Sindhudurg was built by Shivaji in 1664 AD and it is believed that he personally selected this site for the construction

of this ocean fort. The fort was built with the help of 500 stone splitters, 200 blacksmiths, 3000 laborers and hundreds of skilled artists who worked very hard to complete this fort in three years. The fort has magnificent architecture. The presence of liquid lead in the 3km long and 10km high outer wall was built in an impenetrable manner. It was built in such a zigzag way that it was visible from every direction which helped the Maratha soldiers trace their enemies during war. The Shri Shivarajeshwar temple at Sindhudurg fort is dedicated to Chhatrapati Shivaji. The other attractions are the Hanuman and Jarimari mandir, Goddess Bhavani Temple, Shambhu Mahadev temple, Jirimiri and Mahapurush temple. There is also a unique coconut tree inside the fort which comprises of two branches. Vijaydurg Fort, also known as the victory fort, is three walled fortress comprising of umpteen towers and an awesome sized interior building. A board at the entrance states its history. The Vijaydurg Fort stretches out into the sea and is best viewed from the Jetty. About one kilometer from the fort is the Vijaydurg Beach. With its wonderful scenic beauty the views of the Vijaydurg Fort lays down the legacies of the great Maratha rulers.

Padmadurg, also known as Kasa fort, is a fort in Maharashtra, India. It was built by the great Maratha ruler King Shivaji to the northwest of the fort Janjira. It was built mainly to conquer the fort Janjira, although it is not as big as Janjira. Due to incomplete construction, and bombardment from Janjira during its construction, only ruins of the Padmadurg fort remain. Many parts of the fort are now inaccessible and there are no direct ferryboats to Padmadurg. This fort is under a seal by Indian Government as it has been claimed that the drugs were smuggled there. It was built by king Sambhaji - son of the great Maratha ruler king Shivaji. Although it is not as big as Janjira but still a sea fort that can be visited upon permission by Indian Customs\Navy. It looks great from Janjira. When Shivaji the Great decidied to take on the Siddis of Janjira, his admiral, Daulat Khan, built this fort on an island next to Janjira. The rock, on which the fort was built, was called Kasa and the fort was named Padmadurg. The fort has six bastions, some of them devastated by gun attack from the famous 'kalal bangdi' gun in Janjira. Kasa was soon overpowered by Siddis and used as a Jail

The President of India is the head of state of the Republic of India. The President is the formal head of the executive, legislature andjudiciary of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President is indirectly elected by the people through elected members of the Parliament of India (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) as well as of the state legislatures (Vidhan Sabhas), and serves for a term of five years.[3] Historically, ruling party (majority in the Lok Sabha) nominees (for example, United Progressive Alliance nominee Shri Pranab Mukherjee) have been elected or largely elected unanimously. Incumbent presidents are permitted to stand for re-election. A formula is used to allocate votes so there is a balance between the population of each state and the number of votes assembly members from a state can cast, and to give an equal balance between State Assembly members and the members of the Parliament of India. If no candidate receives a majority of votes, then there is a system by which losing candidates are eliminated from the contest and their votes are transferred to other candidates, until one gains a majority. The Vice-President is elected by a direct vote of all members (only elected) of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.[4] Although Article 53[5] of the Constitution of India states that the President can exercise his or her powers directly or by subordinate authority,[6] with few exceptions, all of the executive authorities vested in the President are in practice exercised by popularly electedGovernment of India, headed by the Prime Minister. This Executive power, is exercised by the Prime Minister with the help of Council of Ministers. The President of India resides in an estate in New Delhi known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan[7] (which roughly translates as President's Palace). The presidential retreat is The Retreat in Chharabra, Shimla and Rashtrapati Nilayam (President's Place) in Hyderabad. The 13th and current President is Pranab Mukherjee elected on 22 July 2012, and sworn-in on 25 July 2012. He is also the first Bengalito be elected as the president.[8] He took over the position from Pratibha Patil who was the first woman to serve in the office

The Prime Minister of India, as addressed to in the Constitution of India, is the chief of government, chief advisor to the President of India, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament. The Prime Minister leads the executive branch of the Government of India. The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the Prime Minister dissolves the cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. The incumbent prime minister is Manmohan Singh, in office since 22 May 2004.

The Prime Minister

and history

India follows a parliamentary system of government. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e., the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a purely ceremonial position.. [edit]Constitutional

framework and position of Prime Minister

The Constitution envisages a scheme of affairs in which the President of India is the head of the executive in terms of Article 53 with office of the Prime Minister as heading the Council of Ministers to assist and advise the President in the discharge of the executive power. To quote, Article 53 and 74 provide as under; The executive powers of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised either directly or through subordinate officers, in accordance with the Constitution. — Article 53(1), Constitution of India like most parliamentary democracies the Head of State's duties are mostly ceremonial, the Prime Minister of India is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power. With India following a parliamentary system of government the Prime Minister is generally the leader of a party (or coalition of parties) that has a majority in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. The Prime Minister, in common with all other ministers at Central & state level, either has to be a current member of one of the houses of Parliament, or be elected within six months of being appointed.

