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CONFIDENTIAL - ~
y
AMPHIBIOUS
IN THE FIELD
Printed on Dec 11, 2012
CORPS
OPERATIONS REPORT
OCCUPATION OF JAPAN
153652
CONFIDENTIAL
1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
l . Introduction
PAGE
l
2. Or 1er of B&ttle 2
Navy end Air, bri ef outline tofi th schematic di agr am
of comr .. and r ele:.tionshi us.
(a) Chain of of principal army, nbvy and eir
units on KYU.SHU.
( Detailed OOB will be in AppendiX 4 to Annex
CHARLIE) .
3 . of Forces 5
end diagr ams :
(a) adjacent islands showing: Defense sectors
to pr1nci ple J e:.paneee combat units for
defenee of KYU.SHU. (a-1 ) Southern KYU3HU- I llus-
tretl.nt; .SIXTH Ar mies pl&t1 of Attack.
(b) Fixea. coost defense ertpl.s.cements , so Jthern KYU:3HU.
(c) i_t_rfl.::..
1
.ds, KYUSHU and adj.s.cent areas.
(d)

dist ribut ion of bases for miGt!)et
cuoa, .• uman torpe.lo .,a su1"ide surface crE;ft.
4 . of 3ituetion. 8
o. Japt>,h:se Fl£.n of Dt:: f €'nse 10
Supporting ar.note:.ted mEp;
(a) KYUSHU, deployment of J.s.panese
40th tnd 5?th Armi e s .
6. JEpanese State of
? . Factor s end Detri mental to
A. Concl us1on
l ?
20
30
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0788B

V CORPS,
C/0 FLECT ;FOST OFFICE, SA.N FR·.NCISCO.
Printed on Dec 11, 2012
COl. FID.C::i.:TIAL 30 November, 1945.
THZ Pk\1'1 FOR THE DEF.L.NSE OF KYUSHU
1 . INTRODUCTr ON.
Since tho in1 tial landing of .Amer1c.1'1 n forces in Jq,pan u.,,o
plnnn:.d t o bu mcdo on KYUSHU by the SIXTH Army, of
whic.1 Corps 'ttao e prrt, it of m111 tc. ry
anc1 hlstor:'..cal • t o ... E; bri ef stu:iy of the
J e.pnncso _.,l'l. n of .. J r nd s t e h• o1 r eAdinee '1..1. th .:>er-
t1nent con<-1-.vJions t o the _,oGsibl\3 of events
lu>.c".. such cr. ·be<- 1 ··?nAumP.ted Upon R.rri ,<.l of the
occu:if'ticrt j. Yl 1 ! vund thn"; the JRpf\:1-.:.;_ hFtd
most of and orders pertnining t o
defense. rr.1li t .. !'.) u.1.1.. ts hPd been w1 fro.n south.:!rn
in with cl.irl3ctivos. demobilizction
of their ".rncd f or ces 'tt' •S Plrcndy well under ·.,my. To r.:c·on-
struct tho f"cts it Wl"s t r') compile' the nrdcr 0f
often from t he memory o f JRpnncso officers,
innunorrhlc of f icers of vPrioue echelons Pnd to recon-
noiter the qref\ of the zone of contou9l"' tod
ini tiP.l action. ·
Duo t o the destruction of orders diroctivos,
dopc. nc1oncy on individuAl memories f or dc ttoils, co uplec
1
.·'·7ith
tho 0oncr a l of the
military f o rces during our occupAtion, mR. ny c0nflicting stntc-
monts hnvo been received from t he t o thvir
defensive plAns . Howevor, tho intelligence submitted
has been avAluated qnd is bclioved to be substnntially
correct .
2 . OR.D:R OF Bl-> T'ILE.
Tho clofcnso .of .I(YU!:>HU was assigned t o five cor.l •. i""nda
f\S f oll oua: the 16th Jo\rva i\rmy; tho 6th Ar my; the 5AS:3C
Naval District; th0 5th Naval i\ir Fleet; and the KUrt£
Di strict. The land defense wns under tho 16th Arof\ Army,
enc1 t ho Gvn. dcfcns.J under tho rnd the KURE N<tvo. l Di-s-
tricts. Air WPs under the 5th Navf\1 Air Fleet and
the 6th Air Ar my, each opt-r ating individually in tho same area,
but under comm3nd.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I
3 t o CHARLIL t o
of J.AP.Al t.
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J • • 0189/ohd. . ... · J
0?88B Appendi x 3 t o
Occupation of JAPAN,
Annex CHARLI E t o Operation Rep9rt,
CONFIDENTIAL
The 16'ch Ar0f! Ar1-:Jy was th0 prin.Cipl"' force i !lvolved. It
comprised three armies, colllparable to our corps, each of
some 90,000 to 130,000 troops; one additional division ae
general reserve and t\'IO divisions in area r eserve for
KYUSHU; several additional indcpencent mixed brigades
11
fortre&ses
11
for • • smaller e.nd l ess accessibl e areas;
two depot or trair,j div1sicns; 1d .niacell&neous base and
service troops. P-
1
,_ naval Sh·?re--. e.sed personnel were to pass
to 16th Area Army c.uP.rat1onal xr> ..... in E'·rent of invasion.
Under tr0 .. · ·
11
1), •• : 1.•!ons
11
WC"'" :r'e various
. ·u..-. ,. .• ..... ... from 30, 000
to 35_.0C' J n -. ': .. t.. S':OlJXl·.:.:. '".:;.' y two pt..:. · :r.t only were
train()a I' -: j• ' '- '_. i: • r· ll' J1I':ier t ng local · .. ; .·.l i ans • . The
dASEBO Naval J..'ist .. ·- t 1"' .l no nc:;.vy ln true .. 1se of the
word but did comman.:i i mpor•.ant groups of' n.a.val personnel .
These were the 3ASE30 Naval Lbnd Force, which
was an infentry unlt 10,000; tnc suicide beat; and the
elements mannin3 the N ... vy coast guns , some of \'lhich
were under Army control .
-The KURE District suici de unite on. both
the KYU3h11 and SHIKOKU :..ides of the- au:mo Stre.i ta, (As well
as a number of batteries), and also
a regiment of naval in area.
- Two of nrwy service not unQor .
contro.l of tne 16th Area Arm:· . Ti'll. first group were shipping
personnel operating small boe.ts from l>10JI to A:1AiH 0 SH1MA to
alleviate the transportation bottl eneck caus ed by rail and
road limitations. The second group railroad service
units whose mission was to k eep railroads operating.
In· t:10 ovent of invasion· th.;; 16th Are.., would lu-vo 11..-..a.
under its direct command the following el crnents !
a . 56th Army
(1) CO!llpOSi tion
57th Division
145th Division
312th Division
35lst Division
SHI .• ON03EKI Fortress
- 2 -
CONriDENTI..::.L
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0C<.;U!C.ti:.' r.- o ...
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
IY.I Fe r7. s s
6tn
.• t
Flt:.•"' ir.:lt.,:;cr:do;.nt S€!"Vice ur.it:J
5?t:. r.r:.y
(1) Cor:.-co oi tio:1

**v*
Ji\isior.
::)jv1s1on
t:. ;.1Yed 3!"1gade.
t:: I .. c... •. iX<. u S!".!.e;ade

ct!1 •• t ':'&n.<!. 3r1.rtade
:?lus i..d-cpt:>!.dt..1t s e rv1c.: ·u,1lts
c . .:.rn.··
(
' -I
::o tc :
11;3 t.. Di -.:1. ')n *""il-*
t. ::)1 •1.
1 ..... : .. c. •. t M1 .d 3:.•1godc
<%t •• .,..:-u llt: ry Co .... .• d
I a.J: 2 r1 't...· .. (:.t.os 1
Plus nt unito.
*ii-'W"* I no.lce.tcs di•Jicions l-:1 th !h.w-typc organizati on
codtaln1r.e; 4 I nfantry
d. ELl>-:::30 :;E.val :1strict
S Co .. bincd 3r...ecial Naval Lend Force ( Approx-
1mot(1 y 10, 00u - 11, 000)
S'Jic1ac Eoct TJni te (Distri'b·. t E:-d)
Coast Bett e r y peraon.1cl (Distributed)
c . 122z:d I .1C.ependent :.1x0d
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o:..89/o:1.d
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Occup,";;ir;:: o:'
- - - - - - - - - - - -
f .
g.
h .
1.
J.
123th ::ide}: cr.J"c .. t !3r1
.•

ll8tr. I :1der :1d .. n t • -d 3rigfide
l:,?th cd 3riged.:
Tsrr s·:r: ... _;
Fortress :; 11 t
I r:.t.:-rr. D1etr1ct .!,r:nv
{1) Corr.-:>os1tion
.... o7C i)1 vi s1on L1st.,...lc t
Y.UR.iJ.'.E Division Di st:::-ic t
Thea"' ao- ccl.lcd
11
D1 "1 c i on Di etri cts
11
., ere for
recruiting, trcini n; End rt?laccmenta.
k . 16th hrea Reser ve
{1) Co!ll'CC' si tion
21.6tn Division G..nt.r1l
* 25th for
cor.t-:-ol to tt.e 56th ...:.r:ny) .
* ?7th Divisio:l ( 1-.ttEch d fo:- £..j:ni n istrativz
co. to .. .... tn Arrr.y) .
T!:rcc.t of 1..vasion OJ.' KYU-5:.:: at .. ti. e: of th termi nati on
of war sc..Y.r ne\v troooa caJ uni 'te cl!routc to KT:3-n! with
wE''1:f portitllJ o-_;a'11Zo;..d u r. its GCE'tt"rcd t l.ro..lo:hout erlE..
Co .... 1. -td r ... lc..t i or.s .. ivb £tnd r.orm£1 l1£ison virtually
non-(;.xi s t t.:nt. -r:.e CXJ.l c..nation is nccts3ar y to conv.::y
tnl.o orba.1iZ£. ' .. io.1 a C. u:1i".. t ... rr:.s.
e . Or, en1zcti on of l end u .. 1to. l'he were
o .• th esr .. 0 t::.ou,;n tn3 57t h wes 1 .::-rge r, e.s 1 t. had .
t:.0 ..
1
C tCl'l'i tory to ch .. fend t L&l" others. E&Ch \-ICS COL..'J)OSCO
O- o.::v ... i1.f£.1try divi s i ons tnU. or mort. indco .1C:.c .. t
... i > . .:..d. t:-i :;ctdt..s or
11
f ortresaee", a bl:"1 gedc , an artill.: .. ry
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!lpr.-cnC:ix 3 to Annex· CHARLIE to Opcratlon Report ,
of J;.PA."' •
._.roup, C.oE;'!; 'Hli ts, c;,d cd,- 1 t1 onal suot;orting
.. nts of si ·ncl , r.cd1cc.l , and duty

b . units 15, 000 to
..,5 , 11' G. J T/0 11rE.s fl..,Yibl... nd no
'- ..... t.loav cr .... nossi::>lc. A co • .:rolcto bre&k<iol':n of
L.d.:. ':iduc.!. di visicns- 1 s !..eluded in :.O;ppcndix 4 to Annex
c.
d .
f .

.
-........
B1·1 .... s ... n .... ;_ll o ... • these u::11 ts cont&incd
u ... \·-rt 10.:: tt.:-11'> .s o-:-fr .

e ttrlion of 11,.·!lt crt111-
cry1 .• of

£ 1 cna e
ulrt.rc. cL: t he :ortrC3dCS end cc rtcin
of t.lt: orl_:<::d.Js c ;,:,. c.vy :.. "'ti"lcry r


