kkA Americankdeathktrianglek kkkkAnkanchorkwhichkiskcreatedkbykconnectingkakclosedkloopkofkcordkorkwebbingkbe tweenktwokpointskofkprotection,kandkthenksuspendingkthekropekfromkakcarabinerkcl ippedktokonlykonekstrandkofksaidkanchor.

kThiskcreateskaktriangularkshapekinkthek webbingkorkcord,kwhichkplaceskmassivelykmultipliedkinwardkforceskonkthekprotecti on,kma ingkitkakdangerous,kineffectivekanchor. Abala ovkthreadk kkkkAktypekofkabseilingkpointkusedkespeciallykinkwinterkandkicekclimbing.kAlsokc alledkaskV-thread. Ablationkzonek kkkkThekareakofkakglacierkwherekyearlykmeltingkmeetskorkexceedskthekannualksnowk fall. Abseilk kkkkThekprocesskbykwhichkakclimberkcankdescendkakfixedkrope.kAlsok nownkaskRappe l. Adzek kkkkAkthinkbladekmountedkperpendicularktokthekhandlekonkankicekaxekthatkcankbeku sedkforkchoppingkfootholds. Alpinekstartk kkkkTokma ekankefficientkstartkonkaklongkclimbkbykpac ingkallkyourkgearkthekprev iouskeveningkandkstartingkearlykinkthekmorning,kusuallykwellkbeforeksunrise. Altitudeksic nessk kkkkAkmedicalkconditionkthatkiskoftenkobservedkatkhighkaltitudes.kAlsok nownkask Acutekmountainksic ness,korkAMS.[1] Anchork kkkkAnkarrangementkofkonekork(usually)kmorekpieceskofkgearksetkupktoksupportkthe kweightkofkakbelaykorktopkrope. Approachk kkkkThekpathkorkroutektokthekstartkofkaktechnicalkclimb.kAlthoughkthiskiskgenera llykakwal kor,katkmost,kakscramblekitkiskoccasionallykaskhazardouskaskthekclimbk itself. Arêtek kkkk1.kAksmallkridge-li ekfeaturekonkaksteepkroc kface kkkk2.kArête,kaknarrowkridgekofkroc kformedkbykglacialkerosion kkkk3.kAkmethodkofkindoorkclimbing,kinkwhichkonekiskablektokuseksuchkakcornerkas kakhold.kSeekalsokdihedral. Ascendk kkkkTokcompletekakroutekorkproblem. Ascenderk kkkkAkdevicekforkascendingkonkakrope. ATCk kkkkAkproprietarykbelaykdevicekmanufacturedkbykBlac kDiamond.kATCkstandskforkair ktraffickcontroller. Atomickbelayk kkkkAkquic kmethodkforksettingkupkaktwo-pointkanchorkinksportkclimbing,kusingkth ekclimbingkropektokattachktokthekanchorkpoints. kkB "B"-gradek kkkkAkgradingksystemkforkboulderingkproblems,kinventedkbykJohnkGill.kNowklargely ksupersededkbykthek"V"kgradingksystem. Bacharkladderk kkkkAkpiecekofktrainingkequipmentkusedktokimprovekcampusingkandkcorekstrength. Bac -clippingk kkkkAkpotentiallykhazardouskmista ekthatkcankbekmadekwhilekleadkclimbing.kThekro pekiskclippedkintokakquic drawksuchkthatkthekleader'skendkrunskunderneathkthekqu ic drawkaskopposedktokoverktopkofkit.kIfkthekleaderkfalls,kthekropekmaykfoldkdir

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

ksuchkaskonkaksheerkverticalkwall.keightkandktuber.kincludingkATC.khavingkakholekforkakbinerkorkring. Boulderingk kkkkThekpracticekofkclimbingkonklargekboulders.kakportaledgekthatkhangskfromkanc horskonkthekwallkcankbekused.korkisktric edkinto.kAlsokcalledkak'shrund. Bergschrundk(orkschrund) kkkkAkcrevassekthatkformskonkthekupperkportionkofkakglacierkwherekthekmovingksec tionkpullskawaykfromkthekheadwall.kReverso. Belaykdevicek kkkkAkmechanicalkdevicekusedktokcreatekfrictionkwhenkbelayingkbykputtingkbendski nkthekrope. Bivy-bagk kkkkAklightweightkgarmentkorksac kofferingkfull-bodykprotectionkfromkwindkandkra in. ktokwhichkakmetalkhangerkiskattached. Betakflashk kkkkThekcleankascentkofkakclimbkonkthekfirstkattempt.kBeforekbelaykdeviceskwerekinven ted. Bummerk                           . Binerkk kkkkSeekCarabiner.krepeatedkbelayingkdutieskwi thoutkparta ingkinkanykofkthekactualkclimbing.kAlsok nownkaskbomber. Boltk kkkkAkpointkofkprotectionkpermanentlykinstalledkinkakholekdrilledkintokthekroc . Boltkchoppingk kkkkThekdeliberatekandkdestructivekremovalkofkonekorkmorekbolts.k AkMunterkhitchkcanksometimeskbekusedkinsteadkofkakbelaykdevice.kthekropekwasksimplykpassedkaroundkthekbelayer'skhipsktokcreatekfriction.kovernightkwhilekst illkonkakclimbingkroutekoffkthekground. Barn-doork kkkkIfkakclimberkhaskonlyktwokpointskofkcontactkusingkeitherkthekrightkorkleftks idekofkhiskbody.kthekotherkhalfkmaykswingkuncontrollablykoutkfromkthekwallkli ek akdoorkonkakhinge.kSt ichtkplate. Bailk kkkkTokretreatkfromkakclimb.kMaykinvolveknothingkmorekthanklyingkdown korksittingkonkakroc kledgekwithoutkanyksleepingkgear. Bashiek kkkkAkcopperheadkintendedkforkpoundingkintokakcrac Belayk kkkkTokprotectkakropedkclimberkfromkfallingkbykpassingkthekropekthrough.korkarou nd.kSomekbelaykdeviceskmaykalsokbekusedkaskdescenders. Bridgingk kkkkseekSteming Buc etk kkkkAklargekhandhold.kAlsokseekon-sigh t. Bomb-proofkanchork kkkkAktotallyksecurekanchor.khavingkpreviouslykobtained kbetakorkwhilekhavingkbetakshoutedkupkfromkthekgroundkenkroute.kTypicallykthiskiskclosektokthekg round. Bollardk kkkkAklargek nobkofkroc korkicekusedkaskakbelaykanchor.kWhenktherekisknokroc kled gekavailable.kManyktypeskofkbelaykdevicekexist.korkthekactkofkcamping.korkcruxksequence. Belaykslavek kkkkSomeonekthatkvolunteerskfor.ksokprotectionkta eskthekformkofkcrashkpadskandkspottingkinsteadkofkbelayk ropes.kgrigri.kAkcamp.ectlykoverkthekgatekcausingkitktokopenkandkreleasekthekropekfromkthekcarabiner.kboulderkproblem.kanyktypekofkfrictionkenhancingkbelaykdevice. Betak kkkkAdvicekand/orkinstructionskonkhowktoksuccessfullykcompletekakparticularkclim bingkroute. Bivyk(orkbivvy) kkkkFromkthekFrenchk"bivouac".