First Battle of Panipat (1526)
The first battle of Panipat saw emergence of the Mughals, mightiest power in Indian History. According to legends it was the oldest Indian battles to have used gunpowder firearms and field artillery. The battle was fough between two mega-powers. Babur, then ruler of Kabul and Ibrahim Lodhi, king of Delhi Sultanate. It was fought near Panipat (present day Haryana). Although Babur had a fighting Army of 8,000 soldiers and Lodhi had around 40,000 soldiers along with 400 war elephants, yet the main element that proved an ace-card for Babur for the use of field artillery. Apart from fighting and defeating men, the artillery was powerful to scare elephants and cause havoc amongst them. In the end, it was Baburwho emerged victorious and established the Mughal Empire, while Ibrahim Lodhi perished in the Battle.

Second Battle of Panipat (1556)
The Second battle of Panipat marked the beginning of Akbar’s reign in India, as it was in the first year of his holding the throne. The battle was fought between Akbar (Ruler of Mughal Dynasty) and Muhammad Adil Shah (ruler of Pashtan Suri Dynasty), along with his Prime Minister Hemu. In the year 1956, Akbar had successfully taken up the throne of his father when Mughals had spread across Kabul, Kandahar and parts of Delhi and Punjab. Hemu (Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya) was the military chief of Afghan Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah, who was the ruler of Chunar at that point. Adil Shah was on a trail to remove Mughals from India. Taking the advantage of Humayun’s death he was successful in capturing the reigns of Agra and Delhi without much difficulty. This victory of Adil Shah and Hemu didn’t last much as Bairam Shah, who was the chief Minister and guardian of Akbar proceeded with a large army towards Delhi. The battle was fought at Panipat with strong competitors on both sides. Hemu had a large army along with 1500 War elephants. Hemu was struck with an arrow in his eye and subsequently the army got panicked seeing their unconscious leader. The battle concluded with Mughals crowned with victory. The head of Hemu was chopped and the torso was made to travel to Delhi to celebrate the grand victory of Mughals. Thus, it was this ferocious battle that reestablished the strong Mughal Empire which had a powerful reign of Akbar to create history.

Third Battle of Panipat (1761)
The third battle of Panipat was fought between the Afghans and the Marathas. The battle was significant as it marked the end of Maratha dominance in India. At the time of this battle Afghans were under the leadership of Ahmed Shah Abdali and the Marathas under the leadership of Peshwas had established control across Northern India. During the eighteenth century the parallel decline of Mughal Empire and defeat of Marathas in the battle of Panipat saw a new beginning of the colonial ruleinIndia.

In the world, there are certain civilizations that have taken place over time. One of these civilizations happened in Egypt and it is called the Egyptian civilization. This civilization took place in the eastern part of North Africa along the lower parts of the Nile river. Also, the civilization happened at around 3150 BC, during the reign of the first pharaoh when the upper and the lower Nile were united. Moreover, the ancient Egypt civilization took place as a succession of stable kingdoms that were separated by the intermediate periods. These kingdoms include the Old Kingdom, Early Bronze Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, Middle Bronze Kingdom and the New Kingdom. There are certain factors that led to the civilization in Egypt these include: the availability of River Nile, the fertile banks of the river and powerful kings. River Nile was very instrumental in the development of Egypt because it enabled agricultural activities to take place. During the rainy seasons, the river would flood hence carrying and depositing silt at its banks (David 56). Secondly, the fertile banks of the river were instrumental in encouraging many agricultural activities in the region. Therefore, the Egyptian wealth mostly emanated from the agricultural activities that were facilitated by the availability of the fertile plains of river Nile. Furthermore, the availability of very powerful kings in Egypt played a key role in contributing to civilization. One of these kings is the first pharaoh who was the ultimate source of control in Egypt. The pharaoh was also in charge of the country’s wealth, the military commander and the head of state (David 85). With the help of the religious leaders, elite scribes and the administrators, pharaoh was able to unite the Egyptians basing on the religious beliefs. This in turn facilitated a tremendous success in the country’s development activities. Additionally, pharaoh’s representative; Vizier also played a big role in supervising the country’s projects, surveys, treasury, legal system and archives. In addition, the country’s development was accelerated by the availability of the temples that were used religiously. The fact that the temples were used as a place for collecting and storing the country’s wealth aided civilization in the country (Hobbs 57). Egyptian civilization was also facilitated by the peaceful social status in the country. The Egyptian society was highly divided with the farmers forming most of the population though the farm produce was owned by the state, temple and noble families that had farms (David 87). The craftsmen, artists and the farmers contributed to economy by paying taxes to the government. The Egyptian civilization was also affected by the country’s geographical features. First, the country has the world’s longest river running across it. The availability of river Nile facilitated many agricultural activities that boosted civilization in the country (Shaw 85). The Egyptian farmers used river Nile’s water for irrigation since most parts of the country are dry. Moreover, the banks of river Nile were fertile due to the deposits caused by floods. The deposits were made of silt, a rich mineral that is instrumental in improving the countries agricultural activities. Egyptian civilization faced a lot of challenges based on geographical factors. Since the Egyptian farmers cultivated along the banks of river Nile, they experienced a lot of problems due to floods. During the rainy season, the river would swell hence carrying away the farmers’ crops. As a result, this could slow down development since agriculture was the country’s backbone (Shaw 91). However, when the Aswan High Dam was built, these problems greatly reduced; hence enhancing development in the country. Another limitation to the Egyptian civilization is the dry climate since Egypt is a desert. Farming activities were at times slowed down because of the unavailability of water that is highly essential for any effective agriculture (Bongo 74). Additionally, the farmers who lived far away from the river were disadvantaged in that they could not access the adequate water from the river. However, the problem was minimized by the invention of irrigation since farmers were able to carry out their activities successfully. The question of the origin of Egyptian civilization lies on the fact that the Egyptians civilized themselves. However, the civilization borrowed some ideas from the neighboring civilizations including the Greek and Mesopotamia (David 94). For instance, the Egyptians borrowed the iron technology from Meroe in Sudan along side their own inventions. Moreover, the Egyptian literature had some aspects borrowed from the Greek, for instance, they started using the Greek alphabet and some Demotic symbols. Besides, Egyptian civilization had a lot of reactions with other civilization at separate times. One of the neighboring civilizations was the Mesopotamia that happened in the ancient Greek. In this civilization, the interaction that took place happened peacefully; hence the exchange of ideas. In fact, the peaceful coexistence of Egypt facilitated the consistent development in the country (Bongo 78). There are certain economic factors that also enhanced Egyptian development. One of these factors is that Egypt had many natural resources that included gold, copper, lead, decorative stones and semiprecious stones. These resources are significant in promoting development in the country since they were used by the Egyptians construction of the