l:liCh \'.'C.." <"Ctl :ly ._ .. S\: Lrtil l\.ry b ... ttclior ••
In e;c ..... r 1, c.
11
.::'o1•t r. so
11
·:r.o t. uefcn.! v t c.sk- ...;roup of tile
cor.:b!.uLd Er:::s,
Tank tri·- d .. s . units wcr-3 comyos:d o
1
two
r, ... c.Ji n.... cLn.1.)ll co ... pr.ny, c. rr.o:tn t ... nunct.. trc in,
c.:.<i a uni-;;. IiLir ir,cludcd light cr:d .
..• ... c.. .• c... e. 11 ... 1 of :propcl.!.cd guns.
Lrtil:cr·r fi:'OU"CSo ':o of!'s2t tn low :' ir.::poFcr of th .... i r
i..J.E.n ry c.qe:rone: J ... or.;tnizcd :roups of in-
rti.Llcry un 1 t s. groups of on
rTti .:ert co .... .:!. fun<:tl':>ncd oa the en
L.r'ti :-.. i.'Y ..... t-, end ;..fverc: independent
. rtl r;,ort r , £ .1d t u"ll ts.
Suic.:.dc l.Jo:-t; units.o :t \.'CS plr:mcd :!'-:>r 0£'Ch sr::Jy to ht:ve
t\';o suicid S1Ut"Lrone ..r .... • Ot scs. Thtir rniSbion wee
th .. St...1.: a tel t o..;:· th 1 r nrvcl countorpDrts. Howc.v .... r,
t.o c?o--c..1nc..t1on c>ist;--6. th.:- t\·ro
aunro:r-tin. ro o.fs.:t the BC£.tnty
.;t.!=:ncs .. ... .J cht:niz t ... on, cuc..il£..;1. .. L1Cn .PO\IT.r i-108 incrcaocd
oy t hese ecd1t1on€l
iro!.l t:;.:; su:;mortin6 .Iiepa t nd dia .. s ett ech ·d hcr ... \'lith the
follo111111g force-s is
- 5 - !D.C:lTinL
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C'"lJ'G I ,· :'!
:. t =: c •• to Annex CH.-.FLI.C to Op r£. Report ,
u_
c .•
b .
c .
d .
g .
h .
i .
j.
P.r.:.y. - \' 1 ;.I: 1 ts pr1nc1plt. etren...;th
northwcstLrn cocst MOJI to
e re._ sur!'OU.ldl .. \·.'t s dlf .. nl<.;..d 'oy ncvd in-
L 1try. It : leo tr..., ... unit on IKI I sland.
... ;!.. r ........ y. - KYU-3:-rtr. Its zone of resoonsi-
cL .. '\. y l. r..::crl.r o · the eouthccst r n hclf of
KY.U3. U L:cludir.g tho.; OdUhi Pcn1nsul c.. The t:: rinciplf
ct-.."' .:...:t.:-2 \·'c.s alor. the cosst Ti:):;:·o south·.
or t:ri's c:. • sew th:- n t.evi est concc.r.-
t · .. c: fo ... c s . It rlso hed jurisdiction over tL:; ..
loG-.;h on T.n:-EJ. s::r: .. ;.
- 2..>uth·,:c stcrn :y·;.:·:t:, ti1th i ts pr1ncin:'..c
c.. tra'ted alor.e; t !:c co<>at fro:! 58: D.:.I south
on t!l.:: .3 ... ::3--:-.. •• Pc:1.:.nsul a.
;·cl ::: - :':.18 fNC all of KYt;SHU.
C..CCO. ;_,-:nyi":.: ... (b) atl:i (6.) t;ht. location Of
t.::.c co. st d.t;f .... .. s ar.c! tnc su1cicu;. boat uui t bases
o::-1 · .:"!u.:r.'J.
':.._,c "'l' u' (H;:· ... • t.::c bA SEBO tln.s ... , inclu lnr; c.n
:ocet 11. -<ny wes
.. th.., SA3..::3:) Cor:.o1nNl .::m ... clc::l :· £:vEl nd ti'orcc.
Tr.L 1 . .:1 • .. t :t1 • 3 ·i. < j l:cfcnc .... a. A:oiAKU3J. I SLA.-o.JD
cn.i ·.::=---:=--... o ·C'l-:-rtl side of KYUS:'lU end
i t c .i..r.lc.a. \co.. 1'''£, ....
Tee ll8t •. ... nJ.e •. t . 1-..· d 3rl. Hcs d istrioutcd to ...
t:1 3U::l($v Str ... l KYT' J .3H:J !'rom .3:1IKOKU.
The 1 0 7t.'l :=-ld_u._nd. 11t . RlX_J. 3r!...-:t:i.:- .:<..,'...TK..-.E
to KYUSHU.
lh.J l09t .. .• t !U'" d € C:.cfcndcd SEI !.fA
cr.d .. 8<..£' tppro. ci1cs to t..: ste>:-n .'Y'"J3hu.
'!'h .... . ::.3·-i :..-. t:."l11i Jcf .. also mc.nn<:.d
7 c?:::Stel. bE'tteri a of up t o 40 for •t:r 3B
c,uns , to at·IClO c:Ocnn l s e-nroe.ches t o HI KY'JSHU.
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y? ."11') t.. •• di:x 3 to Annex Cr RLI.C: to Opcr etion Repor t ,
Occupt of J .... r.:.".
k . 'Ir.c IKI 'Jt • .:..t J. ... IKI sm::.A £1lso covered
tr.c chc.t .. vls .l-c.-;-:-rocc:1e S to northv·cstt:rn Y:YUSHU.
1 . ?.:.." •• .C: ::Eve._ clso shared Witn tbe 118th Hffi l.n
tnc e.c:.. .... v.L.F:r.I-:'.3, U{l(,ly t.:nou_:h th.;;y hcd
£1. r vnt OI .·, v.:-1 Infc .. ct 5.AE...:, K:t.'U.3EU
1
and mcin-
C:;) 0:1 t:'1 .. K:f:.!.3:::u si"e of th.: 3U:'GO STRAITS.
1:. __ .. Di .:;tric;; .-.r . .Jr - CJ .sioti. .... of t l". .... • end
I: ... I).:..v:sion t1., ¥:·icts .. nt to •• :.:wro cnC.
l'E:S.)t:Ctiv ... es hss bc"-n stat(..cl, \\'ithout nor::cl
co! ... £-:.. . "2 .. cy 'iTE.l"C .=with
tr .. L11r.t!: rt.J r plcce>r ..... r.t..... :-io•, v"' r , if their erca was
t:.r Dt._.. "'" L.)J> ..... o;.; e.'-lv, of 1 .--esi?n the
o ....... 1l.. .: ....... 8:'0 Di v1.:;;io.1 \-.res to assu ... a t"'ct:!.cel
co . nc CJ:· t1, !. .C tl) L·.3 as o:: cny ot!'.t;r r.1ilitary
ur.its prt"' d>t K:-:J.;.IOTO Prcft-cture .
:n ... .. -: , t:.o Cc::1:-.rond0r of tho Division Dis-
trict woul ' a. .E tccticE"l com:r.er.d of th_ 122:11..1 I.G et
tht -tit.n ! .• '=l, and thr- r <.. 1r cr.t of r.aval infantry
c.tEt1ot1l.d at 3 .• :Y.I, w£ts :1or:nelly unde r tne IC.i.::t£
i::-v.>J. Distt•1Cl· , plus c-.r,y other mi ll tery un1 te then present
L. OI'l'r. •• cturt.
1
cn1.. in the. soutl.Crn p£>rts of Ft.iiC"JOKA,
.3 • ..3-."1, t.t.d .L1h.3.-.K! Pr,.l c ctures .
n . Rec ... • .... a- il'\i 21Gtn Divlslon wc.P. loceted ncar the city
O:f.l.J--:7.::s:") ea the

r s .. for tne 16th .nree Ar::J.y.
T.:c :.L T. ·ic:.:m, :.:>c" j· .-.ort 1 of ?.AG03Hii:-i..t. ,fA .. ; ,
\'/El S t...> tl ... -!Otn .-.r ... y ;.'o:- e .... .. ir.istre.tlvc control
but :·;:: ... u.1l.•Cl' o: t he 16th .;rca Ar:;zy as
p· rt L.). .3?utnl.."'•l <r:.:: ... rvL.
t:·.t. 25t'. Divi"i"r. , J. in thu vj.cinity of
i:O:S.n..:A.-.LI , \•:. s .;.ttt c.1l.. ...... .:> "L! .;. c?t .. .!.rr .• y for £'-< .i:listrnti ve
con 11rol an-. \.i.,,_cr • co.1trol of the 16th .':.Z.0e Army
c.o t!J.o b.?.:!.c.nce o:: .:::::; ... n ;nc.rn r ce:ervc.
o . The 6tr. J.i.r J..rrLY fi.,_lds thr ouerh0
1
.lt YY'J::>HU, S:iiKOKU,
c.r.c: ( rou,_;r.ly HO! .3:-JU O.:J.-...C.n we: at) . Ho\·1c.ver,
.:.loet ita better ei!"'crcft \'Tere c ... i n northC;rn
KY';;a.J, Y.·L· . .rUCHI Prt.:.: .. c.urc, HOH.3HU, west ern
Ficl:is in southern b. en .. bcnC.oned c:s bE;Geo end
- 7 -
CONFI DEi.ri AL
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4 .
01 9/?h\.-.
u7 .J .... r..t-"·" r.-1' Z to OH ... qLIE t) OJ;eretl on Report ,
Oc .... _ c.ti:.>rl of Jr.F.J.!.;.
•;ere ::ml y t o i.h .... for gin 1' sui cide •
..... r.::' :l e ir, .• -...• ... r c uncl.: r c0 .. ...r •• n of· th0 5t.'1 ... J.r Army.
The . .. ... .1 r .. t hed fitl .... s 1.1 tho? ..... c r "':- as the
:";;h ;J.r .... r.:.y clso i :-: southL.rn ..... Th ... l to
c!._ploy t.t\.lr .:- i rcr cr' t lr. northern southern KO:ct::A,
;.,.e;ot ... •r:l nv . .3.-;.l.." end .3!1IY.OYU; hO'h. VC"" , " t t :!:1. t ime o:: tn
surrt..&! ...... er, t:11e not b'-_n entireLy e.ccor.:Jpl ishcd, b u-
C<. us"' no t cno'...4gh • .... lopcd bases in the
! w'J.C'I.. t .... ct ... d no ·tHe-:-;: zon'- . I.1 a<. tion, the Navy wa.J
i :1 pr.;c ss of prE.t"E'rine; cb:)ut 20 suici de tcke- off
strips ·:·ound hcc,;. rs to b.:- used but in the
L1iti l



on t,. fl e t .
In .... 1... n ..;f s i te.J f)r tr.c .:!-..t1.blish:ncnt of co..,st·
C. .'o£ .. s , f irst p i ori tJ wcs given to t h.)<-C sl tcs
Lr .... eo, cs strci ts,
::l!"l •• ,t)"' 't-:: ...
Sw.0nd"-y t o t na
6..0!'c .. _a b:.."Gt;.!r:...:s I'or f.cf'e::se of beaches end possible
1 ......... i ug [':•e:£.;i .
!n pu:-. ·· l.t ben tn" t f o r ces
di5tri.Ju tl ,·}. ' , ... .. i t.!"l c:::c.stE'l aree:.s sui t c.bl i r VE cion
in.se en i re ou:r o":r;.lol te.tion of bctchh<:ads \o:ould b'c
... .;, 1: c:-: the o.._f.:-:lsc.
of t •. e !':. co,stlinc, unsui t P.'tlo for
1:-.. ·..3 , c.:1.:': t:;_ c::.!:'. ic.'.l::;, t 'tcrrsin \'res
v1r't'...4 .. .. 'i•m., t h .• 1d 1 .... of' ">ugust saw t!1c
t11lk t. \.. 3."c :: ... '" ... ·.:::';r.y , cnorg.:;d with the; Dcf0noc
o..;' !.<J.: -v!-!0 -.::.. .. pr:J!>c:r, .... on Y.TJSHU.
7h0 til. El'tuc:'tlon wss sound. Tnere
i s little to inJ.1c tc thE't !.t \\'B3 bEe..;.C. o.-: actucl intell i gence
oi' our plene. The cst!.-.ct-.' \it-S ... .i.ly oH:.::u on n e;ooJ.
"'v£luc-.t i - .1 OJ.. our prob.:;t.ly coursa o·f a. ct1::>.'1 •
. 0-r c.dvlll cc w ... at\o.el'\1 t."l' F r ciflc t o th " .1AF.Il.. 'llh.S c .. nd
BOt !.:3 t.nd ..... ;_-dTRA:. Il. t.) the .!!:.3 and
0 •. :: P..1A, t:1 c:stobl ie:1 ... 0nt o · t'""'-'c t IJ .. ·s ... e in tht for\\'ll.l"d ercee,
... .... lc:..t1.)n o! ?J.r f?rc"'a £nd sh!.ppin"· ct the se
tl'._ of tn ... ir L.IlC. e . • iJ;o1ng, de;struc-
t i o:-. o-: t .. '1cir cir .:.:>rces end .r i nclly the crescr.C.o of
- a-
347
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c-:. 29/ '">hj
<..- 3 t o ;,nncx • ';o Ope r c t1on Report,
-;;'1.4::'£ t i on o f J .<F .cJ: .

our .-::n <:r.: r:F I RE i tself we r e e grc.phi c time t c.ble
't tl':..: .:.r.v e. si on o!' KYU3HU.
cffice: r s , i n cl uC. i ng t he Co f .S o f t he 1 6 t h Area
r.r .. ,y t !'. c.. t i .. v£: s 1 ::>n co ........ c. . ce i n
t!.c r e !. s i n t (.;l: i gt:.nc e t th._ Je:oc.nc sEO ,, a r
l::: cli E."•Jt .. \..i:::.- s i on '•'0Ul d co.nt: c s c.s t nd of Scpt-
c;, .. oe:- o r -v:i:c f !.r e t 0 ::: Octob e r .
........ t :> b e our f i !'St I f t h"'
1nvcsi ...,n -.:t F. t;:, ccmu in t n'- f oll o f 1945 t •. LSt 1 m£tcc. our
\'T.)ta..:'. t ? 1/hN f o r encho r c::;c and
po rt fcc.:i li th: s em. .. 'tht. tc:..rrein o f s o uthern KYU5.r.U ;r.vst s uit-
v.bl c:.. I'or c irfi el d c 0.1s t ructi on.
our l ending e f fort woul d be
ag.:.i !'lct oout. c.?r. e't cdj t:c cnt t o !.!:c •. :J .. -=<: I , .. h r c
the:-u \•Jer e go::>..:!. b e aches t:.:ld c-.msidcre bl e l ow fl s t terrc in ir..-
l E:n .. sui t eble f ':> r l:)Xte::lsi ve ei r!'i el J.
esscul ta l-Ter ,' ent1cip&t ed t o bo '!lade a t ..-2IAKE
'.IL:..j 't.J occuro t he Air-fi el d a nC. along t he s out hwest e r n
cocst c t EtJjl A.}I HA: .. C;. It 1a of c ons1acr abl e i n t t· r cat t o note
t h 1a 1n1t1clly nor.e t hc:.. .Jfficc r s question ... d
s1c ul t&neous e t the se t h r ee po ints possible
o r even three of o ccupatio n, que stioned
t hey e 1d cY-p ec 't and hed p r ep a r ed for simul-
Howeve r, it is b elie ved tha t they h cd
r evi sed t hoir earlier afte r r eading published
inva sion plcn d eteils.
J cpenese thct 15 to 25
d iv1oio ns vera 1n the f orward arll&.a. No analysis
or their type•.
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ClE.9 .. d
07 "1 .3 to J>nncx CEARLI:: to Operetion Rt.po r t ,
OccupE1tion o.' J.:.F.-tN.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
:ri..:J"'
c i r [ ttEcks t i1r •. v.·c be Drruarcc". to mount E'nd
£1 l .• uci: r:.1 !? ,•r., ThL invcsi·m of the erCt."' woul-
1
v0 'Oltl.cul our· in"e 1n t-..te;:b .. n ... trC"" the cc:"ltcr ol' th0
e ... r ::.rt), <. w..>ulJ h va j th€ ?Jrj nciplc I.:t.snu-
f ... '.c L.t::::-in, us
1
e:1d vu!. crFblt:- f::>"" f'll Jcoance<.. 6-...tpplics
?.' 'il<._ n,, J. .. ncral WOt..:l'i hl"VC rj•i'cd
:·!1tL itc 'f:.rLH.1.pl,; ... -.nt , th.- loth Ar...:.y, cut cor.:-
fr·vru "'.JI.C ::>:' 'I.n.:-y ou1·
ulti..ct0 t .... th ... TC!:YO c.rcr .
::iou .... c:Pr.tul'l,. < .. cu c;,ts p.:-"'ticule.rly fro.n .. 1.ri
I .Jv ...--: _.., f>tr..:Got'..:
11
1 ... "1:0:::ns .....
11
:t r::> .. l our o.t .
.3.U:P L:. pt. :-i;r.c tc r ..,. .;- s cor. sic' crad obsolete, end
1n
=>f e.• tillery CY.rt.':- ::>.f! .• Wt s rulizt..d
ca u .. so•.1r.c. l.: t::_ cl :.J:::t t:n;.:.l c. r.. tur-.. cn;i of
rj in -:he 11 r· t tw::> C:ey6 ::>-.' s..-.r:;.i;. l'h .... :a:..;clo-
of c .... r.cec:ld'. C.i), &rti.Llcry .. 'i. i-.3 ..;un .,...Jsi tio!"ls ncval
.: ... uy e£:rly .:: i.,...lr.; \IIC'C c Jnsidercd unwi
.1.::.:'-nse of I.JO Jr.. .. en._ or:I T .. 6 \\' t. n w .. r ..... .: 01
;!e:::;!_) ... :'L ov• c .. for utL.izinl t.t.h .. S"'
11
ltSS'jnO
1 e D.r.l"'::;,
11

