2012

Biology Investigatory

M Anirudh
7/11/2012

Biology Investigatory Project

Urinalysis
Submitted by M Anirudh XII

a student of class XII has successfully completed the research project on the topic “Urinalysis” under the guidance of Ms. This project is absolutely genuine and does not indulge in plagiarism of any kind. SIGNATURE (Subject Teacher) SIGNATURE (Examiner) SIGNATURE (Principal) .CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY This is to certify that M ANIRUDH. The references taken in making this project have been declared at the end of this report. SHEEBA (Biology Teacher).

I heartily thank my school Principal Ms. Also . M Anirudh XII .SHEEBA for her guidance. Also. Without her motivation and help . support and encouragement throughout the duration of the project.the successful completion of this project would not have been possible . I thank my FATHER & MOTHER for their encouragement.It gives me immense pleasure to express my gratitude to my biology teacher Ms. guidance & support.Mini Verma madam for allowing us to use lab in full extent.

INDEX SERIAL NUMBER TOPIC PAGE NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Certificate Of Authenticity Acknowledgement Introduction Materials Required Procedure Result Bibliography 1 2 3 7 8 13 19 .

ammonium chloride and salts of calcium & potassium . Other component of urine are organic & inorganic compounds like urea.  Major composition of urine is water (97%).Also they excrete excess hormones & vitamins  What is Urinalysis? :  It is the series of test done on urine. bilirubin.INTRODUCTION  What is Urine ? :  Urine is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys . It is the one of the most common method of medical diagnostic. .

Hence the body ailment can be located through this analysis. . Most of the body wastes are brought to kidney for filtration. Why Urinalysis :  Most of the blood constituents are present in urine.  It is easy to analyze most of the bacteria in water medium than in blood.  Most of the bacteria and viruses are discharged from our body through urine. This method is more convenient than blood test because:  Some might be scared of blood so this provides to be an alternative for blood tests.

7ºC . Physical Preservation: Urine is stored in the refrigerator which doesn’t affect the constituent of urine.5ºC to 37. Required Volume : 30-45 ml taken within 4 minutes Temperature : 32. Types of urine Specimens : Specimen 1 day preserved specimen 2 Hours after lunch First morning Specimen Drug specimen Uses : For quantitative analysis chemical Diabetic Monitoring Diabetic Monitoring Drug testing  Preservation of Urine : 1.

Chemical preservation : This process is done under following reagents :Phenol: causes an odor change Toluene: not effective for bacteria and molds Thymol crystals: preserves glucose and sediments well Formalin: excellent sediment preservative Boric acid: preserves protein well .2.

The color of non-pathological urine varies widely from colorless to deep yellow. o PH: Denotes the presence of H+ concentration in the content sample. the deeper the color. the more concentrated the urine.PROCEDURE Physical Examination : o Colour : Denotes the degree of concentration. The color of urine is usually described after visual inspection with common color terms. Examination : Observing the colour . ion Examination : Using PH papers . .

 Urine sample  Benedict’s solution  Fehling’s solution – 1  Fehling’s solution – 2  Copper sulphate solution  Sodium hydroxide  Borsch’s reagent  Ethanol  Test tubes .

Chemical Examination : .

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RESULT : TEST Colour PH Blood Glucose Amine group RESULT Yellowish 7.0 (Light Green) 0.5% Amines are present .

0%).0 (Light Orange) 1.Carbonyl gp Ketone Test Aldehyde Test Protein test (Buriet Test) FeCl3 Test Phenol Carbonyl gp present Ketones are present Aldehyde are absent 15%(approx. The blood glucose level is Normal (1.) No reaction Absent Summary : The above urine sample is having all vital urine parameter NORMAL .0% Amines are present Carbonyl gp present Ketones are present Aldehyde are absent . The person is HEALTHY . : TEST Colour PH Blood Glucose Amine group Carbonyl gp Ketone Test Aldehyde Test RESULT Yellowish 6.

4 (Light Green) 1.0) . This PH is not a case of concern .) No reaction Absent Summary : The given urine sample is bit acidic (PH = 6. All the other values are corresponding to normal value .Protein test (Buriet Test) FeCl3 Test Phenol 12%(approx. : TEST Colour PH Blood Glucose Amine group Carbonyl gp Ketone Test Aldehyde Test RESULT Clear 7.0 % Amines are present Carbonyl gp present Ketones are present Aldehyde are absent . The person is HEALTHY .

The person is HEALTHY .0% Amines are present Carbonyl gp present Ketones are present .) No reaction Absent Summary : All the values are corresponding to normal value . : TEST Colour PH Blood Glucose Amine group Carbonyl gp Ketone Test RESULT Yellowish 7.0 (Light Green) 2.Protein test (Buriet Test) FeCl3 Test Phenol 12%(approx.

0 (Dark Green) 2. : TEST Colour PH Blood Glucose Amine group Carbonyl gp Ketone Test RESULT Yellowish 8. He might be affected by Diabetes . All other values are normal .Aldehyde Test Protein test (Buriet Test) FeCl3 Test Phenol Aldehyde are absent 10%(approx.0% Amines are present Carbonyl gp present Ketones are present .) No reaction Absent Summary : The person is having substantially higher blood sugar than normal .

wikipedia.co. the values of PH .html .chemguide.  http://en. Blood Glucose level and Protein are the serious one .) No reaction Absent Summary : In the given sample of urine specimen.Aldehyde Test Protein test (Buriet Test) FeCl3 Test Phenol Aldehyde are absent 23%(approx. The person is also affected by Diabetes .org/wiki/Benedict%27s_reagent  http://www.uk/organicprops/carbonyls/o xidation. BIBLOGRAPY :  Class XI practical textbook . Higher albumin (protein) & PH level in urine indicates serious trouble in Kidney.

htm  http:/ /www.org/spencer_urinalysis/ ds_sub2.texascollaborative.edu/mlt/ua/ua_links.austincc.html . http://www.

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