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A BASIC COURSE IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Leslie Nii Tete Annan

Table of Contents 1. ENTREPRENEUR ........................................... 4 Why start a business? ................................................ 6 Qualities of an entrepreneur .................................. 9 2. WHY SMALL BUSINESSES FAIL IN GHANA! .................................................................... 13 3. HOW NOT TO FAIL AS AN ENTREPRENEUR! ................................................20 4. BUSINESS PLANNING............................... 23 5. TIME MANAGEMENT ................................. 24 6. EMPLOYMENT.............................................. 26 Self-employment ................................................. 27 Wage Employment............................................. 29 Unemployment ..................................................... 31 Causes of Unemployment ................................. 34 7. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION ............... 37 Forms of communication................................... 38 Types of Communication................................... 39
A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol. Leslie Nii Tete Annan

Barriers to communication in Business .......... 44 8. SMALL SCALE BUSINESS ......................... 46 9. SOURCES OF BUSINESS FINANCE ...... 49

A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol.1 Leslie Nii Tete Annan

1. ENTREPRENEUR An entrepreneur is a person who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on those opportunities. The entrepreneur therefore combines the factors of production to produce goods and services with the aim of making profits. TYPES OF ENTREPRENEURS 1. The Artisan Entrepreneur: This entrepreneur may have technical job experience but may lack essential skills like communication and management. An example is a carpenter. Some characteristics of such an entrepreneur are: I. He rarely delegates authority
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II. III. IV.

He uses little capital resource to create and operate the business He does the selling personally His planning focus is usually limited to the present.

2. The Opportunistic Entrepreneur: This entrepreneur supplements his/her technical expertise with managerial and administrative skills. The contractor is an example. Some characteristics of such an entrepreneur are: I. He often delegates authority II. He mobilizes more capital resource too create and operate the business than the artisans III. His planning focus goes beyond the present, he plans for the future

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FUNCTIONS OF AN ENTREPRENEUR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Takes risks to make use of these opportunities Introduces innovations- newness, variation or uniqueness Mobilizes capital for a business Organizes labour and production Plans ahead- aiming to limit the factors of uncertainty and increase his chances of success Perceives opportunities in the environment Sells his products at a profit. Without profit there will be no entrepreneur. It is both the reward and motive for entrepreneurship

WHY START A BUSINESS? You start business: 1. To make a lot more money 2. To get out of a professional rut Bureaucracy
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3. 4. 5. 6.

To be ones own boss To prove to others that one can do it To advance technology, society etc. To develop and deploy talents one feels that he has outside his specialization 7. To compete with somebody

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Motivations for Starting a Business Pull Influences a. Desire for independence b. Desire to make use of an opportunity c. Turning a hobby or previous work experience into a job d. The possible profit you will make Push Influences a. Redundancy or being out of work b. Unemployment (or threat of) c. Disagreement with previous employer

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QUALITIES OF AN ENTREPRENEUR 1. He is an Active rather than a reactive partaker in his own business. He makes the most strategic decisions and sees to it that he is part of the team that is working on achieving it.

2. An entrepreneur has a Bold selfconfident personality. An entrepreneur with relevant knowledge, skills, information and having a successful experience in the past possesses great degree of self-confidence. He thus confidently puts forward his case and gets needed help or gets people to patronize his products and services. 3. Innovativeness is one of the qualities of an entrepreneur. This quality helps him to create new products and services to beat competition. He uses feedback and the habit of learning from mistakes and setbacks, to create new products and services. A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol.1 Leslie Nii Tete Annan

4. Determined: shows itself in his eagerness to make the enterprise succeed and a determination to organize the resources necessary for success. He does not easily become disappointed, discouraged or depressed by setbacks or failures. He is always optimistic in his outlook. 5. Although he likes challenges, he prefers not to gamble. He is a Moderate RiskTaker. Moderate risks are those which provide a reasonable and challenging chance of success. 6. He has a sense of personal responsibility. He takes responsibility of the outcome of his actions and decisions. In the process of decision making he commits his efforts, knowledge, skills and investments. Should he fail, therefore, he only has himself to blame, not his workers or his clients. And should he succeed, he only has his entrepreneurial skills to attribute his success.

