courtesy of the Outing Publishing Co.










Harper's Practical Books for Boys



Outdoor Book

American Boys.


George Bird Grinnell, Editor Forest and Stream "; Dr. Eugene L. Swan, Director Pine
ing Editors,




Written and Illustrated by Joseph H. Adams. With a General Chapter by Joseph B. Baker, and a

Dictionary ot Electrical Terms.




By William H. Onken,

and Joseph B. Baker.

By Joseph H. Adams and By
Joseph H.

Adams and

By Joseph H. Adams.

Edited by

Anna Parmly


By Elmer
Each I'olumt fully and dia&*af>ifT.
Ellsworth Burns.
illustrated from pjiotfgraphs, drawings, Unfforln ptxe and appearance. " CrowttSSfOf Cloth. fjfi&Sfft&fXc&t The Story of Great Invetiliotfs^ which is $1.25.



By Eugene




Part I











Joseph H.

Joint Author of Harper's Outdoor Book for Boys, etc.









Joseph H.

A Low






Part II

By Joseph H. Adams (With the exception of the first chapter)






























Part III





P. Wells












Swan, M.D.

By Eugene






















































John L. Alexander Acting Managing Secretary of The Boy Scouts of America BEGINNING AND GROWTH LEADERS OF THE MOVEMENT WHAT A BOY MUST Do TO BELONG THE SCOUT LAW


Eugene L. Swan,















Garrett P. Serviss


Year With

the Stars, etc.




Part VII


Miss Marie




G. Phillips














and then come to anchor in your safe harbor. the cry of some distant water fowl. hung out your riding light. your lee rail awash. listening to the water lapping about the bows. you ever sat all day on the rail of a dancing sloop. the slap of the halyards against the mast. and rising to the white floating clouds on the other? Have you ever paddled a canoe up a winding river. the full moon for climbing over the a moment and where your breath ceasing comes a deer to drink.PREFACE from dawn until dark. xi . and beat to windward. and you feel good all through. where the alders and birches form a protecting arch that let in HAVE watched and you ever sat in the saddle pick his steps Have you ever paddelicious glimpses of blue upon you ? dled noiselessly along shore where the rushes nod and whisper. up steeps where your pony a goat would have difficulty. and love the sting- Have ing beat of the salt spray crusting your face and lips. on suddenly rounding some point. a foot or so wide. and where the trail winds about. body black against the light ? Possibly you know the lure of the sea. to find. dropping sheer a thousand feet on one side. and sat down to a meal that a king might envy? You sit back in lazy contentment. antlers and daintily hill.

and the is heeding of Nature's ever-calling voice. strength and staying Do not. SWAN. and the sleepy Dutch towns extend their invitation to who will Young man. all offer pleasant and varied experience. the river. to the land of Rip Van Winkle. many are gaining health. you more good at twenty to sleep under boughs aslant. where. under canvas. EUGENE L. The great cry of "Back to Nature" that abroad over our land is full of spreading deep significance. There are white tents under the Palisades. There are good cruises and sailing in the wonderful waterways around New York. and the great bays on the south shore of Long Island. five miles of New York where you can pitch your tent and watch the sun go down across wide stretches of woodland and water that will make you think you are a hundred miles from any city. and an adaptation of our lives to her laws.PREFACE Did you say that you have not the means or the time to do such things. or Pullman car. than to see the Congressional Library or Niagara Falls. qualities. or that you do not know where to go or how There are places within twentyto go about? Nonsense. The world demands do not. by a mountain lake with the trout broiling. spend It will do your vacation time in a hotel. all accept. is going to become a salvation of the American race. The highways to Sleepy Hollow. The Sound. . get out into the open. oh.