I. li_;..t of fects 1 t io 1.1C.::>.:-:pr.hcna1bl\., but
t ..... t t:1.:! bnd .... ?'!! KYL*.3Hv '''"' s plc.:n.wc al·me 6c.r.1 ....
t.J lj r:.:-s cS .3.'.:F • .:....:.
1'il,; _0.1\Jl'Ll plc:r. :!:'or tnc Clfcr.ec of for an
tv 0ur teak by
rir cttrc-a E,d oy suicije b0qt aitecks •
. .:.t t.r.e ... nl'.. o .. t:-:.e- '•'fr Jet:e:h ht.d eopr oxir.Jeotely l2, 725 planes
of cll t.'lH'E, 5G51 .Ar1.. · £"n, 7074 !i.o.vy. •'i1cy were bei ng con-
f.Jr t.h cf .;.'o .... t. 'l'hl' c1 r pl<:n the
c..1ti··L :-..rmi!nl!'ti?n of th:s ei:- fJrce 1:1 th .. effort . Fl tnes
03 in wcv ·s 300-400, ct tae rate of one
"'' },JCr • c ., Llot tl1"1 1 nvcsi ::>n f l .. t . 3u!'I.i c i cnt fuel
..... n .::> ..... out only toout 8 , 000
\·:cr ... cvcilc'.Jl ... .
- 10 -
349
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c
1
r9 j '":.:.
cr; ;:: to Lrtnex t o OpC' r a t1on Rc:uort ,
Oce;u:r-ctivn of J::E .·.i·.
: • ..._ pri:1c1pJ cr-: ·ti ve o!' ['ttccks \·:£IS t o be
errcj1.r.t •nr t:-. ll!'ll)r.,,.·';s , 3uic1 <.; b?cts t o fr"> . .J
all iJC oc.> .. J 1·C tt:.. i n1 uoi n t of c t tcck t o
ett clt n}.)or: on::-lv-ey- r c-nge? ,·es at
1 00 • .. 11 CG,
! c1 !!
It \- s p1 c.r.-... ••. ty these t.=:. ? r ts t h€ 1nvE"si on
b .... . .:-r.'.:-l:,· to c .. eble c'efendi ng u ni ts t o
<..(.G., 'VY ... € Od'Ch.
AG ..... out !n th2 ?;: forces , the
tl!re ... -.... . _:::-._). c::-tcs .... for '''\.."'e (1) the Gouth-
ctet.crn (;C) t .. .: coes<., <nd (Z) the n.:>rt!:-
C-">lc st. ':'n :-:n.;c c::-r..i::.>s chcr ·c ... • 1 t:. tr." defer.Jc or
th .... sc l'l'C:. s , ... ... , d'ccpt fo:::- t!"'.cir reserves, cl:::>11g
the i) c ch,
To!.., ;C'no3:::-£l •• ::;e pl e.: csl
1
... .:. f or a ri gid defense of t!'lc.-
bcccn .... ::- ·-"Jo:r c,..u .. t\.rctv·ck to be d.-livered wltr.i n t wo
Wllko of l n-ti rl
"rti:lory strcits
such co t .•• l r.tr tnc.., r,o 7...-• .JO.:;,.·: .• •. •1..-.. l end i AN Her .:: to
open o. 1 1 • • y V( qscls .... to :pees or Ot hcr-
wi cc cor .. >'.: E.1d rr·ti:lE..:".f bc:.tt .... rit•s t·cre t? wi t!:ol d.
their \.:. .. t:l 1 .r:l.:i.ing creft C! .. in renge. LL.i t. t i ona
of c .... . .,n, t:1c J..:31 r.: not to t r.ci r 1 o c <.ti.)rl e t o
? - n£ val lo r e s , Ei::- s ttEcks sa well
ca tn- ·:-"'llcf t:.=t :::)Bt uc t :; .. r i a w .... r .:! :)f t:)O smell
c .. o :.csi.roy Ol' to ,. 1 t .. \</[Irs a l-rc. r e ci to.;d a s
tn ... :r.:-r.so!:.a fer tJ1 f1!·.?. c.: xccpt 1on t o t h is r ule
wc-s • : 1 bctteri .. o t ·,) fil"'E' 8 t mi ::'ltSWd;;U.: rs end r e can-
cr-c1 t (t'I:. I ).
no centr r li zc.! c ont rol o r fire- d ire c t 1? n o f t hes e
coc at ti .. fe .. 3 .. 1nst t llatj ons cnJ. £rti"!.1 cat teri e s .
lcf'C.13C
t h ... l r.fa. t ry.
of bcccn '"''a th .... r spons i bi li ty of
lh-:: n '..:>o3E' Ches w1..:.c nd bac!-..;;d by f l:-t
- 1 1 -

350
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,.
Cl. ':J / "··--:
O?c..;a :."'ix t:> J\nnex CP .... RLIE' t0 0p('r&t1on Report,
Oc up tion o ...
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
tt:-!•rcin <f.;>n•..li:1 c.:>v.::.r .:nt c:>r:.c .... cs fount" et
.-.!J...-.. :.r.Y.I en,, '!• t-·cs t ... rn :>f . .,.:· , o . .11 a·roupa
0- l'iiJ ': .. 11 \- _::. .. t v"':: 1py c .. 1..1. t o -...c.:1.tn c.. e; ... r1 ... s ')f
et:-..n1!::' poL.ts n.:ur t:J..:: -'-<: ch
':'h""' ·-""in O.Jct:r of t.J b\,.: C.\...!=l:ly ... t cr. the first
c-. .... , n .. l.!!:. ,:1·:>und inl!..•<- r'r:>r_ th<..' beEch,
• .;11 u::i t .... t:> h::>lc. their t:'r:>Unu en I'i _::: t. t ') 'i.cst!'uctiou.
r.l'til:..cry - · .. · ':lrt£r units v..'cr.: to be ... l-nC;rrlly
on tL ... sl o . o :;.1.... !.rst ril!G.:-G inlrnc t·- ... beech
Ul, in r: .. \'._s ·'ul't. __ • 1.11, n ... L• tr .. r:ng..;s of Fr:>t.J
t.1. " .:: '?ltcP ....... t ... , it • cs •. tht:y coul •. c:>v• :- entire
1 1:.it".e .... ::. F.:-ll c.s t::oplc.ins )!'l \l:icL the ...
in .ntr·· \·.:n·· '-" .... ..-.. s th ctt.c·crs -oro ·rcso.:-o ... n.::
t11- • ::.·'.. rn··•r .1 !'· • ::>Ul C'. c0n \ .: t c.J ..... :. th0 b.:c f; 'to
::.·.:.ic.". r ..... 0' .... ::t ... .:. ... -ut._..,, b'..lt. t·r.J'..l:·t f ire
O"l .. oq:.o:·tunit:-1 bchlr:-: t.'tu"c.K ... rs' fr:>.1;. lines.
:.1,.!, .... ·ere ... fcv .. c ... "' i.: E:rr-, cove rcge o! erti:Ll.::.r:• ,
of p·1·:lct:lcr L. tl· ...... ir to th bvacncs e:1d
1.v ... 1:.1 :..r .... .:s ,_(.tu _i.y d .. 1.c-... ... ..._, .... ur ":>:-c.e .
'I.:e .,...r .:r h .• -. st·"'-:1_' c r:e· .. -:r ti"ln of ,..ti:. "..l.ry cnO::.
r.cc:·:y ,,?.•trrc ),. ci. ?. 3r.I.3iJ .• r.!= ... ir ... '..l:c , south
?f I,-·_;·a:.·, in t'. 2.:.'5t!. •

"?n ?f CCt.!.o:-•• T:.iS C ln-
Ct.1t .·E.< ·. "l! t·: s cl-Js :- t:;, =--·:1· . .:-•. .. -. t1 t.hl o .... ecrcs
.. f :- t:1. ' .-i:::p!'li)i?uc C:rr.:s.
:h .. f:? u.l -.l !l(l !: . .:. t\•' ::."'el e. :'). co.'1c ...... t:ot•ti"!'l . !n thee ...
ccscs, • t.:"n c. c:>::-.c-.ltr<t1:>n o:' :uns, t •. crc was
e wlotri of b·ttLri ... s c ultn f1r :n rrl£ cov .... r£ge
oy t.l ir .:'11. s.
It t•ts t.1:-t tn:. tr:,u:-. .:1 :.IY .... Z..-.KI c.nd on
t: e ...,, ... 1 ... v'!: AP.:rJ::: .• r.: bt.' 1.1'!:!'1c •l t to ...._c.,fe:'l:!.
li'c •• ..;f covzr c1... C') •• c .. :::l..n::nt. ..C.ntic1pat1ng the pro-
broility J: our .::>: in two
C!'ti!.L .. ry , . .. c?uc ..... 1trct .. .:.. inl. .. ll.J on su1t c. olc surrou.1<'ling
t ... rr: 1.n t:> t l(!s ....... rc.;t o.
- 12
351
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-., '9/ ,.,
-- ' ··'-
07 o 3 to t o Opcrcti on
Oc o f J-·.F.·.:' ,
- - ·- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
of · :.IY.;2..lJCI Erte the 6t:'1 Ten': Bri gc.dL was
:.- ·,_,," .:Jr tL .. ec ..... purp?ec c.s outl incJ in
pre ··i ... J: r r< _: t'!'J:!'!.
)u...,l:,·, thL e th T( .1k Bri ·edt ( tr the 40th r.r ... y) was
vr. 't .. C' e>-.trL .. it;y ')[ tn Ft...nip-
in 12::tt. L3
1
s zone .Jf cctl ,r,.
l'hcrc v"L.t. .1.> cotaol1shed :t=-lan f,..._., thf' of ob-
st ·les or ' .. lverate ... fields . I'r.e beEct:"S we !'e not mi ned
nc "ere t.:.cc-1 co:..· .... ido.•s or avenue!:: o • .' £:ppro£.ch f ,or: tr.e
oc LC vi . .....1 e:.reac . :;:nqui r y o'1 tr..is .. c:r brouj1t
v ... _.At. :.,t, .... .• ts {'I
11
..... cki n.· ... s later for :n,