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7. He seeks concrete feedback on performance. He wants to know how he is doing-whether good or bad. The feedback may be in the form of profits, sales, percentage control of the market, size of the firm in terms of number of workers, volumes of production, rate of growth and customers reaction. Thus they are excellent listeners. 8. He is more concerned with task rather than people. He cares about what is supposed to be done first and then about the people who will do it second. That is why he puts profits and business goals ahead of personal rivalries and hostilities. He is objective and always tries to keep personal relationships apart from business matters. He shuns favoritism and nepotism. 9. He is achievement oriented. It is what he gets in the long run that they are concerned with. He tends to like the feeling of having accomplished something by his own efforts. More often
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he competes on the basis of excellence. A Successful entrepreneur possesses a desire to overcome hurdles, to solve problems and to reach his goals. He is extremely persistent, but he is also very realistic in recognizing what he can and cannot do. By knowing the past and present, he is able to predict the future events about the business. 10. He tolerates uncertainty. Well aware that there is great uncertainty with new start-up businesses, he is comfortable with it. That he wont make money early in his business doesnt push him away from his goal. 11. He is self-starter. When opportunity strikes him he takes the initiative to work on it or not. Successful entrepreneur are experienced, including having intimate knowledge of technology and market place in which they will compete and have some general management skills. He exerts influence without formal power. He
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knows when to use logic, and when to persuade, when to concede and when to maintain his stance.

2. WHY SMALL BUSINESSES FAIL IN GHANA!


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There are countless reasons why small businesses fail, but over here we will discuss a few we consider pertinent. A. Lack of Experience Some entrepreneurs go into SSBs with the philosophy of What- Kwame-is-doing-I-canalso-do. They follow their pride and desire to compete. They then enter into businesses they lack the requisite experience for. If you want to establish a school, you dont do so because you have the money. You should have the experience of managing a school or an establishment similar to school. Furthermore entrepreneurs are so caught up in their lofty ideas that they disdain the need for experience in the field they are pursuing. B. Poor Financial Control They must admit it. SSB owners must own up to their financial illiteracy. Most business A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol. Leslie Nii Tete Annan

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owners especially the artisan entrepreneurs lack basic accounting and book keeping skills that go against them in the long run. They consequently misappropriate money that comes into the business. On other occasions too since they have everything under their control including the income being gained, they use the business resources for personal interests. This creates a shortage in terms of the money the business accrues in the long run. C. Management Incompetence Yes, you could have a vision for a grand business and might also have a lot of energy to see to its operation. Nevertheless, when a management expert is lacking in the organization then the company is bound to fail. D. Lack Of Capital Even though SSBs are the easiest businesses to start, people still dont find the capital to start
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their own business. This most surely is owned to the fact that Ghanaians have a poor saving habit. Else most adults by age thirty could have some savings to rely on to start their own business in Ghana. Capital for a business comes in two forms, working capital and seed/starting capital. These different capitals are all important for the business to succeed. When you lack the seed capital the enterprise doesnt even come to being. And when you have the seed capital but do not have the working capital to sustain it then your initial efforts would be in vain. Getting money in the form of loan from other individuals or institutions is rather a pain in the neck for up-and-coming entrepreneurs. You lose so much time and money in the process of securing a loan. When secured, the loan has an interest rate that eats into your income with each passing month.
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E. Careless Customer Credit An advantage consumers think Small Scale Business have over other business is the credit owners give to customers who patronize their products. However when the credit is given, poorly recorded or unwisely monitored credit becomes bad debt for the business owner. F. Over investing in fixed Assets Having fixed Assets is good for a business. It is good because at a time you need a loan for expansion or what not these fixed assets like the building and equipments could serve as collateral. Yet when you over invest in fixed assets you leave less money for the operation of the business. There is need for real cash to operate the business. On the other hand fixed assets too could be destroyed over night. G. Failure to Plan
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It is said that, failing to plan is planning to fail. Most small business owners tend to think that the small size of their business is reason enough not to have a Business Plan. But this is a wrong notion since every business that seeks to make profit should go by a plan. Lacking a business plan gives room for misuse of income and unnecessary expenditure. These two problems can sink any business. H. Inability to make entrepreneurial transition the

The entrepreneurial transition is the point where the custodian of the business relinquishes some or full control of the business to others so that the business would thrive better in the competitive environment. Sometimes entrepreneurs are so tied to their companies that even their death could spell the collapse of their companies. However entrepreneurs are advised to learn to give up some of the control
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of the organization to experts for their own and their business sake.