how to dress and cook and eat.INTRODUCTION and inquiries for a guide to camplife which should be modern and comprehensive. how to take care of themselves in the woods and on the and. They show how to do things suggestions one's self THE many popularity of Harper's Practical Books has brought instead of dealing in description. This is an American book. together with these general subjects. intended to show American and girls how to make camps at their own homes or boys abroad. how to prepare for outdoor life. where to go. The aim of the books in this series is self-development. and various phases of the outdoor life which has grown so enormously in favor of recent years. there are explanations adapted to the very different kinds trail or river. and its information will be found of immediate practical value whether the reader is a member of any organization or not. how to live in camp. It does not deal in description of scenery or tales of outdoor experiences. This idea of doing for is the keynote of this book of camping. how to choose a camp-site and make camp. how to amuse themselves. woodcraft. but at the same time simple and explicit. There are boys and girls who find infinite pleasure of xiii . camps which appear throughout our country every summer.

it is not necessary to spend the time. camps on Western ranches and mountains. Fresh Air Camps. While no exact estimate is possible. The danger now is of being led away by the temptations of patented but experimental xiv . although some hints in this direction are afforded. but to-day. A.INTRODUCTION in pitching home-made tents in the lee of their own houses. a subject hitherto so inadequately treated that the special attention of parents as well as younger readers may be called to the part of the book in which Dr. With all this increase in outdoor life there has naturally come an increased supply of equipments. on house-boats and with caravans. and camp-life on beaches. Some of the older books contain directions for making fishing-rods and hammocks. pared foods simplifies the work of the commissary department in one sense. and yet renders a discriminating choice more than ever necessary. and also the immense and significant development of private camps for boys and girls. of Y. Here are helpful suggestions for them as well as for those who camp farther afield. M. in view of the number and range of prices of such articles which are easily accessible. Eugene L. military camps. Swan draws upon the stores of his experience in his treatment of private summer camps. or in building shelters or tree-huts in their own grounds. Nevertheless it is essential to be guided by accurate knowledge in making selections of outfit The vast number of canned goods and preor supplies. camps camps for invalids. individual camps. C. it has been said that over one hundred thousand boys and girls go into camps There are the for a longer or shorter time every summer. Associations. school camps.

for that matter.. and it must be confessed that with the growth of extravagant taste and of the in many cases. are explained as a matter of course.INTRODUCTION equipments. after outfit and place are settled upon. and by mere novelties in Without any argument for the way of prepared foods. Subjects like the considerations governing the exact choice of a camp-site. For example. greedy. is the primitive simplicity of a Maine "cruiser's" outfit. but there are plenty of matters of universal consequence which should be made clear to boys and the United States and Canada. outfit for from the only in a general way. and. or Quebec. and inefficient. xv . As a matter of course. it safe to say that the great majority of camping-parties are overloaded with superfluities. just as very different provision is needed for a pack-train outfit in Montana or Wyoming and a fishing-camp in Maine. etc. but there are other things which must be dealt with as frankly as the matter of guides. tipping habit and the establishment of luxurious hotels in proximity to camping-grounds many guides have become This is a matter of which a modern camping-book must take cognizance. to a large proportion of older readers. New BrunsLocal conditions are naturally dealt with wick. a question of guides. among them the necessity of "policing" a camp effectively. for boys where the supervision is more or less irresponsible. questions of drainage. water. there girls in is. just as something must be said of commercially organized private camps enervated. the equipment for a hunting-trip in Mississippi or Louisiana cane-brakes differs radically a camp in the Adirondacks. by the attractive exteriors of superfluous and occasionally worthless articles.

There are few boys who are not followers of Izaak when the chance is offered. This book includes some of the newer lessons drawn from military experience." and others who have aided in adapting this knowledge to modern use have helped the education xvi . there are adequate general explanations of fishing for bass and ouananiche and also pickerel and other fish. and among other phases of this more humane attitude is the substitution of the camera for the indiscriminate use of gun or pistol upon squirrels and birds in the woods. And one their readers of killing. tical general suggestions and this book affords and counsel which are based upon is Walton them pracfirst a long experience.INTRODUCTION the removal and burial of tin cans and rubbish. there is a better spirit in outdoor life to-day. as well as the elementary and obvious precautions against fires. The subject rally. noticeably in some phases of military camp -life. Fly-fishing naturally placed as the' most sportsmanlike and delightful way of matching one's wit against game fish. point which the authors of this book impress upon Never kill for the sake is true sportsmanship. It is of woodcraft is explained simply and natuan American inheritance. While trout-fishing takes precedence. are Never catch more fish than can be used. but they are to be reiterated until the "trout-hog" disappears. and "Nessmuk. The need of emphasis upon such points has been shown too often among adults. A knowledge of wood- craft was enforced upon the first-comers to this continent. sanitation and a regard trees and natural beauties for the amenities of outdoor life. Fortunately. These homely maxims. a regard for in short.

