ABSTRACT solar air conditioning refers to any air conditioning (cooling) system that uses solar power.

Outdoor weather conditions are crucial in determining residential energy consumption for heating. and heat from occupied spaces. and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. However. thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing coldwater for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan). In this paper we address the modeling of outdoor weather conditions impact on predominantly air conditioner residential load. The U. natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered.S. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems. Important field data has been collected for several hot and humid consecutive months covering a wide range of outdoor temperature and humidity. The need to conserve high grade energy and reducing the harm effects of halogenated hydrocarbons. necessitate exploring alternative techniques. the contribution to the Earth’s ozone layer depletion and global warming due to emissions of halogenated hydrocarbons during production and use. After recognizing that humidity can be divided into three different comfort levels. such as. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007[1] created 2008 through 2012 funding for a new solar air conditioning research and development program. in hot and humid summers. which should develop and demonstrate multiple new technology innovations and mass production economies of scale. robust and low cost cooling technology . The investigations have shown the sensitivity of the load to temperature and humidity to be in good compliance with the expected natural load behavior. Introduction Air-conditioning has been achieved reliably and efficiently over the last few decades due to the popularity gained by vapour compression machines as a result of halogenated hydrocarbons discovery. Evaporative cooling. threedimension analysis of the data have been conducted and mathematical relations have been extracted to represent the dependencies of the real power with both humidity and temperature.2 This can be done through passive solar. The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems. disease organisms. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact. In addition. In particular. solar thermal energy conversion and photovoltaic conversion (sun to electricity). an important proportion of the overall electric power is dedicated to satisfy air conditioner loads. The main emphasis is on the temperature and humidity segregated load influence where the socioeconomic and life style of the consumer is isolated from the load model. Solar air conditioning will play an increasing role in zero energy and energy design. Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture. ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) household appliances. this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. a very simple.

The computer program was developed based on unit subroutines constituting the solar-operated liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system components governing equations. air-to water air cooler. a liquid desiccant evaporative cooling cycle can be coupled with solar heating to produce dry ventilation air and cold water for a radiant system. solaroperated liquid desiccant evaporative water cooling would be cost effective. a computer program was used to simulate the solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. while the second is for solar heating only. thin solid and dashed lines represent solution and water flow respectively. solar collector thermal fluid heater. System Description The liquid desiccant evaporative water cooler. dehumidified by a desiccant solution. LDEC is considered to be a modification of direct evaporative cooling that can cater for different climates. This can significantly reduce cooling electrical energy demands in comparison with conventional vapour compression refrigeration. counter-flow packed bed type evaporative water cooler and appropriate instruments for various measurements. and should in theory be extremely environment friendly as it eliminates greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on harmful refrigerants. Solar energy or any other type of energy that might otherwise be wasted provides the heat energy required for regenerating the desiccant used by the desiccant dehumidifier during the cooling season (summer) and heating the water circulated through the radiant system during the heating season (winter). water-to-solution solution cooler. Unlike vapor compression cooling which rely on high energy technology. which is designed to serve as an open cycle absorption system operating with solar energy is shown schematically in. The cooler consists of nine major components: continuous fin tube type process air pre-cooler. pump 1 pumps absorbent solution from . This provides dry ventilation air and cold water for a radiant system. The liquid desiccant system is connected in a flow arrangement that allows thermal fluid storage and is capable to work in two automatic modes as may be selected by the user.3 basically achieved by evaporation of water in air is one proposition. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of a solar-driven desiccant evaporative cooling system in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum Sudan. and thereby gives a solution to thermal environment control that significantly reduces electrical energy demands. Evaporative water coolers (cooling towers) are devices utilizing the direct contact between water and atmospheric air to cool water by evaporating part of the sprayed water in the air. In doing so. In the full automatic mode. solutionto-thermal fluid solution heater. As an open heat driven cycle affording the opportunity to utilize heat that might otherwise be wasted. solution-to-solution strong solution pre-cooler and weak solution preheater. Arabic numerals indicate working fluids states at specific locations. to cool water by direct evaporative cooling (both require no refrigerant). In liquid desiccant evaporative cooling (LDEC) process air is used. an isothermal vertical tube type falling film absorber. thick solid lines represent air flow. cooling towers are not widely used in many areas because of their declining cooling capacity with increasing outdoor humidity. One automatic mode is for full system operation in which all components including the thermal fluid storage circuit operate. desiccant evaporative cooling relies on desiccant dehumidification (low energy technology) to provide dry air required for ventilation and evaporative cooling. Despite its potential to reduce cooling energy and peak energy demand. adiabatic packed bed tower regenerator. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on harmful refrigerants. As it delivers cold water and dry air at relatively high COP.