ar.a
11
i !:' AT.t:ricvr. n..lvL.1co tl::re< tened a ua tlcular co,..ridor t.he
c. i .cc:--s wo "r:. stl' ototocles in dept!. ao t; e R1 't'.Aut1on
aic"tu'tc .... '' . .t.,-;:- .on..: g".mo c:t,d uelf-pron.-1' ed c.rtil lcry were
to .:lc uf: ...... tJ.;t t •• e pri.•.ery de!'e •. se 1!!.3cLanlzet' vehi cles
\- e s r . t. Vt.: .L' t."le c :.' !.s.1c
1
placed char
0
es by suici de
troo .... .
the use of i nfil-
n vat.z·c:!..e, L1o ... e ..... cry n.iesion "'oul<. hEv.: bcl.n to dis-
r upt ker1cer. cc:.. ... .t'i destroy valuable e1u1pment .
'I'heoe t:ni ts \·'c:;!'c to t€ t...'1t11 a >c'. t r:en f i ght
untl..l E.ll J:'Crso .. of' 'tne _pr.t•·ols wv·c k i l:.ed. In addition
to t .(' t:c.t.:.·o) o . t ......... (' \crt" 'to .r..a.vE' oel'n numl!"ous, small-scal.G,
nigr.t :·;;t ":L. ".:s ._y pe!'JC.1 .• cl c:::-::t ..... w1 ... 11 ,;h t wcepons
and c ....
Su ... wcov) .s ,. r._ to be uo.d in accor..:ance with
'rctrin a.
Ta.:tks were toN' r lL .. c. .... il:r liS mobile srti llcry. One
li :.;,ht ta.1k u •. i 't ,. f 30 tenko, in .. area, we.s p re-
for
If t •• l, r, Lea to be c or.!. i'tt ... a , c."..l tank units
to be rcp r _;a.'1i., ,d r.d c.ttacr.ed !'or tnc c.si n ccunter-attack .
l•O"'t.:>ro to be: C:tl})l('ly._d in t h.:;ir no,...mal wi th con&1d-
el rbl\. :'!'-Ori t,f :'o!' 1...1-T: loy!llL'nt gi Vt:l1 to m.;:d1UID and h t.UV:f
mc r't ... ro for d ... fenseo.
- -
352
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0L .... :-/ohd
1.- ..... Appo:O.i.x o5 'to Annex CH)f\LI E to Opcrat.! on Report,
..... pct!.or: or' Jl>:F.A;.\ .
- ---- --
. .... C.iun and n.· - · '•tillery w rc t o covc:: r the> lDndi ng craft
a t•. : .· ,"'G £nd clain surrou.h! L1.:r t . .: b+..achc s .
:: re • "" • -f r ... : coc: ... and or for Drtil- ry
!'1 a.J ,O. n•.) s·,hcmc or doctrin'"' to moss fires 01 ttvo
o r o r: t at t E' r·i t' a .
. -rop .... :.c .. c co .. .,..._al izc.:C. ir:aC.nul'cy o f their coc..rr.un1-
cat ion r conditions and conaiderod the
o. r!. r c e. o::: s .1..4r.1t1on. Jt trao plcn.1e d tu'"'t "1\rr.cn
cc .:.. .1 c£: tior \'"i r n the tll":Xt hi gncr unit bt\'Kf:down, t. ach f ir(.;
ur. \·;o1.:.lti c O'..l. & inC.et: endt r. t :!'irt- mi ssi c r.s and co....-,t ..
it .:.' i r r. ,
rir .... •: n to e t o: Prc-
r L 1·1 0.1 ,..."";& \·'cS tc be CEit&Oli St d for tr i n1. &1 rJ. posi-
t! • d to U( no rt:.')l rvi d· nee o!' the scle>ct1.on
o.:. c.l";; .... • .... s . ... nc it \''u.R fL ... tlv c..d:u.:.t'tc:d thbt. J.ir ...
d ..... te. /o/:..G nnly • A!"tillery
u i • o u ... ·t. to t- .... 1tll ...... .
r.()t 1:lan to usc fL:tOkt or illumirJati on shells.
f..,r t ..• t.:.:plc:;·.-... nt o:· crtl ll ....... y :-J to <.:or.lbine the
bct..cn l ... "ti"o c :ploy,d on .:>."'I?.<t• s;.nc cf th ... fixed
d.!' ... .c ... o!1 :: .1 0 JI.· •• t.. 1'h. r? -:,,ros l i ttl.,. .;vidence
ir: th.::1r-cl. .... :1 to t nc.. t they h .. d d by O':" pro-
poctci to u:Jc

l:r.rn-.11'
1
i:1 of arti llc.t'y
on o .. ! : .c-.... -_
...n :.4..': 1 of sc •. e 2?GC '-•t.•"! was s t a tion, J on th" 212th
Di v1e.ior.
1
o th rt• was no Jilt.n for 1t ti usc Ei r-
thf. ontici etcd
.,f l :.,;nchi ug; at1<i S..lch an attack under
... cooault •
. •'!: il.J thl. 003 1nclud0d rocA:ct launch.:.r: · u:lits, thLr"- was n-,
c ... :r:;!'le.si c on tr:c-ir us.J tnc gene rcl. d i scuooions. Ap-oarcnt
?r rocket motora pr clud d cny mass
as a ttcq:_d c t I.IO JL1P .•
cl.l unite w.., r .;: alert.:-d for dcf0nsc a;ainst chemical
war.:.a. rL' , <..ctive uoc of gcs by t he Ja )ancee WE:S n0t pl.!tnr.cd.
- 14 -
CO."FIDZHTJ N .. J'
353
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0189/ohd
0788B Appendix 3 to Annex CHARLIE to Report,
Occupation of JAPAN.
CONFIDENTIJJ..,
ResE: rve d ivisions under operational control ('f the 16th
Area Army were to be employed as dictated. The
77th Division, r ated as A-1 by the Japanese, '1-ras under admini s-
trative control of the 40th Army and was held in r eserve north
of KAGOSHIMA ;,AJ.\ . It was to be pr.par.:d to support th .... 40th
Army i f a landing ,.,ere forc.:d 0.:1 t!l.: western shore- of SATSUi-iA
Penninsul a. The plan call .:-· d .. rr.ent chiefly by foot and
at night , alone; the shore r oad o.!' • AJ03Hii'lA .IAN, crossing the
penni nsula on t he road system j ust • st of This
movement was predicted on the assumpti on that our landing
would be made at The esti mated time for thi s
movement was 6 t o 7 da ys.
The 25th Division, also A-1 by the Japanese, under
admi ni s trative control of the 57th Army, was ht!ld in r eocrve
in t he area C'f It was prepar ed to
i n the ;•.IYAZAKI area i f our forcc..s made a successful landing
at that point. It was tc oc movE:d chi efly on foot
at night, the estiwatcd time being 5 days.
Both tne 25th End 77th D1vi o1one were also to
to move to the area east &nd south of MIYKONOJO fnr a combined
counterattack i f the main effort expl oited t his a r ea.
Neither division was to b e cr committ ed until it was
apparent t he 40th ('r 57t h Ar my could no cont ain
our attack. It was believed thet sufficient forces had OEen
allocated for thE oeech defenses to i nvasi on at either
point. If they could prtvent of beach-
heads, to die i n the then the 16th Area
Army woul d mount i ts count e r ettack.
The 216t h Divisi on \oras in at
preparc.d to to th.: north or south as the situa-
tion di ctated. I f our prt.l1.u1nc..ry bo11.bardmc.nt or t)£.rl y seizure
of swall isl ands to the south of KY'3HU definitel y
i ndicLted an cerly invssion on southern KYJ3HU, the
216th Division wes to b.:. mov ed, pr1nc1ually on f oot end at
night, to the area of north\l.·.,.st of iUYAAONOJO. This
movement would have ? dtys. of the map, t he
distances involved, and the road system to be us ed oy all
of the divisions in their movem,nt leaves
conside r a bl e. doubt in the .·.ctnod of t hes e
vi taJ. time end soace factors.
- 15-
354
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CONFIDENI'I.AL
.. ... ,
Likewise if indicati ons pointed toward i nvasi on
of southern KYU.3HU the 57th Di \'isi on of tht:. 56th Ar.ny wc.s to
be '.'li thdrawn frorr. the i='UKUOKn are& c...nd mewed by allY and all
mt:.thods available to. th( • .;.. ares.
t
The Fourth Independent attached to the 56th
->U'my, wee t o oc ... d for withdrC'IJill and move.ncnt to southern
KYUciHU wh.:lt. 4 t ..,;E s d-.fini t .. ly "- eta..>li shcJ. the.t our main
w&s
A plan h£,d also worked out to shift coastal divisions
in ArJy a r ees to a·critical condition • . example, if
the invasion force hit proper-, the 5?th .:.rmy was to
withdrew the 212th Division on their left comcit it a t the

Likewise a ulan existed to withdraw the 156th Division from
the 57th br::o.y- end co::nluit it in the 40th ..\rJlly
1
s area if the
western beacr.es were first .
The 40th ;rroy was pr percd to releesc tho:! 206th Division to
the 57th .Ar:ny if the :-astern btaches '"ere the only on""s attack-
ed. Supplies and their d i stribution, b Pin6 a critical ite::n
in the defense plen, warrc:nt C£reful consideration .
A good portion of all suppl i es for KW3HU ori ginated' i n
HONSHU. dumps and principal supply centers were
lishcd in northern end n')rth KYU3HU.
From such sources each Ar::ny wa3 to build up central reserve
and re-supply dumps of thei r own. Each subordinate command
of each J..rmy we.s to estc..bl ish 1..nct ma.intc in food, cmmun1tion
and genercl supply dUClps, to e. 50 dRy level for food and "one
opercti ons " supply of ewmunition. yardsti ck of mecsure-
.. lcnt called for tne following r ounds per Wtupon; l, 000 rounds
per f i eld p i tcc, 25,000 rounds per 240 rounds
per r i fle.
As no units on hcnd, es of 15 Aug-
ust , unit distribution w&s to priority over the estab-
lishment of principcl dumps .
- 16 -
CONFIDENTIAL
355
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of JAPAN.

The p r l ncipal supply channel was by rail , The secondery Emd
emergency rout e by small b0e.t at night on the inlend ··ato:. rwey
o f \ JAN 0f northern KYUSHU.
the vulnerebility of t he railrocds, trucks end
carts t o oe preper ed tn where the rail
system WEB deL.c.gcd. . . Under "worst condi tions
11
they en ticipa ted
they continuP to tLousend tons pt.r dt y , This
amount wes no;:; su f:'ici ent for bc vtl.· rcau1rcm€'nts but, t h.:-y
beli eved, d . t·"\. ·.;h t1.e supply du:nps of each .;rmy, furnish
sufficient \ .:B c:nr.. "mrr.u,,i tion tio conduct the d efense to
1 ts
It wes J J c 0:--ed to mekc full use of t he t e rrain. Units on
l;. • ·· e..ss!.tined arce.s wer, to d i.:! i n. It
was e.ckn .. ·. .;\.d thE. t the tiL-e cl( mt.nt vrould prt>vc:nt the con-
struct1o• c f tr.e elaborately forwcd fort1f1ce. tion constructed
on ItO ·
No scc0nder; or defense linrs selected o r
plenncd. i\o defense i n d.cpth wes or plsnn\.a. .-Jo cross-
C:...:.1\.:nsc ulen \-t£ o • o • plcn 1t>d to bloct: e north-
Wf rd &dvc,.,c\' :..t'O KYl..!dHU .;..1 the ev<>nt of successful establl shmen t
of our southrrn b .?tcr.hee-ds ,
pltn we..s to ect1vcly drfend th€' few e raas ,
at the baach , to mess reserves for en £11-out
i f the invcsion forc.-•s in \·;inning e beechhead.
6. JAF ANE3E ':)EADI N£33
Although cl t>me nts of Arec hsd i nto posi-
£6 previously i ndi cated, they , by th_ o f
fe r from r eady for the
AI. thougn no ;..rmy was compl c tcJ.y resdy, some were ln worse
then others, resltiva degr of r eadiness as
follows: 56th Ar.r.y j 57th . .;r y; E..nd last, t hl 40th. The c.v c rage
for whol e. 16th nrmy wEe as sixty I n
brief, defici encies in prcpE..ration we re follo\'lB:
a . un1 ts "''ere short of o r 15t.ni c weEpone.
- 17 -
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Occupction of JAPAN.
CONFIDENTI:.L
b. Some units were below T/0 strength.
c. Virtually c1.1 units hcd insufficient supplies of E1:..Juni t1on.
d. Only approximately suuolies of food were available,
in southern KYUSHU, and not eouclly di stri buted.
e . Organic transportction was woefull y week.
f . Many unlts considered in pQor state of orgru1ization
and trajnlng. Tne 303rd and 206th Infantry Divisions of
the 40th Army were adml tted particularly poor.
g . Very few uefensivc positions had oc n propered by ind1v-
1duel units. of the 1nit1cl effort had been direct-
ed, euparently, to the· construction of air shelters,
nnd ammunition and supply caves.
h . The thoroughly inedeque t e road snd its we.ny smdl
bridges hcd not b f.n to f&cilitcte the Tepid
of r serves, heavy and supplies.
i . Organic comwunications, tclephones , and rad ios were short
anci. thcrt: seci!I.Jd to be. no hope or plan to bring th .... m up
t o th.;: propc.r l'hc. co;.,,nerciEJ. co.r.mun1cction f acil i-
tic.s expLcted to the surplus load.
J. Liaison se'-.ned pa rly W€ak. It stat d tha t liai-
son officers hed bc.en aopoin ted be J..r.ny , Navy end
hir in the higher cch0lons of but the re was no
evidence of it. wcri no l i aison officers
the 40th 57th Army.
As a result of this leek of established liaison it was very
aoperent that .T.any vi tal details twe n units and s ervices
we re assumed but not worked out or thoroughly or
understood.
For instance, thc1 doctrine for employment of coast
s -emed quite confused. Nc6rly half of CD be.tter-
1 c:.s were manne<l oy Navy but were under the A,..my unit in whose
they to be cstaolishcd. All Nevy-opcrctcc
- 18 -
CONFIDENTIAL
357
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v?, O.) r .. pen.' iX 3 to CH •• -:::Lr :: to Operation Report ,
Occupcti on of A..'J.
CD bt...tt ... ril e Wtrt' to o.:. unC:cr Army operational COC:Jlnll.nc-:. It
WE'S, ... r , & functi on to sup-ely OJJJLJUi11tion for ell
CD bt...tt ... on
to and oper&tc of suicide
units and it in thtir plcn,
but th(. rc.vy uid not to know of tht. pl&n a t d l.
k . C)(C(llcnt eystlm to handle tha
bulk of supply t roop but its t o rtuous, gcn-
treck through deep cuts and tunnels,
tm-:: over r.s.rty me>de 1 t h i g.c;ly vulnerable t o E.i r