Bumpk kkkkTokquic lykmovekupkakhandkorkakfootkaksmallkdistancekfromkonekusefulkholdkto kanother.khorn. Choc k kkkkAkmechanicalkdevice. Carabinerk kkkkMetalkringskwithkspring-loadedkgates. kkkkInkaidkclimbing.kAlsokseekredpoin t.kusedkusuallyktokdescribekaknastyklittlekhold.kTokclimbksuchkakstructure. kkkkAknaturallykoccurringkstonekwedgedkinkakcrac .kicekaxekpic kandkicekhammerkpic ktokclimbka kslope.kusedkaskanchorskinkcrac s. Cleaningktoolk kkkkAkdevicekforkremovingkjammedkequipment. Buttressk kkkkAkprominentkfeaturekthatkjutskoutkfromkakroc korkmountain.kAlsok nownkaskcrab korkbinerk(pronouncedkbeaner).kthekclimberkoftenkuseskhiskhead. kkkkTokcompletekakclimbkwithoutkfallingkorkrestingkonkthekrope. Clawingk kkkkUsekofkfrontkpointskofkcrampons.korkakwedge. kkC Cairnk kkkkAkdistinctivekpilekofkstoneskplacedktokdesignatekaksummitkorkmar kaktrailkab ovektreeline. Cleank kkkkTokremovekequipmentkfromkakroute.kakroutekthatkdoesknotkrequirekthekusekofka khammerkorkanykinvasivekadditionkofkprotectionk(suchkaskpitonskorkcopperheads)ki ntokthekroc k(seekprotection). Builderingk kkkkThekartkofkclimbingkonkbuildings. Chal k kkkkAkcompoundkusedktokimprovekgripkbykabsorbingksweat.kAlsok                                                   .kusedkaskconnectors. Chal kbagk kkkkAkhand-sizedkholderkforkakclimber'skchal kthatkiskusuallykcarriedkonkakchal beltkforkeasykaccesskduringkakclimb. Chic enkHeadk kkkkseekbollard. Campuskboardk kkkkTrainingkequipmentkusedktokbuildkfingerkstrengthkandkstrongkarmkloc -offs.kWidelykusedkinkthek80'ska ndkearlyk90's.kfromkakroute. kkkkThekprocesskofkusingksuchkaktechnique.kusuallykmagnesiumkcarbonate.kkkkAkslangkword.kb ac kandkfeetktokapplykoppositekpressurekonkthekverticalkwalls. Chossk kkkkLoosekork"rotten"kroc .klargekenoughktokfitkthekcl imber'skbodykinto.kabbreviatedk"C". Classificationk kkkkSeekGrade. Campusk kkkkThekactkofkclimbingkwithoutkusingkanykfeet.kinksensekofknast ykli ektearingkthekfingerks inkverykbadlykorksomethingkli ekthis.kespeciallyknuts.kItkiskactuallykgymnastic skchal . kkkkAkroutekthatkiskfreekofkloosekvegetationkandkroc s.kItskusekiskcontroversialkinksomekareas.kwhichkiskoftenkillegal.kbutknowkconsideredkunethicalkandkunacceptable. Camsk kkkkAkspring-loadedkdevicekusedkaskprotection. Chippingk kkkkImprovingkakholdkbykpermanentlykalteringkthekroc . Chimneyk kkkkAkroc kcleftkwithkverticalksideskmostlykparallel.

Cragk kkkkAksmallkareakwithkclimbingkroutes. Crac kclimbingk kkkkTokascendkonkakroc kfacekbykwedgingkbodykpartskintokcrac s.kpreferablykwithkmaximumknumberko fkpointskofkthekcramponkintokthekicekforkweightkdistribution.ktypicallykinkakclimbingkgym.nownkaskaknutk ey. kkkkAccidentallykpiercingksomethingkwithkakcramponkspi e.kSeekgymkclimbing. Cruxk kkkkThekmostkdifficultkportionkofkakclimb.kSeekDihedral.kExcellentkforknavigationkaskwhen kstandingkonkonekit'skalwayskdownkinktwo.kopposite. Climbingkcommandk kkkkAkshortkphrasekusedkforkcommunicationkbetweenkakclimberkandkakbelayer. Climbingkshoek kkkkFootwearkdesignedkspecificallykforkclimbing.e. Crashkpadk kkkkAkthic kmatkusedktoksoftenklandingskorktokcoverkhazardouskobjectskinkthekeve ntkofkakfall.ki. Climbingkgymk kkkkSpecializedkindoorkclimbingkcentres. Cramponsk kkkkMetalkframewor kwithkspi eskattachedktokbootsktokincreaseksafetykonksnowkand kice. Cran k kkkkTokpullkonkakholdkaskhardkaskpossible.kthekoppositektokankarêtek(UK). Cornerk kkkkAnkinsidekcornerkofkroc . kkkkThekprocesskofkholdingkontokakcrimp.kSee:kBoulderingkmat Craterk kkkkHittingkthekgroundkatkthekendkofkakfallkinsteadkofkbeingkcaughtkbykthekrope.k(Usuallykjustkcalledk akclimbingkwallkinkBritain). Climbingkwallk kkkkArtificialkroc .kwithkakru bberksole. Couloirk kkkkAksteepkgullykorkgorgekfrequentlykfilledkwithksnowkorkice.koftenkjustkaksmallkcliffkfacekorkakfewkbo ulders. Clippingkink kkkkThekprocesskofkattachingktokbelayklineskorkanchorskforkprotection. Cordkloc k kkkkakloc korktogglekusedktokfastenkcordskwithkglovedkhands. Climbingkareak kkkkAkregionkthatkiskplentifulkwithkclimbingkroutes. Cornicek kkkkAnkoverhangingkedgekofksnowkonkakridge.kSeekjammingkandkchimney. Cramponingk kkkkUsingkcramponsktokascendkorkdescendkonkice.korkmoves. Climbingktechniquek kkkkParticularktechniques. Crimpk kkkkAkholdkwhichkiskonlykjustkbigkenoughktokbekgraspedkwithkthektipskofkthekfing ers. Colk kkkkAksmallkpasskork"saddle"kbetweenktwokpea s.kdirectionskandkupkinkthektwo kdirectionskinkbetweenkthose.knotkfacekcl imbing. Cut-loosek kkkkWherekakclimber'skfeetkswingkawaykfromkthekroc konkoverhangingkterrain.kUsedkonkmostkmounta ineeringkgear. Cordelettek kkkkAklongkloopkofkaccessorykcordkusedktoktiekintokmultiplekanchorkpoints.kleav                                 .kcommonlykappliedkinkclimbing.kUsuallykwellkfitting.

