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Course Description This course concentrates on the design & calculations of sanitary systems, used in building applications.

This course is prepared for practicing mechanical and civil engineers, maintenance personnel, & for students undertaking a final year project. This course would be helpful for engineers who are involved in plumbing systems, and want to get a better understanding of pipe sizing, venting systems , rain water systems & sewer pumps. The course provides an opportunity to review , refresh and enhance the attendants' sanitary knowledge, and to learn how to re ad and draw the mechanical plans & specifications required for order of engineer i n Lebanon. It also provides an opportunity to interact, learn from the instructo r and from each other, and to implement the troubleshooting techniques. Special attention will be paid for sewage pumps types & selection applied in buildings a nd other applications.

Mechanical Engineering short-course This course is prepared for mechanical and civil engineering students , at Beiru t Arab University. This course concentrates on the design & calculations of Plum bing systems, used in building applications. Course duration is 12 hours 6 hours for cold & hot water distribution systems in building. 6 hours for sanitary sys tems in building. By Dr. Ali Hammoud Associate professor in fluid mechanics & hy draulic machines

OBJECTIVES Before an engineer sets out to design the plumbing services of any pr oject, it is necessary that he has well defined aims and objectives in order to install an efficient and economical plumbing systems. These can be defined as fo llows: 1- Supply of Water a- Provide Safe Drinking-Water Supply b- Provide an Ad equate Supply of Water 2- Fixtures units a- Minimum Number of Fixtures b- Qualit y Sanitary Fixtures c- Water Trap Seals d- Fixture spacing

Table of Contents part 1 Symbol & legend Description of Architecture drawings of the project Design of Risers Daily W. Requirement Load Values W.F.U. Pipe sizing Types of pu mps Circulating Pump Pipe sizing Electrical W. heater Water storage heater Insta ntaneous or semi-inst. heaters Cold water distribution system Calculation Hot water distribution system Calculatio n Dr. Hammoud Drawing of water distribution inside the flats Questions





Project description The project consist of two blocks A and B and a common Ground floor & 0ne Baseme nt Block A consist of 18 floors and block B consist of 17 floors.. The design dr awing of the two blocks are identical. Flat area is about 700 m2. Each flat cons ist of one master bedroom, three bedrooms, one living room, one dining room, one kitchen , maid room and six bathrooms. Floor to floor height is 3m Water supply from city main is irregular and we have to rely on two well pumps for water dom estic use which have a capacity of 5m3/hr each. However drinking water is suppli ed from city main water supply. The city water pressure is insufficient. (a) Wor k out daily water requirement, underground and overhead tank capacity (b) Assumi ng indirect water supply system .Calculate the size of the the main riser pipe f rom the underground reservoir up to overhead tank and the pump duty. (c) Assumin g two downfeed risers from the overhead tank for each flat as indicated in the t ypical floor drawing. .Calculate the pipe diameters and branch lines for these r isers. (d) Design the cold and hot water distribution system inside the flat. (e ) size the pressure vessel of the top floors and the corresponding pump duty.

Block A 18 floors Block B 17 floors Refer to your drawing & follow the lecture Typical floor

Heater 1 Heater 2 Riser 1 B6 B1 Riser 2 B2 B4 B5 B3 Riser 2 supply cold water to B1 + B2+ B3+ B4 Riser 1 supply cold water to B5 + B6+ Kitchen

Cars Ground floor

Water storage tanks Basement floor





Solution of a ,b & c Schematic water risers diagram for Madam Cury project

Solution of (d) Two Electrical water heaters & two water risers Electrical W. Heater 2 Madam Cury project water distribution system E.W. for typical floor Heater 1

Solution of (d) Madam Cury project water distribution system for typical floor Another version with single large Single Water heater+ boiler

Up to now !! Before starting the calculation of the plumbing project . Student s hould be able to read and understand all the Architecture drawings of the projec t entitled Madam Curry .

Chap.2 Cold & Hot water distribution systems

Calculation Of W.D. Systems Design Of W.D. Systems Daily Water requirement Load Values Pressure requirement Pipe sizing selection Pump Max Zornada (2002) Slide 25

Distribution systems No pumps Direct supply system: conveys water directly from water mains to the point of usa ge without any transit water storage tanks Direct supply system (without storage tank)

Distribution systems Direct supply system (with storage tank)

Distribution systems Indirect supply system: conveys water from water mains to the point of usage thro ugh a transit water storage tank Indirect supply system (with sump and pump)

Distribution systems Indirect supply system (with pneumatic vessel)

Comparison of direct and indirect water supply systems Direct supply Indirect su pply - Less pipe work, smaller or - More pipe work, large water no water tank storage tank - No storage to satisfy peak - Water storage to meet peak demand period de mand - Risk of contamination and - Less risk of adverse effects pressure fluctua tion of mains by water mains - Not feasible for high-rise - Can be used in highrise buildings due to main pressure buildings

Water Distribution Systems Up to 10 floors Bldg Indirect water supply to flats Direct water supply to flats

Distribution Systems Buildings above 20 floors Pressure vessel Pressure Reducer Break -Pressure reservoires Break- pressure ( Branch water supply ) Direct supply ( Booster ) or frequency inverter Indirect water supply to flats Direct water supply to flats

Multi-pipes system is always preferable Muli-pipes system Underground Tank Each flat has its own inlet flow pipe

Water storage in buildings Domestic & Potable Irrigation Fire fighting

Domestic water storage in buildings Underground tanks Roof tanks

Storage of water Water is stored in buildings due to the irregular supply supply of city water .N ormally water is stored in basement with pump transferring water to roof tanks . Roof tanks could one single tank for the whole building or separate tanks for e ach flat. As shown in the following pages ,water tanks are provided normally wit h float valve, drain valve, discharge valve , overflow and vent pipe.