Pretoria, South Africa
PRETORIA, South Africa

Known as the Jacaranda City for all the purple blossom-bedecked trees, which line its thoroughfares, Pretoria is a lovely, quiet city. It has a long, involved and fascinating history. Here you will find significant old buildings and fascinating museums. The Transvaal Museum has natural history displays and is the home of Mrs Ples, the australopithecine fossil found at Sterkfontein in the Cradle of Humankind. Also worth visiting are theCultural History Museum and Smuts Museum in Irene, outside Pretoria. Sedate, leafy Pretoria tends to endure a Cinderella complex when compared with the neighbouring city of Johannesburg. When it comes to world class cities, Johannesburg is one of the most ‘happening’ cities on the African continent and the city gleams with the glamour of money. Pretoria has been left to shrug off its former association with the apartheid government in a relative state of slumber, lying as it does in a warm, sheltered valley surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range that ensure that temperatures here are invariably a few degrees warmer than Johannesburg. But don’t let the sleepy nature of the pretty city lull you into a false perception. Pretoria has a beauty all of its own, and the slow pace of life is regarded as a bonus by its residents. Many Jo’burgers seek a quieter existence in Pretoria, prepared to commute daily rather live in the comparative rat race. Wall flower the city is not. When in full bloom in October, Pretoria literally comes alive with blossoms and leaves no one in doubt as to the origin of its nickname - Jacaranda city.

Pretoria, South Africa

Pretoria functions as one of three capitals of South Africa with a population that exceeds a million people, the bulk of whom are government officials. The city centre is laid out in typical city fashion on a grid with wide roads, making getting around fairly simple. Pretoria’s potential name change to Tshwane (the city lies in the greater Metropolitan municipality of Tshwane) was approved by the names’ council in 2005 but still lacks endorsement by the Minister of Arts And Culture, remaining ‘under consideration’, which may or may not have something to do with the hue and cry that ensued at the onset of the name change


Johannesburg, South Africa
Johannesburg, South Africa

Johannesburg is an African city of note. Johannesburg is characterised by contradiction and an apparent seamless combination of irreconcilable differences. The largest city in South Africa, Johannesburg is also the wealthiest and, without doubt, the economic powerhouse of Africa. Johannesburg is a booming, happening city and the emphasis is on making money - whether in business or on the streets - and has been since its beginnings when the world’s richest gold fields were discovered in Johannesburgduring the 1880s. To the first-time visitor Johannesburg, or Jozi as it’s more commonly known, can be a little daunting, more so because of the misrepresentation by the media of Johannesburg as something of a war zone. There is crime; you do need to keep your wits about you, but once bitten by the vibe of Jozi, you’re going to want to come back again. The Johannesburg inner city, abandoned by an exodus of big business that transferred toSandton and, until recently, avoided by all except die-hard tourists, is undergoing a complete regeneration. The area close to City Hall and Newtown Cultural Precinct, which has completely transformed the Market Theatre and surrounds, now forms the heart of urban revival, and the Johannesburg inner city remains the largest employment centre in South Africa.