The temperature of the absorbent solution in the absorber is maintained constant using a water-to-solution heat exchanger enclosed within the absorber chamber through which cold water from the evaporative water cooler is circulated. The cold solution to trickle down in counter flow to air stream and collects in the absorber sump. The hot air is discharged to the atmosphere while the re-concentrated solution (state 13) is pumped through the solution-to-solution pre-cooler and the solution-to-water cooler to the absorber distribution system. The solution then flows through the solution-to-water heat exchanger where it is cooled to state 9 by water from the evaporative water cooler and supplied to the absorber distribution system. Mass and energy governing equations are written by taking each system component as a control volume and divide the domain of interest into a finite number of computational cells using finite difference technique.e. Part of the dehumidified air leaving the absorber (state 4) is taken to facilitate ventilation purposes while the remainder is brought into direct contact with sprayed water in the evaporative cooler. After it exchanges its heat with weak solution. To maintain the liquid desiccant at the proper concentration for moisture removal. The regenerator and the associated flow system and components are all similar towhat was shown at the absorber side. pump 4 supplies the thermal fluid-solution heat exchanger with the required amount of the hot thermal fluid from the hot fluid storage tank. The vapour-pressure difference between the ambient air and the hot solution causes ambient air to absorb water vapour from the solution (i. Line 3-4 represents the path through the absorber and line 4-5 the pass through the evaporative water cooler. . The hot solution then trickles down the regenerator distribution system in counter flow to atmospheric air entering at the bottom of the regenerator. re-concentrate the absorbent to state 13). the leaving warm solution is mixed with another amount of warm thermal fluid from the warm fluid storage tank and pumped through the solar collector heater to the hot thermal fluid storage tank. The pre-heated solution is then pumped through the solution-to-thermal fluid heat exchanger where it is heated to the required regeneration temperature (state 12). A fan draws ambient air through the air-to-air heat exchanger where it is pre-cooled to state 2 and through the air-to-water heat exchanger where it is cooled to state 3 to the absorber chamber. 2-3 represent the path of the process air (ambient air) through the air-to-air and air-to-water heat exchangers. A mathematical solver solves simultaneously the system components governing equations.4 regenerator sump (state 13) through the solutionto-solution heat exchanger where it is pre-cooled by exchanging heat with cold solution leaving the absorber sump. During night. During solar heating. pump 2 pumps weak solution from the absorber sump (state 10). Psychometric cycle of process air flowing through the solar driven liquid desiccant evaporative water cooler employed solely to provide cold water for a radiant system. System’s Simulation The simulation process constitutes description of the procedure used to model the system components and a main program that integrates these components. In the absorber. Lines 1-2. The system regeneration side is shut down if the thermal fluid storage tank cannot supply thermal fluid at sufficiently high temperature or if the absorbent solution concentration in the absorber pool rises above a set limit. pump 5 supplies the thermal fluid-solution heat exchanger with the required amount of hot thermal fluid from the hot thermal fluid storage and store the warm fluid in the warm fluid storage tank. through the solution-to solution heat exchanger where it is pre-heated to state 11 by recovering heat from the hot solution leaving the regenerator. The main program calls the unit subroutines to link the components and form a complete cycle. water vapour is removed from the sensibly cooled process air entering the bottom of the absorber (state 3) by being absorbed into the absorbent solution.

