and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher. This is also known as judgment sampling. Suitability: Though this type of sampling has no status. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher‟s subjectivity. Q6. What is a Research Report? What are the contents of Research Report? Answer Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. and field work can easily be organized. Disadvantage: It is less efficient for generalizing. it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest. takes less time. Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. non need for a list of population. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness. etc. It narrates the problem studied. Advantage: It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample. methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise.
Contents of the Research Report The outline of a research report is given below: I. Prefatory Items Title page Declaration Certificates Preface/acknowledgements Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/charts Abstract or synopsis II. Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary. Body of the Report III. conclusions and recommendations Reference Material Bibliography Appendix Copies of data collection instruments Technical details on sampling plan Complex tables .
rating and paired comparisons.2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. which is measured by a combination of income. 2. occupation and wealth. Ordinal measurement In this level of measurement. education. 1. 1. Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order. The number of cases under each category are counted. Nominal measurement is therefore the simplest level of measurement. The individual with the highest score might be assigned rank 1.MBA Semester 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology . Answer all the questions.4 Credits (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set . ordinal. interval and ratio scales with an example of each. Differentiate between nominal. ratings of organizations and economic status. persons or objects are assigned numerals which indicate ranks with respect to one or more properties. Example Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio-economic class”. Master of Business Administration. distance or arithmetic origin. . or vice versa. The example of male and female applicants to an MBA program mentioned earlier is an example of nominal measurement. The numerals or symbols are just labels and have no quantitative value. Variables that lend themselves to ordinal measurement include preferences. Nominal measurement This level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to different categories of a variable. either in ascending or descending order. Glossary of new terms used. The numbers in this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal distance or absolute quantities. This means that the distance between ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal to the distance between ranks 2 and 3. the next highest rank 2. It does not have characteristics such as order. and so on.
techniques like the geometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used. 4. but no distance or origin Both order and distance. The main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for characteristics such as leadership quality. Ratio measurement This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when measuring characteristics which have an absolute zero point. happiness. distance and area. This implies that it is not possible to multiply or divide the numbers on an interval scale. However. Examples Height. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly 10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10 degrees cooler than 60 degrees. Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or ordinal scales. since it has one additional characteristic – equality of distance. distance or origin Order. weight. such as standard deviation. This level of measurement has all the three characteristics – order. it does not have an origin or a true zero. In the table below – Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Characteristics No order. Apart from being able to use all the statistical techniques that are used with the nominal. Example The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the interval level of measurement. Since there is a natural zero. The different levels of measurement and their characteristics may be summed up. satisfaction and other properties which do not have natural zero points. distance and origin . it is possible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio scale. Interval measurement This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and ordinal levels of measurement. 3. distance and origin. ordinal and interval scales.Statistical techniques that are commonly used to analyze ordinal scale data are the median and rank order correlation coefficients. but no origin Order. product moment correlation and “t” tests and “F” tests of significance. they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical techniques.
we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows: Alternative Hypotheses To be read as follows Ha: µ≠µ H0 (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is not equal to 100 i. then we are accepting Ha.e. What are the types of Hypothesis? Explain the procedure for testing Hypothesis. On the other hand. then we are rejecting Ha and if we reject H0. If we accept H0. Then we would say that the null hypothesis is that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolically we can express it as: H0: µ= µ H0=100 If our sample results do not support this null hypothesis. then this assumption is termed as a null hypothesis. if we think that method A is superior. For H0: µ= µ H0=100. Concepts of Testing Hypotheses Some basic concepts in the context of testing of hypotheses are explained below 1 21) Null Hypotheses and Alternative Hypotheses: In the context of statistical analysis.2.. These are symbolically represented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean (µ H0) = 100. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as an alternative hypothesis. If we are to compare the superiority of method A with that of method B and we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good. we should conclude that something else is true. then it is known as an alternative hypothesis. it may be more or less 100) Ha: µ>µ H0 (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than 100) . we often talk about null and alternative hypotheses.