Johannesburg, South Africa

But it’s the sprawl of the leafy northern suburbs - there are over six million trees in Johannesburg - that draws the visitor: buzzing, trendy suburbs like Parktownand Norwood, with their restaurant-lined avenues that cater for the dining and décor set; the high street of Greenside that so easily dons the mantle of hip chic; fashionable Melville (forget venturing a little further to Yeoville - Jozi’s Greenwich Village it might have been but not any longer), and the sprawling malls of Sandton, all combine to make the city a great place to be. Though not touted as an outdoor city, there are, nevertheless, a number of parks and nature reserves, like Emmarentia Dam and the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden, that are worth a visit. The Magaliesberg is just on your doorstep, and you’re extremely well placed for adventures a little further afield, like the Kruger National Park and the game parks of the Lowveld.


KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

KwaZulu Natal Travel Guide / KwaZulu Natal's leisure options provide a multitude of choices to keep you endlessly entertained. From the city of Durban you can catch a shuttle toMargate, at the hub of the South Coast Golf Circuit. When you're not playing golf, fishing or lying on the beach, you can visit a crocodile farm, a nature reserve or follow an arts and crafts trail. A short flight takes you to the historic city of Pietermaritzburg, gateway to the Natal Midlands and the charming Drakensberg resorts. No holiday in KwaZulu Natal would be complete without a visit to at least one of the KwaZulu Natal game reserves, renowned throughout the world. Appropriately enough, the Zulu name for Durban is Thekwini, meaning "The Place Where the Earth and the Ocean Meet". But apart from an effervescent ocean lined with golden beaches, KwaZulu Natal's capital city, Durban, offers a subtropical carnival atmosphere and summer sunshine all year round. From around the globe, day in, day out, pleasure-seekers converge on the city to play on the golden, palm-fringed sands. In addition to the attractions of sea, surf and sport, leisure options encompass an eclectic range. At excellent one-stop shopping centres, you can buy anything from photographic equipment to couturier clothes and rare antiques. Flea markets and craft trails attract leisurely browsers, and discount stores offer quality merchandise at bargain basement prices. Within a stone's throw of the city centre, oriental bazaars, fragrant with spice and incense, offer silks, saris, unusual jewellery and ornaments. Pubs, discos and action bars are firm favourites. KwaZulu Natal also caters for a wide spectrum of travellers and businessmen and the top hotels in KwaZulu Natal compare very favourably with the best hotels and resorts in the world. You will find an extensive selection of places to stay at KwaZulu Natal accommodation and KwaZulu Natal hotels.

Umhlanga, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

Theatres and concert halls present classical, avant-garde and ethnic programmes, and art galleries display works created by the internationally famous and up-and-coming local talents. KwaZulu Natal's restaurants represent every facet of the city's cosmopolitan nature and cater for every palate and pocket.


Bloemfontein, Motheo Region
Bloemfontein, Free State

Bloemfontein, the City of Roses, serves as something of an oasis, lying as it does plum in the middle of the Free State and indeed the country. The only major city for miles around, it is also the sixth largest city in the country, the Judicial Capital ofSouth Africa, and it lies on the N1 between Johannesburg and Cape Town, often functioning as a stop off to break the major journey between the two cities. Despite being situated in an area of dry grassland, Bloemfontein more than lives up to its name - spring of flowers. Thousands of rose bushes line the city; more than 4000 rose trees have been planted in the rose gardens in Kings Park, and many homes, still minus the ubiquitous six metre wall of other major cities in South Africa, boast colourful gardens littered with flowering plants and trees. Bloemies, as the locals fondly call her it, is a city of little stress and very few residents buy into the rush, rush syndrome typical of a major city. The city centre is lined with historical buildings, including the beautiful tree-lined President Brand Street - a national monument - its pavements home to several graceful museum buildings, right in the centre of the CBD.

Bloemfontein, Free State

Naval Hill, a little nature reserve of 192 odd hectares, set right in the city, is worth a drive through. Set on a hill as it is, it not only provides a welcome respite from all things city, but also gives a bird’s eye view over the city. And the extremely modern Orchid House, which lies at the western foot of Naval Hill in Hamilton Park, lays claim to the world’s largest collection of orchids. There is also a fragrance garden for the blind close to Orchid House. For holiday makers (or even those stopping off here on business trips),accommodation in Bloemfontein is plentiful. Hotels and B&B's abound and those who prefer to self cater will find that Bloemfontein accommodation is reasonably priced and accompanied by true South African hospitality. There is no shortage of Things to Do in Bloemfontein: The Art in the Park, held in Kings Park on the first Saturday of every month is an extremely popular event amongst residents; Loch Logan Waterfront offers a series of restaurants, shops, pubs and entertainment, and the Oliewenhuis Art Gallery - a beautiful neo-Cape Dutch house with frequent exhibitions and sprawling lawns - has gardens under shade trees that provide a wonderful space in which to picnic or simply enjoy tea at the little garden tea house.