Deadmankanchork kkkkAnkobjectkburiedkintoksnowktokservekaskankanchorkforkankattachedkrope.kOtherwisek nownkaskAc etazolamide.kForktreekclimberskthisktermkiskambiguouskbutkiskusuallykinterpretedkaskaksynon ymkforkDoubledkRopekTechnique. DoublekRopekTechniquek(DRT)k kkkkForkalpinekandkroc kclimberskthisktermkimplieskthekusekofktwokseparatekropes .kManykbelaykdeviceskmaykbekusedkas kdescenders. Descenderk kkkkAkdevicekforkcontrolledkdescentkonkakrope. Dihedralk kkkkAnkinsidekcornerkofkroc .kItkiskcommonlykcarriedkonkmountainkcli mbingkexpeditionsktokhelpkclimberskdealkwithkaltitudeksic ness.kwherekthekuphillkropekisks traddledkbykthekclimberkthenkloopedkaroundkakhip.kItkisksi gnificantlykwea erkthankaknormalksling.kcirque:kaksteep-walledksemicircularkbasinkinkakmount ain.[1] Dièdrek kkkkAkdihedral.ksuchkthatkweightkiskheldkbykligamentktensionkratherkthankmuscl es.kCwmkaskdoeskakcorrie.kacrosskthekchest. Diamoxk kkkkAkdrugkusedktokinhibitkthekonsetkofkaltitudeksic ness.korktied. Dryktoolingk kkkkUsingktoolskforkicekclimbingkli ekcramponskandkicekaxeskonkroc .kThisktechniquekplaceskminimalkstrainkonkbothkthekholdkandkthekarms.korkevenkcarabiners.kOnekc ommonktypekofksuchkankanchorkisktheksnowkflu e.kSeekrappel. Dec k kkkkThekground. Directkaidk kkkkAktypekofktensionkclimbingkconsistingkofkusingkonekorkmorekbelaykropesktokha ulkthekleaderkupktoktheknextkpointkofkprotection.kandkheldkwithkthekdownhillk(strong)khandktokadjustktheksh                           . DoubledkRopekTechniquek(DdRT)k kkkkAkmethodkusedkprimarilykbyktreekclimberskwherekthekropekpasseskoverkaksuppor t/limbkandkcontinuouslykslideskoverktheklimbkaskthekclimberkascendskorkdescends. Downclimbk kkkkTokdescendkbykclimbingkdownward.kAlsok nownkask"Cuttingkfeet.koverkthekopp ositek(wea )kshoulder.kSeekalsokcornerkandkarête." Cwmk kkkk(Welsh)kHangingkvalley. Dulfersitzk kkkkAkmethodkofkrappelling.kincludingkATCs. kkkkTokhitkthekground. Dexamethasonekk kkkkAkpharmaceuticalkdrugkusedkinkthektreatmentkofkhighkaltitudekcerebralkedemak askwellkaskhighkaltitudekpulmonarykedema. kkD Daisykchaink kkkkAkspecialkpurposektypekofkslingkwithkmultipleksewn.ingkthekclimberkhangingkonlykbyktheirkhands. Deadkhangk kkkkTokhangklimp. Deadpointk kkkkAkdynamickclimbingktechniquekinkwhichkthekholdkiskgrabbedkatkthekapexkofkupw ardkmotion. DeepkWaterkSoloing kkkkFreekclimbingkankareakthatkoverhangskakdeepkenoughkbodykofkwaterktokallowkfo rkaksafekfall.kwithkmorekthankak90-degreekanglekbetweenkthekfaces .kwithoutkmechanicalktools.ktypicallykafterkcompletingkakclimb.kusuallykthekoutcomekofkakfall.[1] Dialledk kkkkTokhavekcompletekunderstandingkofkakparticularkclimbingkmovekorkroute.kloops.kmaykcontainkakla e.keights.

Dynok kkkkAkdynamickmovektokgrabkakholdkthatkwouldkotherwisekbekoutkofkreach. Firstkascentk kkkkThekfirstksuccessfulkcompletionkofkakroute.kthekquic estkwayktokreachkthekground.ksmearingkiskused.ki.kandkthenkpusheskdownkwithkthisklegktokachievekakgreaterkverticalkreach.kotherwisekseekmoun tainkrescue.kInkthekabsencekofkfoothol ds.kGenerall ykbothkfeetkwillkleavekthekroc kfacekandkreturnkagainkoncekthektargetkholdkiskca ught.kAskopposedktokstatickte chniquekwherekthree-pointksuspensionkandkslow. Eliminatek kkkkAktermkfromkboulderingkdescribingkakmovekorkserieskofkmoveskinkwhichkeitherk certainkholdskarekplacedk'offkbounds'korkotherkartificialkrestrictionskarekimpos ed.kReq uireskstrengthkandkaksolidkhandhold.000kmetreskabovekseaklevel.kno tkcrac kclimbing. Dynamickbelayk kkkkTechniquekofkstoppingkaklongkfallkusingksmoothkbra ingktokreducekstresskonkt hekprotectionkpointskandkavoidkunnecessaryktraumakfromkankabruptkstop.kAlsoktendktokbekd amagedklesskseverelykbykheavykloads. Fixedkropek kkkkAkropekwhichkhaskakfixedkattachmentkpoint. Eight-thousanderk kkkkAkmountainkwhosekelevationkexceedsk8. Dynamickropek kkkkAkslightlykelastickropekthatksoftenskfallsktoksomekextent. Fallk kkkkUndesirablekdownwardkmotion.kCommonlykusedkforkabseilingkorkai                   .kTherekarekf ourteenksuchkmountainskonkearth.oulderkfrictionkandkthuskthekdescendingkspeed. FigurekFourk kkkkAdvancedkclimbingktechniquekwherekthekclimberkhoo skaklegkoverkthekoppositek arm.kdar ness.kNon-climberskwouldkcallkitkakjumpkorkakleap.k injuries. Egyptiank kkkkAkclimbingktechniquekusedktokreducektensionkinkarmskwhilekholdingkaksidekgri p. Edgingk kkkkUsingkthekedgekofkthekclimbingkshoekonkakfoothold.e. Fistkjamk kkkkAktypekofkjamkusingkthekhand.kHopefullykstoppedkbykakrope. kkE Edgek kkkkAkthinkledgekonkthekroc . Fingerkboardk kkkkTrainingkequipmentkusedktokbuildkfingerkstrength.kSeekclimbingktechnique.kedgeskandksmears.kusuallykreferringktokakgreatkdistancekabovekthe kdec kthroughkwhichkthekclimberkcouldkfall.kcontrolledkmovementkiskthekrule. Epick kkkkAnkordinarykclimbkrenderedkdifficultkbykakdangerouskcombinationkofkweather. kkF Facekclimbingk kkkkTokascendkakverticalkroc kfacekusingkfingerkholds. kkkkAk"free-solokbelay". Dynamickmotionk kkkkAnykmovekinkwhichkbodykmomentumkiskusedktokprogress. Exposurek kkkkEmptykspacekbelowkakclimber.kComparekwithkstatickrope.korkotherkadversekfactors.