Underground water storage Pumps Tanks Connections

Roof Tanks Roof tanks should be elevated enough above roof level to have enough pressure fo r the upper apartment , otherwise booster pump is needed. Material of roof tanks 1-Concrete tanks. 2-Galvanized tanks. 3- PPr tanks. ( mos t popular these days) 4- Fiberglass storage Tanks

Concrete Roof tanks

Galvanized Roof tanks Ref [4]

P.P.R. Roof tanks

Riser diagram

Riser diagram of the present project

Water tanks requirements (for a gravity supply)

A water storage cistern shall be fitted with: Ball valve Gate valve at the inlet (a gravity supply only) An automatic control switch and without any stop valve in the case of a pumped supply. Gate valve at outlet pipe . drain-off pipe properly plugged or with control valve (adequate me ans to prevent any unauthorized operation) Overflow pipe Gate valve Ball valve Mechanical float switch

Fittings used in plumbing


Chap. 3 Design recommendations & Calculations

Fixture-Unit Computations Computing fixture units is a fundamental element of sizing piping systems for wa ter distribution and drainage. Values assigned to specific types of fixtures are crucial in the sizing of a plumbing system. There are two types of ratings for fixture units: a) The first deals with potable / domestic water units; b) and th e second type has to do with the needs for drainage fixture systems. Both types of ratings are needed when designing a plumbing system.

Ref [8] providing you with sample tables of fixture-unit ratings. The tables are based on actual code regulations, but always refer to your local code for exact standards in your region. As you look over the tables that will follow, pay att ention to all details. It is not unusual for code requirements to have exception s. When an exception is present, the tables in code books are marked to indicate a reference to the exclusion, exception, or alternative options. You must be awa re of these notes if you wish to work within the code requirements. Computing fi xture units is not a complicated procedure and all you really need to know is ho w to read and understand the tables that will give you ratings for fixture units . Using fixture units to size plumbing systems is a standard procedure for many engineers. The task is not particularly difficult.

Drainage Fixture Units Pipes used to convey sanitary drainage are sized based on drainage fixture units. It is necessary to know how many fixture units are assig ned to various types of plumbing fixture units. This information can be obtained , in most cases, from local code books. Not all plumbing codes assign the same f ixture-unit ratings to fixtures, so make sure that you are working with the assi gned ratings for your region. Let me give you some sample tables to review Water Distribution Fixture units Water distribution pipes are also sized by using ass igned fixture-unit ratings. These ratings are different from drainage fixture un its, but the concept is similar. As with drainage fixtures, water supply pipes c an be sized by using tables that establish approved fixture-unit ratings. Most l ocal codes provide tables of fixture-unit ratings.

Daily Water Requirement 1-Daily water requirement & Tanks capacities. ( two methods are used to determin e the daily water requirement ,the first is base on the number of occupants , th e second is based on the load value). 2- Load value (W.f.u.)

Average Daily Water Requirement for Storage Table W-1 Type of Establishment Gallons (per day per person) 15 25 35 15 35-50 50 100 Ref [2] Schools (toilets & lavatories only) Schools (with above plus cafeteria) Schools (with above plus cafeteria plus showers) Day workers at schools and offices Resi dences Hotels (with connecting baths) Hotels (with private baths, 2 persons per room)

TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT Schools (toilets & lavatories only) Schools( with above pl us cafeteria) Schools (with above plus cafeteria plus showers) Day workers at sc hools and offices Day camps Trailer parks or tourist camp with built-in bath) bu iltTrailer parks or tourist camp with central bathhouse) Work or construction ca mp Public picnic parks toilet wastes only) Public picnic parks( bathhouse, showe rs , & flush toilet) Swimming pools and beaches Country clubs Luxury residences and estates Rooming houses Boarding houses Hotels with connecting baths) Hotels with private baths,2 persons per room) Boarding schools Factories gallons/person /shift, exclusive of industrial wastes) Nursing homes General hospitals Public i nstitutions other than hospitals) Restaurants (toilet & kitchen wastes per unit of serving capacity) capacity) GALLONS (per day per person) 15 25 35 15 25 50 35 50 5 10 10 25 per locker 150 4 0 50 50 100 100 25 75 150 100 25

Daily Water Requirement for Storage ( Based on the number of occupants) Example calculation of daily domestic water requirement Suppose we have 24 floor s & each floor consists of 4 flats, 2 of them having 3 bedrooms 2 of them having 2 bedrooms. +1 Mad each flat. As a rule of thumb we take 2 persons/bed room. To tal number/floor = 232+222+4 = 24 Persons/floor. Total number of occupants= 24 24 + 5 (labors+ concierges etc) = 581 Persons. From table W-1 the daily water requireme nt is between 35-50 gal/ day (Residential Building), The daily water requirement for the whole building is: => 50581 = 29000 gallons /day 110 m3/day