England has approached certain phases of outdoor life from a different point of In this book the simpler essentials of woodcraft view. George Bird Grinnell. and certain desirable phases of "scouting" are explained without any desire to impose arbitrary rules or to increase youthful self-consciousness. . re- aid. cookery Through the courtesy of Dr. happily.INTRODUCTION of American boys and girls. the outdoor literature published by the Forest & Stream Company devoted to camp has been generously placed at the disposal of the publishers. first illness. and it is a pleasure to make acknowledgment of the aid afforded through comparison and selection in the case of the books of "Nessmuk" and others. Subjects like personal care in camp. protection against insects. and some space is and camp receipts. and many others ceive proper attention. The effort of the editors has been to bring together a consensus of the opinions and experience of experts in the various phases of the modern outdoor life which. accidents. is assuming such large conse- quence on this continent.




Very fortunately now. are constantly in use in country houses. We see pictures of in outdoor schools with the children studying a snowstorm. but for the boy or man.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Chapter I WHERE TO CAMP OUMMER O teenth visits to and outdoor life in the middle of the ninecentury and later consisted very largely of hotels. although and public buildings are overheated many and badly ventilated in winter. These and a hundred other manifestations of the fresh -air spirit are has never known genuine yet to come. or sleeping-porches. It is no uncommon thing to find sleeping-pavilions arranged on the roofs or extensions of city houses. very few need to be guided to autumn camps in the North in pur3 . and loggias. the virtues of fresh air and too of our houses summer outdoor life are generally recognized. girl or woman who camp life the fullest enjoyment is Camping near Home For the great majority of boys and girls camping is a question of a month or two in summer. good. Obviously.

Cut no trees without his consent. Watch your fire with the utmost care. of . ever the camp may be is not to spoil natural beauties. the State. Never take fruit or corn without permission. or such long journeys as that which begins at the mouth of the Misstassini and includes the southern shore of Hudson Bay. respect his rights in every way. If you let down bars or open gates. close them after you. or the old Telegraph Trail to Alaska. all this seem to feel that camping life is means license and rowdyism. or winter camps in Florida or California. For some. Of camping on farm lands or in the neighborhood of houses there is this to First make sure of the permission and approval owner of the land. camp life mean simply a tent perhaps home-made pitched may suit of within easy reach of home comforts. there are boys who regardless of the rights of others. Every summer there is much damage done and much hostility aroused by campers be said: of the and trouble With a little thought can be avoided and the next camper will be sure of a welcome. Don't knock down fences or walls. Camping in Maine As tains to camping-places farther afield. Secondly. or trample growing crops. Home camping is explained at length in later chapters. Keep your camp clean and dispose of all rubbish before leaving. Unfortunately.CAMPING AND SCOUTING moose. The camp camper has a responsibility to the owner of the land and to those who come after him. On the test of the gentleman. in a section which remore or less of the wilderness character. One primary obligation wherthe contrary.


CAMPING AND SCOUTING Maine comes naturally to mind as perhaps the most inviting of the Eastern States for the fisherman. forests. of Portland. It is always desirable to obtain only an impartial opinion from some one who has actually covIt should be borne in mind that ered the ground in person. and it is a question of finding some small lake with literature cold water where the trout weather. Maine Central. is usually 1 a business in able to indicate sources of knowledge regarding local subIn all these cases the glittering promises of railroad jects. their come to the surface even in hot The Maine guides furnish their own canoes and personal camp outfit and cooking utensils. mountains. steamboat fares. as in other States. but it is easy to obtain information through local guidebooks and railroad publications. The State Fish and Game Commission in Maine. most of which involve additional charges for transportation across portages. rivers. and local books regarding fishing may be accepted with some allowances. . Messrs. Camp Maine which involves both advantages and disadvantages. all life is and excellently mapped. There are many regular trips. and receive three dollars a day each. in making arrangements. and Bangor & Aroostook railroads publish suggestive advertising literature. is and the influence of the sometimes thrown strongly in favor of nights at guides All these extras should be taken into account public camps. could furnish information regarding local guidebooks and maps. It has a vast area of unsettled territory rich in lakes. Loring. is in almost every trout region a poor month for flyAugust fishing. But the beauty of the Maine woods and 1 rivers continues in spite of the inroads of water- The Boston & Maine. Short & Harmon.