Upington is a town founded in 1884 and located in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, on the banks of the Orange River. The town was named after Sir Thomas Upington, Attorney-General and then Prime Minister of the Cape. It originated as a mission station established in 1875 and run by Reverend Schröder. The mission station now houses the town museum, known as the Kalahari Orange Museum. The museum is also the home of a donkey statue, which recognises the enormous contribution that this animal made to the development of the region during the pioneering days of the 19th century. The elevation of Upington is 2742 feet (835 metres). It is the closest large centre to the Augrabies Falls, arguably the greatest of South African waterfalls. The landscape is very arid but the soil is fertile and crops such as fruit are grown in irrigated fields. The area is best known for its export-quality grapes, raisins and wines, which are cultivated on the rich flood plains of the Orange river

Wine Industry
Upington's most famous wines are produced by an organisation generally known as Orange River Wine Cellars (OWC). The organisation has six depots in the area (all of them on the banks of the Orange River) at Upington, Kanoneiland, Grootdrink,Kakamas, Keimoes and Groblershoop. The wines from OWC are exported, inter alia, to Europe and the USA. Dig a little deeper and you'll find privately owned cellars, producing quality red and white wines as well. Bezalel Dyasonsklip offers a variety of local treasures, such as low tanin red wines, 5-year old Pot-stilled brandy, a mampoer range and liqueurs. The Upington region accounts for more or less 40% of South Africa's grape exports. [edit]Famous • • • • •

Upington people

Alice Krige – South African Actress Scotty Smith – South African Bandit, "Robin Hood of the Kalahari" Shaleen Surtie-Richards – South African Actress Margot de Klerk – South African Explorer, Part Time Model Chris Steytler - South African Astronaut, Nobel Prize winner

[edit]Transportation Upington has a modern airport with scheduled flights provided by SA Airlink (an affiliate of South African Airways).[3] The airport's runway, spanning 4900m,[4] is one of the longest in the world and the longest in Africa. Until the 1960s, the airport was also the site of the annual gliding world championships[citation needed]. In the first half of the 20th century there was a passenger train service from Cape Town to Upington. Until the 1950s a narrow-gauge railway line (two-foot gauge) ran from Upington to Kakamas and Keimoes, two nearby towns.

Columbia (Republic of)
History of Relations | Diplomatic Representation | Travel Info | Health Requirements | Climate Info | Currency Info | Trade Info | Visits and Meetings | Agreements | Interest Groups/ Organisations History of Relations South Africa and Colombia established full diplomatic relations on 12 April 1994. Colombia opened an Embassy in Pretoria in April 1995 and the first Colombian Ambassador to South Africa took up his post in Pretoria in July 1995. The South African Ambassador in Brazil was accredited as non-resident Ambassador to Colombia in February 1996. However, following the opening of the South African Embassy in Venezuela in 1998, Ambassador-designate T Luthuli- Gcabashe received agrément from Bogota. Towards the end of 1991 South Africa appointed an honorary representative in Bogota. Diplomatic Representation South African Representation in Colombia The South African Embassy in Caracas, Venezuela is responsible for Colombia: H E Ms X N Ngwevela Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary South African Embassy Colombia Representation in South Africa H E Mr M Gonzalez Lopez Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Embassy of Colombia FNB Building - 3rd Floor 1105 Park Street Hatfield Tel: 012 342 - 0201 Fax: 012 342 - 0216 Travel Info Visa Requirements for South Africans For more information contact the Colombian Embassy in Pretoria or visit the the web site of theColombian Embassy in Washington DC, USA.

Health Requirements Yellow fever certificate. Malaria - risk exists if travelling below 1 500m. Tetanus - immunisation recommended. Hepatitis B certificate For further information go to Travelers' Health.

Climate Info Tropical in coastal areas; rainy season from May to November; cool weather along interior mountain ranges where the largest cities are situated. For up-to-date weather information click here

Currency Info Colombian Peso. For up-to-date information click here State and Official Visits / Bilateral Meetings No Information Bilateral Agreements If you have any queries with regard to treaties please contact the Treaty Section at 012 351 0872/0851/0837 Trade Info Exports fall chiefly into the categories of chemical products, base metals, wood pulp and transport equipment. Imports fall mainly into the categories of vegetable products, textiles and chemical products. For current information on trade statistics between South Africa and Afghanistan, visit the web site of the Department of Trade and Industry of South Africa Interest Groups and Information

Bitterfontein is a village in the Knersvlakte, the northernmost area of the Western Cape province of South Africa, 320
kilometres (200 mi) north of Cape Town. It is the railhead of a line from Cape Town; ore from the copper mines at Okiep is transferred there from road transport to the railway. It is also located on the N7 (Cape Town–Namibia) national road; the distance from Cape Town is 386 kilometres (240 mi) by road and 465 kilometres (289 mi) by rail.[2]