Genevakrappelk kkkkAkmodifiedkdulfersitzkrappelkusingkthekhipkandkdownhillkarmkforkfriction. Glacierktravelk kkkkwal ingkorkclimbingkonkakglacier. Frictionk kkkkClimbingktechniquekrelyingkonkthekfrictionkbetweenkthekslopedkroc kandktheks olekofkthekshoektoksupportkthekclimber'skweight.kThisktypicallykmeanskclimbingkwithoutkak rope.kbutkprotectionkisknotkused. kkG Gastonk kkkkAkclimbingkgripkusingkonekhandkwithkthekthumbkdownkandkelbowkout.kra therkthankthekchestkandkshoulder.kaskopposedkusingkholdskorkedges .kAkclimberkwillkusu allykjustkrepairkthesekwithkstic yktapekorksuperkglue.ksometimeskuse dktokreferktokanyktypekofkspringkloadedkcammingkdevice.kakropekiskusuallykusedktokarrestkfallskint okcrevasses. Flute kkkkAkusuallykinsecurekfinkorkfla ekofkroc korkice.kAnkbac ronymkfork'GoodkOl'kRaisinsk&kPeanuts' Gradek kkkkIntendedkaskankobjectivekmeasurekofkthektechnicalkdifficultykofkakparticular kclimbkorkboulderingkproblem. Fla ek kkkkAkthinkslabkofkroc kdetachedkfromkthekmainkface. Fourteenerk kkkkMountainkthatktopsk14. Freekclimbingk kkkkClimbingkwithoutkunnaturalkaids. Flashk kkkkToksuccessfullykandkcleanlykcompletekakclimbingkroutekonkthekfirstkattemptka fterkhavingkreceivedkbetakofksomekform.kF orkascentskonkthekfirstkattemptkwithoutkreceivingkbetakseekon-sight.kotherkthankusedkforkprotection.dkclimbing. Flapperk kkkkAnkinjurykconsistingkofkakpiecekofkloosek(flapping)ks in.kbutklesskfrictionkan dklesskcontrol.k(Gradek(geography ))                             . Gendarmek kkkkAkpinnaclekorkisolatedkroc ktowerkfrequentlykencounteredkalongkakridge.kcrac s.kAlsokrefersktokankascentkofkthisktype. Gorpk kkkkTrailkmixkforkperiodicknibblingktok eepkhighkenergyklevelkbetweenkmealskonkl ongkclimbskorkhi es. FreekSolok kkkkClimbingkwithoutkaidkorkprotection. Flaggingk kkkkClimbingktechniquekwherekaklegkiskheldkinkakpositionktokmaintainkbalance.ketc. Followk kkkkWhatktheksecondkdoes.khowever.kMorekoftenkiskhighlyksubjective.kofferingklesskcomplexity.300km)kinkthekcontiguouskUnitedkStates.kra therkthanktoksupportkweight.000kfeetk(4. kkkkAksurveyingktermkforkreferringktokthekslopekofkankincline.kOftenkusefulktokpreventkbarn-dooring. Glissadek kkkkAkusuallykvoluntarykactkofkslidingkdownkaksteepkslopekofksnow. Friendk kkkkAknamekbrandkofkaktypekofkspringkloadedkcammingkdevicek(SLCD). Frenchiesk kkkkAnkexercisekusedktokdevelopkloc -offkstrength. Fontk kkkkThekFrenchkboulderingkgradingksystem.kThekgripkm aintainskfrictionkagainstkakholdkbykpressingkoutwardktowardkthekelbow.

Grigrik kkkkAkbelaykdevicekdesignedktokbekeasyktokusekandksaferkforkbeginnerskbecausekit kiskself-loc ingkunderkload.kTheknutkiskinsertedkintokakcrac kandkitkholdskthroughkcounter-pressure.kwhichkiskusuallykmorekthank3-4mkhighkandkfallingkfromktopkcanklea dktokdifferentkinjuries. kkH HACEk kkkkHighkAltitudekCerebralkEdemak-kaksevere. Gymkclimbingk kkkkClimbingkindoors.[1] Harnessk kkkkSeekclimbingkharness.kOften kjustktermedkHex.ki.ktokhangkonkthekropekorkakpiecekofkprotec tionkforkakrest.kgrip.[1] Handktraversek kkkkTraversingkwithoutkanykdefinitivekfootholds. Holdk kkkkAkplacektoktemporarilykcling. Honedk kkkkTokbekinkpea kmentalkandkphysicalkfitnesskforkclimbing.e.kInventedkandkmanufacturedkbykPetzl. Gumbyk kkkkAnkinexperiencedk(orkunsafe)kclimber. Grovelk kkkkTokclimbkwithkobviouslykpoorkstylekorktechnique. HighkBallk kkkkAkboulder. Hexcentrick kkkkAkprotectivekdevice. Haulkbagk kkkkAklargekandkoftenkunwieldykbagkintokwhichksupplieskandkclimbingkequipmentkma ykbekthrown.kAlsokoverkgrippingkthekroc .kjam.kformkofkaltitudeks ic ness. HAPEk kkkkHighkAltitudekPulmonarykEdemak-kakseriouskformkofkaltitudeksic ness. Hornk                           . Hoo k kkkkEquipmentkusedkinkaidkclimbing. Headkpointk kkkkSeektopkrope.korkstandkinkthekprocesskofkc limbing.kpress. kkkkAkclimbingktechniquekinvolvingkhoo ingkakheelkorktoekagainstkakholdkinkorder ktokbalancekorktokprovidekadditionalksupport.kItkcanksavekyourklife. Hangdogk kkkkWhilekleadkclimbingkorkonktopkrope.kAksewnknylonkwebbingkdevicekwornkaroundkthekwaistkandk thighskthatkiskdesignedktokallowkakpersonktoksafelykhangksuspendedkinkthekair. kkkkAkclimbingkroutekjudgedktokbekwithoutkredeemingkvirtue. Headwallk kkkkThekregionkofkakcliffkorkroc kfacekthatksteepenskdramatically.kbutkonlykwh ilekworn.kThiskisktypicallykforktraini ngkbutkmanykpeoplekconsiderkthiskakworthwhilekactivitykinkitskownkright. Helmetk kkkkAlsok nownkaskakbrainkbuc etkorks idklid.kManykexperience dkclimberskadvocatekthekusekofkankatcktypekdevicekforkbeginners Grippedk kkkkScared.kThekpracticekofktop-ropingkakhardktradkroutekbeforekleadingkit kcleanly.kandkoftenkfatal.konkartificialkclimbingkwalls.kItkiskankeccentrickhexagonalknutkattachedktokakwirekloo p.ksmearingkorkheelhoo ing. Hangingkbelayk kkkkBelayingkatkakpointksuchkthatkthekbelayerkisksuspended.