lowenergy-consumption.[4] They burn a liter of kerosene per day therefore requiring a constant supply of fuel which is costly and smelly. with enhanced natural convection exhaust up a solar chimney . The desiccant is then regenerated by using solar thermal energy to dry it out. . plug-in refrigerators with backup generators store vaccines safely.[6] There are two main types of solar fridges that have been and are currently being used.000-$8. By harnessing solar energy. and are used to keep much needed vaccines at their appropriate temperature to avoid spoilage. A photovoltaic system can power a lowenergy air circulation fan. Solar a/c using desiccants Air can be passed over common. If the solar system is used for space cooling only. Either batteries (electric refrigerators) or phase-change material is added to provide constant refrigeration. Energy recovery ventilation systems provide a controlled way of ventilating a home while minimizing energy loss. [5] They can also be difficult to adjust which can result in the freezing of medicine. It is best to use a solar system that serves more than just the cooling needs of a house to maximize the return on investment and not leave the system idle when cooling is not required.5 1) Active Solar Space Cooling Solar space cooling is quite costly to implement. and a motor to slowly rotate a large disk filled with desiccant. Air is passed through an "enthalpy wheel" (often using silica gel) to reduce the cost of heating ventilated air in the winter by transferring heat from the warm inside air being exhausted to the fresh (but cold) supply air.[3] Solar fridges were introduced in the developing world to cut down on the use of kerosene or gas-powered absorption refrigerated coolers which are the most common alternatives. The biggest design challenge is the intermittency of sunshine (only several hours per day) and the unreliability (sometimes cloudy for days).[3] This low-energy fan-and-motor ventilation system can be cost-effectively powered by photovoltaic’s.000 per ton. one that does not. continuously repeating cycle. In the summer. installed costs can run $4. alternative refrigeration technologies are required”. the inside air cools the warmer incoming supply air to reduce ventilation cooling costs. where electricity supplies can be unreliable. History of solar refrigeration "In developed countries. in a cost-effective. [1] Other solar-powered refrigerators were already being employed in areas of Africa which vary in size and technology. one that uses a battery and more recently. and are responsible for the production of large amounts of carbon dioxide. solid desiccants (like silica gel or zeolite) to draw moisture from the air to allow an efficient evaporative cooling cycle.A desiccant like calcium chloride can be mixed with water to create an attractive recirculating waterfall. that dehumidifies a room using solar thermal energy to Figure3 Schematic of Solar Absorption Cooling SystemT = system flow sequence Solar-powered refrigerators Solar-powered refrigerators are most commonly used in the developing world to help mitigate poverty and climate change. Significant space heating and/or water heating can be accomplished with the same equipment used for the solar cooling system.the downward incoming air flow would be forced convection (advection). but in developing countries. They are used for both vaccine storage and household applications in areas without reliable electrical supply because they have poor or no grid electricity at all. The portable devices can be constructed with simple components and are perfect for areas of the developing world where electricity is unreliable or non-existent. these refrigerators are able to keep perishable goods such as meat and dairy cool in hot climates. as well as their impacts on the environment.