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3. HOW NOT TO FAIL AS AN ENTREPRENEUR!


A. Know Your Business in Depth A man who knows what he is about hardly falters. An entrepreneur- whether artisan or opportunistic, is called upon to know his business in depth. New technologies and techniques drop in an entrepreneur who yearns to be successful doesnt allow these things to pass him by. Knowing more about what you do makes you a formidable opponent to your competitors. B. Prepare a Business Plan It is very necessary to have a plan. You take any route if you dont know where you are going. The future of your business shouldnt be only clear in your mind but also it must be written in black and white on paper. Have a documented plan. Seek the advice of a consultant if you
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cant write one because running a business is as complicated as building house, no matter the size you still need to have a plan. C. Manage Financial Resources Good financial discipline helps you to avoid mismanaging you already scarce resources. You need not take it for granted that your business might be making profit or not. Seriously keep records of cash that flows into and out of the business. This tells you whether you are actually in business or you are playing cha-cha with your money. D. Understand Financial Statements A small business owner should learn to understand some basic accounting to make head and tail of financial statements. When you understand financial statements you can make strategic plans for the business.
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E. Learn To Effectively

Manage

People

The human resource in the company is considered as a vital asset of the organization. This being the case, the entrepreneur should learn to communicate and interact with his workers for the progress of the organization. If mismanaged, people could bring down a company with gossip, unnecessary competition and envy. F. Keep In Tune with Yourself Most often entrepreneurs are the life wire of their businesses. Many businesses have folded up with the death of the owner. But entrepreneurs are urged to delegate some unimportant tasks so that they dont end up doing everything and suffering for it.

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4. BUSINESS PLANNING
A Plan is the conception of objectives or an aim, an end or a goal that you deliberately decide to accomplish and how you will go about to do this. A BUSINESS PLAN A business plan is a written document of how you will do your business, who you will do your business, what you will do it with, where you will do it and why you will do it. IMPORTANCE OF A BUSINESS PLAN 1. It focuses attention on objectives in terms of mission and vision of the business. 2. It facilitates control of the business assets and liabilities. 3. It gives room for innovation and creativity. 4. It helps in better co-ordination so that every employee does his/her work effectively and efficiently.
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5. It eliminates uncertainty in business activities. ADVANTAGES OF PLANNING 1. Planning brings about flexibility in business operation 2. You avoid pressure 3. You work to your maximum ability 4. It enables workers to produce more within a short time.

5. TIME MANAGEMENT
He who is faithful in what is least is faithful also in much; and he who is unjust in what is least is unjust also in much. Luke 16:10 Time Management is defined as becoming more efficient at doing things that are important within a given period of time.
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Characteristics of someone who manages his time well a. His work is of a great quality b. He produces/ does more than his colleagues in a given time. c. He does/accomplishes whats important. How to Manage Your Time Well Appropriate delegation Dont give the very important work to someone else, yet dont be afraid to ask for help on a given task. Broach difficult tasks first You attack tasks that you know you can tackle but seem very difficult, firstly. Control InterruptionHandle interruptions to suit you dont let them handle you. Learn to say no graciously to tasks that are not relevant at a particular moment in time. Define the task How long will the task take? What to do about the task? A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol.1 Leslie Nii Tete Annan

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Whom to deal with in accomplishing the task? Evaluate your used time, what do you and how do you use your time? Do you do more work or you play more? Feel at ease; enjoy yourself while getting at a goal Go D & C: Divide and conquer tasks that seem overwhelming, larger than your present capacity. Have alternatives for how you spend time Institute some free time. Where there is a prospect of free time you dont feel anxious when you are busy.

6. EMPLOYMENT
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Some Keywords Employee is someone who works for a person or an organization in return for payment. Employer is an individual or an organization that hires or recruits others to render service in the name of the company he owns. Self-employment It is when an individual combines the factors of production to come out with a product or a service that meet the needs or wants of the market. Advantages of Self employment 1. There is only one person taking decisionsthis should lead to decisions being made quickly.

