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Child Development CLDDV 104

Conception Through Early Childhood

Outline for First Class
Introductions/Attendance Review Syllabus Classroom Policies Classroom Exercise Begin Lesson, Chapter 1 Review

Introductions
Name First Class? Second Class? Last Class? Recall a specific event rather than a general behavior when you were a small child.

Purpose for taking this class…. Social or Behavior Science Education Nursing Understanding own children Foster Parent Cont’d Educational Credits Requirement Other .

Human Development Definition: The study of people. . all kinds of people and why they change or remain the same over time.

Crucial Elements of Human Development “Empirical” Science Change All Groups of People .

Drunk Driving. Seatbelts. Second Hand Smoke .Empirical Science Based on Data Based on Experiences/Observat ions Based on Actual Facts Ex.

All Groups of People Young or old Rich or poor Different Ethnic Groups Different Cultures .

Change Continuity: stable over time (unchanging) Example-biological sex Discontinuity: changes unlike before (changing) Example-Brain Development (Psychologist Ross Thompson “by far the most complex structure in the known universe” .

Life Span Approach to Development According to developmentalists. the understanding of any age group evolves around five principles of development. Smith & Bates and Staudinger & Lindenberger. Baltes. Plasticity Multidirectional Multidisciplinary Multicontextual Multicultural .

7) . (Refer to figure 1. Consistency is very rare and developmentalist have learned that human development is not linear.1. p.Multidirectional Any direction or path.

Examples ? . causing other changes that create a major event.Multidirectional Edward Lorenz. in 1972 described what happens when change is influenced by a significant power source the “Butter Fly Effect” Butter Fly Effect: Idea that a small event or thing can have a large impact if it happens to tip the balance. weather expert.

Despite the tragedy of war the bond between mother and child helped them cope and no significant change in behavior. For example. Ragnhild Dybdahl (2001) studied preschoolers who had experienced fleeing from their homes with their mothers during war time.Multidirectional Opposite of the Butter Fly Effect. Large event that has a small or insignificant impact. socially or emotionally was observed. What about Hurricane Katrina? .

Physical Surroundings and Family Situations. Social Contexts: Historical and Socioeconomic .Multicontextual Consider how different backgrounds may influence our development.

. This group of people would be called a “cohort”.Multicontextual Historical Context: Events that happened during a specific time with a group of people that lived in that era.

mothers who worked outside the home B. Birth Control . Fathers’ roles in child rearing C. what attitude did most of the people you knew have toward the following? A. When you were in the 6th grade. Senior Citizens D. if you can. People of other ethnic groups E. wars. Children with Disabilities F. natural disasters) ? Describe. how these events influenced your development.Multicontextual: Cohorts Do you know of any important events that occurred at the time of your birth? What important events do you remember as having affected you and your classmates during your school years( for example. assassinations.

middle class and the rich according to income. educational level. Many programs offered to families with young children have qualifying criteria in order to receive services. the Parent Child Home Program (PCHP) main priority is the SES disadvantage families living in low performance school areas. . The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study of 1962 by David Weikert studied children living in poverty while attending a high quality preschool program. SES is a classification system to identify poor. and other factors. occupation. For example.Multicontextual-Socioeconomic The second context that is studied and observed in numerous articles and research is socioeconomic status (SES).

experiences or customs.Multicultural Definition: Belonging to different groups that share the same values. College Community Age groups Neighborhood People with Disabilities Ethnic Groups .

perceptual abilities.Multidisciplinary Human development occurs through many different domains or categories. interpersonal relationships • What task or skill is learned by using the domains listed above and how? . language • Psychosocial = emotions. These different domains or disciplines of development which interrelate in order to produce cause and effect are: • Biosocial = brain and body • Cognitive = thought processes. personality.

The Developing Person through childhood adolescence.7th edition.Multidisciplinary Berger. chapter one .

and are ever changing based on our environment and internal experiences. contexts. nurses and human beings we must consider the whole person.Multidisciplinary It is essential to include all the domains when learning how one’s development. parents. professionals. . We are diverse in culture. As educators.