In case we take the significance level at 5%. keeping the alternative hypothesis in view. it is taken as null hypothesis. 2) The Level of Significance: This is a very important concept in the context of hypothesis testing. Thus a null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject. it should not state an approximate value. but this cannot be done if we proceed with alternative hypotheses. observed evidence) has a less than 0. we proceed on the basis of the null hypothesis. In the choice of null hypothesis. then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the sampling result (i. Generally.e. In other words. the 5% level of significance means that the researcher is willing to take as much as 5% risk rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. in hypothesis testing. .. Thus the significance level is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance before testing the hypothesis.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true. because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is α (the level of significance) which is chosen very small. Why so? The answer is that on the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. which should be chosen with great care. 3c.. If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk.Ha: µ< µ H0 (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is less than 100) The null hypotheses and the alternative hypotheses are chosen before the sample is drawn (the researcher must avoid the error of deriving hypotheses from the data he collects and testing the hypotheses from the same data). The alternative hypothesis is usually the one. Hence the use of null hypotheses (at times also known as statistical hypotheses) is quite frequent. which is to be proved. It is always some percentage (usually 5%). The null hypothesis should always be a specific hypothesis i. the following considerations are usually kept in view: 1a. and the null hypothesis is the one that is to be disproved. one can assign the probabilities to different possible sample results. thought and reason. while the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities.e. 2b.
against Ha.01. reject Ha) or reject H0 (i. also called as level of significance of test. it means there are about 5 chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true. since there is a .3) Decision Rule or Test of Hypotheses: Given a hypothesis Ha and an alternative hypothesis H0. we will accept H0. 4) Type II Errors & I: In the context of testing of hypotheses. The former is known as Type I and the latter is known as Type II.. we make a rule. if H0 is that a certain lot is good (there are very few defective items in it). Type I error means rejection of hypotheses. We might test 10 items in the lot and plan our decision saying that if there are none or only 1 defective item among the 10. we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0. In other words. and then we must decide the number of items to be tested and the criterion for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. and Type II error means accepting of hypotheses.e. which should have been accepted. Type I error is denoted by α (alpha). there are basically two types of errors that we can make. if we fix it at 1%. which should have been rejected. This sort of basis is known as a decision rule. We may reject H0 when H0 is true and we may accept H0 when it is not true. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. For instance. Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 (true) Correct decision Type I error (α error) Ho (false) Type II error (β error) Correct decision The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypotheses. the probability of committing type II error increases. which is known as a decision rule. when we try to reduce type I error.e. that the lot is not good (there are many defective items in it). If type I error is fixed at 5%. For instance. and Type II error is denoted by β(beta). according to which we accept H0 (i. But with a fixed sample size n.. Both types of errors cannot be reduced simultaneously. accept Ha). otherwise we will reject H0 (or accept Ha).
A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ. Decision makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. in testing of hypotheses.05 (equally split on both tails of the curve as 0. then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error. one must make all possible efforts to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error. the probability of the rejection area will be 0. 3. Such a test is inappropriate when we have H0: µ= µ H0 and Ha: µ≠µ H0 which may µ>µ H0 or µ<µ H0. whether the population mean is either lower or higher than some hypothesized value. But there are situations when only a one-tailed test is considered appropriate. in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. whereas type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0. say. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if.trade-off in business situations. If significance level is 5 % and the two-tailed test is to be applied.95. one must set a very high level for type I error in one’s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. If type I error involves time and trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted. say. As a result. the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypothesized value of the mean of the population. Hence. 1 25) Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test: In the context of hypothesis testing. these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Case Study Method? How is Case Study method useful to Business Research? .
Case study can be applied either in marketing and any other business arena. 4. Case studies typically examine the interplay among variables to provide comprehensive understanding through a thick description process which in-depth describes the entity. New key factors may emerge or unexpected patterns are found and these may become the basis for new questions which link to the further business research. Business researcher prefers case study when how and why questions are asked and may choose to collect data from one or multi-modal approach. Despite the difficulty test for validity of case study statistical analysis result. and this may conflict the credibility of the research study. the bias of the result induced through the power of the financed persons. To make sense of the qualitative data from case study. holistic and coding analyses are employed to draw conclusion from text as a whole. case study has been used within the limitation of the scarce availability of case study. What are the Primary and Secondary sources of Data? Sources of Data The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources. Questionnaires concerning about the use of case study as a business research method had been sent out to a group of Thai researchers during the mentioned time interval and the significant results from the statistical analysis found that less than fifty percent of these samples had used case study as the research method with the reason of the unavailability of proper case studies. 1 Primary Source of Data .Nowadays research methodologies have been intensively changed and adapted. Case study is a method used by researchers to excel at bringing an understanding of the complex issue and can extend experience or add strength to what already known through previous research. for example. However more than half of the samples said they expect to use case study more and more in their future research. Certain ethical issues should be considered for case study. case study approach allows flexibility for researchers to compare their firsthand observations with the quantitative results obtained from other research methods and establish a bridge for the gap between abstract research and concrete practice research. The results of the survey bring the awareness of the business case writing and the expansion of utilizing of the case study as a tool of business research in Thailand and thus enhance the using of case study as a research tool which will result the academic progress in case study as a business research method afterwards. In Thailand. circumstances and characteristics being evaluated.
