Chapter 1 Introduction

Literature: • Halzen/Martin [1] • Aitchison/Hey [2] (rigorous) • Seiden [3] (experimental, up to date) • Nachtmann [4] (difficult to purchase) Elementary particles are the smallest constituents of matter. Therefore the notion “elementary” changes with scientific progress (cf. Tab. 1.1). We can define “elementary” as “having no resolvable inner structure”. This also means that there can be no excited states. Elementary particles interact in a well-defined way through fundamental interactions. These are • gravity, • electromagnetic interaction, • weak interaction, and • strong interaction, where only the last three are relevant, at the elementary particle level, at energies currently available. Range of phenomena: • structure of matter • stability of matter 1

Another important physical constant is the speed of light m c = 2. ντ Table 1.998 · 108 . (1. Thomson Bequerel/Curie Rutherford Chadwick Anderson Blackett/Powell Cowan/Reines Glashow/Weinberg/Salam CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION periodic system atom electron radioactivity atomic nucleus & electron scattering neutron proton. electron positron & their antiparticles pion.1 Units �= The Planck constant h (1.0546 · 10−34 Js 2π has dimension of action and angular momentum.2) s .2 1869 1890 1910 1932 1947 1956 1967 1968 1972 1974 1979 1977 1983 1995 Mendeleev/Meyer J. radioactivity: decay of elementary particles • scattering of elementary particles • production of new particles • indirect implications – early history of the universe – fuel cycle in stars – astrophysical phenomena: supernovae. Z bosons Fermilab t-quark.1) = 1.1: Historical outline of the concept of “elementarity” • instability of matter. very high energy cosmic rays 1. neutron. τ -lepton DESY gluon Fermilab b-quark CERN W. muon “particle zoo” neutrino electroweak theory SLAC deep inelastic quarks & leptons scattering Fritzsch/Gell-Mann/Leutwyler quantum chromodynamics SLAC/BNL c-quark.

58 · 10−25 GeV · s = 1 ⇒ 1 GeV−1 � 6. time. (eV)2 (1.1) and (1. Examples of some orders of magnitude are me = 511 keV mp = 938 MeV mn = 939 MeV Ee (LEP) = 104. One electron volt is the energy acquired by an electron passing a potential difference of 1 V : 1 eV = 1. Eq.998 · 108 Cross sections have dimensions of area: [σ] = [L]2 = [M ]−2 = As unit we choose 1 = 389379 nb = 389379 · 10−9 b (1 GeV)2 1 . � = 6.5). i. and length into each other yields. Converting the units for energy. in agreement with Eq. we find [c] = [length] · [time]−1 = [L][T ]−1 ⇒ [L] = [T ] [�] = [energy] · [time] = [M ][L]2 [T ]−1 ⇒ [M ] = [L]−1 ⇒ [M ] = [L]−1 = [T ]−1 and [E] = [M ]. e. (recall lifetime τ = 1 Γ ! (1. time.602 · 10−19 J keV = 103 eV MeV = 106 eV GeV = 109 eV TeV = 1012 eV. UNITS 3 Because we are dealing with constants.58 · 10−25 s . Using so-called natural units.1.6) with Γ the resonance width).7) c = 2. (1.2) establish a relationship among the units for energy.8) .4) (1. s 200 MeV (1.3) (1. and 1 m ! = 1 ⇒ 1 fm = 10−15 m � .5 GeV Ep (Tevatron) = 980 GeV Ep (LHC) = 7 TeV.5) This raises the question of a suitable fundamental unit for energy.1. (1. setting � = c = 1. and length. (1.

e where the experimental value was obtained by Van Dyck. the electron charge is fixed to be � √ � (1. Consider for example the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron: � � e e g 1α α2 α3 µQED = = 1 + − 0.0011596521465(270) = 2me � e � 1. The dimensionless fine structure constant α is accordingly expressed differently in terms of e in different systems of units.2 Elementary interactions Gravitation.18 3 e 2me 2 2me ���� 2π � �� π � � ��π � ���� Dirac µexp. in HeavisideLorentz units. The unit of electrical charge can be defined in different ways.388 2 + 1.0011596521883(42) . HL 1. Since Gm2 ≈ 10−39 p and because of the fact that gravity’s range is infinite.4 CHAPTER 1. � � 2 e 1 � α= � = 7. = 2me Schwinger Petermann Laporta/Remiddi . Therefore. INTRODUCTION with 1 b : 1 barn = 10−24 cm2 the typical scale of nuclear absorption. The range of the electromagnetic interaction is infinite and typical lifetimes of particles decaying through electromagnetic interactions range from τΣ0 →Λ0 γ = 10−20 s to τπ0 →γγ = 10−16 s. � e � 1. Typical cross sections are of order σep→ep = 1 µb.9) e = 4πα� . Schwinberg and Dehmelt. 1 Electromagnetic interaction. � 4π�c � Heaviside-Lorentz and determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. QED’s (quantum electrodynamics’) predictions have been tested to high theoretical and experimental precision. Recall that α � 137 .2972 · 10−3 � 4πε0 �c � 137 SI � e2 � � = � �c � CGS � 2 � e � = . it is relevant for macroscopic systems (and can be neglected here).

2(a) and 1.12. As an example for weak interactions consider β decay: n → pe¯e : see ν Fig. 1. which yields for Fermi’s 2 gw constant GF = 8M 2 . as described by Fermi’s constant (a) and via W − boson exchange (b). Weak interaction. Depicted as a point like process. At the nuclear level.1.1: Beta decay of neutron. n.2(b)) is still used. ELEMENTARY INTERACTIONS p n Figure 1.2. the Yukawa theory of pion exchange (see figures 1. 1. p The lifetimes go from 10−10 s to 103 s and cross sections are of order σ ≈ 1 fb. Gluons (in contrast to photons) carry themselves the charges they are coupling to which influences the strong interaction’s potential. . Theoretically. see Fig. It explains the bonding of protons and neutrons 1 by exchange of massive pions: mπ = 130 MeV ⇒ range � mπ = 130 1 � 1. The QCD coupling constant is approximately given by αs � 0.3.1(a). QCD MeV (quantum chromodynamics) states that particles like p.1.4 fm. W 00 p gW W− e− n gW νe ¯ νe ¯ (a) (b) 5 e− Strong interaction. and π consist of quarks which interact through gluons. The range is about 1 fm and for the coupling we have GF m2 ≈ 10−5 . see fig.1(b). the process is explained by W − boson exchange.

2: Yukawa theory.3: Potential of the strong interaction. . 00 p n d d u u d π + CHAPTER 1. Interaction by pion exchange (a) and exchange of quark and anti-quark (b).6 Figure 1. INTRODUCTION u d u d d n p u u (a) (b) V(r) ~1fm ~r r ~1/r q q q q Figure 1.

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