Multidisciplinary Child Psychopathology (disorders of the mind. . These disorders tend to be inherited traits of environment or family members. For Example: Autism. Depression. Phobias (fear) and Anxiety.

The disorder was first described in 1943 by American psychiatrist Leo Kanner. Research has shown a direct correlation between these disorders and the part of the brain that controls emotions. One of the most common developmental disabilities. feelings and non-verbal communication. interact with other people.Autism According to the California Department Developmental Services: Autism is a disorder that severely impairs development of a person’s ability to communicate. . It is about four times more common in males than in females. The Amgydala appears typical in most brain scans but with a special 3-D scan it is flatter. autism affects approximately 1 in 500 to 1 in 166 children and appears before the age of three. and maintain normal contact with the outside world.

Siblings allow the child to accomplish tasks without help. culture and upbringing. . Neighborhood treats the child the same as all the rest. For example. Parents encourage responsibility Parents don’t use labels. a child with Down Syndrome may be more independent and confident in a household where they are: treated the same as their siblings that don’t have down syndrome.Plasticity Development can be shaped or changed while still maintaining one’s identity.

• It takes a village to raise a child. SES or culture.The Life Span Approach to Development This leads us to understand and appreciate that no one is exactly the same as his or her cohort. Examples: Neighborhood (Collective) Efficacy • Residents of a particular area show concern and care for their “hood” environment as well as each other. –African Proverb Resiliency • Ability to overcome severe threats to development . Complexity within these approaches exists.

Developmental Study as a Science Scientific method: a general way to seek evidence to answer a question Formulate a research question Develop a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw conclusions Make findings available .

Can be laboratory or naturalistic Example: A study on childhood obesity found that only 5% of kids got physical exercise by walking or riding their bikes to school. .Scientific Observation Observation: systematically observe and record behavior in an objective manner.

). . Experimental group: is given a particular treatment Control group: does not get the treatment Read example in text about experiment on activity and obesity (p.Experiment Research method to establish cause-and effect by manipulating one variable (independent v.) and then observing and recording the resulting changes in the other variable (dependent v. 19).

Experiment cont’d .

person or email in order to obtain data. Case Study: intensive analysis of one individual at a time. .Other Methods Survey: questionnaire by phone.

Studying Changes Over Time Design a study to answer the question: “How much does reading comprehension improve between 4 and 6 years of age?” .

assessing over and over again Cross-sequential: combination of studying groups of people who are different ages over the years.Measuring change over time Cross-sectional: Differ in age but similar characteristics Longitutidinal: Same indviduals over time. .

Mesosystems refer to interactions among the microsystems. medical. employment. Microsystems intimately and immediately shape human development. historical time. Bronfenbrenner has recently added a fifth system. political philosophies. Influencing all three of these systems is the macrosystem. The primary microsystems for children include the family. or mosque. macrosystem. each person is significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping systems. neighborhood. which includes cultural values. economic patterns. such as community structures and local educational. Together.Ecological System Approach Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model According to developmental researcher Urie Bronfenbrenner. classroom. the chronosystem. these systems provide the context of human development. and communications systems. to emphasize the importance of chronosystem. peer group. and social conditions. that influence the microsystems. Surrounding and supporting the microsystems are the exosystems. as when parents coordinate their efforts with teachers to educate the child. . networks. and sometimes a church. temple. which include all the external exosystems.

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.Cautions from Science Correlation vs. Example: The more hours you work. the more money you will be paid. Positive correlation: the variables increase or decrease together. Causation A correlation indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.

the less money you will have in your checking account.00 CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION . Negative correlation: as one variable increases.1.Correlation cont’d. Example: The more clothes you buy. the other decreases. Correlations range from 0 to +/.

not easily transferable into numbers particular conditions. HMMMMM? • Is the College admission process based on quantity or quality? . charted and expressed in numbers or rank. Qualitative: Open ended.Quantity and Quality Quantitative: easily summarized. A question that makes you say. compared.

Ethics Principles that members of a profession are expected to follow. General principles Do no harm Secure informed consent Keep information of participants confidential Report research findings honestly and carefully Base generalizations on more than one study .

Prepare the Child for the Path not the path for the child .