The advantages of primary data are – 11.g. e. publications of international organizations such as the UN. such as annual reports.g. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose.). compared to gathering information from available sources 22. Differentiate between Schedules and Questionnaire. etc.Data collection is a time consuming process 33. financial statements.It requires trained interviewers and investigators 2 Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. census reports. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm.It is unique to a particular research study 22..Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. reports of government departments). experiments and observation. inventory records. trade associations (e. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. in the form of a marketing information system. What are the alternative . and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. Secondary sources may be internal sources. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information). published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. 5. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. They may also be external sources. sales reports.g. trade and financial journals. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand.It is recent information. such as government agencies (e. brand preference.It is expensive to collect. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are – 11. World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
businesses would get completely paralyzed.modes of sending Questionnaires? Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data in research surveys.Questionnaire is generally sent through 1. who can interpret the questions when necessary 2. Explain the various steps in processing of Data. Data collection is more expensive as money is spent on enumerators 3. 1. This is because quality data helps formulate effective business strategies and fruitful business decisions. Schedules is generally filled by the research mail to informants to be answered worker or enumerator. the quality of data should be maintained in good condition in order to facilitate smooth . Without access to relevant data. The questionnaire method is likely to be 5. Identity of respondent is known many people do not respond 4. It is not clear that who replies 5. Therefore. Non response is usually high as 3. Direct personal contact is established questionnaire 6. Data collection is cheap 2. the two methods can be taken to be the same. It is the invisible backbone that supports all the operations and activities within a business. No personal contact is possible in case of 6. But from the technical point of view there is difference between the two. Non response is very low because this is filled by enumerators 4. Information is collected well in time very slow since many respondents do not return the questionnaire 6. There is much resemblance in the nature of these two methods and this fact has made many people to remark that from a practical point of view. 5 Steps To Data Processing Data is an integral part of all business processes.
the available data is not in any specific order. The final product i. All the accumulated data is double checked in order to ensure that it contains no inconsistencies and is utterly relevant. Extracting relevant data is one of the core procedures of data processing. Clients can supply data in a variety of forms. the data is tabulated and arranged in a systematic format so that it can be further analyzed. Data consists of facts and figures. The various applications of data processing can convert raw data into useful information that can be used further for business processes. When companies and organizations have access to useful information. It transforms plain data into valuable information and information into data. To make it more sensible and usable for further use. it is edited in order to discard the inappropriate data and retain relevant data. All these processes make up the complete data processing activity which ensures the said data is available for access.e. Coding Even after the editing process. Data processing refers to the process of converting data from one format to another. Companies and organizations across the world make use of data processing services in order to facilitate their market research interests. Validation After the cleansing phase. In order to enhance business proceedings. The method of coding ensures just that and arranges data in a comprehendible format. . Data validation refers to the process of thoroughly checking the collected data to ensure optimal quality levels. Data entry professionals do the task efficiently. be it . Here are the 5 steps that are included in data processing: Editing There is a big difference between data and useful data. When data has been accumulated from various sources.xls sheets. it is entered into the software that performs the eventual cross tabulation. based on which important conclusions can be drawn. or plain printed material. it needs to be aligned into a particular system. useful data has to be extracted from the huge volumes of the same. thus expanding the profit margins. Tabulation This is the final step in data processing. comes the validation process. they can utilize it for strategizing powerful business moves that would eventually increase the company revenue and decrease the costs. audio devices.business proceedings. Data processing ensures that the data is presented in a clean and systematic manner and is easy to understand and be used for further purposes. While there are huge volumes of data available on the internet. The process is also known as netting or bucketing. Data Entry After the data has been properly arranged and coded. Data processing services take the raw data and process it accordingly to produce sensible information. data should be made available in all possible forms in order to increase the accessibility of the same.
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