A WOODLAND CAMP NOT FAR FROM HOME By courtesy ul tlic Outing Publishing Co.Outing Publishing Co. .

In New Brunswick and Quebec the salmon rivers are leased. visitors are outfitted for ouananiche-fishing. 1 . elaborate private camps. The multiplication of great hotels. John. but there is trout-fishing and lake-fishing to be had in the other New England States. particularly New Hamp- and Vermont. merely illustrations of the endless opportunities for outdoor life offered by the great empire of Canada nearly all the way from Labrador to the Pacific and far to the north. the headwaters of the Sague- nay in Quebec. By writing to the passenger departments of these railroads. both of which in their beautiful lake and mountain scenery offer ample inducements to outdoor In New York the famous Adirondack region has unlife. dergone a transformation since it was exploited to former generations by "Adirondack" Murray. additional information may be obtained. and the control of large tracts by private individuals and clubs have taken away much of the wilderness character. and asking specific questions.CAMPING AND SCOUTING power and wood-pulp companies. on Lake John. is no keener sport for the fisherman. hooked there of course. Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railroads will afford helpful hints. 1 At Roberval. But if the ouananiche is found and which is uncertain. These are. and very definite information as to the possibilities of the for trout-fishing should St. be obtained in advance. The Adirondacks So far as trout-fishing is concerned Maine leads the Eastern States. Quebec & Lake St. and the invigorating tonic Maine air may be accepted without any reservations. and made it necesshire The advertising literature of the Intercolonial.

and State control has pre- The southern of outdoor served for the public a magnificent outdoor playground. lake. Railroad literature. New York. the lakes of Wisconsin and Minnesota. the foothills of the Sierras in California.WHERE TO CAMP be done. correspondence with State Fish and Game Commissions. 2 For Eastern anglers the Beaver kill is a familiar name. to the upper Michigan peninsula. and forest regions of Oregon and Washington. The secretary of the Adirondack Guides Association can 1 be addressed at Saranac Lake. 9 . 3 The Erie Railroad issues & Western Railroad can some helpful publications. and Montana. vania there is And continuing farther south into Pennsylthe bass fishing of the Delaware 3 and the trout of Pike County. The passenger department of the New York Central lines at New York issues literature and maps useful for camping or canoe trips. and local guide-books are all helpful. the mountains and parks of Colorado. 2 The passenger department of the Ontario furnish information. 1 Many regular trips have been mapped out across the Adirondack region. West and South These few suggestions serve to point the way to natural opportunities which range from Texas and the Ozark Mountains of Missouri. and the -magnificent mountain. But the actual experience of those who have tried the The passenger department of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad at Albany publishes a guide-book entitled "A Summer Paradise" which will be found useful. Catskills and Sullivan County are also centres life. sary to obtain exact information as to what can and cannot But there are ample opportunities for canoemen and campers. Wyoming.

we shall . From this preliminary outline of possibilities return to our real starting-point the home. remember it is always prudent for a boy or for his father to obtain and utilize specific references. when conthe multitude of advertisements which every spring sidering invite the lover of outdoor life to Maine or Canadian camps for themselves that or to pack-train expeditions in the Northwest.CAMPING AND SCOUTING ground is best of all. Details as to places are obviously impossible in a book which is a guide to the general principles and best methods of outdoor life. Therefore.

Chapter II




home is helpful if we

the natural centre of
find out

the house.

In large

life, it will be most can do just outside what we there is usually no front yard,

and even where such space exists its use as a play-ground is apt to be undesirable. But the back yard even in cities often affords some chances not only for gardening on a small scale but also for making and using a variety of things which will furnish constant amusement.