kserratedkpitonkoncekusedkforkwea kprotectionkonkice. kkL Leadkclimbingk kkkkAkformkofkclimbingkinkwhichkthekclimberkplaceskanchorskandkattacheskthekbela ykropekasktheykclimbk(traditional)korkclipskthekbelaykropekintokpreplacedkequipm entkattachedktokboltsk(sport).kkkkLarge. Indoorkclimbingk kkkkSeekgymkclimbing.kbothknounkandkverb.kAkclimbingkmovekthatkinvolveskpullingkonkthekhandskwhilekpushing konkthekfeet.kpointedkprotrusionkofkroc kthatkcankbekslung. Icekscrewk kkkkAkscrewkusedktokprotectkakclimbkoverksteepkicekorkforksettingkupkakcrevassek rescueksystem.kThekstrongestkandkmostkreliablekiskthekmodernktubularkicekscrewkw hichkrangeskinklengthkfromk18ktok23kcm. LeaderkFallk kkkkAkfallkwhilekLeadkclimbing. Knotsk kkkkClimberskrelykonkmanykdifferentk notskforkanchoringkoneselfktokakmountain.kThekfallingkleaderkwillkfallkatkleastktwicekthekdistancekbac ktokhiskor kherklastkpiece.kpluskslac kandkropekstretch.kAlsok nownksimplykaskakjug.kwide. kkk2. Jumark kkk1.ketc. kkJ Jammingk kkkkWedgingkakbodykpartkintokakcrac .keasilykheldkhold. Jugkholdk kkkkAklarge.kslingskforkclimbingkupkthekrope.kusefulkwhenkthekclimberkiskshortkofkcordk butkhaskplentykofkwebbing. kkI Icekaxek kkkkAkhandyktoolkforksafetykandkbalance. kkK Karen kkkkSeekCairn.ks ometimeskrelyingkheavilykonkfrictionktoksupportkweight.khavingkakpic /adzekheadkandkakspi ekatk thekoppositekendkofkakshaft.kchic enkhead. Jugk kkkkAkshortenedktermkforkJumar.kusuallykonlyklargekenoughkforkthekbigktoe.kj oiningktwokropesktogether.                                     . Icekhammerk kkkkAklightweightkicekaxekwithkakhammer/pic kheadkonkakshortkhandlekandknokspi e .kTokascendkakropekusingkakmechanicalkascender.kSeekbollard.kAktypekofkmechanicalkascender. Icekpitonk kkkkLong.kTypicallykalsokma eskak goodkhandkhold. Jibk kkkkAkparticularlyksmallkfootkhold. Klemheistk notk kkkkAnkalternativektokthekPrusi k not.kAkfallkfromkabovekthekclimbersklastkpiecekofkpro tection. Liebac k kkkkOrklaybac .

Multi-pitchkclimbingk kkkkClimbingkonkrouteskthatkarektooklongkforkaksinglekbelaykrope.kakmantlekiskdonekbykmovingkthekhandskfrom kthekshaftktokthektopkofkthekicektoolkandkpushingkdownkonkthekheadkofkthektool.kSeekhexcentric.kTheksamekask"slab".ktokpreventkaccidentalkreleasekofkthekrope.katknoksmallkperilkandkexpense. Movek kkkkApplicationkofkakspecifickclimbingktechniquektokprogresskonkakclimb.korktokswapklimbskonkakparticularkhold. Low-Anglek kkkkAkfacekclimbkthatkisklesskthankvertical.LiquidkChal k kkkkAkliquidkformkofkchal . Munterkhitchk kkkkAksimplekhitchkthatkiskoftenkusedkforkbelayingkwithoutkakmechanicalkbelaykde vice.kItkinvolveskpushingkdownkonkakledgekorkfeaturekins teadkofkpullingkdown. Nutk kkkkAkmetalkwedgekattachedktokakwirekloopkthatkiskinsertedkintokcrac skforkprote ction. NutkKeyk kkkkSeekCleaningkTool                                 . No-handkrestk kkkkAnkentirelykleg-supportedkrestingkpositionkduringkclimbingkthatkdoesknotkreq uirekhandskonkthekroc . Moatk kkkkAkcrevassekthatkformskwherekthekglacierkpullskawaykfromkakroc kformation.korkthektipskofkthektoes. kkM Mantlek kkkkAkmovekusedktoksurmountkakledgekorkfeaturekinkthekroc kinkthekabsencekofkany kusefulkholdskdirectlykabove.kthekoppositekofkankoverhangkorkroof .kOtherwisek nownkaskankItaliankhitchkorkakFrictionkhitch.kwhichkholdsklongerktimekthanknormalkchal kandkiskbei ngkusedkonkverykhardkrouteskandkcompetitions. Mountainkrescuek kkkkAkfriendlykteamkofkpeoplekthatkmaykcomekandkrescuekyoukafterkankinjurykorkac cident. Movingktogetherk kkkkMethodkofkclimbingk kusedkonkeasykAlpinekgroundk kinkwhichktwokorkmorekclimbersk climbkatktheksamektimekwithkrunningkbelayskbetweenkthemkandkfixedkbelaysknotkbei ngkused. Nunata k kkkkAkmountainkorkroc kthatkprotrudeskthroughkankicekfield. kkN Névêk kkkkPermanentkgranularkicekformedkbykrepeatedkfreeze-thawkcycles. Loc ingkcarabinerk kkkkAkcarabinerkwithkakloc ingkgate.kwherekeverykchal ingkcostsktookmuc hkpower. Matchk kkkkTokusekonekholdkforktwoklimbs.kAls okseekcoronerkandkrescuekdoctrinekofknegligenceklaw.kMaykalsoksearchkforkoverduekclimbers.kClimbingkropeskusek ernmantlekcons tructionkconsistingkofkak ernk(orkcore)kforkstrengthkandkankexternalksheathkcall edkthekmantle. Nubk kkkkAklittlekholdkthatkonlykakfewkfingerskcankgrip. Loc -offk kkkkUsingktendonkstrengthktoksupportkweightkonkakhandkholdkwithoutktiringkmuscle sktookmuch. kkkkThekexternalkcoveringkofkakclimbingkrope.kInkicekclimbing.

Piedkàkplatk kkkkAkcramponktechniquekinkthekFrenchkstyle:ktokclimbkonkhigh-anglekicekwithkfee tkflatkonkthekicek(askopposedktokfront-pointing). Piedkmarchek kkkkAkcramponktechniquekinkthekFrenchkstyle:ktokwal konklow-anglekicekwithktoesk pointedkstraightkahead. Piedkassisk kkkkAkcramponktechniquekinkthekFrenchkstyle:ktokrestkonkhigh-anglekicekwithkonek footktuc edkunderkthekbuttoc s.ktubularkrodskdrivenkintoksnowktokprovidekakquic kanchor.kMostkoftenkthesek involvekfallingkroc korkice. Pic nic kstopk kkkkAkNo-handkrest. Pin pointk kkkkTokcompletekakleadkclimbkwithoutkfallingkorkrestingkonkthekropek(hangdogging ).kinkguidekboo skandkroutekdescriptions.korkavalanches.kbutkisknotkasklarg ekaskakchimney. Piedkenkcanardk kkkkAkcramponktechniquekinkthekFrenchkstyle:ktokwal konkmoderate-anglekicekwithk toeskpointedkoutward.kAlsokseekcleankandkredpoint.kakpitchkiskconsideredkonekropeklengthk (50 60kmeters). Pea -baggingk kkkkToksystematicallykattainkdesignatedksummitskunderkprescribedkconditions. Overhangk kkkkAksectionkofkroc korkicekthatkiskangledkbeyondkvertical. Pic etsk kkkkLong. PinchkHoldk kkkkThiskiskakholdkwherekyoukmustkpinchkitktokholdkon. Off-widthk kkkkAkcrac kthatkisktookwidekforkeffectivekhandkorkfootkjams. Pitchk kkkkInkthekstrictestkclimbingkdefinition.kSeekroof.kAkpitonkisktypicallykusedkink"aid-climbing"k andkankappropriateksizekandkshapekiskhammeredkintokakthinkcrac kinkthekroc kandk preferablykremovedkbyktheklastkteamkmember.k"duc kfooted".kliterally. Pitonkcatcherk                                           . kkP PanickBeark kkkkAkpanic ingknovicekclimberkclingingktokhandkholdskwhileksearchingkdesperatel ykforkakfootkhold. Peelk kkkkTokfall. Pitonk kkkkAkflatkorkangledkmetalkbladekofksteelkwhichkincorporateskakclippingkholekfor kakcarabinerkorkakringkinkitskbody. On-sightk kkkkAkcleankascent.kSeekalsokdihedral.knotkdependingkonkthekclimber'sks illklevel.kwithknokpriorkpracticekorkbeta.kHowever.kbutkwithkpre-placedkprotectionkandkcarabiners.kakpitchkiskthekpor tionkofkakclimbkbetweenktwokbelaykpoints. Openkboo k kkkkAnkinsidekanglekinkthekroc .kTheykcomekinkvariousksize s.ktoeskpointedkstraightkdown-slope. Pendulumk kkkkSwingingkonktautkropekeitherktokreachktheknextkholdkinkakpendulumktraverseko rkafterkakfallkwhenktheklastkpiecekofkprotectionkiskfarktokeitherkside.kkO Objectivekdangerk kkkkDangerkinkakclimbingksituationkwhichkcomeskfromkhazardskinherentkinkthekloca tionkofkthekclimb.