l . Z:·c; .. inc tion of their supl?ly ba s es by th- occupation f o .... ccs
,-iscloeed stocks and .-r Nt confusion i n gcn-
orgenization.
m. The Ja·>cnese rXl.«lGt('(1 of th"'ir morale. Both se r vice person-
nel ci v' \ Lm popuJ.ati on were- t o rush to t h ..
i n a effort to exnel invacer.
t:r-snslctions €nJ l n t c ... rogations by the
>n 1' • ... ,,._ o :r..,vC'cl that th Wf'.:. d cccycd •
• cl'l:' c f rh ... ena fil.: ani! s aw no
l::C'p ... <:.f vic.;t.:J:'-:r. Tbt) rt:t.t mass of the civ111en popula-
t1. ou • ..-· . ..: occr c. tly to th ...... il1tc. ry
Cl.co_:-a "":ton. l'h.c...y "'-:.-... r.'> t organized e t all along the
·.1 • ..... oy the !t1litE:t ry end would
:;.• ... 1 1·1y l1.: ve "..;,.c'".ed unC.t:r cttack as t hey di d
r.. l
Tne get.t-•·c..; '"·!'L.11on ot both Jl'peneae Nevy and Ara.J
C:.ero oy l :1945, thcee sundry d1tf1oul-
t1t;a l c.vo been overcome t.nd r ect1t1ed and thL.t
Qll vow. .- hs.ve been 1n redineaa.
etaa4po1nt ot *hie at\146 tb• JtrpDele
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Occ > .... 'cion of JA.r·AN.
- - - ·- - - -
.:.1 thol.<c,r .. all terrqin in Southern is generally c:1al'-
ccter.i..zed by mounts ins tnro1.1gr. which many winding co.cric1.ors
oerve ns tr.e only rout"'s of comrn..mication, it is ry
to C.isc'.ls s tr .. e terrain surroundin'-7 each of the pro:_Josed
beecnes of odv&nca individually in or,er
to _1rescnt tr.(; odvantages flnd to .. !.,e
cl .. fonL.crs l-.hicn 'Y•ould bo:.cn presentt:cd in different
tions .
( 1) . .\rca .
Tnc . .'·\.¥1 b,•"c:"\cs 11rl n 'Y!ide otrpnC. of (L-.r:c oo.rd,
'bohiJ d 'Y:hi c11 thcr ... is a of low rollin& S'"'.nd
C .. mca . The surf ia hi orh but i n nor mRl Hovenb.:- r HOe.thcr
is not for the .ing of smqll craft.
constel pl,..in in th\ Prc>P is AT)!)ro•umntcly
30 niles lonr nnd 10 milos 1'--
l!"lnd. It i s trok n many int "r:-itt ... nt ;-nd
hy w.fordRblc rivers . All orir.cipal ntroama
flat·· from to c.-st . ' of tL.: ol!'lin i s mn.cl..:>
U'J o f cultivptcd lfr.d, :.uch of l-Jhich. is t erraced.
Ric ... i n ,.r_,. " r ... uaunlly dr y durinE- i'ov- .
. .... cb-.'r, .... ut t h::-y .... Asi ly f lcodcd by or U!'
At t h e r)d€'=e of t he constal ')lc.ir. ,
there i e a rrow r idge of roJ ling hills whi c h ri
sh.'lrply i nt tJ r"ngc o!' mountR1ns through ·rh.i ch
p r fnci pql,corridore; one is t he V!"ll l cy
ot the o::OBO-G•"i",· t hj o th .... r rune ·
Rr.d 1a t he r out e of Mil communiOP.t1ona
between a nd Both corridors r o
no.rrow a nd winding and n r a flanked by olitts wh1o:1 1n
Jlaces ar"' p ... r_pend1cular. fha ol1tfe nr,· nonoyoomb cd
Hi th cavoe, . llllldu 'to ba uaed ae llir raid

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Olc9/ Jnc.
Jr._ o .: ... n. r.c.ix to C!: to OpcrL tion Rc-oo rt
1
of
c: .. I-1 c.c ... er. t eJ.on.; bt c.ch unl cos thc'y were o: c oc.-
c::.•t. te or he::. vily Cover £n-.: cor.cee-l..:t;nt
t·C:ll-:1 :.e.ve b .;.n J.i •• i•lult ':her.:; c.re no h i lls or
p::-.lnsule:s fro ... \-.'hie.! .• 1.Enking fi!'c c?' lc.. cc· •.
C: ... l lvcr d on •• · (.."'' s. ar.a tncrc• wao no nDturcl
. c :-tt :;.'ici cl c.!OV_r-wo·.ic:. w:>uld. givt.n d.:-
.• c" nrot ..;ctiOl • J. ro a r. €.vel •-:u.1·'irc or t r:ci; icel e. ir
r-. •.. -::-nt . -
-. .:.er.sc or -cn:- "T:.J ein \ oulc'l. hfv ...
cic''...:-{. .... t •• l .. c. ""vUa e I "C crt' r rly the wlnd1ng
riVtl'S w.ir;n bt.f. •• ·e.tt ·ht:' cl ! n i nt? ... •
.Arti .. l0:'!' r·.!..• c-:ul-. b ... • .. d frc.:!'! rolling
h.:..U o f . ... ". ovs, .. r..on :.·:-.:. t - .o·.mt.c1:1s '1-JOul,- :1c..vc
Ot • ... c,.lldlt. : .• t.1. tr.r:>u :;r. t.:=- ...
t ..... '--L- •• 'r.: • oul-. •. L·v tn_ c..v ... ;:f J mt.-..e
'-'-.. !-1 .:-.·,..__"!, .. ::s ov, · tl:t.. routc•s c ... VEuC of -.:he
c' Le:':..:>.' !' -:. • .. y. c.:. tt:. !. • c -:>ic. o:.' ... xc.J.ltont
cl.:: • .'C"nsivc i n w .. i..:· th.:-::,· coula. c:n-::.lr.cc th .......
v· •. il ct-:r..(-.;:i !"l.: fo:::-" t c!v • ."lce-1. Cov.?r con-
:1..: 'Olc .. • .. -:>'.l:ttal lls cnJ.
trtille"'· cover of
CC'r.ch, s .. ru t •. si -:ilrr to t hose L
t !! · · 3.
1
'vu', of t.: peninsulas
\• .• 1.-!1 fl c .t..

c.:-1: 1.1 -::.cny _::i.cccs
tl ... "L' .;1.1 !' 'q .... • •n to th..:- '11at r
1
s c.dgt.. . I nlc.nd
t .• ,:-_, t. : . :·u •• li.-•ct ccross ti:L ocnlnqulc
to !'" ··o., t'o t.l:. plaine o: 'l'h 1s
'ol t .. r 1 • s t..p rJ .r.:::>,1t ?f ... ice
E."h .. O'(:h.:< ... .. end le s oy num.)roue
c :>.:.· .... h• .. ,n,, cross co.:"T:.c,t .. c-. t;s th ..... ou gh wi:icn vlinJi ng
str, ... :; flow. .n t,n:, 1 oeJ.. cor •i dor i s e. p ... o.Ai a<. tely 200
f..., t E::nJ. ht.G v rticcl. cl i :'fs c.. .. <- t .d:r 50 feet
l:i In.: 1!1lc:nd -cla1o .around iUYA.'{ONOJO 1a
entir ... ly flct , is up of ped"1cs end .nE' ron
. . c.. , sr.J i s orokcn oy r .... my strr ar:-.o . I t io oor t-rcd o n
t ..... north, en ... by rolli nc:;; h i lls which ot..1ld
up i .to n i gh .. ountc.i hs. The plc..in !s e'O-:.roxi r:..:tely
- 21. -
360
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1.. t,J 3 • 1x 3 to Ann ... x Crl."i?LIE to Operot ion
.... ti.:>r. oi' J.'.F...:\.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
wide end fiftren long.
Tht !:!::>untc:inous -c.:ninsul€s flenl:ing th .. lcndin;::;
bccch,s give t.h.: defenders tht Edv.snt[g' of flanlt i ng
r upon lenct1.1,; c. uhing th .. b.:L'chc a and
beeches
l:: ;1 eccm.:-nts E\t the bt:ech i t.s0l •·::>uJ. c h.:":e to be
oe:c of concre-te or b" bece'.lS0 of
se.:!::.y w.hit!h ext ends inlend. could
COV('!' tee S pOSi tiona on t:!:l.:> platcc:u.
in the plct0cu favor th
b,:l...,use tl:Ey .. t a li:::it.:d e.r E. in "Thich c.ttecki ng
r.em and e.fford the o:?rs oppor-
t..l .' • y '"'.pJ.Ecing wee-pons who.;r€ they hc.vc ... ccll l:nt
fJ. tuc '-·" fir"c '7n .. 'Jrose co.:.c£ rt .• or:.ts favor the
..:ie.·':.'t .... ::: :t=ri..o.ril;{ ti1.ir prc-
ex" 1ld1t obstccl, a to hinc1cr the advm.ce
of &tta. troo J.
T.n, :p.t.. t..s 1 o.: ... ore. iJ".:ccquate cover
e ..... to ... r aide , but the rolling h i lls
j:l'.;JV1de \lllth Si'tCB for the cr::pl ace-
o: E1 cry. Fro;;. t: .. ose h i lls cny poi:1t on t he
coul1.'t h,. co ·.:red 'JY Jtp ... .:di um c.rtillcry.
0'-'b .!'Vt1.!.on . !'u .. tn:; r.11Lo c:1et r .. ountoins woul d. be