A Wigwam
play Injun" in the back yard, here ideas for tepees and wigwams that may easily be followed out at a very small cost for the poles and canvas. Canvas can be bought at a dry-goods or country store,
like to

For boys who




and poles

be cut in the woods; or one-and-one-halfinch-square spruce sticks may be purchased at a lumberyard and dressed round with a draw-knife and plane. When



cutting poles for a


it is

necessary to select very

straight ones, preferably of pine, for crooked or poles are unsightly and make an uneven exterior.



real Indian tepee


made from buckskin

or other

strong hides lashed together with rawhide thongs; but as this covering is beyond the reach of the average boy, the next best thing to use will be heavy twilled canvas or stout

unbleached muslin that can be had for about ten cents a
is perhaps the most satiskind of a tent, for it is roomy, will shed water, and factory it is about the only tent in which a fire may be built without smoking out the occupants. The tepee will not blow over if properly set up and stayed with an anchor-rope, and it is


The regulation wigwam

taken down and moved from place to place. For a party of three or four boys the wigwam shown in Fig. i will afford ample room, and it is not so large as to be unhandy. Select thirteen straight poles, not more than two inches thick at the bottom, and clear them from knots and projecting twigs. They should be ten feet long and pointed at the bottom so as to stick into the ground for a Tie three of them together eighteen inches few inches. from the top, and form a tripod on a circle five feet and six

inches in diameter.

Place the other poles against this trito form a cone, as shown in Fig. 2, and lash them fast pod at the top with a piece of clothes-line. From unbleached

muslin or sail-cloth
in the




weight) make a cover as shown Lay out a sixteen-foot circle on a


or the grass, with chalk, and indicate an eighteen-inch circle at the middle. Around the outer circle or

periphery measure


nineteen feet and chalk -mark the





these marks to the centre of the circle


straight lines,

and within these

limits the area of the wig-


cover will be shown.

plan drawing in Fig. 3. wide and with it this area can be covered in any direction, sewing the strips together to make the large sheet; or the

It should correspond with the The muslin should be three feet


may be

cut in strips three feet wide at one end and

tapering to a few inches at the other, as shown in Fig. 4, the seams running up and down the canvas instead of across

The outer edge of the canvas cover should be bound with clothes-line or cotton rope, sewed securely with waxed white string; then thirteen short ropes should be passed over this rope so that the canvas may be lashed fast to the

The doorway foot of each pole to hold the cover in place. are formed by stopping the lacings three feet up from flaps the ground. With short ropes and rings sewed to the cover
the flaps

may be

tied back, as


in Fig.



real Indian


are decorated with

all sorts of

men had their crests and totems, and the boys who make these tepees can easily invent some mark which will distinguish their tent abode from all others. The ornamentation should be done with paint and should be carried out before the canvas covering
emblems, for even the uncivilized red

stretched over the poles.


Square Tepee

A square tepee, as shown in the illustration Fig. 5, is another form of rear-yard tent that is easily made. Twelve
poles are selected

and four


them are lashed fast and spread


apart on a square of six feet. Two poles are added to each and all are lashed together at the head. Four pieces

canvas or heavy unbleached muslin are cut and made on

the plan as shown in Fig. 6, the strips being cut from goods a yard wide. These pieces are six feet long, one foot wide

and six feet at the foot. The seam through the middle of one piece is left open for three feet to form the doorway flaps; then the four sides are securely sewed toat the head,

This cover is slipped gether with waxed white string. about the pole frame, tied at the front, and held down

by means

of short ropes that are lashed fast to the foot of

each pole. The cover is decorated with paint to give the Indian appearance, and when the flaps are tied back is easy to go into and come out of the tepee,



Ridge-pole Tepee

ridge-pole tepee is shown in Fig. 7, and is a very easy and simple one to make, for it is of one piece of



canvas with two flaps sewed at each side to form the

One ridge and two upright poles make the framework, and they are held in place by the canvas, which is drawn and
lashed fast to stakes driven in the ground, as may be seen The ridge-pole is eight feet long, one and in the drawing.