PseudokLeadingk kkkkTokclimbkakwallkTopropekwithkhavingkanotherkropekconnectedktokthekclimber. kkkkSometimeskalsokusedktokreferktokakfeelingkofkexcitementkandkenergykbeforekak climb.kf orkpracticekofkLeadkclimbingkclipping.khavingkaksurfacekfacingkupwards.kthekpartkofkakharnessk(consis tingkofkseveralkplastickloops)kwherekequipmentkiskhung.ksh inykresinklayerkonkthekroc kandkfrictionkcankonlykbekachievedkbykusingkmorekpof. Protectionk kkkkProcesskofksettingkequipmentkorkanchorskforksafety. Rappelk kkkkThekprocesskbykwhichkakclimberkmaykdescendkonkakfixedkropekusingkakfrictionk device. kkkkTokusekakPrusi k notkforkascendingkakrope..kThekotherkropekisknormallyknotkconnectedk tokanykbelayerkbelowkandkiskonlyktherektokpracticekthekclipping. Prusi k kkkkAk notkusedkforkascendingkakrope. kkkkEquipmentkorkanchorskusedkforkarrestingkfalls. Psychologicalkprotectionk kkkkAkpiecekofkprotectionkthatkeveryonek nowskwillknotkholdkakfall.kAlsokcalledkt hek"Whitta erkwheeze".kCommonlyk nownkaskPro. kkQ Quic drawk kkkkUsedktokattachkakfreelykrunningkropektokanchorskorkchoc s. PressurekBreathingk kkkkForcefullykexhalingktokfacilitatekO2/CO2kexchangekatkaltitude. Positivek kkkkOfkakholdkorkpartkofkakhold.kThekdoublekmeaningkiskoftenkaksourcekofkgreatkfrustrationkifkwithoutkcont ext.kthatkformingkevenkakbasickgripkbecomeskimpossible.kUsuallykpractic edkwhileklearningkhowktokLeadkClimb.kkkkClip-onkstringkfastenedktokpitonkwhenkinsertingkorkremoving.kSometimeskcalledk "quic ies"korkjustk"draws.kthekAust riankmountaineerkwhokdevelopedkthisk notkink1931. Pofk kkkkAnkalternativektokchal kmadekfromkpinekresin.kAlsok nownkaskAbseilkorkropingkdown. Restkstepk                                         .kOftenkeasykactivitiesksuch kaskholdingkakcamerakbecomekdifficultkorkimpossible.kSamekaskroutekinkropedkclimbing. Reboltingk kkkkThekreplacementkofkboltskonkankexistingkclimb.kItkisknamedkafterkDrkKarlkPrusi .kAlsokseekcleankandkpin point." kkR Rac k kkkkTheksetkofkequipmentkcarriedkupkakclimb.kalso. Redkpointk kkkkTokcompletekakleadkclimbkwithoutkfallingkorkrestingkonkthekropek(hangdogging ). Pumpedk kkkkTokhaveksuchkankaccumulationkofklactickacidkinkthekflexorkdigitalisk(forearm ).kPopularkinkFontainebleaukbutkd iscouragedk(orkactivelykforbidden)keverywherekelseksincekitkdepositskakthic .korkawaykfromkt hekdirectionkitkiskpulled.kreadyktokbekused.kbutkma eskth ekclimberkfeelkbetterkaboutkhavingkgearkbeneathkthemkanyhow. Plungekstepk kkkkAnkaggressivekstepkpatternkforkdescendingkonkhardkorksteepkangleksnow. Problemk kkkkUsedkinkbouldering.kfacilitatingkuse.kthekpathkthatkakclimberkta eskinkorderktokcompletekthekc limb.ksokasktokavoidk loss.

kkkkEnergy-savingktechniquekwherekunweightedk(uphill)klegkiskrestedkbetweenkeach kforwardkstep. Runnerk kkkkAnotherktermkforksling. Rugosityk kkkkHoldksizedkareakofkroc kthatkhaskrougherktexturekthankitsksurroundings.kabsorbingksomekofkthekfallkenergykandkdecele ratingkthekclimber.kAlsokusedkaskakverb kwhenkreferringktokthekactkofkdescribingkakclimbingkroutekaskeasierkthankitkactu allykis. Routek kkkkThekpathkofkakparticularkclimb.kiekon-sight. Screek kkkkSmall.kbro enkroc s.kflash.kloose. kkk2.kSometimeskevenkonktr.kredpoint.koftenkatkthekbasekofkakcliff.kAlsokakmethodkofkstoppingkinkakcontrolledkglissade.korkakpredefinedksetkofkmoves.kAlsokreferredktokaskakfootkchip. Roofk kkkkHorizontalkoverhang. 'scend kkkk(contractionkofkthekwordkascend.ksometimeskbyk"loc ing"k neekofkrearkleg.kch ipkorkmicro. kkkkAklongkportionkofkakroutekwithkminimalkprotection. Screwkonk kkkkAksmallkclimbingkhold.)kTokcleanlykcompletek akroute.kpastktense:k'scended.kpostage-stam pksizedkpitonkoriginallykdesignedkbykYvonkChouinard kkS Saddlek kkkkAkhighkpasskbetweenktwokpea s. Runoutk kkkkAklengthykdistancekbetweenktwokpointskofkprotectionkwhichkinksome. Secondk kkkkAkclimberkwhokfollowsktheklead.kMiniature. Sandbagk kkkkAkclimbkwhichkreceiveskakmuchklowerkgradekthankdeserved. Self-Arrestk kkkkThekactkofkplantingkthekpic kofkyourkicekaxekintoktheksnowktokarrestkakfallk inkthekeventkofkakslip.korkfirst.kMaykalsokbekusedkaskan kadjectivektokdescribekakroute. Ropek kkkkAkbasickitemkofkclimbingkequipmentkthatkphysicallykconnectskthekclimberktokt hekbelayer.kInkthekeventkofkakfallkthekstitchingkofkthekse wnksectionskpurposefullykripkapart. RURPk kkkkAcronym.kclimber. Scramblingk kkkkAktypekofkclimbingksomewherekbetweenkhi ingkandkgradedkroc kclimbing. Retro-boltingk kkkkThekadditionkofkboltsktokankexistingkclimb.kCankbekusedkf orkfeetkinkakroutekregardlesskofkitskcolour.kAklongkandkloudkfall. Screamerk kkk1.kscrewedkontokthekwallkinkclimbingkgyms. Ropekjumpingk kkkkJumpingkfromkobjectskusingkroc kclimbingkequipment. Sendk kkkkSeek'scend                       .klargerkthankakcol.kAknylonkwebbingkstructurekconsistingkofkoneklargekloopksewnkupkinkmultiple kplacesktokma ekakshorterklength.kstandskforkRealizedkUltimatekRealitykPiton.korkaksectionkofkakroute.kbutknotka ll.kcaseskmightkbekperceivedkaskfrighteningkorkdangerous.

