Integrated Civil Engineering Design Project (Building Structure Design


CIVL 395

By : Ir. K.S. Kwan Date: 3/07

Content 1. Building Control in Hong Kong 2. Design Criteria 3. Structural Form (Residential Building) 4. Hong Kong Wind Loading 5. Computer Modeling 6. Design Example

STRUCTURAL FORM for Residential Building
•Tower •Podium Structure •Building adjacent to slope

Lintel beam Slab To identify the wall as structural element and link them together by lintel beam to provide sufficient lateral stiffness Wall .

Slab Design – Concrete grade Grade 30 to 35 (too high concrete grade may lead to thermal crack during large pour of concrete) – Steel reinforcement percentage Design as HK CoP 2004 for structural use of concrete Average steel ratio is around 120~140 Kg/m3 – Preliminary slab size estimation About 100mm~400mm depending on the span of slab ( to minimize the number of different slab thickness. say 2 ~3 types. at typical floor for buildability consideration To consider the following loading – Self weight – Finishes (domestic area/toilet/kitchen) (25mm to 80mm thick) – Partition .

Slab is designed as one-way or two ways slab .

g. By using high strength concrete. from Grade 60 at lower floor to Grade 30 at top roof. – Steel reinforcement percentage Design as HK CoP 2004 Average steel ratio is around 100~150Kg/m3 – Preliminary wall size estimation Gravity Load – by tributary method Wind Load – by simple computer model . from 400 at 1/F and gradually changed to 200 at top floor. it can optimize the wall thickness and increase the lateral stiffness of wall. 40. The thickness will be trimmed down along the height of building e. The thickness will be changed every 10 ~20 storey to minimize the disturbance on construction. 60 or more is commonly used.g. The concrete grade will also be changed along the height of building e.Wall Design – Concrete grade Grade 30.

Vertical Element Gravity Load Estimation by Tributary Area Method 250 2625 200 2625 250 W2 W3 W1 W1 200 3900 C1 Plan 3-D .

) Beam size = 450x250 (int.TRIBUTARY AREA METHOD Assumption No.) Dead Load = 10KPa Live Load = 3KPa . of storey = 20 Storey height = 2800 Slab thickness = 150 Beam size = 400x200 (ext.

TRIBUTARY AREA METHOD (KN) 250 2625 200 2625 250 C1 W1 W2 1686 2264 2568 1266 W2 W3 W1 W1 200 3900 W3 C1 Plan .

Lintel Beam Design (where linking shear wall together to transmit wind shear force) Lintel Beam – Size Width as wall thickness Depth controlled by headroom (min.c. steel plate will be used to replace r. 2100 at door and 2300 under beam Concrete grade same as floor slab for easy concrete pour with slab or more if required – Steel reinforcement percentage Design as HK CoP 2004 Average steel ratio is around 120 ~160 Kg/m3 – Preliminary lintel size estimation Wind Load – by simple computer model. design to enhance the wind shear transmission) Gravity Load – by tributary method (not the controlled case) Steel plate at lintel beam . the size is always controlled by wind shear transmission (in some critical case.e. under side of beam i.

Transfer Structure Tower (Shear Wall system) Podium (Plate Structure) Supporting Column (Rigid Frame) .

Transfer Girder Structure The behavior is similar to deep beam when the wall extending to columns such as case a. b & c. .

Transfer Plate Structure Shear Wall Structure at Tower above Transfer Plate Column Structure below Transfer Plate Thick plate structure to support all wall structures above .

Transfer Plate .


the thickness is controlled by shear stress .5m ~5m) Depend on the spacing of columns and tower loading Gravity load – as the wall load transmitted tower load to plate level Wind load – the plate behaviour as frame structure integrated with columns below Normally.Transfer Structure Design (Plate or Girder) – Design similar to pilecap or beam – Closed column spacing under the transfer structure to allow truss effect at transfer structure to minimize the deformation of transfer structure (Prestressed transfer structure is required for large span ) – Steel reinforcement percentage Design as HK CoP 2004 Average steel ratio is around 240~280 Kg/m3 – Preliminary size estimation (1.

Podium Structure Behavior Loading from tower including: (P) Axial Load (M) Moment (V) Shear Transfer Plate Design To cater for gravity load and wind load from tower structure including axial load. moment and shear The transfer plate with column below to form a rigid frame structure All loadings are transmitted to foundation by shear. moment and axial force. .


Transfer Plate with Prestressed Tendon .

Building Development Adjacent to Slope Retaining structure is required for building near the slope The extent of excavation will depend on the subsoil condition of slope i. Rock / Soil ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? .e.

Building Development near Slope Walls at Tower Transfer Plate Column under transfer structure Large Diameter Bored Pile Pile Cap .

Retaining Wall Structure Pile Cap .

Retaining structure for semi-basement construction .

Retaining Wall Structure with deep excavation required .

Two levels basement to reduce the deep excavation .