Capacity of Underground & Roof Tanks: Based on Plumbing code , the daily water requirement is divided between the roof & underground tanks as follows: 1 day's water requirement on the roof & 2 days o n the ground floor ( standard ). As mentioned before the total amount of water n eeded for the 24 floors building is 110 m3 ,this equivalent to 110 tones additio nal weight on the roof. On the other hand 2 x 110 = 220 m3 must be stored in the basement floor, this may affect the number of cars in the basement. As a genera l rules ( one day water storage on the roof & basement may be satisfactory ,if w ater flow from well pump is guarantied ). N.B. Potable ( drinking+ cooking) water tank capacity is calculated based on 1012 L / person / day

Water storage for fire fighting For buildings & in particular high rise buildings, it is reliable that, water fo r fire fighting is provided by gravity storage wherever possible. Using elevatio n as the means for developing proper water pressure in water mains risers & FHCs , not dependent on pumps that could fail or be shut down as a result of an elect rical outage. Storage can be provided through one or more large storage reservoi rs or by multiple smaller reservoirs throughout the community that are linked to gether .A reasonable rule of thumb is that water storage for fire fighting shoul d be sufficient to provide at least one hour of water .For example, in a typical residential building with an ordinary hazards, the storage for fire flow of 100 GPM for 30-60 min may be appropriate.

Hose reel installation should be designed so that no part of the floor is more t han 6 m from the nozzle when the hose is fully extended. The water supply must b e able to provide a discharge of not less than 33 gpm through the nozzle and als o designed to allow not less than three hose reels to be used simultaneously at the total flow of 100 gpm for one hour duration. The minimum required water pres sure at the nozzle is 2 bar where the maximum allowable pressure is 6.9 bar. Ade quate system pressures is about 4.5 bars .Booster pump is used for top roof flat s. The rubber hose reel length is 32 m & could be 1 or diameter (British standard) , or 1.1/2(US standard), and the jet should have a horizontal distance of 8 m and a height of about 5 m. For commercial building: Riser main pipe diameter D= 2.1/2 Branch pipe diameter= 1.1/2 Rubber hose reel diameter = 1 .

Siamese connection Located next to fire escape

Water storage for irrigation (Building area) Irrigation systems could be by hose or automatically using pump , electrical val ves ,timers & sprinklers. As a rule of thumb ,the water consumption for irrigati on is estimated as follows: The green area x 0.02 m /day For example : Suppose w e have a 500 m2 green area to be irrigated. Calculate the water storage & the pu mping rate per hour. 500 x 0.02 = 10 m3. & the pumping rate is 10 m3/h.

Pipe sizing Determine the number of FUs From Table W-1 Determine the probable flow rate gpm F rom Chart-1 or Table W-2 Determine the Pipe size Pipe flow Chart-2 N.B. Pipe mat erial should be known in order to use the corresponding pipe flow chart.

Determine the probable flow rate L/S at the inlet of each flat Based on French St andard norm NFP41 -201

French Standard For Probable Water Demand Standard norm NFP41 -201 Cold Water Closet Lavatory Bathtub Shower Kitchen Sink Bidet 0.1 0.1 0.35 0.25 0 .2 0.1 Hot (l/s) --0.1 0.35 0.25 0.2 0.1 Q = K . qi i =1 Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 n K= 1 x 1 0.2 K 1 K = Coefficient of simultaneous x = Number of units K = 1 ( case of Sport center ) In our calculation , The American Standard will be applied National plumbing code of USA

Probable Water Demand F.U.s ( Cold + Hot ) Table W-2 Ref [2] Fixture Type Water closet - Flush tank Water closet - Flush valve Bidet Bath tub Lavatory Lavatory Shower Shower Urinal - Flush tank Kitchen sink Restaurant sin k Mop sink Drinking fountain Dish washer, washing mach. Use (Private) (Public) ( Private) (Private) (Private) (Public) (Private) (Public) (Public) ----(Private) Standard Plumbing Code of USA . F.Us 3 10 2 2 1 2 2 3 5 2 4 3 1/2 2 The value for separate hot and cold water de mands should be taken as of the total value

Table W-2 Ref [2] Sizing the indoor cold Water pipe The value for separate hot and cold water demands should be taken as of the

SIMULTANEOUS DEMAND Probability of Use: (a) The probability that all the taps in a commercial building or a section of the piping system will be in use at the s ame moment is quite remote. If pipe sizes are calculated assuming remote that al l taps are open simultaneously, the pipe diameters arrived at will be prohibitive ly large, economically unviable and unnecessary. (b) A 100% simultaneous draw-of f may, however, occur if the water supply hours are severely restricted in the b uilding. It also occurs in buildings, such as factory wash-rooms, hostel toilets , showers in sports facilities, places of worship and the like, In these , cases , all fixtures are likely to be open at the same time during entry, exit and rec ess. The pipe sizes must be determined for 100% demand.

(c) In buildings with normal usage, the probability of simultaneous flow is base d on statistical methods derived from the total number of draw-off points , aver age times between draw-offs on each occasion and the time interval between occas ion of use . There is complex formula to get the probable water demand, however a simple chart & table are used to determine the probable water demand which are presented below in chart 1 & table W-3. Remark Chart 1 & Table W-3 cover both f lash tank and Flash valve data.

Ref [2] For the whole bldg. Water Hammer Arrestor Chart -1 For each flat Flush valve

Table W-3 Ref [2] Fixture Units equivalent to water flow in gpm

Volume Flow Rate (Cold+Hot) at The Inlet of Flat. Pipe size at inlet of the flat is determined based on FUs. For example suppose it is require to determine the inlet flow rate (gpm) of an apartment having the fo llowing fixtures: 3 W.C( flash tank) + 2 bidet + 3 lavatory + 1 shower + 2 bath tube + 1 sink + 1 Dish washer. From table W-1 we get : (33 F.U + 22 F.U + 31 F.U + 21 F.U +22 F.U + 12 F.U+ 12 F.U) 26 F.U From Graph-1 or table-2 we select the probab le water demand for each identical flat : is 20 gpm ( 1.24 L/s).