There are many design specifics involved in passive solar cooling. . which can reduce the roof surface temperature by 70 °F (40 °C) in summer. Computer simulations based on the model are presented which indicate the practical range of air to liquid flux ratios and associated changes in air humidity and desiccant concentration. It involves a good understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer: heat conduction. Passive solar cooling In this type of cooling solar thermal energy is not used directly to create a cold environment or drive any direct cooling processes. increased backside insulation. The Sopogy concentrating solar thermal collector.) can be effective and cost efficient. on the headquartes of Caixa Geral de Depósitos in Lisbon with 1579m² solar collectors and 545 kW cooling power or on the Olympic Sailing Village in Qingdao/China. Solar thermal cooling Active solar cooling uses solar thermal collectors to provide thermal energy to drive thermally driven chillers (usually adsorption or absorption chillers). A radiant barrier and an air gap below the roof will block about 97% of downward radiation from roof cladding heated by the sun. [8] Evacuated-tube solar panels can be used as well. the more efficient they are. provides solar thermal heat by concentrating the sun’s energy on a collection tube and heating the recirculated heat transfer fluid within the system. and a PV-powered low-rate water pump. A theoretical model has been developed to predict the performance of the device under various operating conditions. etc.6 regenerate the liquid. This can be significantly reduced or eliminated with a cool roof or a green roof. and thermal radiation. Active solar cooling wherein solar thermal collectors provide input energy for a desiccant cooling system: A packed column air-liquid contactor has been studied in application to air dehumidification and regeneration in solar air conditioning with liquid desiccants. LiBr experiments show very good agreement with the theoretical model. In large scale installations there are several projects successful both technical and economical in operation world wide including e. and improving the removal of unwanted heat. The packed column yields good results as a dehumidifier/regenerator. for example. convective heat transfer. inexpensive flatplate solar thermal collectors only produce about 160 °F (71 °C) water. Passive solar cooling is much easier to achieve in new construction than by adapting existing buildings.g. The more cycles. Preheating of the air is shown to greatly enhance desiccant regeneration. Solar thermal energy can be used to efficiently cool in the summer. These projects have shown that flat plate solar collectors specially developed for temperatures over 200 °F (featuring double glazing. The solar thermal energy system can be also used to produce hot water. double or triple iterative absorption cooling cycles are used in different solar-thermal-cooling system designs. with less noise and vibration. An experimental apparatus has been constructed and experiments performed with monoethylene glycol (MEG) and lithium bromide as desiccants. It is a primary element of designing a zero energy building in a hot climate. In 2011 the most powerful plant at Singapores new constructed United World College will be commissioned (1500 kW). Efficient absorption chillers require water of at least 190 °F (88 °C). Instead. For example. (See Liquid Desiccant Waterfall for attractive building dehumidification)The potential for near-future exploitation of this type of innovative solar-powered desiccant air conditioning technology is great. the latter primarily from the sun. MEG experiments have yielded inaccurate results and have pointed out some practical problems associated with the use of glycols. Single. Common. and also heat domestic hot water and buildings in the winter. a sign of poor thermal design is an attic that gets hotter in summer than the peak outside air temperature. The generated heat is then used in conjunction with absorption chillers to provide a renewable source of industrial cooling. There are multiple alternatives to compressor-based chillers that can reduce energy consumption. solar building design aims at slowing the rate of heat transfer into a building in the summer. provided pressure drop can be reduced with the use of suitable packing.

For small residential and small commercial cooling (less than 5 MWh/yr) PV-powered cooling has been the most frequently implemented solar cooling technology. lack of residential-sized equipment for other solar-cooling technologies. but still costs ~$2.. the combination of lithium and bromide is also in common use. and its sister utility. the most common phase change refrigerant material for absorption cooling was a solution of ammonia and water. less-expensive photovoltaic . (New advances in ingot manufacturing have dropped raw silicon (refined sand) costs.000 BTU U. which cost even more. Using more efficient electrical cooling methods and allowing longer payback schedules is changing that scenario. or ease of installation compared to other solar-cooling technologies (like radiant cooling). let alone battery backup systems. Other systems of different capacity cost even more.. (The Gas Company). This would require over a 7 kW solar photovoltaic electricity generation system (with morning-toevening. wiring. Mathematical models are available in the public domain for ice-based thermal energy storage performance calculations.com can sell inferior strip amorphous silicon modules for $1. absorption chillers have been used to make ice (before the electric