a half inches thick, and four Two inches wide.


end a half -inch bored to receive the




in the ends of the uprights and as shown at Fig. 8


The upright poles are eight feet long, and when set one foot of the lower end should be embedded in the

ground. The sides are in one piece of muslin made by sewing widths of it together. The sheet measures seventeen
feet long

and eight feet wide; and when stretched over the ridge-pole and fastened down at both sides an inverted
shape will be the result. It is ten feet across at the bottom, seven feet high, and eight feet long at each side. For the back it will be necessary to make a triangular piece of canvas the right size to fit the opening, or two flaps may be
cut, divided at the middle,


tied back, or laced, to close

the tent.

The apron

or part enclosure at the front

formed from pieces of canvas two feet wide sewed along the edges and caught together at the middle over the

Ten pegs eighteen inches long and two inches wide are These are cut from hard -wood as shown at Fig. 8 C.
driven in the ground at an angle and ropes attached to the lower edges of the canvas sidings are lashed fast to them.

This tepee is long enough to swing a hammock from pole to pole, and on a warm summer night makes an ideal place The covering, like that of the for sleeping out-of-doors.

may be decorated with Indian emblems, a party of boys are going to camp in the back yard and if their tepees can be inscribed with different crests and toother wigwams,

tems to indicate individual ownership.

Chapter III

'""PHE most delightful season in the woods, throughout 1 the northern and middle parts of the United States, is during the summer months, and in the South right up to
Christmas; while in other parts of the country, through southern Texas and California, the woods are attractive all

through the year. Brush-houses, sylvan retreats, and tree huts of various kinds are made by boys all over the country, and some very unique and original ones are often constructed from simple and inexpensive materials. Everything from the back-yard
"lean-to" and the tent of sheets to the tree huts that are

when who are by boys
tree hut

the rope-ladder is drawn up may be made at all handy with tools, and a well-built

an ideal place in which to spend one's vacation


The following ideas and suggestions may be of service, and they have all been tested in practical experience.

A Low



very serviceable twin-tree hut is shown in Fig. i, and can easily be constructed, at a small cost, from ordinary

3. and under the timbers and lying flat against the tree-trunks bracket-blocks twoinches and fifteen inches long are securely spiked by-eight to lend additional support to the cross-timbers. for these anchorages. for the ladder can be drawn up when the owners are at home and it will be a difficult If it is built matter for outsiders to enter. Cut the ends of the timbers forming the square frame so that they of the distance will dovetail as Spike the six-foot timbers to the tree-trunks so that they will rest on the first two timbers that were nailed to the trees. 2 C C. shown 19 .TREE HUTS AND BRUSH-HOUSES boards and timbers. and no cavities at the base nor indications of decay. The trees should have com- paratively straight trunks at least fifteen inches in diameter. first cutting away some of the bark and wood of the trunk to afford a flat surface for the timbers to will lie be required Six-inch steel-wire nails against on each side. off and nail two of these pieces to the trunks of the trees eight feet above the ground. and sixteen feet long. obtain four or five pieces of spruce or other timber two Saw inches thick. Into these the ends of bracket-timbers D D will fit. and from the two-byeight-inch wood cut four brackets D D. Cut two timbers six feet long and two others the length between tree-trunks. In the six-foot pieces cut notches at the under side as shown in Fig. high up in the trees it is doubly secure from invasion. and spike them in Fig. To properly build this hut select a location between two trees six to eight feet apart. From a lumber-yard or where the hut is to be located. With an axe clear off the brush and small branches for twenty feet up from the ground at the inside of the trunks. eight inches wide.

The cross-timbers are shown at 20 . will appear as shown and Place the remaining two timbers in position so that the ends will fit into those fastened to the trees. where they are supported by the fifteen-inch blocks nailed fast below them. In Fig. 5 the first timbers can be seen spiked to the treetrunks. 2. nail them fast as shown in Fig.CAMPING AND SCOUTING fast under each cross-timber so each tree in Fig. 4.