Bitterfontein is located in the Matzikama Local Municipality, which is part of the West Coast District Municipality. According to the 2001 Census, it had a population of 906 in an area of 1.77 square kilometres (0.68 sq mi).[1] It is served by a police station,

a primary school,[4] a library,[5] and a satellite health clinic.[6]


The South African country singer Ruben Lennox wrote a song about Bitterfontein

For travelling to or from Bitterfontein, the most reliable mode of transport is the minibus taxis that run daily between Springbok and Cape Town. The fares are reasonable and they will pick you up at your doorstep and drop you at the address of your destination. To get hold of one phone enquiries (1023) and ask for Bezuidenhout's, Van Wyk's, Lucian's, Titus or JK Taxis' number. If you want to explore the area in more detail, the best way is to arrive with your own transport, preferably a sturdy sedan car or a "bakkie" (light utility vehicle) The six surrounding villages are all within an hour's drive from Bitterfontein. The Orange River is 320 kilometres to the north. [edit][add listing]See Bitterfontein is situated in the Knersvlakte, which forms part of the Succulent Karoo biome, with over a 1000 succulent species. In the smaller villages, where the lifestyle is very rural, you can still see people baking bread in outside clay ovens, driving donkey carts and herding goats in the traditional manner. Various landscapes present themselves, like the Bushmanland with its wide grassy plains and stately quiver trees. To the west there are great granite domes surrounding the picturesque Roman Catholic mission station of Rietpoort. The landscape has gently rolling hills and in spring time (August to September) is transformed with fields of Namaqualand flowers. Just north of Bitterfontein a green coloured granite, called charnockite, is mined. The village, as well as the surrounding villages, are provided with fresh water by means of a desalination plant, the first in the Southern Hemisphere. Nearby is Van Meerhoff's Cave, an overnight spot of one of the early governors of the Cape Colony, on his expeditions into Namaqualand - it is a National Monument.

Cape Town
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad [ˈkɑːpstɐt] ; Xhosa: iKapa) is the second-most populous

city in South Africa afterJohannesburg,[4] and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan

municipality. The city is famous for its harbour as well as its natural setting in the Cape floral kingdom, including such wellknown landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is also Africa's most popular tourist destination.[5] Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was originally developed by the Dutch East India Company as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to Eastern Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Today it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. As of 2011 the metropolitan region had an estimated population of 3.74 million.[3] The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design.[6]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paarl (pron.: /ˈpɑrl/; Afrikaans: [ˈpɛːrəl]; derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch) is a town with 191,013 inhabitants in theWestern Cape province of South Africa. Its the third oldest European settlement in the Republic of South Africa (after Cape Townand Stellenbosch) and the largest town in the Cape Winelands. Due to the growth of the Mbekweni township, it is now a de factourban unit with Wellington. It is situated about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northeast of Cape Town in the Western Cape Province and is renowned for its haunting scenic beauty and deep viticulture and fruit growing heritage. Paarl is the seat of the Drakenstein Local Municipality; although not part of the Cape Town metropolitan area, it falls within its economic catchment. Paarl is unusual in South Africa in that the name of the place is pronounced differently in English and Afrikaans. An unusual feature of the name of the town is that Afrikaners customarily attach the definite article to it: people say in die Paarl ("in the Paarl"), rather than in Pearl. Paarl gained international attention when, on 11 February 1990, Nelson Mandela walked out of Victor Verster Correctional Centre (now known as Drakenstein Correctional Centre) in Paarl ending 27 years of imprisonment and beginning the march to South Africa's post-apartheid era and multi-racial elections.[2] Mandela spent three years in prison here living in a private house within the walls. Today, a bronze statue of Mandela stands outside the prison.

Paarl hosted a match from the ICC Cricket World Cup 2003. The headquarters of Ceres Fruit Juices are located in the city, although its namesake, Ceres valley and source of much of the fruit, is around one hour's drive to the northeast. The district is particularly well known for its Pearl Mountain or "Paarl Rock". This huge granite rock is formed by three rounded outcrops that make up Paarl Mountain and has been compared in majesty to Uluru (formerly known as Ayers Rock) in Australia. (However, they are not geologically similar. Paarl Rock consists of intrusive igneous rock, while Uluru is a sedimentary remnant).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the city in England. For the city in Massachusetts, see Worcester, Massachusetts. For other uses, see Worcester (disambiguation). The City of Worcester, commonly known as Worcester, ( i/ˈwʊstər/ WUUS-tər), is a city and county town of Worcestershire in theWest Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Birmingham and 29 miles (47 km) north ofGloucester, and has an approximate population of 100,000 people. The River Severn runs through the middle of the city, overlooked by the twelfthcentury Worcester Cathedral. The site of the final battle of the Civil War, Worcester was where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles II's Cavaliers, cementing the English Interregnum, the eleven-year period during which England and Wales became a republic. Worcester was the home of Royal

Worcester Porcelain and the birthplace of the composer Sir Edward Elgar.