light bulb was invented). and the other end gets cold enough to make ice. a 100. with the advances places like www. Innovative hot water solar thermal energy collectors can also be used as the modern "free energy" heat source. the advent of more efficient electrical coolers. Today.99/watt hour peak. One end of the system of expansion/condensation pipes is heated. Today.S.sunelec. Energy Star rated air conditioner with a high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 14 requires around 7 kW of electric power for full cooling output on a hot day. Solar Collectors from Sopogy and HelioDynamics were installed on the rooftop at the ERC and are producing cooling for the building’s air conditioning system.. leading to lower crystalline silicon. A more efficient air conditioning system would require a smaller.2/watt hour peak. infrastructure.20-1. In the late 19th century.000 USD (with PV equipment prices currently falling at roughly 17% per year). For example. propane is used in recreational vehicle absorption chiller refrigerators. cloudy environments. and seasonal solar tracker capability to handle the 47-degree[vague] summer-to-winter difference in solar altitude). Since PV cooling's cost effectiveness depends largely on the cooling equipment and given the poor efficiencies in electrical cooling methods until recently it has not been cost effective without subsidies. for instance a 3120 watt solar panel grid tie system has a panel cost of $0. especially where the overnight low temperature and relative humidity are uncomfortably high. California. This ice can be stored and used as an "ice battery" for cooling when the sun is not shining. For 150 years. mounting and NEC code costs may add up to an additional cost. The Southern California Gas Co. A solar-tracking 7 kW photovoltaic system would probably have an installed price well over $20. as it was in the 1995 Hotel New Otani in Tokyo Japan. Originally. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E). Due to the advent of net metering allowed by utility companies. The Audubon Environmental Center in Los Angeles has an example solar air conditioning installation. your photovoltaic system can produce enough energy in the course of the year to completely offset the cost of the electricity used to run air conditioning. The reason for this is debated. Where water can be heated well above 190 °F (88 °C). are also testing the practicality of solar thermal cooling systems at their Energy Resource Center (ERC) in Downey. depending on the amount of your electric costs you wish to offset. Pairing PV with 14 SEER and less coolers is the least efficient of all solar cooling methods. The ISAAC Solar Icemaker is an intermittent solar ammonia-water abs Photovoltaic solar cooling Photovoltaics can provide the power for any type of electrically powered cooling be it conventional compressor-based or adsorption/absorption-based. but commonly suggested reasons include incentive structuring.50/kwh of raw modules. natural gas was used as a heat source in the late 19th century. The photovoltaics would only produce full output during the sunny part of clear days. though the most common implementation is with compressors which is the least efficient form of electrical cooling methods. it can be stored and used when the sun is not shining.7 Concentrating solar collectors required for absorption chillers are less effective in hot humid.

S. . Earth cooling tubes are not cost effective in hot humid tropical environments where the ambient Earth temperature approaches human temperature comfort zone. dehumidified air that has passed by ambient Earth temperature surfaces. They increase construction cost. but its requirements of 200-250v AC input makes its use in the USA in smaller grids newer.) indirect evaporative coolers can achieve a SEER above 20.50 to $5. New versions of phase-change indirect evaporative coolers use nothing but a fan and a supply of water to cool buildings without adding extra interior humidity (such as at McCarran Airport Las Vegas Nevada). American buildings could be using $200 billion USD less energy per year today. This can often be done at no additional net cost. Department of Energy was created in 1977.S. A hundred million American buildings still It is fairly simple to reduce the heating-and-cooling requirement for new construction by one half. since there are cost savings for smaller air conditioning systems and other benefits. their Weatherization Assistance Program[18] has reduced heating-and-cooling load on 5.5 million low-income affordable homes an average of 31%. A high-quality geothermal heat pump installation can have a SEER in the range of 20 (+/-). A less-expensive partial-power photovoltaic system can reduce (but not eliminate) the monthly amount of electricity purchased from the power grid for air conditioning (and other uses).S.S. In contrast. (See Zero energy building) The key to solar air conditioning cost effectiveness is in lowering the cooling requirement for the building. A solar chimney or photovoltaicpowered fan can be used to exhaust undesired heat and draw in cooler. Since the U.S. Excess PV power generated when air conditioning is not required can be sold back to the power grid in many locations. President Carter created the Solar Energy Tax Incentives in 1978. A 100. Department Of Energy presentations at the National Energy Expositions three decades ago.8 system. U. There are new non-compressor-based electrical air conditioning systems with a SEER above 20 coming on the market. This is currently cost effective in some areas where power company electricity is now $0. Superior energy efficiency can be designed into new construction (or retrofitted to existing buildings). buildings have ignored welldocumented energy efficiency techniques since 1978. Careless conventional construction practices are still producing inefficient new buildings that need weatherization when they are first occupied.S. In dry arid climates with relative humidity below 45% (about 40% of the continental U.15 per kWh. buildings waste more energy (39%) than transportation or industry.