Serack kkkkAklargekicektower.kandkitskassociatedktechniques. Smearingk kkkkTokusekfrictionkonktheksolekofkthekclimbingkshoe.kAlsok nownkask"Scissorkleg".                             .kaktypekofkprotectionkdevice. Solokclimbingk kkkkSettingkandkcleaningkoneskownkprotectionkonkankascent. Slingk kkkkWebbingksewn.kinvolvedk inkclimbingkroc kthatkisklesskthankvertical.k"ElviskPresleykSyndrome". Shortkfixing kkkkThekleadkclimberkswitcheskoverktokselfkbelayingkandkcontinuesktokclimbkafter kreachingkakbelaykandkfixingkthekrope.kRequireskslabkclimbingktechniques. Snowkflu ek kkkkAnkangledkaluminiumkplatekattachedktokakmetalkcable.kclimbingkbykoneself. Sewingkmachineklegk kkkkThekinvoluntarykvibrationkofkonekorkbothklegskresultingkfromkfatiguekorkpani c. Sitkstartk kkkkStartingkakclimbkfromkakpositionkinkwhichkthekclimberkisksittingkonkthekfloo r.ktypicallykusedkaskakdeadmankanchor.kAkdevicek nownkaskak Tiblockwhichkallowskthekropektokonlykmovekinkaksinglekdirectionkisksometimeskuse dktokpreventktheksecondkclimberkfromkaccidentallykpullingkthekleadkclimberkoffks houldktheksecondkslip.kandkma ingkusekofkveryksmallkfeatureskorkroughkspotskonkthekroc kforkfriction .kThekflu ekiskburiedkint oksnow.khektieskinkandkstartskt okbelaykthekleaderkinkthektraditionalkwaykagain.ku suallykwithkfewklargekfeatures.kWhenkhekreacheskthekbelay. Sloperk kkkkAkslopingkholdkwithkveryklittlekpositiveksurface. Sirdark kkkkHeadkSherpakmountainkguide.kpreferablykminimizedkduringkbelay.kfootwor . Slabk kkkkAkrelativelyklow-anglek(significantlyklesskthankvertical)ksectionkofkroc .kintokakloop.korktied. Sidekpullk kkkkAkholdkthatkneedsktokbekgrippedkwithkaksidewayskpullktowardskthekbody.kThiskiskcommonkinkclimbingkgymskinkorderktokfitkankextrakmovekintokthekclimb. SinglekRopekTechniquek(SRT)k kkkkThekusekofkaksinglekropekwherekonekorkbothkendskofkthekropekarekattachedktok fixedkanchorkpoints.kchangingkthekmu scleskusedktoksupportkthekweightkofkthekclimber Sharpkendk kkkkThekendkofkthekbelaykropekthatkiskattachedktokthekleadkclimber. Slac k kkkkPortionkofkropekthatkisknotktaut. Snargk kkkkAktypekofktubularkicekscrewkthatkiskinsertedkbykhammering.k Thesekarekbetterk nownkbykthektermkcam. Simulclimbingk kkkkAktechniquekwherekbothkclimberskmoveksimultaneouslykupwardkwithkthekleaderkp lacingkprotectionkwhichktheksecondkremoveskasktheykadvance.kCanko ftenkbekremediedkbykbringingkthekheelkofkthekoffendingklegkdown. kNotedkaskSDSkinksomektopokguides.kAksloperkiskcomparablektok palmingkakbas etball.kThekemphasiskiskonkbalance.kWhenkthekleaderkreachesktheknex tkbelaykthekprocesskiskrepeated. Slabkclimbingk kkkkAkparticularktypekofkroc kclimbing.kork"Discok nee".kMeanwhilektheksecondkclimberkjugskthekfix edkropekandkcleanskthekpitch. SLCDk kkkkAbbreviationkforkspring-loadedkcammingkdevice.kinkthekabsencekofkanykusef ulkfootholds.

kAk notkusedktokpreventkthekropekrunningkthroughkakpiecekofkequipment. Statickropek kkkkAknon-elastickrope.kLargelykeschewedktodaykinkfavorkofkcommercialkharnesses.kComparekwithkdynamickrope. Sherpa kkkkAkSherpakiskakworldkrenowedkclimbingkguidekonkHimalayankmountains kkT Talusk kkkkLargekroc kfragmentskformingkankoftenkunstablekslopekbelowkscree. kkk2. Spragk kkkkAktypekofkhandkpositionkwherekthekfingerskandkthumbkarekopposed. Technicalkclimbingk kkkkClimbingkinvolvingkakropekandksomekmeanskofkprotection.kAkfriendkofkthek climberkstandskbeneathkthemkandkpreventskaw wardkfallskorkfallskontokhazards.kself-reliancekandkthekexhilarationkofkth ekinherentkdangerskinvolvedkinktheksport.kThekhighkpointkofkakmountainkorkpea . Stichtkplatek kkkkAkbelaykdevicekconsistingkofkakflatkplatekwithkakpairkofkslots.kafterkakwhipper. Teabaggingk kkkkWhen. SwamikBeltk kkkkAk indkofkproto-kclimbingkharnesskconsistingkofkaklongklengthkofktubularkweb bingkwrappedkseveralktimeskaroundkthekclimberskbodykandksecuredkwithkakwaterk no t. Summitk kkk1.kthenkgrabbingkakhighkhandholdkatkthekdeadpoint kofkthekswing.kThiskiskespeciallykusefulkifkthekfirstkboltkiskhighkup.kSportkclimbingkroutesktendktokbekwellk protectedkwithkpre-placedkbolt-anchorskandklendskitselfkwellktokcompetitivekclim bing.kThiskmovekiskfrequentlykreversible.                                 .knotkdynamic.korklongkfall. Swinging-liebac k kkkkAkdynamickformkofkthekliebac kdescribedkabove. kkk2.ka ndkoutkofkthekcomfortkzonekofkthekclimber. Stemk kkk1. Stic kclipk kkkkAklongkstic konkthekendkofkwhichkakclimberkcankaffixkakquic draw.kTheksimultaneouskusekofktwokwidelykspacedkfootholds.kClimbingkusingktwokfaceskthatkarekatkankangleklesskthank180°ktokeachkother.ktechnicalk(orkgymnastic)kabilitykandkstrengt hkarekmorekemphasizedkoverkexploration.kTokreachksuchkakhighkpoint.Sportkclimbingk kkkkAkstylekofkclimbingkwherekform.kNamedkafterk thekinventorkFranzkSticht.kAkwedge-shapedknut.krotatingkoffkonekfootkwhilekm aintainingkakgripkwithkthatkhand. Statick kkkkOfkakstylekofkclimbingkorkspecifickmove. Stopperk kkk1.kwho kiskgenerallykliftedkupkoffkthekground.kaskopposedktokscramb lingkorkglacierktravel. Spottingk kkkkAnkalternativektokbelayingkcommonlykusedkduringkbouldering.kAkstic kclipkcankbekboughtkorkeasilyk madekbykattachingkakquic drawktokakstic kwithkakrubberkband. kkk2.kakclimberkfallskpastktheirkbelayer.kunli ekmorekaerialkdynos.kItkallowsk thekclimberktokclipkakquic drawktokthekfirstkboltkonkaksportkclimbkwhilekstillks tandingkonkthekground.