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2. As soon as an element of the market alters, the entrepreneurs recognizes it and acts quickly 3. A lack of chain of command and the small size of the organization should mean that the entrepreneur has control over the Workforce.

Disadvantages of Self-employment 1. If the organization grows, one person will not be able to cope with the increase volume of decision

2. There is inadequate capital for one-man business, because the owner may find it difficult to raise large sums of money due to lack of collateral security.

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3. The liability of the owner is unlimited because, if the owner incurs heavy losses, his assets can be sold to pay off the debt. 4. The success of the business depends mostly on how active the owner is. Consequently in the event of sickness, retirement or death of the owner the business might collapse if there is nobody to manage it. Wage Employment Wage employment is when an individual is willing and prepared to offer his skills and time in exchange for a salary or a wage from an employer. This employer could be an individual or an institution. A Secretary working in Procredit Savings and Loans Company Ghana is in wage-employment. Advantages of Wage Employment

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1.

The employees get a token in the form of salaries or wages at an agreed period.

2. The management and the success of the business do not solely depend on the employee though he has a part to play to uplift the image of the business and also contributes too to the achievement of the companys goals. 3. He has the chance to seek for a new job if he wants to. That is, he can choose to leave or stay in the business if there is no job satisfaction. Disadvantages of Wage Employment 1. Any abnormal profit only accrues to the employer. Since you are given remuneration at a given time, the employer can choose to offer you a bonus to serve as a motivation if he wants.

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2. With the wage employment your freedom is sometimes restricted because your employer can sometimes let you work on non-working days such as a weekend or a holiday. Unemployment This is where people are willing to work at the current wage rate and actively looking for work but cannot find one. This can also be described as proportion of the labour force that is involuntarily without work. Types of Unemployment Seasonal Unemployment

This is the type of unemployment that is mostly experienced by companies whose production is structured according to seasons and changes. Some Ghanaian agricultural farmers are confronted with seasonal unemployment.
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Frictional Unemployment

When there is change in the methods of production frictional unemployment could occur. For instance as technology has increased some companies start to employ the use of machines to do certain jobs instead of humans. The messenger who used to carry hand written and spoken message from one worker to another or from one company to another is no more in employment. This is because the fax machines as well as telecommunications machines have been introduced in these companies. Also the introduction as the combine harvesters, bulldozers into agricultural operations has replaced farm labourers. So its said that the messengers and the farm laboures are frictionally unemployed. Structural Unemployment

This is the type of unemployment caused by technical changes that brings about changes in
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the composition of demand or pattern of demand. Changes in demand due to the invention of new commodities or even changes in taste and fashion may bring about declining industries. For example a Ghana grown rice industry collapses because people are no more interested in buying Ghanaian rice. The employees working in this industry would find themselves without work. They are then in a situation of structural unemployment. Cyclical Unemployment

Also known as Mass Unemployment, Cyclical Unemployment happens anytime there is economic depression in a country. Economic depression is a situation where the demand for goods and services are reduced because even the means to pay for these things are small or no more.

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Causes of Unemployment 1. Lack of Skills Employable skills are lacking in Ghana. You see many Ghanaians who boast of diverse skills but they lack the requisite ones such as Information Communication Technology and Interpersonal skills to help them get and maintain an employment. 2. Lack of Entrepreneurial skills While there are so many graduates from tertiary institutions of education, there are not many who have the entrepreneurial skills to establish and run their own business. 3. The Introduction of techniques/Technological advancement new

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When there is an introduction of new techniques workers especially lay ones are declared redundant. Machines then come to the work that they used to do at the work place. 4. Lack of capital Those who lack employment almost always lack the capital to start their own businesses. So in the long run they remain the unemployed. 5. Too Few Companies Our technical and secondary schools continue to churn out graduates, yet only few vacancies- if any exists at all- can be found in the companies around. Ghana for many years has remained more of a consumer than a producer and for that matter the import margin is greater than the export margin. Where a country is a producer you find more factories and companies around, which inevitably provide employment opportunities for the youth.
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6. Rural Urban Drift The rural urban drift has caused over population and a high demand for employment in the cities and towns. The youth desert their rural dwellings into the urban areas seeking white-collar jobs that dont exist.