[17] the amortized cost of PVgenerated electricity can be below $0. With American state government subsidies of $2. they can greatly reduce the build up of undesirable summer heat. Control of humidity and condensation are important design issues. Geo thermal cooling Earth sheltering or Earth cooling tubes can take advantage of the ambient temperature of the Earth to reduce or eliminate conventional air conditioning requirements. and also help remove heat from the interior of the building.000 BTU indirect evaporative cooler would only need enough photovoltaic power for the circulation fan (plus a water supply). well over 25 million new conventional U. hundreds of thousands of passive solar and zero energy buildings have demonstrated 70% to 90% heating-and-cooling load reductions (and even 100% reduction in some climates). which can reduce (or eliminate) annual net electricity purchase requirement. Since U. A 100. the Fujitsu Halycon line being one notable example.00 USD per photovoltaic watt.15 or more.[19]If their architects and builders had listened to the U.000 BTU SEER 20 air conditioner would require less than 5 kW while operating. Newer and lower power technology including reverse inverter DC heat pumps can achieve SEER ratings up to 26. As a result. In many climates where the majority of humans live. need improved weatherization. and up to SEER 40. but reduce or eliminate the cost of conventional air conditioning equipment.

.517 kWT. (Not the tropics) fluid exiting the expander is condensed and pumped back to the boiler pressure where it is again vaporized.g. Air is blown across the radiator. the optimum efficiency would be a maximum of 4. A storage tank can be included to provide some high temperature thermal storage. The overall efficiency of solar mechanical refrigeration. Tracking systems add cost. The same type of geothermal well can be used without a heat pump but with greatly diminished results. And. If tracking is to be avoided. as long as the location has ambient Earth temperature below the human thermal comfort zone.5% for the conditions assumed in Figure. compound parabolic or advanced multi-cover flat plate collectors can be used to produce fluid temperatures ranging between 100°C – 200°C (212°F – 392°F). Photovoltaic solar electric panels produce electricity for the water pump and fan— eliminating conventional air-conditioning utility bills. Ambient earth temperature is much lower than peak summer air temperature. Because of the competing effects with temperature. as shown in Figure. Figure 5 also shows approximate solar collector efficiencies as a function of fluid delivery temperature for a range of solar radiation values. The heat power cycle usually considered for this application is a Rankine cycle in which a fluid is vaporized at an elevated pressure by heat exchange with a fluid heated by solar collectors. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle increases with increasing temperature of the vaporized fluid entering the expander.9 A geothermal heat pump uses ambient Earth temperature to improve SEER for heat and cooling. High temperatures can be obtained from concentrating solar collectors that track the sun’s position in one or two dimensions. much higher than the lowest extreme winter air temperature. However. This efficiency is significantly lower than that which can be achieved with nonconcentrating PV modules. Solar Mechanical Refrigeration Solar mechanical refrigeration uses a conventional vapor compression system driven by mechanical power that is produced with a solar-driven heat power cycle.000 tons or 3. is the product of the efficiencies of the solar collector and the power cycle. (bold line). This concept is cost-effective. evacuated tubular. this option would only be applicable for large refrigeration systems (e. The Rankine cycle efficiency in Figure was estimated for a high-temperature organic fluid assuming that saturated vapor is provided to a 70% efficient expander and condensation occurs at 35°C (95°F). (which become less effective when the outside temperature drops). Water is 25 times more thermally conductive than air. there is an optimum efficiency at any solar radiation. The efficiency of solar collectors depends on both solar radiation and the difference in temperature between the entering fluid and ambient. Because of its economy-of-scale. The vapor fl ows through a turbine or piston expander to produce mechanical power. Solar mechanical systems are competitive only at higher temperatures for which tracking solar collectors are required. however. so it is much more efficient than an outside air heat pump. weight and complexity to the system. which cools without a compressor-based air conditioner. Ambient Earth temperature water is pumped through a shrouded radiator (like an automobile radiator). defined as the ratio of mechanical energy produced to the incident solar radiation. decreases with increasing temperature of the delivered energy. 1. The . A deep well recirculates water to extract ambient Earth temperature (typically at 6 to 10 [vague] gallons per minute). as shown in Figure. The efficiency of a solar collector.