Volume Flow Rate (Cold+Hot) for the whole building. If four risers pipe are used to supply water for the whole building The probable flow rate is determined as follows: Assuming 24 floors each floor has 4 identical apartments As calculated before the probable water demand for each apartment is 26 F.US , therefore 24 x 2 6 x 4 = 2496 F.US let say 2500 FUs. Inter Graph-1 with a value of 2500 FU and read the corresponding probable water demand for whole building which is 380 gpm . S ince we have four risers the total gpm is divided by 4 , that will be 95 gpm. Ea ch riser will be sized based on this value i.e. 95 gpm. D=2.1/2 Without question the plumbing fixture in this blg.will not operate simultaneousl y , the diversity factor is included in Chart -1

Sizing a Water supply system The most important design objective in sizing the water supply system is the sat isfactory supply of potable water to all fixtures, at all times, and a proper pr essure and flow rate for normal fixture operation. This may be achieved only if adequate sizing of pipes are provided. The Main objectives in designing a water supply system are: a) To achieve economical size of piping and eliminate over de sign. b) To avoid corrosion-erosion effects and potential pipe failure or leakag e conditions owing to corrosive characteristic of the water. c) To eliminate wat er hammering damage and objectionable whistling noise effects in piping due to e xcess design velocities of flow .

Sizing an upfeed water Pipe system. (Based on the city main water pressure). The local water department generally keeps records of the pressures in the mains at different hours of the day and night. It is essential to know the water pres sures before sizing the water piping for a building.

Procedure to size an upfeed water distribution system 1- Decide what is the desi rable minimum pressure that should be maintained at the highest fixture in the s upply system. 2- Determine the elevation of the highest fixture or group of fixt ures above the water (street) main. Multiply this difference in elevation by for ty-three hundredths (0.43). The result is the loss in static pressure in psi (po unds per square inch) . 3- Subtract the sum of loss in static pressure (A ) and the pressure to be maintained at the highest fixture (B), pressure loss in meter ( D) from the average minimum daily vice pressure (E) . The result will be the a vailable pressure to overcome friction loss in the supply pipes.

4- Determine the total effective length ( TEL) of the pipe from the water street main to the highest fixture. If close estimates are desired, compute with the a id of Table () the equivalent length of pipe for all fittings in the line from t he water (street) main to the highest fixture and add the sum to the developed l ength. 5- The pressure available for friction in pounds per square inch divided by the effective lengths of pipe from the water (street main to the highest fixt ure, times one hundred (100), will be the average permissible friction loss per one hundred foot length of pipe. 6- Knowing the permissible friction loss per on e hundred (100 feet of pipe and the total demand, the diameter of the building s upply pipe may be obtained from pipe flow Charts .

The following Items are first determined: Pressure lost due to height A operatin g fixture flow pressure B Pressure lost by friction in piping C Pressure lost by flow through meter D Street main pressure E In a design, items A, B, and E are known. A is found in Table (8). Street main pressure, E, is a characteristic of the local water supply. Item B, is the pressure lost due to height, can be found by multiplying the height in feet by 0.433 The value of item D is estimated. (F or residences and small commercial buildings, it rarely exceeds 2 in fig ( )).

Pressure loss in water meters

Example An upfeed system has following data . Calculation the unit friction loss per 100 ft and size the pipe. Street main pressure (minimum) 50 Psi Height, topmost fix ture above main 30 ft Total Fixture units in the system is 85 FUs. Topmost fixtur e type is a water closet with flush valve The pipe length (DL) 100 ft TEL = DL + 50% (roughly estimation) TEL = actual length of the piping to the highest and m ost remote fixture (DL) + Pipe equivalent length of fittings (roughly is estimat ed as 50% of the DL).

Solution : From the minimum street main pressure, subtract the sum of the fixtur e pressure, the static head, and the pressure lost in the meter. We get: A-fixtu re pressure (Table) 15 Psi B-static head 30 x 0.433 13 Psi D-pressure drop in Fl ow meter (estimated, 8 psi) 8 psi Total 36 Psi E Street pressure, (given) 50 Psi Available pressure = E- (A + B + D) = 50-36 = 14 Psi TEL = DL + 50% (roughly es timation) =100 ft +50 ft =150 ft. The unit friction loss per 100 ft becomes: 14 Psi x 100/150 TEL = 9.33 psi/100 ft. For 85 Fus the corresponding flow rate is 64 gpm. Now enter the pipe flow chart for rough iron pipe with 9.33 Psi/100 ft & 6 4 gpm. The intersection gives 2 inches. The corresponding flow velocity is 8 ft/ s less than 10 ft/s (Okay).

Sizing water Pipe systems for tall building (The city main water pressure is unsatisfactory) Using water pumps

Pipe sizing Pipe flow charts are available which shows the relation between the water flow i n gpm or L/s , pressure drop in Psi or ft / 100 ft , pipe diameter in mm or inch es and the corresponding flow velocity in m/s or ft/s. The acceptable pressure d rop per 100 ft is around 2-5 Psi/100ft ,that, in order to avoid excessive pressu re loss and the need for higher pressure to maintain the flow rate. Low velocity pipe less than 0.5 m/s can cause precipitation of sand and others in the pipe . Pipe flow charts are available for different pipes material such as copper wate r tube, galvanized iron, & plastic pipes.