Oudtshoorn is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. With 80,336 inhabitants, it is the largest town in the Little Karoo region. The town is home to the world's largest ostrich population, with a number of specialized ostrich breeding farms, such as the Safari Show Farm and the Highgate Ostrich Show Farm.


The area in which Oudtshoorn is situated was originally inhabited by Bushmen, as evidenced by the many rock paintings that are found in caves throughout the surrounding Swartberg mountains. The first European explorers to the area was a trading party led by a certain Ensign Shrijver, who were guided there by a Griqua via an ancient elephant trail in January 1689. The expedition reached as far as present-day Aberdeen before turning back and exiting the Klein Karoo valley through Attaquas Kloof on 16 March of the same year. However, it was only a hundred years later that the first farmers started settling in the region. The first large permanent structure of the Klein Karoo, a church of the Dutch Reformed denomination, was first erected in 1839, near the banks of the Grobbelaars River. The village (and later town) of Oudtshoorn gradually grew around this church; it was named after Baron Pieter van Rheede van Oudtshoorn, who was appointed Governor of the Cape Colony in 1772, but died on the voyage out. A small one-room school was opened in 1858, followed by the formation of a municipality and the founding of an Agricultural Society in 1859. During the same year, work was also started on a larger church to replace the original small one. Unfortunately, 1859 also signalled the start of a long and serious drought which severely depressed the national economy - by 1865, there was serious poverty. When the drought was finally broken by floods in 1869, the depression lifted and Oudtshoorn was transformed from a struggling village to a town of great prosperity.

De Aar is a town in the Northern Cape, South Africa. It has a population of around 45,857



It is the second-most important railway junction in the country[1], situated on the line between Cape Town and Kimberley. The junction was of particular strategic importance to the British during the Second Boer War. De Aar is also a primary commercial distribution centre for a large area of the central Great Karoo. Major production activities of the area include wool production and livestock farming. The area is also popular for hunting, despite the fact that the region is rather arid. [edit]History De Aar was originally established on the Farm "De Aar", the name means "the artery", a reference to its underground water supply. The Cape Government Railways were founded in 1872, and the route that the government chose for the line to connect the Kimberley diamond fields to Cape Town on the coast, ran directly through De Aar. Because of its central location, the government also selected the location for a junction between this first railway line, and the other Cape railway networks further east, in 1881.[3]In 1899 two brothers who ran a trading store and hotel at the junction, Isaac and Wulf Friedlander, purchased the farm of De Aar. Following the Anglo Boer War, the Friedlander brothers surveyed the land for the establishment of a town. The municipality was created a year later and the towns first mayor, Dr Harry Baker, was elected in 1907.

[edit]Climate De Aar has a desert climate (BWh/BWk, according to the Köppen climate classification), with warm summers (with hot days and cool nights) and cool winters. The average annual precipitation is 196 mm (8 in), with most rainfall occurring mainly during summer and autumn. [edit]Tourist


There are ancient Khoisan rock engravings on the Nooitgedacht and Brandfontein farms. Additionally, there is a "Garden of Remembrance", which honours the British troops killed in the Anglo-Boer War. The town is also home to a major military ammunition dump. The DoD Ammunition Sub Depot De Aar is located about 2km west of the town. De Aar is famous amongst Paragliding & Hang-Gliding pilots worldwide as it holds 2 World records & many countries' National Distance records. De Aar was also the host to the XC World Series in 2008 and 2009. During the summer months De Aar is home for several thousand Kestrels. Every evening the birds fill the sky above town and land in the big trees near the hospital just as the sun sets to spend the night.

Durban (Zulu: eThekwini, from itheku meaning 'bay / lagoon') is the largest city in the South African province
of KwaZulu-Natal. It is also the third largest city in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town. It forms part of the eThekwini metropolitan municipality. Durban is famous for being the busiest port in South Africa. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches. The municipality, which includes neighbouring towns, has a population of almost 3.5 million,[3] making the combined municipality the biggest city on the east coast of the African continent. The metropolitan land area of 2,292 square kilometres (885 sq mi) is comparatively larger than other South African cities, resulting in a somewhat lower population density of 1,513 /km2 (3,920 /sq mi).[4]

Archaeological evidence from the Drakensberg mountains suggests that the Durban area has been inhabited by communities ofhunter-gatherers since 100,000 BC. These people lived throughout the area of present day KwaZulu-Natal until the expansion of Bantu farmers and pastoralists from the north saw their gradual displacement,incorporation or extermination. Little is known of the history of the first residents, as there is no written history of the area until it was sighted by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who sailed parallel to the KwaZulu-Natal coast at Christmastide in 1497 while searching for a route from Europe to India. He named the area "Natal", or Christmas in Portuguese.[5] [edit]First