however. regenerating intermediate heat exchanger and a generator) and a small solution pump. The condenser.10 is exothermic and so cooling water is required to carry away the heat of absorption. grid-connected systems usually rely on the use of a small pump. Temperatures in this range can be obtained using low cost non-tracking solar collectors. This solution temperature needed to drive the desorption process with ammonia-water is in the range between 120°C to 130°C (248°F to 266°F). Unfortunately. The process It is. At these temperatures. Unlike the PV and solar mechanical refrigeration options. In place of the compressor. The principle governing this phase of the operation is that a vapor is more readily absorbed into a liquid solution as the temperature of the liquid solution is reduced. However. However. Ammonia vapor exiting the evaporator (State 6) is absorbed in a liquid solution of water-ammonia in the absorber. The absorption of ammonia vapor into the water-ammonia solution is analogous to a condensation process. The minimum mechanical power needed to operate the pump is given by Equation 1. the specific volume of the liquid solution. the power requirement for the pump is much smaller than that for the compressor since v. the liquid solution is heated. some water also is desorbed with the ammonia.The COP for a single-stage ammonia-water system depends on the evaporator and condenser . possible to design an absorption system that does not require any mechanical power input relying instead on gravity. evacuated tubular collectors may be more suitable than fl at-plate collectors as their effi ciency is less sensitive to operating temperature. The ammonia-rich liquid solution leaving the absorber (State 7) is pumped to a higher pressure. The overall efficiency of a solar refrigeration system is the product of the solar collection efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the absorption system. Absorption Refrigeration Absorption refrigeration is the least intuitive of the solar refrigeration alternatives. throttle and evaporator operate in the exactly the same manner as for the vapor compression system. is much smaller than the specific volume of a refrigerant vapor. which promotes desorption of the refrigerant (ammonia) from the solution. In the generator. passed through a heat exchanger and delivered to the generator (State 1). the absorption refrigeration system is considered a “heat driven” system that requires minimal mechanical power for the compression process. and it must be separated from the ammonia using the rectifier. where it increases the temperature at which refrigeration can be provided. in fact. water exits at State 2 with the ammonia and travels to the evaporator. It replaces the energy-intensive Compression in a vapor compression system with a heat activated “thermal compression system. the absorption system uses a series of three heat exchangers (absorber. The effi ciency of an evacuated tubular collector for different levels of solar radiation and energy delivery temperatures is given in Figureand energy delivery temperatures is given in Figure 5.” A schematic of a single-stage absorption system using ammonia as the refrigerant and ammonia-water as the absorbent is shown in Figure Absorption cooling systems that use lithium bromide-water absorption-refrigerant working fluids cannot be used at temperatures below 0°C (32°F). the same equation that applies to the minimum power needed by a compressor. Without the use of a recifier.