of t. I? n orc:-E.s woul d t h e
ea .... J:l• ... ,L ... •• ,..: r..eve tnc a.!va.""l t o.ges e s that d e-
e' 1 l. • ce ; n tt eo Rr cf.. The ... aneuver El r etl tor
.. 11 b e t he d efenders
t heir o f on wh1oh t o estr ulieh
t hc.r lines, and t1elde of fire tor defending unite
ooul. d cover the ell routes of & venoe.
fold31P
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J' /vr . ..:
u? ...,3 J., i!C 1) to .;.mncx CEA .. t:U..IE to Opcrct1on Report ,
of J . .;?.A;:.
I!l front of b ecihs there ere.. several
f.:>r1at1,:1e wnich xtena slvcrel
L.to t:.e J.t 10\·: tide t:1t:Se cleerly
vi s1blc , uut ct !:1-?}1 t1.J.e> 6?.1 . .::! ere sub.r.ergcd . The
.... is l"C,p d• '.1..::;1 c .. d trc suff1c1Lntly low
t-:> -1 t as.:;cul t ooets to lend cJ osc to th ... strand.
The len..:iug oce.c:ht:-c ere on each sid_ by s:nell
p.;)niasuL:-a. ::>n t:1 south 'IO.SAYI-•A:.TA sca\'ID.rd
a ur.J.x1:-. '>.11 •.•• ile 1:1 a 11.1c perpc!l"'!.culcr to the
lene;tl: -::>f th: strc.11J.. l'he pe!l!.nsulc. i s hilly end is
W..)o ... :-..... On ::F..:;.;...s...::I cpprox-
·i :r.atcly hclf uil" out t? S"'f' . !3ctw. n t.11.., penin-
sula e.d tht. bcecn trcre: i s a lH.Evily w:>Oded i slan.
of roc!: for .. etion in whicr. the-e ::;eny crevices &nd
neturc.l holes \'Ihlen millht be d to cev ... pool tiona.
r1-.g3 which t b. ec .• over the entire
projected l£...,,!r.b er.:::r ver1.:.s L. \o._c.th fr')::l approxi""'
mctcly 150 fe e t near the north l.':nC. to E
900 l'cl t south c! tnc t -:> wn o,;. .. H!ATO .•. It is
r.et.vily \·J1t.1 its t...ltirc length.
On tn"' inl c..nJ sid .... , this ridge c r o-c a c.oruptly to e
plcin thet is cbov se& the
bl: ... Ch-.o nort:. 01. t ... tvLl t••L · '.:)U.l i s S.Jliei
ena i s \oJood.c ... ; ocut.h of th. t::>:m i t i s .:uershy Wld. is
orokt..n by ocv"rc.l • t•,·o of which £n•e u:1for.!able.
Tile !'lc.t , op .... n t .... rr in cxtcr. inlc:1d
t•,;.::> i:!il ... s , er:.: is cov(;rcd \'·it, t .... r ic.:.
cn-5. ·_c.rshy plow.::C. The s ... cll r-lc: i n i s surround-
e .. OJ the root!'lills o: c. .n-::>untcins .
1'!1(. terre in 1uae.:.i'-"tcly 1nl cnJ fror .. the beech on the;
or .:...'iv·nce , tO\'ICrd consists of
. terr£ f i elds whi ch hcv \,; st:)nc r, t t.nto for ..• ing
tbl. •Ji-...LS of the terrccce, The oo·; ..... :D;.,..,JA.t;.. oer.ta
e. nt turcl obstccle i n i teel f end obstacl c is en-
oy steep st:)nc <nd concret e banko which l i ne the
rivc. r ct n.ahy :\or th of the r iv(;r the. of
&.!vance lec.cs thr ough e co r r i dor n enked by high .. -.oun-
t£1ns end vcrtictl cliffs. of the cli ffs hcve
bt..Ln ceu \ 1 tn concrL tc to "'rl-vE.'nt rosi on. Art1-
f 1 c 1&1 ccvee, used by the of the as e i r
oh€ltcrs i n t he ei Jcs of t he moun-
tPina. Tc r rLi n whi ch 1s enough for cul t ivction
- 23-
CONFID:.::t.TI.4L
3o2
fold31P
www.fold3.com/image/#301681975 Printed on Dec 11, 2012
/ ":1::'!.
O?c _j .... 3 t.J .-.nncx t o Opcrction Report,
t t i on· o :· ...... :.
CO:\iiD.W'':'!.tiL
cnc. \lhich h .. a b"'·._;; clccrcd·. o:f is covcrc::. 'by groves
or ci t:-us !'rui t t:-e s. F.:>u!' .n:il so·.1 t.t of the
of. e of r Jllj nb
nills £ few cli.:s. Low -ound i n &rea
i o ....... up .)f rice pc.J, ies, .... i_::"l e;ro'.llh. , :>11 there
D.re r.o is oer.o. :ria rollin..! o:;.>.. t ends
nortn to s=.::>.n.r e.nd t .n.;:; :r . ..:.A •.
7hL soutno::.rn r 'utc o: a.:v _r.ce , l cedln..; e.::st\o•crd to t he
city .. ; , ru:ts ecross a ._c.rs.ny t:lein
r tr... .. n enters L\ cor··t..:or t . . l'OU?.: t "le •:ount£ i ns • • This
co :-ri.l.:> r , •,•ni ch ._ "< t e E'll tr '· ay ec "'O o s tht- p
sule t o tc_ city is £ winaing v rlley \otich
the oC'C!. o: scv ... r-£1 s ... ell At many
pl! c' <.:G t.ne vfll(.J io t •. cm 100 yeros wide cnc cli ffs
on cc.c:. s i t'l.c rise to t hci.:nt o. 20C to 300 ! "'"' t.
There c. r e £ nu::tbe,... of oval-oo ckf t s \·:her(' t h_ r
io cs .... ucl: cs £ Nice. -l'he only cultlvc.t ... d ground
conoiote of uclui c i n such
:Jnc..cr.;r)unC. shel tero dug in of cli fi's consist
of oin •1.: strE'ig."lt 1cle eo::mt 15 f.:>Pt of
n ... t..,. r •. s of e1. ilcr tunnels c ·mncct-d l).'l mc.n·
m.,.dc cc. v.:a.
ridg: the a p:- oc r. ts a neturel
obot c,.lc t o 1 nuin; f)rccs. anc.. c.:>uld b"' usl; ... JY tlH
..... f:)rc ... s for c. ::c.inst nev_l f:Unt'ire
end proviueG ...,o1.iC, r)U .. -.. tl/hlch ..... \;,nta for
er.J. ,..,,_ !='?no vC ... Dcfc.1 .... in · tr"'ops
cdvcntas.._ of r.._v_rcc olot:e the
only b; l:i :r. fir ... . mc r shy
ccot of 1o n ovet! cl e to the
Ett£Cct1n; u.11ta L)Ut .. la:> (Xn.)lJ\..0 t :> o.,,oll
s r .s es tnt:re io little cover in t n"' Er UrJ.ess
C-:> .. ly nfi ledc fire coalc1
t:c or:>u ·nt t:> t:; ._ ... r on thl b. c •. cs f ·o .. t he ::-:i_l y .1-'Lr.in-
ault !. t t ... southern end c. nd fror. tho:. rocky ct
.. cna.
,.:rtillery :'i ..... .;:'r),r. tel h ills end rr.oi.lnt ¢1ns couH;.
covLr tno:. the end th( flot
h •... e ... :latcly n.... . The .• DJ-J-; •. 1.; would del e y
ett, ctt1ng forc.:-o end gi ve tn nortn of t ilct
- £4-
363
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· 01 J I
-·>o"Ccr.c"i'' 3 to A--mcx to Opcr-c tion 1'1tport,
Oc cuu .r ti:m· o:: J ;.:: . ...:\ .
- - - -.
.r;· I'! J.L
11r.e t;:. ..... t o in th co!•ri.lor lce.(";.i r.; to
£'1-.i'Tc:r:c ... t .c t corri,·o r wcul .... be
u •. : er t!.c 3i.. ... ti.ons io \dul, h<VE.; expar1tnc-
'-'' t3t of i"l;Y.tG ..:>- nortJ1 of .1!Y · .. o. The d,:•fc:?nd-
1t ; f.:> "'ccs -:hr a.lv£nt •c o:: ,·rcun . , ooscrva-
cu .. 1c ..... c:: u.d f l .-..._ Llich
l!CW. J. cover t .. z er.ti "'0 r .:>u "CL of .!'dvc-.lc.:. . Th. southern
r Qut.; of ... ".vr:ce cl3o ifvor t.1 .. c ...
In c:r.y c .. si) t:1:.- cc ... ,,•.:11.Cr would cc 'h.verely limitccl
1. '1 ty Eln.: .. -::.v::; .. cnt, pc:-rti..:u-: :-rly cft ..:r
h-. v:<.hl c; .... 1 t.; h i s . t'i'c-r: si FC :pr.:J!. tlono.
C rt. Jc::: o.::H .... r l'l£c. 1 -ccl t.;;;:::-r£i:l fer .;::. s t ub-
c o r .. .100 i n d ... p t:1.
c.t.t. c!:ir: \''"";'..l.l ..... h!vc b ..:> . n \'"l t.b.. t.b..e
Q <. sa: tiJ o:, :':::-? •• tEl cosEul t ·cEnallzcJ. -::>f
c: ,. .c: . : .• .._ c •• ..'i -. VE'nc0 \·' ?:llci. baen extremely
..... ".. co •. ...:. .
cl£ ..... t c s .·c t i onel · Frc. f cct urcl High-
wry a r:. ... tJ;le -out 'l ? JC"' · •::.!. c.:l: rny tfvf of r •• 111 tcry
... o t:)r trr-ntJoortfltl on e r n ·-:.r· t ' . .:cti').l'·l 1.1 Cl'.:'
on •Jlll;; !.7 .. "•" ( "c.!l \·· ... etn r trunK,
4 ·.et c ,., \\' 1.
1
,' T)<<.s·•; b.r: .v."':r· L!1.:> hi ':,wcys i n
KYUSHU r'C'Jll;., to lH' "'
1
1' n ;, r o \ ·r;.y , ct i"'t rJr.ds, l-'t.Ohcd
out i ,n :.::ny t:.. snd .:-: JC. t ,_,..., L "t (...l oscd t.>y
slL!ee i n Jt.t-"1:.1·!3. Pre-!'-: .. t·u:::- l "'J'' . .'S v.rc Q'-lite i n
c rmJit.:.nn .·ut r.::::- c f?un:. to 00 0I'r.en ll"BS t rcn htlf t.. O wi .lc.
I n fic."L 1. JUt.Lr.t , su;-;n cs rice '0 u, y :or ... •c a, eLl ro£..C!s e re
built _:'1 .,.ill!>, uc\..ruly ' fl;rl' t . t_n ')Jv.:;:: t he level of
t he f i d •.i ln rr.ou •. t <. i :lOUS r e3;10na r? cdoef S f ollOW Strc.Et:!lS
thr:>u.). ,, ... ·--r·i:!oro o r ;.'ollo\..r th., of of
... ou..1t .:: i ns In the lc:. ttt:r r oLds c.r1.. often hunC.rcdo of
fr?J of corrld0rs ere ouilt upon cute
c.n .... :'111 o, • ot ·plvcr e a""'e construct• d ::>!' lo s end
1\.. .. u ... r 1, JhCd t o ctl'l(' r \\-1 tn ! 'O'Ot.. . enc., hecvy
vcr_i cl;;S C::>uld n.:>t 0':>0 EUVO::.I,1CE.td unt:11 SUC!-. bri d geD
r..:pt. 1rcd or Sev ... r.:>l a cr.:> sa gap a
- 25
CO::OUID£JTIJ.L
364
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OloS/:>.!'lJ.
Ap1.cn.:ax e t o ..mhex CHARLI E to Opereti on Report ,
Occupc.ti)n of JfiP_;,,.·.
ruountai no ?r ccroso etr, mr.s wer. r,s h 16h cs fifty
fe€'t the c?rric1or. In t!"ll: •• .; erN E:nd
in th-.. :nY.-.ZJ.KI 'r-..s ,..ceds which follow the projected routes
of advcncc lt.td t.r:>u ·;. tunr.cls ur.d. rrountain r i dges . Road-
in E:ll fei rly vut would not be capebl t
of C£.rry1.1_:; norrt __ l .r.ll i tery tre!' -'ic until they hc.d been
rvpe.ir-..d am .. i.oproved.
The.. us0 of ... est r o& ..... e in the a,.. .... e for two-wE:y
o?uld be to, only ausolute necessi ty.
In th .... . ...z ... .:u £rt.a r?cC. net i s edcque.tc. and
e; tru. .. ic Cjntr·:>l plcn coulc. hevc bc-.n insti,:ttc"" to a i d
__ .)VL ... c..nts :>!' and su"Ocl i cs for ei th.er side. I n
the A'"':lr''.XE-•• ...u-;-•.• IYnKO:i.'OJO c.rt. a b :> th no rth-eou th end cest-
' ... st roc.J. nc..ts rr"' eJ.cquttc.. . ;. 'f-rLfectu:--cl road runnin.:;
nort!"l frJtr. the 1cr.C'1.l_ crt:. o could be used by attcckinc;
:'orces E s e. r .• cin supnly route end en el ternate or return
rout.:: ht"ve been cxtE.ol i sht;d ctprox1.nr-tcly vcrcllel to
t .• is roc.G. end l€SA thc.n thr miles c.wey. ... se staff
or1iccro r.cvc stc.tl d tr.E t t!'lere \:e.e n:> plan for th..:- destruc-
tion of ori ·es or deu.ol i tion of the r::>c.ds c..t c.1y point.
In the r::>eu is in-
Tile r:>rci ,.,, ich tr.:vcrsce the route of
is :·cti?.t 1 lt.. ..... ln_: fr)w t.nl.
.>cccn ... a , t •. rou. n cu:--1: _ ..... c:-?aa tht.. "'"'ninsult to
•• A, D .:'1 Ir?." tr la r.A.tc ;.mul..: hc:ve neccssi ta-
1 1 "t-' ), ._r p .... u 1· r:n.do .:nC. trtlls in very ... :>un-

The r£1lr:n.<! oystc ... in "'!1 Y.YUSi-IU i s inc.1equcte fo r
.. uo c?:l E't C)!hllt.i.'>r.e . a1,11..;le
t:,c..ck, 42--ineh lines c::>r1n, ct &l.L t •• -orlnci-.,d cl tles e.nd
t .. n·rns i n <E r e e.. The- ro£r1 '::> J is in •ood condi t on , but
tnc nu ..• c r ?us ur id. _·cs .:-nu. tu:1ncls , over cnJ thr-:>u -h whi ch
thl. a run, th.::.n c t0 ncvcl ,-unfirc and
oc.ri EJ. boLoErd.J.ent c..ncl wou1..1 null i fy tht. ir use efter combat
h"d be¢un. The l.ack of clternrte r out('S would p r c..cti cally
.-11. .. in£ te r ei l.r::>cda EG c u.ccns of i n!'orce ... ent or r esupply ..
Princi pll r a1lr0ad y&rds at !HYAZAI<I , K.4G0.3HL·. A, 11IYJ.Y.ONOJ O,
c.nd h.:d bet:n pertly destr1yed by bv-•ber d.':lt.:nt pri o r
to Lnu of tne W£r i nterdi cti on coulu heve bc€n
• du•·i ne; oc..ttle i f not b'forc wc:."e
att ... r..pt t.?d.
- 26