Sizing based on Velocity limitation In accordance with good engineering practice, it is recommended that maximum vel ocity in water supply piping to be limited to no more than 8 ft/sec (2.4m/sec), this is a deemed essential in order to avoid such objectionable effects as the p roduction of whistling line sound noise, the occurrence of cavitation, and assoc iated excessive noise in fittings and valves. It is recommended that maximum vel ocity be limited no more than 4ft/sec (1.2m/sec) in branch piping from mains, he aders, and risers outlets at which supply is controlled by means of quick-closin g devices such as an automatic flush valve, solenoid valve, or pneumatic valve, or quick closing valve or faucet of self closing, push-pull, or other similar ty pe. This limitation is deemed necessary in order to avoid development of excessi ve and damaging shock pressures in piping equipment when flow is suddenly shut o ff. But any other kind of pipe branch supply to water closet (tank type) and non -quick closing valves is limited to 4 ft/sec(1.2 m/sec). Ref [2]

Recommendation for minimizing cost of pumping Velocity limitation is generally a dvisable and recommended in the sizing of inlet and outlet piping for water supp ly pumps . Friction losses in such piping affect the cost of pumping and should be reduced to a reasonable minimum .the general recommendation in this instance is to limit velocity in both inlet and outlet piping for water supply pumps to n o more than 4ft/sec (1.2 m/sec), this may also be applied for constant-pressure booster-pump water supply system

SIMPLIFIED STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR SIZING PIPING ( Based on Velocity limitati on) Ref [2] The procedure consists of the following steps: 1-Obtain the followin g information: (a) Design bases for sizing (b) Materials for system (c) Characte ristics of the water supply (d) Location and size of water supply source (e) Dev eloped length of system (straight length + equivalent length of fittings) (f) Pr essure data relative to source of supply (g) Elevation (h) Minimum pressure requ ired at highest water outlet 2-Provide a schematic elevation of the complete wat er supply system. Show all piping connection in proper sequence and all fixture supplies. Identify all fixture and risers by means of appropriate letters number s or combinations .Specially identify all piping conveying water at a temperatur e above 150F(66 C), ,and all branch piping to such water outlets as automatic fl ush valves, solenoid valves, quick-closing valves. Provide on the schematic elev ation all the necessary information obtained as per step1

3-Mark on the schematic elevation for each section of the complete system, the h ot- and cold water loads conveyed thereby in terms of water supply fixture units in accordance with table (wsfu gpm). 4-mark on the schematic elevation adjacent to all fixture unit notations, the demand in gallons/min or liter/sec, correspon ding to the various fixture unit loads in accordance with table (wsfu-gpm). 5-Ma rk on the schematic elevation for appropriate sections of the system, the demand in gallons /min or liter/sec for outlets at which demand is deemed continuous, such as outlets for watering gardens irrigating lawn ,air-conditioning apparatus refrigeration machines, and other using continuously water. Add the continuous demand to the demand for intermittently used fixtures and show the total demand at those sections where both types of demand occur 6-size all individual fixture supply pipes to water outlets in accordance with the minimum sizes permitted by regulations. Minimum supply pipe size is given in table (1). 7-Size all parts o f the water supply system in accordance with velocity limitation recognized as g ood engineering practice, with velocity limitation for proper basis of design, 2 .4 m /sec for all piping, except 1.2 m /sec for branches to quick closing valves .

1.35 m/s V=2 m/s D

How to use the pipe flow-chart The use of the pipe flow chart is best presented by an example : A fairly rough steel pipe is used to deliver 20 gpm of water at ordinary temperature with a max imum allowed pressure drop of 5Psi/100 ft .What is the recommended pipe size tha t can be used ? Solution : Enter the Figure along the abscissa with the value of 5 Psi/100 ft , move upward to the ordinate where QV is 20 gpm .From the interse ction ; read the values of ( D )and the corresponding flow velocity ( V ) . Now it is clear that the intersection lies between 1.1/4 and 1 diameter . If the 1 in pipe is used , the pressure drop will be 15 Psi/100 ft which is greater than the given value . This s is unacceptable. If the 1.1/4 pipe is used , the pressure d rop will be 4 Psi/100 ft which is less than the maximum allowed pressure drop .I would recommend D=1.1/4 with a flow velocity less than 3 m/s. The flow velocity is about 1.35 m/s .

Size of Principal Branches and Risers - The required size of branches and risers may be obtained in the same manner as the building supply by obtaining the demand load on each branch or riser and us ing the permissible friction loss described before. - Fixture branches to the bu ilding supply, if they are sized for them same permissible friction loss per one hundred (100 feet) of pipe as the branches and risers to the highest level in t he building, may lead to inadequate water supply to the upper floor of a buildin g ( case of upfeed water supply) . This may be controlled by: (1) Selecting the sizes of pipe for the different branches so that the total friction loss in each lower branch is approximately equal to the total loss in the riser, including b oth friction loss and loss in static Pressure;

(2) throttling each such branch by means of a valve until the preceding balance is obtained; (3) increasing the size of the building supply and risers above the minimum required to meet the maximum permissible friction loss. Refer to Upfeed & down feed system . - The size of branches and mains serving flush tanks shall be consistent with sizing procedures for flush tank water closets.