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7. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Generally, the exchange of information between people, e.g. by means of speaking, writing, or using a common system of signs or behavior is considered communication. Communication can also be defined as the process by which people share information, ideas and attitudes. Importance Of Communication 1. Communication makes it possible for management to give instructions to lower level workers to work 2. Workers problems and grievances can be made known to management 3. Communication helps workers to know all decisions taken by management that really affects them and the firm as whole 4. Through communication, a report on work done is sent to management for control purposes.

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5. Communication makes it possible for workers to make suggestions or decision to management as to the best method of work. 6. Communication aids in the appraisal of employees. Through effective communication, management is able to evaluate the work of subordinates, give feedback on performance, and jointly draw plans to eradicate any weakness as well as improve their strength Forms of communication Formal communication This is the official means of sending information relating to work. It takes the form of letters, memoranda, report and speeches presented at meetings, workshops and seminars. Informal Communication This is the information given without the authority or permission of any superior. Informal communication takes place among superiors, A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol. Leslie Nii Tete Annan

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subordinates as well as peers. It takes the form of rumour or gossip. Types of Communication 1. Internal Communication It takes place within an organization. Internal communication occurs among employees, between a manager and his subordinates, between a director and his departmental heads. This type of communication originates and ends within the same organization, takes the form of memo or letter. 2. External Communication It takes place between an organization and the outside world. It may be between a business and its suppliers, creditors, customers, the government etc. It originates from the management of one organization to an individual or group of individuals outside the establishment or from one management to another companys managements.

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Business Communication Tools The primary tools for communicating information in business include e-mail messages, memos, letters, reports, phone calls, meetings, and conversations. To determine which is the best to use in a given situation, start by asking yourself the following questions:

How much information do I have to pass along? How many people will receive the message? How quickly does it need to reach them? How much time do the recipients need to respond to it? How formal should the presentation be? Is the message confidential? How are people likely to respond to it?

E-mail Messages

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Because of its speed and informality, e-mail is ideal for routine communication between coworkers. For instance, an e-mail message is usually the best means of announcing a new policy, introducing a recent hire, informing colleagues of a meeting time, and reminding an employee of an approaching deadline. E-mail messages are also useful for day-to-day or extremely timely exchanges with people outside the company. Because of their low cost, they often are preferred for communicating with overseas contacts. E-mail Etiquette Exchanging e-mail messages is like having a conversation without seeing the face or hearing the voice of the other person. You have only the persons words, but none of the visual and auditory cluesinflections, facial expressions, and gestures, for instancethat help explain the underlying meaning of the words. Because of the impersonal and often informal nature of e-mail, the tone and substance of messages can easily be misinterpreted. To help A Basic Course in Entrepreneurship Vol.1 Leslie Nii Tete Annan

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avoid confusion and hurt feelings, Internet users have developed a loose set of rules known as netiquette (network etiquette), including guidelines for being a responsible and courteous e-mail correspondent. Memos Although e-mail messages are now used instead of memos for most intercompany communication, memos are still suitable for notes sent to people higher in the company hierarchy, especially in conservative companies. The memo is also appropriate for lengthy, formal communications to coworkers that may eventually be circulated to your supervisors or to contacts in other companies. Letters The letter is now used primarily for formal correspondence with clients, customers, and others outside the company, particularly people you have not met.

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Imagine, for instance, that you need to ask for advice or information from someone you do not know personally. The person will likely give a letter more attention than an e-mail message because a letter conveys an added element of formality and courtesy. Reports A complex document of more than ten pages, especially one that will be shown to outside contacts, is best presented as a report. A routine report can be easily produced using a word processor and a laser printer. Important reports for potential clients, stockholders, or others you might want to impress usually should be professionally designed and printed, often in full color on heavy or glossy paper. Phone Calls, Conversations, and Meetings The main advantage of a phone conversation is that it allows both parties to respond to each other immediately. If you and a coworker have