HONG KONG WIND LOAD Wind Load Assessment Procedure .

Wind Responses of a Building • Static No movement • Equivalent Static Load • WC 2004 Wind direction • Dynamic .Cross wind response .Along wind response • Gust Factor Method • WC 2004 .Torsional wind response • Literature/ Wind Tunnel Test • WC 2004 .

3. 7.7] Method Signpost in Wind Code 2004 I (i) fnatural > 1Hz.3 (p.2) and Cl.2Hz. 7. 5. p.3] • Susceptible to along wind resonant response • Gust Factor Method [Cl. D).Step 1 – Determine Method of Calculation • Wind Load Assessment Procedure (1) Determine method of calculation according to the signpost in Cl. p.6 (p. or H > 100m (i) Open frame with significant resonant dynamic response.4] • Susceptible to dynamic excitation • Recommendation from literature/ Dynamic wind tunnel test [App. or (iii) Significant cross wind / torsional resonant response II III . and H <= 100m (i) fnatural <= 1Hz. Characteristic • No significant resonant dynamic response • Equivalent Static Load Method [Cl. or (ii) fnatural < 0. D). p. A. and (ii) H > 5 x Min (B. or (ii) H <= 5 x Min (B.5).

To determine building height (H) and width (B.D) Building least horizontal dimension (B.D) B Building height (H) Building on plan .

To define the height and least dimension of building b Sec A-A A-A H h B B-B Sec B-B .

14~15] • Calculate Total Along-Wind Force F = G.5] • Calculate Gust Response Factor (G) [Appendix F.3] Method 2 – Slightly Dynamic Building • Calculate Design Hourly Mean Wind Pressure [Table 2.Az [Eqn (1).5 Method 1 – Static Building • Calculate Design Wind Pressure (3-sec.10~13] • Calculate Force Coefficients (Cf) – Height Aspect Factor.Σ qz . p. p.10~13] • Calculate Force Coefficients (Cf) – Height Aspect Factor. 4] . p. Ch – Shape Factor. 3] [Appendix D. Σ qz . p. p.Az [Eqn (3). Ch – Shape Factor. p. Cf . Cs [Appendix D.Wind Load Assessment Procedure (2) Step 2a Steps 2 . RA • Calculate Topography Factor [Appendix C. p. Cs – Reduction Factor. gust pressure) [Table 1. p.14~16] 5 • Calculate Total Wind Force F = Cf.19~21] 2b 3 4 • Calculate Topography Factor [Appendix C. p.

Step 2a – Design Wind Pressure/ Design Hourly Mean Wind Pressure • Wind Code 2004 – Only One Terrain • Open Sea Terrain .



00 Pressure (KPa) .00 4.Wind Profiles Below 200m 250 Wind Pressure Profile Under 200m 1983 200 1983 (Stepwise) PNAP150 2004 Height (m) 150 100 50 0 0.00 2.00 3.00 1.00 5.

• The original method was developed by Davenport (1967) and Vickery (1966 and 1971) • In Wind Code 2004.Along Wind Dynamic Resonant Response by Gust Factor Method (1) G = 1 + 2I h gv B + 2 g f SE 2 ς (Refer to Wind Code 2004 Appendix F for description of the other variables) . the equation is simplified to: Step 2b .

16) does not apply to the Gust Factor Method in Appendix F .Step 2b .Along Wind Dynamic Resonant Response by Gust Factor Method (2) • Dynamic resonant response is dependant on the magnitude of the fluctuating load as well as its size (or scale) in relation to the size of the structure • The size reduction factor.5na h ⎤ ⎡ 4na b ⎤ b/λ wind gust ⎢1 + ⎥ ⎢1 + ⎥ Vh ⎦ ⎣ Vh ⎦ ⎣ • The reduction factor. in Table D3 (p. RA. S. accounts for the correlation of pressures over a building and is equal 1 to h/λ λ represents the size of the ⎡ 3.

Step 3 – Topography Factor (1) • Wind Code 2004 – Speed up ratio adopted from BS6399-2:1995 except that the altitude factor in BS6399-2 was excluded (In BS6399-2.) . altitude factor is used to adjust the basic wind speed for the altitude of the site above seal level.

Step 3 –Topography Factor (2) .

Step 3 –Topography Factor (3) .

Step 3 –Topography Factor (4) .

the actual hill/slope shall be differently idealized under the two Codes. These examples from British were for illustration only and the method of idealizing the hill/slope should not be copied for application to Hong Kong Code. . Due to the different requirements in British Code and Hong Kong Code regarding the idealization of the hill/slope.Step 3 –Topography Factor (5) These examples are taken from British reference book based on British Code.

Step 3 –Topography Factor (6) .

.Step 3 –Topography Factor (7) Comment: Idealized slope (a) may be more appropriate for Hong Kong Code.

Topography Factor (App. C of HK Wind Code) .