Avoid oversizing & undersizing Oversizing High cost extra but unnecessary Delay in getting at outlets low flow velocity Increase heat loss from distributi ng piping Undersizing Slow or even no water during peak demand Variation in pressure at outlet (obvious in mixer for shower) High noise level d ue to high flow velocity is expected.

Sizing the riser diagram D6 ? Hot water 1.25 " D1 ? 4 Pressure relief valve Inlet water flow ? D2 ? Electrical water heater Cold water 1" 1" D3 ? D4 ? D? 3/4 of the total fixture units are used for cold water H.W. D5 ?

Equal friction loss Open system

Sizing the various pipes of the net work 3/4 of the total fixture units are used for cold water Bathtub WC Bidet Lavatory Shower Sink ?" ?" ?" ?" ?" ?" ?" ?" ?" ?" Determine the pipe sizes of the present drawing H.W.

Minimum size of fixture supply pipe The diameters of fixture supply pipes should not be less than sizes in table bel ow . The fixture supply pipe should terminate not more than 30 inch (0.762 m), f rom the point of connection to the fixture. Fixture Bathtub Drinking fountain Dishwashing machine Lavatory single head-Showe r flushing rim-Shower flush tank-Urinal in flush valve1-Urinal flush valve-Water closet flush tank-Water closet Minimum size of pipe " "3/8 " "3/8 " " " " "1 "

Ref [2]

General remarks on the installation of water pipes 1- Every apartment should have a valve on the main cold water pipe feeding this apartment. Every bathroom should have two valves one for cold and the second for hot water pipe. 2- Each plumbing Fixture should have and angle valve for mainte nance reason. 3- Exposing pipes are installed approximately 3 cm from wall with hangers and supports. 4- Antirust paint is recommended for all expose steel pipe s. 5- Pipe under tiles or in walls are PPR if however steel pipes are used , the pipe are wrapped with jute and asphalt . 6- Pipes crossing walls should be thro ugh pipe sleeves A rule of thumb is that not more than two fixture should be served by a single br anch

Pressure Requirements 1- Pressure required during flow for different fixtures. 2- Pressure required at the inlet of the flat. 3- The hydrostatic pressure available at each shutoff va lve. 4- Pressure reducer valve PRV

Pressure Required During Flow for Different Fixtures N.P.Code USA Ref [8]

Pressure Required At The Inlet Of each Flat As it well known the Hydrostatic pressure @ shut-off valve is given by : The maximum pressure at the inlet of the flat is Limited to 30 m which is about 2.9 bar , that , avoid excessive pressures Where is the specific weight kN/m3 & h is the pressure head in m P = h If the pressure is more than 2.9 Bar : You may need break-pressure tank or pressure reducing valve. The available press ure at the inlet of the flat, has to overcome the pressure loss due to pipe fric tion and fittings of the longest branch and have a surplus pressure to operates the most critical fixture ( for example Dish washer or shower). Pressure Drop, P = x hL + Surplus pressure ( hL is the head loss due to pipe friction ) Allowing additional pressure drop around 25-30% for fittings on straight pipe or calculat e the effective length for minor losses as described in Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes. It is always recommended to use the K value for the calculation of the pr essure drop.

Example of high riser Building 24 floors Ref [4]

The hydrostatic pressure available at each shut-off valve.

R 1 E CT FL TV V LE RIC OA AL E BL CK O -B UPPE D M ICW TE TA K R O EST A R N 2 * 10 000 litres ( P.ET K AN S) 3" 4" F.F.P R 2 BL C B OK 2 1/2" FR MD .P-B O .W R 3 EL TR FLO V V EC IC AT AL E R 4 BL CK O -B U RDO E PPE M STICW T T NK A ER A 2 * 10000 litres ( P.ET N A KS) 3" 4" F.F.P 4" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 4" C .P .W 3" C .P .W U PPERRO F O RO F O 1 1/4" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 4" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 3" C .P .W F.F.P F.F.P 24T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C .P .W Riser diagram ( pressure reducers) 3" C.W .P 23RD FLO R . O 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C .P .W 22N . FLO R D O 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 21ST. FL O OR 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 3 " C .P .W 20T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 2 1/2" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 2 1/2" C .P .W 3/4" C.W .P 3" C .P .W 19T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 2 1/2" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 3/4" C.W .P D.W.P.L 2 1/2" C .P .W 3" C .P .W 18T . FL O H OR

1" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 2 1/2" P.R .V 3" P.R.V 2 1/2" P.R .V 3/4" C .P .W 3/4" C. W .P 3" P.R .V 17T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 3" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 3 " C .P .W 16T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 15T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P GLO VA (T P. ) B E LVE Y 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 14T . FL O H OR 2 1/2" 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 13T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 2 1/2" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 2" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 2 1/2" C .P .W 12T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P GLO VA (T P. ) BE LVE Y 3/4" C .P .W 2" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 2 " C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 2" C .P .W G EV E( T P. ) LOB ALV Y 11T . FL O H OR 3/4" C .P .W 2" P.R .V 3/4" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 2" P.R .V 2" P.R .V 1" C.W .P 2" P.R.V 10T . FL O H OR 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P GL EVA E( T P. ) OB LV Y 1" C.W .P 2" C. W .P 1" C.W .P D.W.P.L 2" C .P .W 9T FLO R H. O 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P GLO VA (T P. ) BE LVE Y 1" C.W .P 2" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 8T FLO R H. O 1" C.W .P 2" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P