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0189/269
3 t o Annex CHARLIE t o Operst i on Report,
of JP.:EA" .
'Ihc deficienci es of road and rE1lroad system3 ,,·auld
hc.ve be ... n p<..rticu:.• rily .=ctrL..cntal to t c dc.:' <>nder. ce
sy:3te:ns '"'E.re v i te.l to br.:.nb ull le,·el s up to the re-
C'.li:·rc c. .ot•r.t and !:" .. 'te:::- b.:ttt.l e ate. r.;rd t.:> ruaL. tc.;in t."lem.
Ll.!!c\ ice trey \vrre ec..u.• .tial fer rr.o\ o f b).;urvon.
were nnd =ne r.·d SJstcc
.... vc L ... •• t o tee forces n s t hair
'"".B 'x1- nJ.eC., ··nd i'11ti"l.l rcctric...,l :-.a on our uso cf.
: .. ovo-'lZ.:Jc. L.av ...... -.ntu Houla bo'"n ..;ru·t.
( 1)
T cr-:.; tlo=-ts pla=-t !'or :-.Yusz.r..; • 1bited
every ft:'.ll t }:!'CV iOUCl? found i:1 other ar<:.c;;G. The basic
rr:ec:-.> o: -::orr ...... the · comme"'clol tE"lc:."C!'lone
o· lll.4J ...... by tccticcl \'lire end
Com:r.·mict:. tlo .. s b .. t. Pn di vi sionJ, L rmios , an,L the 16th
Area A:::-:ny wac ul t.. ..... .l to =>-.• onlJ t.r ro·1gr co .. 'lmerci al
t Co!C. • bettcliono,
:.•cgl:1: ::lt•I,cr.a. cl.!.vlolona , radio, t ... le,;:::-c-ch , ana tcle-
phonJ fe.ciliti.s present, latter two wer e
p:::-... f.: .... :::-... c. Co:r ... to C.!"'d b uni ts lower
t •. ar. v .. R to c.r.t1r.ly by runne r a.nd
vlct:'li c.i ·.1alc. C· .• tio;l u• • infentry and
·.3 \,'Cf:> v11ly ct. for f i re
fro:rJ i .• c 1try be. t .,clio .• s woulu r. v .... to o :; .. r:t first to
div1 sto:1 th, n tu t. , , .,.·t1.llc ry coJ .... and, c.nd thc.:1 to tl c
t t::. r., conc-1·n a . Sw.::!. r-.tJUt::; ts could be vetoed at
rd·L .. 11t., at t;.iv1s1nn, or c. t the t;rti llt ry COI'..;rr.£:,,d.
T c.r 1r> .• c.1.: ... :::-l lc.:ft
gro , l, l':H.• tn ... r\.. ucs . 10 ple:.:• :.or burJl ng any l i nc.;s ,
'1:" c0m.n::-rc1el or rnil i A € nu.nb-.r of r c-
p• 1 :"', ... , , i nto oi e•HU. lc.bor uni ts, were u.l:-
plo, l.d the pri nci ;pcl rout""s t o r.:pc. i r cny dc.reE!ge
frolu bo-L-i ng or :'roc. t h, \\eEthcr . Commerci al t elephone
c .! t.::l .. ·r(...pl: f r ee t wo bcs1c defects-
uoor em. inau ... qut.te -cc ··t r. Th i s rL•sulto i n wcEl.k
co· .ut:. i ct- tiona cvC;n u.1der f avorc.blt.. conuj t ic 110. The
wi t!'lc ca t hnt u s_d by t he
rnd its dur e bility Qnd under combat
- 2?- 2: .::EN'::.AL
3Gu
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'·1 •/oh,:; u c:,..... .u.
O?b 3 ..-.v·,udi>. 3 to Anr,cx CHP-t:U..IE to 0p<.:rt..t1on Report,
Occupction o f JK A:: .
CO.i AL
condi tiona is to be y;oor , Thl're tve.s not a suffic-
1cn t cuant!. ty o:· rc.cUo cquiu ... Nlt to mee t tr .. e
de o!' .:- si :u£. t 1an; t .• l equ1p:nc:-. t on h, nc. of
out oi.l.solescer.t; r.ot·• ... v"'r, ... d stand-
ards in had in a cr1t-
1ct.l s .• ort!' e of rdi..bl.:- redio i n botl. th..:
4Cth cud b?'tn Ar.!l,1..,a. 3tt..! _ of .ac.:rs ... sti !Oc. t-..d the t
this s itu&tion could
( 2) .jo'OC.:'lt.. '1. :J.:.vy.
favy p rimarily oy r adi o end second-
l'ril y by linC' . As a r('sul t , tho;. naval suicide oor t
units and cir h£-d adequat e communi cct1on t·ith
SASE30 and O!IA. was no plan to coordi n&te nevy
and. cr;;..y co ... t'io:1s, an .. n('l- at t empt to oo so on
o! any one hcd mede by the oi the
surrender.
d . il :; c thor.
''-'Cather in South ern :·yushu is gc!lerally cl er during
th"" ::1onths of :·o ,_ru!:lt:r end Jcccr.:bc- r t·r1 th occc.aio!lDl
falls . rhe durction for thEt time
of yec.r ie short , but 'thto. r t.t.:: of fall is !"airl y
nC.XilliU:I: ia ?OO t o 60° Fe.hr ... :lh ... it;
. .JL•i T:. u:l 4v:> to 5J
0
• Duri n.,. dcyli gr. t t1ruro t •. t
1 u c;,'..<.i.._t. c:>:n1'ort .. but Et n1&'1t 1 t i c ur.co.1fo rt .... bly cold.
Tht.l'.,. :-._w cl" uda c.nd nl" fo •. t:> mer viGibility. T.!le..re is
lit'tl0 &nd tides rll fending ouitcblc
for tnt: o:: cssault troooa.
The initi ally wo'.lld be e to the
d..,rc o, C£ u.,J of th._ l ow winds c;'ld f.£>vorcbl ... t id ... o whicn p r t.:-
!!o [.-. ··:ouo to l cndL L·. Th_ E:oocnct; o f clouds
or I'o
6
'•o\.. .. J. Lc en tdvent agt. to both sides in t h_t viaib ili ty
is u.J.L.!. 't.:d, out would profit .nor'- by t!'lis
t.tn ···oul ... thl £ttEcke rs bt.causc tlh. Y would
n_.o. c. •• ort:.o rtut.i ty to t k e edvent. of netural end ECrtif1-
cone .. cl:ncnt end t "" a ele..ct v c. . t Elge pointe from wh ic.1 '
cl-. r Ol.iUC'rvc tion of t he. £'1aaatll t uni ts could oc
eionel r a ins ere su!'fici c>nt to nood tn<:
f i t.:l de and t o convert e octions of rocds i nto pools of mud;
- 28 ..:. COHFIDENTIAL
·-
367
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3 to Annex to Opcre.tion REport,
0CCU:t-Etio:1 Of Jii J..J.::..
Printed on Dec 11, 2012
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

tnue, conaidcraoly limi tin.:; mnb111 ty of tht. c ttecl-:ing
forces. Tht. cvld woula to lowt.r the morole of
both aides , ou t probebly wo·lld h<.vt- oothcred the J epcncsc
lees, beccuse in of poorer wintt.r clothing,
b,tn accustowed to wtethcr in thL e r ce , end
would heve the of previously prepnr(d shelter.
Bccc-use of the vcrietlons th_ in dey-
hours, the in the end on the
;round, broucht ebout by
conditions, would probebly heve proauccd
.nf'ny non-c-o ti \. s on cech side.
l"lotorizctbn o: unl ts lfJas c o:nper ablc to thc.t fou nd
in cll OJ:C!"• t!o:'le on "'e;;e or r elutiv"ly land maosofl
th1•oue:hou t th "!'r. .u thougn units equlpp .. d \'
1
1th
:nany vci..icl l.?:'lS than thNh.' hundrc d per Army t·rcre opcre-
tioncl cr.d ti: oee w\. re in uoor con.U tion. fu<'l eur.>pliee
were lo\-t end rt: su-culy would be: cxtr ... m .... ly limited. Cepaci ty
of beet trucko not exce;d 1 1/2 tons. In the eree
of th_ 57th Ar:r.y th ... r c w.:re rnf'n:,• c.:ovt.l horses which were
to be uaca c.e cn1mdo; thl' na ture of the
£nd thv of rout:s of made
any nt nf h0rse dr.?wn vc!"licl. f'G vcly slow Pnd
tncjr .,...en c nf opcrct1.o.1 would b" limited tD roads rnd W£11.
t1.a".lL'1. .nnvc.r.cnt of u .. ;tts \)the?r than mcdiu:n
ert1 unite we:-: with diesel powered,
full tra-1-:. LSJ :l§ p:-lllle 1nov<-:--o) would nccesscril.y hc.ve 'been
'bJ .oot, and o! crtillery weapons
into poo:&. t \:ould heve 'be by n:c.nhandl1ng.
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G?8j 3 to to Operation
Occu:r.-c:.tion o: Jr-::
-- ---- - ------------- - - ·- ---- -----
forces. ':'ho e0 mnl.:- c:1..vllic-ns \':ho re.::.eincd "rt re orr eJ1iz.cd
i uto r rr.ilit1t u;1ita, Fnd these ht:d ve:-y l i ttl e
trci•:il. e.nd cl.lOGt nn '1-.t.C.:r:-ons. WFS •10 ,xp..:-ctEtion
of co:-r.:.cttng ?itl:cr dcfi cJ.crcy. o .. suci1
militia \>ItS .. n cdv£r.tc..:e to th.:- ... in tr.at t:>ddcd
pcteon ..... l for duty wrs aveilcl.)l• , out dut. to the
c:-1 tictl . sho:""'t £ •e , •. d stc.:.tus of t. r Piran;;, this
adv .-1t ... '"" s r,duccd. Unt:retnt'd undt:.r
lY'ouJ o"i en obetscle t0 c.ot!l oidt?s. In c..d l1 tion,
t .. Jcp.:::. h .. d not ... o. E!nd di" not intend to
C..'1y pl'"'r. f.)r t .• c .... v&cuo.tion of n r the
o:' cpcn <.:11,-!..._..:: . Tr.t. prt.b(ncc of dieorgconized c ivilien per-.
sou .. cl 1 r. c:>robat ereES ,,ould be dctr1menttl to ootr. Bid, s ;
ho"·"'vcr, t!-._ ul ... t c edvcnt£. -c ge.incd from the:: sa circum-
... s l' c•;la c. ... t o tn def.:?l1E'>:c , as the burd.-n of col.l..;cting
· ·t·l1lia'.1 6 £' !'€£ a would ftll. upon
.
It i G in t s t !.r.- to sr eccl. c.te on whc:. t. ::i sht nav.: hc.ppened had
the .. lLh .... o. acco:-d1ncr the lnvc.slon schedule.
Thi s cor.clusir;n d-.cls \rith t .. l .JO .... courst.. of tr.e c.ct1on es
de.d.uc ... d. r s"tuC:y ou":' c. ,:r. t.1.on p: n, tl"c JCJ:cr:ea\;; plon of
defense i n the of t his

No C.wt'-' .. '\'1"!..1 ... c--..:o h E·.·,hn t.o 1nj£'ct conj(;cture on
of the :(::-.ocl· end tv'Oho::mc. Tr.e discussion
will aoj .c! y ·:! .. the pr<.•}::OC ... d oper- tion, end -poac--
1ble
F1 rat lc·t v:c I)Ur {!l1 ss1.on.
Briefly, · 1;!• r::l <JH1on the Sixth Army WE". S as follows:
Following r period ot end aerial
and n heavy concentrated aer1a1 and· navSl bombard-
ment ot tbt.: n::-e£s of the 1nvas1on beeches, the S1xth J.:rta7, in
oonJunot1on and a• Arranged v1th the F1ttb r.Leet aD4
l'oroea, Pao1t1o lle 1;, .ad tbe 1'&1'
• • tu
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0189/ohd
0?88B Appendix 3 to Annex CHARLI E to Oper ation. Report ,
Occupe.tion of JAPAN.
CONFIDENTI AL
therei n of ai r and forces for support of further operations
i nto the industriel heert of Japcn.
was to have p r ogressed as is outli ned i n the
follotdng peragrE.phs:
On X mi nus 5 the 40th Infantry Divi s i on, reinforctj, wee t0
l a nd on KUCHI ?-'0-ERASU S:UaA, KURO 3!U:.A, KUSAKAKI JU1A, UJI
all of which ere isl ends end island chai ns southwes t of
Southern KYUSHU. The: d i vision was to secure these islands to
provide air warni ng fecilit1es t o aid in the main landings which
were .to follow. Simultaneously the 158th RCT, aflcat in the
area to be prcpcrt..d for lending on Northern TAHEGA
3HI.-1A, sout h of KYUSHU, to d estroy hosti le fore. s end essi.et in
clearing OSUMI-KAIKYO.
The 40th Di v i sion, on X minus 4 was to l£nd in Northern and
Southern KOSP..IKI to secure NAKAKOSHIKI 1iAN, N.AKAGA11ARA
uqA and other areas sui tabl t for the <:>s of crr.crgcncy
anchoreges, secplune bases, and air stations.
On X dey s l mul tWleous lc.ndings t.;c:-e to be effect ed et two
poi nte £long the shore and et one poir.t along the
southwc::st ern shore of KYUSHU.
I Corps was to l end in the YAMnZAKI Area of south-
eastern KYUSHU, cc.pture MIYAZhKI c.nd Airf i dd end
cure a. corps to i ncl ude on the south bc:nk
of HITOSUS&-Gh•IA.
XI Corps was to lnnd i n the 3HIBUSHI- KASHni.O.BriRU ArE;E: of ARIAKE
ccpture SHIBUJHI a nC. the 3HIBUSHI Air-f i eld end to secure
a Corps
V Amphibi 0us C0rpe wc.e to l end w1 th t\\'O d i visions in assaul t
and one in r tser ve in the KAMINOKA\11!.-KUSHIKIIW Area of South-
western KYUSHU and est ablish a beachhead.
IX Corps wc.s to be prepared to reinforce othe r el ements of the
Sixth Army in e r cao sa directed , or to land on the
south coast o f KYU3HU, we st of KAil·iON-DAKE, on or after X plus
3 . .At the same t1 me t he 158 th RCT wee to be to r e in-
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force elements of the Sixth Army cs direct ed.
its hed been secured end when eo d i rect ed by
Sixth Army, I Corps wee to c.dvance inl and and secure th c gencr£11
line SA>OHARA-HONJO_TA\IAO- AOIDAKE cnd to establish earl y contact
with XI Corps i f possible. XI Corps, meanwhil e , to advcnce
i nl .and and secuN the 6" nercl line AOKI-I\I.AKA\JA-TAl,AKU:.h-.KAi\OYA
to attempt to est ablish eerly cont£ct with I Corps.
V Amphibious Corps, when directed, was to edvance w1 th e div-
ision toward SENDAI and another d i vision toward This
·• Corps wa s to s ecure gener EJ. line
ICHIIt-40-SENDAI . All Coros wer e t o establish communJ:cations .
and to construct end i mp rove roads end
di r ected.
The 11th Airborne Di vision, Si xth Army r e-serve, afloat off the
obj ective area on X plus WLS to have been prcpercd to r ein-
force elements of Sixth Army as direc t ed.
It i s safe to assume that the pr .. •liminc.ry nc.val gunf1 re and
aeri al bomb<..rdr .. ent would hs.ve :
a. S(;riously i .npaired, i f not compl etcly deotroyed, the rail
syst em cs the main artery of supply and movement.
b . Caused euf!icient damage to the communicction system of
exposed wire end power to dangerously jeopard-
ized the enti re system.
c. Caused sufficient to supply depots end dumps to have
made normal supply and r e supply foT battle
r eauire..nen te.
d. Caused sufficient to cr1ticEl roads to heve seriously
ha ... pered and slowed dl')wn supply and troop JLovcmcn t .
The conb1ned effects would h ad a normel r eaction of de-
moralization, ahd confusi on, which unquestionably would heV€
.• effected morale, p£..rticularly of the ci vilian p("lpul a t1on.
...
It is probable thPt J apencs e would hcve noted th€
assembly of our teak forces at forward araae. 3uch intelligence
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couplec":. t·Ti th the i ncreased tempo of the p r eli mine ry naval c..ncl.
aericl bombardment would, f rom past experi ence, hRve been the
cue our invasion.
The is lends \.;i t h which invasion woul d have begu n had mere out-
post t' .. afcnses wi th very f ew t r oops and w0uld hFtve been CC' •)tured
easily, cxc .... pt in tht: c£1sc of ThlJEGJ-\ This , t? be ccs".ulted.
by the 158 RCT, defended by ov. r 6COO JopRnese with some CD
Runs . Tll.:: defcndin,;o; f o rce includ ed the l09th Hffi , seven
i nf Pntry one field Prtillery
An 0 f