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several questions for each other, asking them in a single phone call is usually less time-consuming than exchanging a long series of e-mail messages. Personal matters or topics that might elicit a highly emotional response are best discussed in person. As common sense will tell you, sending an e-mail or memo reading Youre fired! is not the most delicate or responsible way of dealing with a difficult situation. Face-to-face meetings are usually the safest way of communicating confidential information. Meetings are also useful when a quick group decision is needed on a particular problem or issue. Important side benefits of meetings are that they allow employees in different departments or divisions to become acquainted and can often foster a sense of shared mission among coworkers. Barriers to communication in Business 1. Psychological:

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a. Semantic problems- meaning of words that differ in peoples minds. b. Emotional hang-ups-anger, frustration and excitement. c. Stereotyping- Prejudice, discrimination d. Distorting information intentionally for personal gain 2. Physiological: a. Bad handwriting b. Hearing problems c. Bad eyes 3. Physical: Noise in the environment, outdated equipment, poor or bad lighting 4. Cultural: Different spoken language, meta-linguistic incompetence that affects your understanding of innuendoes and metaphors.

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8. SMALL SCALE BUSINESS


CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES A. A business that employs from one to twenty nine (29) people. It may also be a business that employs ten or fewer people with an initial capital of 25 Million Ghana Cedis B. The managers of small scale businesses are its owners who are accountable and responsible to themselves. C. They are responsible for all liability incurred by the business and of course they are the sole beneficiaries of the profits. Examples of Small Scale businesses are tailoring, carpentry, weaving, carving, retail outlets, communication and catering services. ADVANTAGES OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS 1. Easy and simple formation, since little capital is needed to start it.

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2. Quick decision-making: owner does not need to consult anybody in taking a decision 3. There is the sense of independence because the manager is the owner and he report to no one. 4. Enjoyment of privacy: Business Plans are mostly kept secret by the owner since hes not compelled by law to publish. 5. Theres flexibility: one can react quickly to change and can adopt his or her operations to local conditions. 6. Opportunity to be a jack of all trades. On is able to acquire varying degrees of knowledge and skill. 7. Customers are offered goods and services to their specification. That is according to the quality and quantity that suits them. 8. The nation gains by means of the innovation and creativity that Small Scale Businesses introduce.
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DISADVANTAGES OF SSBS 1. Inadequate financial capital: they dont have collateral security to qualify them for loans from the banks.

2. Inefficient management: Lack of management knowledge and expertise on the part of the owners. 3. Theres no advantage of large scale production hence theres no advantage of larger profit margin. 4. Bad judgement can lead to collapse and this comes as a result of sole responsibility. 5. Owners of SSBs usually depend on outmoded technology since they cant afford the new technology.

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9. SOURCES OF BUSINESS FINANCE


This refers to the various means by which people or organization can get money to operate a business. There are two sources namely short term source and long term source. SHORT TERM SOURCES 1. Trade Credit: This involves the purchase of products that is backed by a promise to pay later.

2. Loans: they are either short-term or long-term money borrowed by the entrepreneur form financial institutions or individuals. Interest is charged on a loan. There is need for collateral for large sums. 3. Overdraft: A customer of a bank is allowed to withdraw more money than that which is in his account to a certain limit. Interest is charged only on the actual amount overdrawn. There is need

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for collateral security in case of large sum. 4. Personal Savings: An entrepreneur may use his past savings at a bank or with a susu collector. 5. Venture Capitalist: Investment groups who are interested in ingenuous and creative ideas to develop into profitable businesses. 6. Leasing: some organizations lease out some fixed assets which are lyig idle and would not be used immediately at a fee. 7. Hire purchase: under this the entrepreneur undertakes (promises) to pay for items purchased in installments after an initial deposit has been paid. The entrepreneur (here the buyer) takes the product completely after paying the last installment. 8. Gifts from friends and family members are short-term sources of finance.

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LONG TERM SOURCES 1. Shares: usually for large companies shares (units of a companys capital) are bought by investors (shareholders).

2. Debentures: These are secured transferable loan stocks and are usually secured against an asset of a company so that should the business fail to pay them back they can lay claim to the asset. 3. Sale of Assets: the company sells some assets to obtain some required cash. 4. Retained Profits: This involves putting aside part of the net profit to be ploughed back into the business. 5. Sale and Lease Back: A company could sell its buildings or assets for a capital sum and at the same time, lease the asset back for its own use form the purchaser for a long term at a specific rent.

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