Cut two A E E. six. where the door will come. then half-way between the floor and top of the framework run a timber all around except between the door timbers. This will add a strengthening rib to which the sheathing boards can be nailed. The roof may be made from the same kind of boards. The bottom of the uprights are mounted on the corners of the floor frame as shown in where four long nails will hold them securely in place. and use them for the floor and sheathing. 5. nails. forming the frame that are let into dove-tailed joints at the ends. six feet at the back. The side-rails should be spiked to the Fig. are shown at B B. ten inch matched boards. so they will fit inside the front and back timbers B B. and spike the side timbers F F. planed on both sides. and the last ones. or roof -strips. and will also make one more anchorage to the tree-trunks. Cut two timbers and arrange them in an upright position at the front thirty inches apart.TREE HUTS AND BRUSH-HOUSES A. and lay them across the supporting timbers. where they are to be well secured more timbers The floor frame will then be complete. preserve the paper so that it may 21 last for several years. forming the top. . two-by-three-inch spruce construct a frame seven feet high at the front. to the inside of the treewith long From to be trunks as shown in Fig. 4. This will make the roof water-tight. for a season at least and if it is given one or two coats of paint it will . nailed to the tree. and over them a thickness or two of tarred paper is to be laid and fastened down at the edges and seams with small metal washers and nails that can be had where the paper is purchased. tree-trunks in a corresponding manner to that of the top or From a lumber-yard obtain some four.

A ladder of hickory poles from slipping when and cross-sticks should be made twenty inches wide and provided with loops at the top that will fit over large nails driven in the door-sill. is to be made and hung with long. 6 A. as shown in the illustration. the side-rails of the ladder the union cross-sticks fast with tarred rigging a flexible ladder is preferred ropes be used in place of the side -rails to which the rungs are may lashed fast. If rolled up.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Two rib. or small benches can easily be knocked together as shown in Fig. A knob lock or a hasp and padlock will stout strap-hinges. a wooden button will hold the door shut from the inside. Under the table a ledge 22 . ing boards and two-by-three-inch spruce sticks and boxes may be used for seats. or three in be placed windows twenty-four inches square may the back and sides of the hut above the middle and a door of boards held together with battens. A small table may be made from some ends of the sheath. on which small things may be kept. If a rope-ladder is used it can be drawn in and or stout cotton line. When the owners are at home the ladder can be drawn up and hung on nails driven in the front edge of the roof. so as to keep it it is Where the rungs join made by lashing the bends under the weight of a boy. Some floor. When in use. narrow shelving should be arranged over the windows and fastened there with brackets. keep the door closed when the hut is unoccupied. Inside of the hut. at either end. a seat eighteen inches wide should be built in about sixteen inches up from the These seats can be used as bunks if desired.


as they are bound at the top to scantlings that butt into the trunks. a high tree hut is shown in Figv 7. At the front the frame more than at the back. and a catch or hasp will keep closed. A door A made from the box-cover it is attached with hinges. and the supporting and floor timbers enclose each trunk. as the trunk of each tree can be partially against enclosed in the hut. Larger and more substantial trees must be selected to build this hut in than the ones for the low hut. and on these the other timand fastened as shown in Fig. is carried forward two feet Fig. A High Twin-tree Hut Twelve or fifteen feet above the ground. 6 C. flat Instead of a roof like the low hut. The main timbers extend beyond the outside of the trunks. allowing this much for the width of the deck. The under cross-timbers that support the floor frame are to be attached to the trees the same as While bers are laid described for the low tree hut. wall-nest may be made from a shoe-case in which four or five shelves are arranged as shown in Fig. The uprights are arranged somewhat differently also. this one 24 is to have . 8 A A. and as a rope-ladder will probably be used a landing -deck or piazza should be built at the front of the hut.CAMPING AND SCOUTING twelve inches wide is to be attached to the lower cross-rails that connect the legs as shown at Fig. 6 B. and built in between the trunks of two stout trees. this hut is built between two trees it is also built them. 8.