1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 7T FLO R H. O 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 1" C.W . P 1 1/2" C .P .W 6T FLO R H. O 1" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 1 1/4" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 3/4 " C.W .P 1 1/2" C .P .W 5T FLO R H. O 1" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 3/4" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C .P .W 4T FLO R H. O 1" C.W .P 3/4" C .P .W 1 1/4" P.R .V 1 1/2" P.R.V 1 1/4" P.R .V 3/4" C.W .P 3/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" P.R .V 3RD FLO R . O 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/4" C .P .W 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/4" C .P .W 2N . FLO R D O 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P D.W.P.L 1 1/4" C .P .W 1ST. FLO R O 3/4" C .P .W 2 1/2" D EST W TE PU PIN L E OM IC A R M G IN 1" G.S.P 1" G N LSER ICEPIPE E ERA V 1" 3/4" C .P .W G . FL O RD O R 3/4" G .S.P 3/4" G.S.P 3/4" G .S.P 1 1/4" W LW TE PIPE EL A R 3/4" G.S.P 3/4" G .S.P 3/4" G.S.P

F.H .C PO B W TE IN OM PIPE TA LE A R C ING BL K L W D E ICW ERT N OC -B O ER OM ST AT A K 8 * 4000 litres (P.ET NK A S) &4 *3000litres (P.ET K AN S) 3" 3" D.W .P.L D M STICW T PUM O E A ER PINGSTA TIOND .P-B .W 20m @95 mE C 3/HR AH Indirect pum system ping Ref [4]

1" C .P .W 11/2" C .P .W FLO TV LV A A E 1" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W M H O M2 EC .R O U PPERD M O ESTICW TERTA K A N 3*10000litres ( P.ETA K N S) 1" C .P .W 1" C .P .W 11/2" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W FLO TV LV A A E p.r D pipe rain 1" C .P .W 19TH FLO R . O 1" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 3" p.r 11/4" C .P .W 3" 3" 18TH FLO R . O 1" C .P .W 11/2" C .P .W 1" C .P .W 1" C .P .W 11/2" C .P .W 3" C .P .W 1" C .P .W 11/2" C .P .W 11/2" C .P .W 17TH FLO R . O 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 16TH FLO R . O 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 15TH FLO R . O

R1 ELECTRICFLO TV L E A AV BLO -B CK U PPERD M O ESTICW T TA K A ER N 2* 7500litres ( P.ET N S) AK 3" R2 BLO B CK 2 "FRO D .P-B M .W R3 ELECTRICFLO TV LV A A E R4 BLO -B CK U PPERD M O ESTICW T TA K A ER N 2* 7500litres ( P.ET N S) AK M .RO M1 ECH O 4"C.W .P 4"C.W .P 3" 4" F.F.P BO STERU IT(TY R1 - R4) O N P PU PS- 9m R@15mH D M 3/H EA O ESTA DBYW PRE R TA K 200L N N ITH SSU E N U PPERRO F O 3"C.W .P 3"C.W .P RO OF 11/2" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C .P .W 1 1/4" C .P .W 3"C.W .P 1 1/2" C .P .W 1 1/4" C .P .W 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P Riser diagram (Break pressure tanks II) BO STERU IT(TY R2 - R O N P 3) PU PS- 6.8m R@15mH D M 3/H EA O ESTA DBYW PRES RE TA K200L N N ITH SU N 24TH FLO R . O 11/4" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C .P .W 1 1/4" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2" C.W .P 23RD FLO R . O 11/4" C .P .W 2"C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 2" 2"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 22N . FLO R D O 11/4" C .P .W 2"C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1 /4" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 21ST. FLO R O

11/4" C .P .W 2"C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1 /4" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 20TH FLO R . O 11/4" C .P .W 11/2" C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P ELEC TRICFLOA VA E T LV M .RO M2 ECH O Delay float -valve 19TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W U PPERDO ESTICW TERTA M A NK 4 * 10000 litres ( P.ETA K N S) 3" D pipe rain 3" 3" 18TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 11/4" C .P .W 1 1/2" C.W .P 3"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P 17TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 16TH FLO R . O 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 15TH FLO R . O 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 2" C.W .P G BE V LV ( T P. ) LO A E Y 1 1/4" C.W .P 2 "C.W .P 2" C.W .P 14TH FLO R . O 2 1/2" 1 1/4" C.W .P 2 "C.W .P

11/4" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 13TH FLO R . O 11/4" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P G BE V LV ( T P. ) LO A E Y 11/ 4" C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 2 "C.W .P 12TH FLO R . O 11/4" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P G BEV LV ( TY ) LO A E P. 11/4" C.W .P 11/2" C.W .P G BE V LV ( T P. ) LO A E Y 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P M .RO M3 ECH O D -Float V elay alve 11TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P U PPERD M ICW TERT K O EST A AN 3 * 10000 litres ( P.ETA KS) N 3" 3" 3" 10TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P 1 1/2"C.W .P 11/2" C.W .P D.W.P.L 1 1/2" C.W .P 9TH FLO R . O 1 1/4"C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 8TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 7TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 2"C.W .P

6TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 2" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W . P 2"C.W .P 5TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 11/2" C .P .W 1 1/2"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 4TH FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2" C.W .P 11/2" C .P .W 1 1/2"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 3RD FLO R . O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 2" C.W .P 11/4" C .P .W 1 1/4"C.W .P 2"C.W .P 2N . FLO R D O 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P 1 1/4" C.W .P 1 1/4"C.W .P D.W.P.L 2" C.W .P 2"C.W .P 1ST. FLO R O 3/4" C .P .W 2" C.W .P 11/4" C.W .P 2 1/2" D M O ESTICW TERPU PIN LIN A M G E 1 1/2" G ERA SERV PIPE EN L ICE 11/2" C.W .P 1"C.W .P 1 1/2" C.W .P G D FLO R R. O 1 1/4" G .S.P 1 1/4"G .S.P 1 1/4"G .S.P 1 1/4" G .S.P

1 1/4"G .S.P 1 1/4" W W TERPIPE ELL A PO BLEW TERFRO M INCIT TA A M A Y 1 1/4" G .S.P BLO -BLO ERD M CK W O ESTICW TE TA K A R N 3" 3" DM O ESTICW TERPU PIN ST T ND .P-B A M G A IO .W 20 m R@95 mE C 3/H AH D P-pum p Indirect pum systemCase study(II) ping Ref [4]


Pressure Reducer Valve PRV

The head loss due to pipe friction & fittings Review your lecture notes .Ref [5] Chap.9-10 Or refer to [10]

Now !! After completing the above chapters you should be able to : 1- Calculate the daily water requirement for the given project & the capacity of the overhead & underground tanks. 2- Recognize the drawing of water distribution system insi de the flat. 3- Selecting the type of the riser diagram i.e. Direct or indirect water supply. Sizing the riser diagram. Sizing the pipes inside the bathrooms et c.. 4- Justified if the hydrostatic pressure at the inlet of the flat is enough to overcome losses + the surplus pressure to operates the most critical fixture . 5- Do we need a booster pump for top roof? 6-Do we need a break -pressure tank or pressure reducing valve ? Now move on to the next part Pump selection

Design of pumping supply system to a building In engineering practice, the process of pipe sizing and component selection is a n iterative one , requiring the design engineer to first assume initial values : ( the velocity , pressure and allowable pressure loss ) and recalculate if neces sary using new values if the initial assumption was proved wrong . The pipe sizi ng is estimated easily using the pipe flow charts followed by a simple calculati on to determine the pumps power. Usually, the equal friction loss method is the simplest method used which gives acceptable results.

The following procedure is used when estimating the pipe size and pumps duty ( b ased on equal friction loss rate ) 1) Prepare the drawing of the piping /pumping system, measure the length of the pipe connecting the underground tank to the overhead ( delivery ) tank and count all fittings along the way . 2) Find the required volume flow rate for each fla t. Then, add them up to obtain the total flow rate at the peak demand The probab le water demand for each flat is determined based on the number of occupants or based on the total fixture units. ( It is not always easy to know the number of occupants in the early stage , so the second method using the T.F.Us becomes mor e reliable ) . 3) Since the equal friction loss method is used , choose a value of friction loss rate for the main riser pipe based on the following limits : a ) The recommended friction loss rate is between length or (2 -5 Psi per 100 ft ) . b ) The velocity in the main should not exceed 1.2-1.8 m / s ( say 1.5 m/s ) i n small systems , or 2.4- 3 m / s in larger systems . The velocity in occupied a reas should not exceed 2.4 m/s, so as to prevent noise.

Design of pumping supply system to a building ( cont) 4) Select a pipe size from the pipe flowcharts based on the above limits . We co uld also prepare tables which present the pipe diameters , friction factor and f low rate . The tables are regarded as more accurate but the pipe flowcharts are more convenient. 5) Continuing along the circuit chosen , select the succeeding pipe sizes . This should be done according to the following guides: Determine by inspection which branch will be the longest, or have the greatest equivalent le ngth . Calculate the pressure drop in the longest circuit.

Design of pumping supply system to a building ( cont) 6 Calculate : a) The total effective length E.L which is: The actual pipe length + Equivalent length (due to fittings and valves etc.). b) The total head loss o r pressure drop hL is : The head loss per unit of length is about (5 ft w./100 f t ) multiplied by the effective length . L eff . = L + L e hL = h1 L eff .

Design 7) The red by + the

of pumping supply system to a building ( cont) approximated pump s power is then calculated as follows : The head delive the pump or the total head of the pump: which is equal to the static head total head loss ( case of open tanks ).

hA = hs t + hL The theoretical power requirement (Water power) is P = x hAx QV . (Where is the s pecific weight of water, hA is the pump head in m and QV is the operating discha rge m3/s ). The operating discharge is taken from the intersection of the pump c haracteristic curve with the pipe system curve.

Safety Margin To avoid any miscalculation during pump selection, it is recommended to apply a safety margin of around 5% for the estimated flow rate & 10 % for the estimated head. For example : Estimated Flow rate Q The recommended flow Q= 30L/s = 30 L/s & & head will +5% , & H Head 25 m be : =25m +10%

Design of pumping supply system to a building ( cont) 8 The shaft power of the pump can be determined by dividing water power by the pump efficiency. h Q Pump Power = The motor power of the pump can be determined by dividing water power by the ove rall pump efficiency. A V hA QV Pump Motor Power = 0

Hall, F., 1994. Building Services and Equipment, 3rd ed., Vol. 1 ,2 ,3 & 4 Moss, K. J., 1996. Heating and Water Mechanical & electrical equipment for buildings b y Stein/Reynolds, Ninth edition, John Wiley, 2000. Practical Plumbing Engineerin g, Cyril M.Harris, ASPE,1998. Upland engineering, Mechanical consulting office, Dr. Ali Hammoud. Services Design in Buildings.