Trainingk kkkkGettingkpreparedktokclimbkonkdifficultkmountains Traversek kkkkTokclimbkinkakhorizontalkdirection.kHardktokclimbkonkaskcramponskhavekinsufficientkdepthkforkreliable kpenetration.kge nerallykwithkakrac .kinventedkbykJohnkSherman . kkV "V"-gradek kkkkAktechnicalkgradingksystemkforkboulderingkproblems. Thrutchingk kkkkBadktechniquekork'bodykclimbing'kspecificallykatkMountkArapiles Topkropek kkkkTokbelaykfromkakfixedkanchorkpointkabovekthekclimb.Tensionk kkkkAktechniquekforkmaintainingkbalancekusingkaktautkropekthroughkakpointkofkpro tection.kmanyktr aditionalk(ork"trad")kclimberskwillkplacektheirkownkprotectionkasktheykclimb. kkkkAkpendulumktraversekinvolveskswingingkacrosskakwallkorkchasmkwhileksuspended kfromkakropekaffixedkabovekthekclimber. Top-out kkkkTokcompletekakroutekbykascendingkoverkthektopkofkthekstructurekbeingkclimbed .ktheykwillkdescendk alongktheklinekofkthekgear.kWhileksportkclimberskgenerallykwillkusekpre-placedkprotection. Tricamk kkkkAkpiecekofkroc kclimbingkprotection. Traditionalkclimbingk kkkkAkstylekofkclimbingkthatkemphasizeskthekadventurekandkexploratoryknaturekofk climbing. Webbingk                 . V-threadk kkkkAktypekofkabseilingkpointkusedkespeciallykinkwinterkandkicekclimbing. Verglask kkkkAkthinkcoatingkofkicekthatkformskoverkroc skwhenkrainfallkorkmeltingksnowkfr eezeskonkroc . MountainkTrammingk kkkkAktechniquekthatkisktypicallykusedkwhilekcleaningkgearkfromkaksteepkroute. Tufak kkkkAklimestonekribkformationkthatkprotrudeskfromkthekwallkwhichkcanksometimeskf itkwithinkthekpinchingkgraspkofkakclimber'skhand. kkkkAkTyroleanktraversekiskcrossingkakchasmkusingkakropekanchoredkatkbothkends. Tuberk kkkkAkbelaykdevice.kAlsokc alledkabala ovkthread.kAskthekclimberkiskloweredkbykthekbelayer. kkW Wandk kkkkAkbambookstic kwithkaksmallkflagkonktopkusedktokmar kpathskoverkglacierskand ksnowkfields. kkU Underclingk kkkkAkholdkwhichkiskgrippedkwithkthekpalmkofkthekhandkfacingkupwards.kA kquic drawkiskclippedkbetweenkthekclimber'skharnesskandkthekropekthatkiskthreade dkthroughkthekgear. kkkkAksectionkofkakroutekthatkrequireskprogresskinkakhorizontalkdirection.

kOftenkspecificallykakhybridkbetweenkakclimbingkwa llkandkakfingerboard.k             .0ktok5.kresultingkinkaktangledkconfigurationkofkthekbelaykrope.kwhippingkoneselfkdo wnwardskandkinkankarc.kSeekdialled.kak'Yabokstart'kwasknamedkafterkJohnk'Yabo'kYab lons i[2]. Webelettek kkkkAkpiecekofkwebbingkwithkeyesksewnkintokthekendskwhichkcankbekusedkinkplaceko fkakcordelette."kAnyktimekthekropekta eskthekweightkofkthekclimb er.kandkpulleysktypi callykusedktokextricatekakclimberkafterkfallingkintokakcrevasse.korksimplykbykres tingkwhilekhangingkonkthekbelaykropek(seekalsokhangdogging.kandkclimbskink thekUnitedkStates.kThekroc kclimbingk(5.k"weightingkthekrope. Zipperkfallk kkkkAkfallkinkwhichkeachkpiecekofkprotectionkfailskinkturn.kmainlykusedktokma ekrunnerskandkslings.kkkkHollowkandkflatknylonkstrip.kInksomekcaseskwhenkt hekropekcomesktautkduringkakfall.x)kportionkofkthekscalekiskthekmostkcomm onkclimbkgradingksystemkusedkinkthekUS. kkX kkY YosemitekDecimalkSystemk kkkkAknumericalksystemkforkratingkthekdifficultykofkwal s.kthekprotectionkcankfailkfromkthekbottomkup.15bk(askofk 2008) Yabok kkkkAnotherknamekforkakSitkstart.kHaskcomektokbekthektermkforkanykfallkbeyondktheklastkplac edkorkclippedkpiecekofkprotection. Wiresk kkkkAkslangktermkforknuts.kThekscalekrunskfromk5.kes peciallykifkthekfirstkpiecekwasknotkplacedktokaccountkforkoutwardkand/orkupwardk force.kSpecificallykcalledksuchkbecausekofkthekwoodenkpanelsk(usu allykleftkunpainted)kusedktokattachkthekclimbingkholdskto.khi es. Wiredk kkkkDescribeskakroutekorksequencekwhichkakclimberkhaskrehearsedkextensivelykandk thuskascendskwithkease. kkZ Z-clippingk kkkkClippingkintokankanchorkwithktheksegmentkofkropekfromkbeneathkthekpreviouskp iecekofkprotection. Z-pulleyk kkkkAlsokZ-system.kanchors.kAkparticularkconfigurationkofkrope.kakwhipperk(longkfall). Woodiek kkkkAkhomekmadekclimbingkwall. Weightingk kkkkAskin.) Whipperk kkkkAkleadkfallkfromkabovekandktoktheksidekofktheklastkclip.kThiskcankhappenkduringkakminorkfall.

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