ffiLdi cR1
1
cnrineer , Pirfield, service
Pnd n.- v .... l p· rsonnel. They were disposed o ver the l.:mc;th. o f
the i sl:-.nd .
Our attAck of 1he isl'\nds to the south q_nd sot:th•·Icst
o f would hRve been definite of tho coming
invasion ..,nd mie:ht h"ve been interpre ted by tho JqpAneso co •. l1'".nd
f' s e .. n indi C'"' tio n th". t our lP.. ndlng '•'? s t o be A ttcmpted on south
co'"' s t .
On t! c tl."lnd, the intens1 fi.:ld prelimin'lry '\nd "ir
of the and .rlRI .. \inH as well as the
beach "rc'ls, should l:"VC be:(>n int ... rpr t<Jd q_s an indic'1ti ::>n t ' ..,t
l'll ·ii . ll'-..:: :- rc.os wcr<? bc..in • "sof t...;ned up" in p r el)ar"\tion f or in-
vas ion.
The difficulty o f one .... division, o r both, ov"r
tho ro c system to or all of the .... ... s ,
t h.- o f int ensifi"'d .9reliminary aer irl botJb£'.rdment , couplvd
wi t h oriLinql to hold tne divisions f or r
would probnbly hnvc in no
of thu 25th c r 77 t h Divisions. The 216t h Di visi on ".t
KU.trl •• C':..'O ?ulc! .r .... ve been rnd possi bly stPrt ed south.
I n o f ccur.ter- i....ea.sur&s the di rec ted nz" i nst the
task forcvs trPnsport "rea s would unquestionf'b).y httve oc
seri o.l& --nt" .. v1ould hA.vc. losses .
I f "ti1c J:-.... nmese hl'ld E' dher ed t o t he ir p l pn of opening f ire from
a ll c,".at defense wenpons RS the i nvAsion in run ·c,
t hei r ·J"ttcrios would h-- vc been t"' rly d i s closed find sul:jcct to
nr vrl countcr- bpttery f i re and ? r obnbly ccstr uction .
Fr om u HC"lth o f expe- ri ence, i t mn y be 1'1SSumed uncl.ar
t he oi1ock :-.nd destructive e f f ects o f prclimin-- ry nnd covering
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CONFIDENTIAL
naval gunfire, the landing forces would hcv€ ca rried the beach
defenses .
a . I Corps-lHYAZP.KI Area
Due to the surrounding pl C' ins, the beahheads of the IUYAZAK;
and ARIAKE a r .:-es, l'Tould probcbly have been expanded and
developed ;aore rapidly then thoae on the coast.
The strong concentration of Japanese divisions and the pre-
pared pl an to the inl and surrounding hills e-nd
mountains in area , would hcve imposed heavy
fighting on the I Corps.
However, I Corps wee l ending i t1 a relatively concentrE·ted
mass with vastly superior supporting and orgenic fires at
their disposal, than the 156th Division in defense could
muster at the point of
To support this threatened area the 57th Army could have
wi thdrc.wn the 212th Division on thci r l eft fl enk and portions
of the l54th Division not engaged, as per their plan
to ct the threatened point.
Likewise, in spite of their plan, the 1 6th Area Army could
have ordered the 25th Divisioo in central r eserve , to the
support of the 57th Army. ·
However, the di fficult i es of this due to
r ail, road and com.nunicction d-1.ff1cul ti es, and in fece of
continuous aeriel efrort, would have unquc stionc.bly resulted
in and l ate commitments .
Inebility to concentrate their divisions against our nassed
I Corps wot4d h£lve presented the ppportuni ty for their dt:fea t
in detail .
b. XI Corps - ARIAKE .JAN Area.
The XI Corps whil e the of flanking
fires during their beach aoproach end efter l anding, had tht
strong advantage of case against the extended 86th Division
in defense.
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A second eppears in t hct the XI Corps con-
open country through whi ch to cnd
their beachhead, with e wide corridor lecding north toward
l-'1IYAKONOJO end one west to and
The terrein study hcs pointed out the) restr'ict1ons E'.nd l1h1i t-
ctions of corridors, but very size and
would the baing at sufficient
di st ances end r an!£es to h eve !$i ven the XI Corps some opportun-
ity to deploy for edvence end assault.
It should be rerr.e .. ,ber ed that the J apanes e plan of defemse
of this a r ee i ncluded the beach eppr oachee end·
beaches with f i e from their CD batteries. It elso
for the of artill ery on suitable t errain
t o cover the wide corridors. -
The eerly Edmitt ed deficie ncies 1n J apanese communicati ons ,
fire control end the lack of unified artillery commend e.re so
apparent in thi s study thet 1t is a feir thc t
thei r bette.ries operating individually -:>n t e.r gete of oppor-
tunity would have nullifi ed the accomplishment of any con-
centrction or massing of fires would hcve exposed their
i ndi vi dual locations fDr count e r bettery.
Avenues of epproach for the Japanese 16th Army Reserve,
either 25t h or 77th Divi si on, l ees dif: icult than
to any o thcr t encd \ihil c dayl i ght moveme:nt would
heve been diff icult due to pl anned air support , the open
corridors woul d hevc ni ght ffiOVemcn ts.
In e.ll events, eny 1 6t h .•.r ca Army co;:uni ttments of r eserve s
would heve t he r eserves evail eblc to support the
HIY.AZ.AKI Arc£ .
I t is highly possi ble that the diff iculti es of € and
difici cnci es o f communi cet1on have reeul t -.d i n t.he
CGt Ebl1shment of a sccondery for t he ??th
and the 2l6th Division i t l n vicinity of
MIYJ.U(ONOJO.
e . V Artphibi oue Corps - \/::STERN BEACH.C:S.
The l anding of V A.Jphiblous co..,a on thc.. west e rn
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beaches of SATSUMA Peninsula, enu the of ito
miss i on wc.s fc:ced \-l ith e. 1::1cri s of co.ilplex J. i f!' icul ti es.
The ridfSe running parallel to the relatively n&rrow
beeches i niti ally offered some cefi laue' for the defender.
The oounteinous, rou_h t errc-.:tn 1nl cnd p rovided i !'l!'lumbereble
c.dvcntageous s ites for observcti on, th0 emplecement of
an<:. :'or cover cud .tent.
1lhen the ridf5e parallel i ng t he beech we.s would,
in turn, p roviae dcfil cue for the attecker.
The 3rd End 2nd Herine Di visions. lending e.b r E>as t , with
the 2nd on the right, confr ont ed eoproxi rnately one
in defensive positions to their front .
The expansi on of the beschhe€d to the 0-2 line would hcve
be_n a d i ffi cult t ask due· to the i niti&l ridge pcrcllcli ng
the beach, the narrow fl ' t ground i t , covered with
r i ce peddles, dykes , e.nd buil t up r oad benks, all of which,
as hcs b c\.n etc.ttd, were doi:linctcd by mounta inous an0 wooded
ground.
The corridor to which was to have by the
3rd Di vision was narr ow c:nd d1fficul t and domi nated by
mountcinous , forbi dding t erre.in.
The. corridor from the 2nd Division b ec.ches to the city
of KAGOSHil,1A was gt..nerc:J.ly wi der t han tht'l SENDAI corrido r,
out wa s also by ground. It was of
irregul £r wid th, tho bulge sections i nv€ri cbly cul ti-
vcted W1 th rice padc. i cs.
In all probflbility of the 303rd Jcpenese Division
on our l eft , hcvi ng t i es in deyl i ght .. ovE>.Jent sout h ,
would have b tLn commi tt. d p i o:cerr.erJ. against our 1 eft flanK
or would hcve been for ced to o r ganize for defense north o f
SE.\Dar , the 1'-tter course being consi dered mo st likely.
The 1 6th nrmy plan for the committment of the 77th
Divisi on which was in reserve, call ed for movement sout h ,
ch1eny on foot , . t he s nore r oads of \JAN,
cutt i ng westward acr oss the: SArSUr'tA Peni n sul a j u st \'lest of
the city of KAGOdHi l-i P ..
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This was based on th6 assumption of our a t
FUKI AGI HAMA, which considerably south of our
landing beaches. As has been stated, the movement would have
requi red from six to seven days.
In light of our landing consld.:;rc,bly north of tY'ht:.re
they expected us to land because of the
ties of movement in the fece of our proposed support , i t
seems obvi ous that the 16th Ar0a nrmy would have forced
to one of t wo of thE following courses of sction or a combin-
ation of both: (a) To an inl and aree.
... n end the no rthcrn t: nd o !' KAGOSHIMA .IAH or (b)
To move over the thoroughly inadeouite road net directly to
oun f r ont to counter-att ack.
Anclysis of all the point towerd the adoption of
the first course of es the most probcble.
It scewe certain thty would not have jeopardized &by me.jor
uni ts by sending them south on the SATSUMA where
there was an obvious possibility of their being pinched off
end trapped.
The extension of the beachhead forward end to the north
to include SENDAI would have been a dlfficul t task of
lng the defender and terrain. From h ere on the task would
have been magn1f1ict by the deployment of' our forces and by
the advance lnto diff1oult t errain.
The Japanese he.d the advantage of ' aboiee otaitee tor
defensive weapons and troop Likewise the7 had
excellent observation ot our adYanoe. J'ro11 tbla daDdpoint
the terr&la taYored deteader. 8lda
opportwli ror aaneuYer. The .Japanee biftDI hem oo.l.._
t\JCl to n md Peetft
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d .
h i gh gr ound surroundi ng the flats afforded the defender emple
opportunity· for continual observation end the
of covering weapons. ·
The situetion in the of the 2nd-Di vi sion on the other
hend, particulErly a ft e r the 0-2 -li.ne for
presented an ever expanding flank. to contain 206th, and
l46th Japc.nese Divisions end the 125tJ::l H!B.
liliile the Japanese plen oelled for no i t seems
that the impending severence of the ohly route
of escape up the penni nsul& woulu have some elements
to cut their way through. Likewis e e.ny t..ffort
t o employ uncommi tted elements of the ·206th Division or
portions of the l46th Div1s1ori would have undoubtedly sub---
jected the right flank of our advance on the c i ty of KAGO-
to severe pressure. '
Had the IX .COrps been commi tted on X plus 4 on the southern
most be&ches SATSU•:.A Peninsula, the shock of this
would have unquestionably osused an exodus the north
where the retiring JE..panese cl emen·ts would addo..:d to the
pressure of our right flank defense • .
IX Corps - SOUTHERN BEACH
..
.. I
The d ispoei tion of the defending forces on X .Plus 3 at the
southern end of SATdUM.ri pen1nsul c. is herd to _prcdiot. It
seems ·to assume tha t the 125th nB, rated a s c.n A-1
combct un1 t by the J apanese , wo·uld h ave held tl:l.eir mission
of guardinE!; tht- southeast ern c?nd o r the peninsUla and the
entrance to the KAGOSHIMA.WAN.
T'ne 6th 'l'ank Br1ge.de would very likely have been moved:
north by night, to cover the oi ty- or JCAGOSHIMA and to attack
our right tlank.
'lhe 146tb Div1e1on, organ1&e4 ' w.1tb 6 1ntantr,. Npmena.,
m1pt 11kel7 haYe w1 th4rawn one or even two r:el1,aent•
tor t tlle· '11AD rlpt ft..a. '%A
<Cill'DIIa ...,.,,. ••.• •
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menta made them more desperate by heving their ohly escape
route closed.
rn theory the Japan€":sc plan of defense Wfls conceivad toboond
probably would heve be n, in the initial. pheses, a costly
one for the inve.si on fore es.
\#hile the Japanes e unqucsti:me.bly would have b ren driven
to a scattered rlefense 1n depth, their lack of i nitial plan-
ning end prepareti on for such defense would h cve resulted
in greducl Enni hi lation in detail .
Fighti n J.!, , in spite of lowered morale, tV"ould have be, n
desperate due to the number of defenders the.t would have been
compressed and with all retree.t cut off.
Blue movement north of' KA30SH!t
1
,A ./AN to the initi al army
boundery would, by virtue of terrain alone, have slow
and dif' f i cult.
Tho accomplishment of the mission could hanDy hEve been
ef'fected by the movement of' J epanese !'rom cen-
tral northern KYUSHU.
The difficulti es of movin3 the 216ttl Division from KUl-iA-
MOTO to thf. KIBISHH1A r e5i on woul d in til likelihood heve
been
0
-reet . '!heir a rrivd TtT::>ul d g r ectly augment ed the
counteratt&ck force.
Had our combi ned attack s1mul t aneous l cnd1ngs altered
thei r me.ss counter-atteck plan, es i t i s believed it would,
it i s likely thet the

would have developed
into a core of defense.
lhil e such e beleted stand mi ght been a d i fficult one
to destroy, it could not have altered the accompl i shment of
the mission e s i t could be cont ained and bypassed and in
cll events i t could not deny our use of the captured
fields , beachheads o r KAGOSHI MA \lk'l .
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