European settlers

The modern city of Durban dates from 1824, when a party of 25 men under British Lieutenant F. G. Farewell arrived from the Cape Colony and established a settlement on the northern shore of the Bay of Natal, near today's Farewell Square. Accompanying Farewell was an adventurer named Henry Francis Fynn. Fynn was able to befriend the Zulu King Shaka by helping him to recover from a stab wound he suffered in battle. As a token of Shaka's gratitude, he granted Fynn a "30-mile strip of coast a hundred miles in depth."[6] During a meeting of 35 European residents in Fynn's territory on 23 June 1835, it was decided to build a capital town and name it "d'Urban" after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of the Cape Colony.[7]

East London is the northeastern part of London, United Kingdom. Although without an
official definition, the concept of a section of London to the east of the City of London has its origins in 1720 as "That Part Beyond the Tower". By 1950 it was explicitly called East London and was considered to include all of Greater London east of the City of London and north of the River Thames. This area now comprises the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Hackney, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, Tower Hamlets andWaltham Forest. The East End of London is a subset of East London, corresponding to areas closer to the ancient City. The early development of London eastward was caused by the expansion of industries associated with theRiver Thames, such as ship building and the docks. Because these industries declined in the later part of the 20th century, East London is now an area of regeneration. In the London Docklands this has reached advanced stages, but in the sections of East London that are within the Thames Gateway it is continuing, such as the redevelopment in Stratford associated with the 2012 Summer Olympics. Areas further east developed in the Victorian and Edwardian eras following the expansion of the railways in the 19th century. Development of suburban houses for private sale was later matched by the provision of large scale social housing at Becontree in the 1920s and Harold Hill after the Second World War. However, the urban footprint was constrained in 1878 by the protection of Epping Forest and later the implementation of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The density of development increased during the interwar period and new industries developed such as Ford at Dagenham. In Tower Hamlets the population peaked in 1891 and growth was restricted to the outer boroughs. By 1971 the population had peaked in every borough and the entire area was experiencing population decline. As of the 2011 census this has reversed and every borough has experienced some growth in population.

The etymology of London is uncertain, but is known to be an ancient name.[1] The concept of East London as a distinct area is a relatively recent innovation. John Strype's map of 1720 describes London as consisting of four parts: The City of London, Westminster, Southwark and "That Part Beyond the Tower".[2] From the late 19th century the term East End of London was used to describe areas immediately adjacent to the City[1] in the Tower division of Middlesex. Charles Booth in 1889 defined East London as the County of Londonbetween the City and the River Lea.[3] In 1902 he now considered this area to be the 'true East End' and his attention had been drawn eastward over the Lea into the Borough of West Ham—then outside London in Essex but under the authority of neither—and termed London-over-the-Border by Charles Dickens in 1857. Walter Besant described East London as an area north of the Thames and east of the City that stretched as far as Chingford

and Epping Forest,[4] which was similar to the definition used by Robert Sinclair in 1950 that stretched east to include Barking and Dagenham.[5] This broadly matched the Metropolitan Police District east of the city and north of the Thames at that time, and now corresponds to the boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Hackney, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, Tower Hamlets and Waltham Forest in Greater London.

Port Elizabeth (Xhosa: Ebhayi; colloquial The Bay
and is one of the major seaports in South Africa.


or Afrikaans: Die Baai) is one of the largest cities

in South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province, 770 km (478 mi) east of Cape Town. The city, often shortened to PE and nicknamed "The Friendly City" or "The Windy City", stretches for 16 km along Algoa Bay,

Port Elizabeth was founded as a town in 1820 to house British settlers as a way of strengthening the border region between theCape Colony and the Xhosa. It now forms part of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality which has a population of over 1.3 million.

The area around what is now called Algoa Bay was first settled by hunting and gathering people ancestral to the San at least 100,000 years ago. A little over 2,000 years ago, agriculturalist populations ancestral to the Xhosa migrated into the region from the north, eventually displacing or assimilating the region's indigenes. The first Europeans to have visited the area were Portuguese explorers Bartholomew Dias, who landed on St Croix Island in Algoa Bay in 1488,[3] and Vasco da Gama who noted the nearby Bird Island in 1497. For centuries, the area was simply marked on navigation charts as "a landing place with fresh water".[4] One of the Portuguese's main goals in the Indian Ocean was to take over the lucrative trade of Arab and AfroArabian merchants who plied routes between the East African coast and India. As they took over that trade they established trading with their colony in India, Goa. The name, "Algoa," meant, "to Goa," just as the port further north in present day Mozambique, "Delagoa," meant, "from Goa." Algoa reflected that it was the port from which ships left for Goa during the season when the winds were favorable, while Delagoa was the port in Africa at which they arrived from Goa in the season when the winds for the return trip were favorable. The area was part of the Cape Colony, which had a turbulent history between its founding by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910.

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