solar energy. this refrigeration system option could be effective in larger scale refrigeration applications. such as storing medicines in remote areas. However. If the capital cost and effi ciency of tracking solar collectors can be significantly reduced. is free. Advantages refrigeration Advantages      & disadvantages of solar Cost effective Live wherever you want Reduce your carbon footprint Reduce your carbon footprint Low on maintenance Disadvantages   The installation cost is high Also the power is not available throughout the year.11 temperatures. First. Other system metrics that are more important are the specificsize. Of the three solar refrigeration concepts presented here. grid. A number of barriers have prevented more widespread use of solar refrigeration systems. costly. absorption systems may be viable for larger stationary refrigeration systems. this operating cost savings would not likely compensate for their additional capital costs. but at current and projected fuel costs. this dentition of efficiency may not be the most relevant metric for a solar refrigeration system because the fuel that drives the system during operation. . and. weight. even in a longterm life-cycle analysis. The operating costs of a solar refrigeration system should be lower than that of conventional systems. Absorption and solar mechanical systems are necessarily larger and bulkier and require extensive plumbing as well as electrical connections. although the capacity will be signifi cantly reduced. the photovoltaic system is most appropriate for small capacity portable systems located in areas not near conventional energy sources (electricity or gas). The advantage of solar refrigeration systems is that they displace some or all of the conventional fuel use. The major advantage of solar refrigeration is that it can be designed to operate independent of a utility The solar mechanical refrigeration systems would require tracking solar collectors to produce high temperatures at which the heat power cycle efficiency becomes competitive. (It may be available for 300 days /year). Second. of course. Applications exist in which this capability is essential. Because this energy resource is variable. Advanced absorption cycle confi gurations have been developed that could achieve higher COP values. the cost. some form of redundancy or energy storage (electrical or thermal) is required for most applications. which further adds to the system size and cost. the ability of a solar refrigeration system to function is driven by the availability of solar radiation. The absorption cycle will operate with lower temperatures of thermal energy supplied from the solar collectors with little penalty to the COP. solar refrigeration systems necessarily are more complicated. The COP sys is low for all three types of solar refrigeration systems.50. In situations where the cost of thermal energy is high. and bulky than conventional vapor compression systems because of the necessity to locally generate the power needed to operate the refrigeration cycle. The COP for providing refrigeration at –10°C (14°F) with a 35°C (95°F) condensing temperature is approximately 0. Conclusions An overall system coefficient of performance (COPsys) can be defined as the ratio of refrigeration capacity to input solar energy.

from http://www. Retrieved January 29. Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009.D. 2006.org/entry/ecotech-21-year-old-student-invented-portablesolar-powered-fridge/ Greenlaunches. Retrieved January 29.org/Ozonaction/infor mation/mmcfiles/4489-e-SolarChill. Special International Issue: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. from http://www. Ph. (n.html UNEP 2005. Retrieved January 29. Retrieved January 29. France: UNEP Division of Technology. Ph. PSFK. 2009. C.12 Formazione. Katic. SolarChill vaccine cooler and refrigerator: a breakthrough technology.com/2009/01/aportable-solar-powered-fridge-for-thedeveloping-world. 2007. 8). Poulsen.uk/sciencetech/ article-1108343/Amazing-solar-poweredfridge-invented-British-student-potting-shedhelps-poverty-stricken-Africans..ashrae. (2009..d.co. 1– 4. Flahiff. (2009. Industry and Economics. Denmark: Solar Energy Centre.psfk. PH. Student Invents Solar-Powered Fridge for Developing Countries. 8) Amazing solarpowered fridge invented by British student in a potting shed helps poverty-stricken Africans. Mail Online. Jan.org/content/ ASHRAE/ASHRAE/PDF/20058309533_886. PH.pdf    References  Burton.uneptie. 12). Paris. Suppl. 115(4): 208–211 Brooke. 2009. 2009.com. Inhabitat. I. and Douglas T. S. Maté J. Retrieved January 30. Lachut.dailymail.pdf. from http://www. Danish Technological Institute.php Pedersen.greenlaunches. Taastrup. SolarPowered Fridge for the Developing World. 1(No. 2009. http://www. SolarChill: the vaccine cooler powered by nature. S. Jan. 300.inhabitat. 8) A Portable.com/gadgets -and-tech/portable-solar-poweredrefrigerator-cools-like-human-body. from http://www.D. Jan.com/2009/01/12/s olar-powered-fridge-by-emily-cummins/ Sanford A. 1-16.html Ecofriend (2009. Jan. Solar Refrigeration. Jan. 2005. (2009. Reindl. 6–2006):17–19  Pedersen. A. 8) Portable Solar powered refrigerator cools like human body.) SolarChill—a solar PV refrigerator without battery. Retrieved January 30.ecofriend. from http://www. 2009. Industria      . Eco Tech: 21-yearold student invents portable solar-power frige. Solar Thrill: Using the sun to cool vaccines. from http://www. No. Klein. D.