Forces on Buildings 1. The effective projected area of an enclosed building shall be the frontal projected area The effect projected area of an open framework building shall be the aggregate projected area of all members on a plane normal to the direction of the wind Each building shall be designed for the effects of wind pressures acting along each of the critical directions 4. 3. . Total Force on a Building F = Cf Σ qz Az where Cf = force coefficient qz = design wind pressure at height z Az = effective projected area of that part of the building corresponding to qz 2.

d) For building composed of similar contiguous structures separated by expansion joints.Force Coefficeints A. individual force coefficients corresponding to the height and shape of each block shall be applied. For Enclosed Building a) Cf = Ch x Cs b) From other international codes accetped by BA c) For building with isolated blocks projecting above a general roof level. . the force coefficients shall be applied to the entire building.

Height Aspect Ratio Ch Height Breadth 1.95 1.2 1.0 or less 2.0 6.0 1.0 4.0 and over Height Aspect Factor Ch 1983 0.4 Remark: Linear Interpolation to obtain intermediate values .95 1.1 1.05 1.1 1.05 1.2 2004 0.0 20.0 10.0 1.

0 Cs for buildings with closed spacing wind b 2.0 or less Cs 1.Shape Factors Cs for Enclosed Building Plan Shape Rectangular d b/d 1.1 b 3.0 1.3 d Remark: Interpolate linearly .0 and over 1.

the diagonal wind effects and torsional wind effects should be considered .75 Other Shapes Cs for the Respective enclosing rectangular shape in the direction of the wind Note: When the actual shape of a building renders it to become sensitive to wind acting not perpendicular to its face.Shape Factors Cs for Enclosed Building Plan Shape Circular wind Cs 0.

Reduction Factor RA • • • • • • • Gusts are the results of eddies and vortices The speed of gust is a function of its duration The smaller the size of the gust.C. a longer duration gust is required to be effective on the whole of the structure A reduction factor is therefore applied when designing buildings of larger dimensions (E.C.Choi – Commentary on 1983 wind codes) • Not applicable for buildings with significant resonant dynamic response designed by using hourly mean wind pressure • . the longer will be its duration and the lower the average gust speed A small gust can only create high wind loading on a small local area of the structure The whole structure should be designed with the speed of a gust which is just big enough to affect the whole structure simultaneously A 3 second gust can normally engulf a building with frontal area of 300 to 800m2. the shorter will be its duration and the higher will be the gust speed The larger the size of gust.

89 0.80 Note : Linear Interpolation may be used to obtain intermediate values .92 0.00 0.97 0.86 0.84 0.Reduction Factor RA for Enclosed Buildings Frontal Projected Area m2 500 or less 800 1000 3000 5000 8000 10000 15000 and over Reduction Factor RA 2004 1.96 0.

• Wind Load Case – X & Y directions are commonly accepted – Additional wind direction (e.g. additional torsional wind load (10% of long face dimension) is required . diagonal wind for Y-shape building) is required – For large frontal area building (say >50m).

Wind Load Distribution at Building .

Wind Load Calculation as HK CoP (Building is considered as significant resonant dynamic structure) .

Wind load calculation at each floor for a building with 40 storey (with 3 floors above domestic floor) and the building width is 40.23m Building structure as significant resonant dynamic structure \ Sa=topography factor .

Wind Load Calculation as HK CoP (Building is not considered as significant resonant dynamic structure)

Wind load calculation at each floor for a building with 40 storey (with 3 floors above domestic floor) and the building width is 40.23m Building structure not considered as significant resonant dynamic structure (Note: Total wind shear is larger based on static wind load approach for building aspect ratio just greater than 5) Sa = topography factor


Common Structural Analysis Software used in Hong Kong ETABS SAP2000 SAFE SADS GSA STARIII GTSTRUDL PAFEC STAN .

Material – All structural components behave linearly elastically.Tall Building Modelling Assumptions 1. Rigid in plane . Participating Components – only the primary structural components participate in the overall behaviour Floor slabs – Floor slab are assumed to be rigid in plane unless they contain large openings or are long and narrow in plan Only the primary structural components are put in model 2. 3.

Tall Building Modelling Assumptions 4. Cracking – the effects of cracking in reinforced concrete members to flexural tensile stresses may be represented by a reduced stiffness This line should be a straight line in assumption due to the small deformation 5. 6. . Negligible stiffness – component stiffness of relatively small magnitude are assumed negligible Negligible deformations – deformations that are relatively small and of little influence are neglected.

How to apply wind loading in computer model? In common building shape with the rigid diaphragm assumption. the wind load should be applied at the geometry centre of each floor V Wind load applied at floor Wind load applied at centre of frontal area .

What can you find in computer modeling? – Seismic. wind and gravity analysis – Deformation of building under different loading conditions – Member force under different loading conditions .

Deflection of building at top floor including the X & Y displacement and Z direction rotation .


com .) to : akskwan@gmail. please forward email (with your Name and Student ID no.Q&A If you have any questions about the structural design.

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