rope-ladder is made of stout clothes-line and hickory rungs lashed together securely with strong line as shown in are of straight hickory with or without the bark on. 8 C C. one inch and a quarter thick and twenty-four inches long. and in the fastened at the top of four uprights of two-by-three-inch spruce. Near the end of each rung a notch is cut on Fig. stiff ladder A may reach of other boys. This construction is clearly shown in Fig. the lower ends of which are securely nailed to the is front stringers as the illustration shows. but a more interesting ladder can be made of rope and hickory rungs. In place of the supporting brackets DD that are let into the timber 2. be used to climb up. By means of a thin rope attached to the bottom rung the ladder can be hauled up to the deck so that it is out of the long. which are fastened to the tree-trunks same manner as the under cross-timbers. and being fastened at the top. longer brackets or props are caught under the floor timbers and braced at the lower end against the trunks. and windows and a door are mounted as shown. A rail is run along the front and one end of the deck.TREE HUTS AND BRUSH-HOUSES a pitched roof. A The rungs both sides for the rope to lie in. the supporting timbers of which are attached to the ridge-poles B B. where the location of each upright and cross-piece is indicated. no one can remove it or pull it away as they could a stiff ladder. 8. The a stout block which is then enclosed as described for the low hut. where an additional anchorage or support is C at Fig. made by frame is securely spiked to the trunk underneath each bracket end as shown in Fig. as shown at the upper end 25 . 9.

CAMPING AND SCOUTING of Fig. . 10. The ladder is hung on stout wooden pegs driven into the deck through holes one inch and a half in diameter. where a pegs and down wrap is up over the taken over one or two rungs then . and each union is to be very securely bound with the line so as to prevent slipping. any other convenient accessories to the comfort and and pleasure of the boy owners may be added 26 as need arises. 9. it is lashed fast to the other ropes with the stout line as shown Bunks and in Fig. furniture can be made for the interior. An extra rope is to be carried from the top rung again.


have to project up the hut. The floor timbers if should be well braced to the main trunk of the tree with long and short bracket-pieces or props. peaked. of course. and the location in the tree should be through selected so that out-spreading branches will form a support to the lower edges of the floor frame as may be seen in Fig. plan for the floor timbers among the out-spreading branches but from the plans shown for the twin-tree hut some idea of the construction can be had for single-tree huts. the space in the tree will permit.CAMPING AND SCOUTING A Single-tree Hut In the spreading branches of a large oak-tree a very snug roost can be made high above the ground as shown in Fig. This single-tree hut is twenty-five feet above the ground. These will help greatly in making the hut steady in the tree. The main the plan of a low tree hut. Cleats or blocks can be nailed fast under the 28 . a mansard. or a flat roof can be placed on the and hut. and of the deck will allow room to climb fast alike it would be difficult to give a . ii. and below it is a landing from which the rope-ladder is dropped. A . a deck across the front and both sides will be found useful. As very few trees are both at top and bottom. From this landing to the piazza or deck of the hut a stiff ladder is made an opening in the floor up on the deck. and where the lower ends are attached to the trunk large spikes should be well driven in. tree-trunk will. depending on the main trunk to give it support 12.

because there may not be any high. Keep fire away from the tree huts. A Low It is Single-tree Hot not always best to build a hut in high trees. Water in a porous jug or earthen pitcher will keep very cold if hung in the tree branches where the air can freely circulate around it. particularly in a storm or high wind. It is too high to reach with a bucket. large trees at hand strong enough to support a For younger boys a low tree hut is preferable. Water and food can be kept cool by suspending them in a shady place. as they will help to support and strengthen the anchorage. and. located as it is. and do not light any matches nor burn candles. nor is it possible to do so in every case. 12 (page 26) can easily be constructed. The tree should be large enough to bear the weight of the house without straining it. One or two windows and a door may be arranged in the hut. so that if a possible misstep should result in a fall it would be An apple or maple tree less harmful than from a high tree. for if once a fire is started nothing will save your hut. and tar-paper tacked on the roof will make it hut. The general construction of the frame is shown in Fig. The frame should be of two-by-three-inch spruce and the flooring beams can be of two-by-four-inch spruce or other timber. and if the trunk is substantially heavy a house similar to the one shown in Fig. a perfect draught will fan a small flame into a raging fire in no time.TREE HUTS AND BRUSH-HOUSES ends also. water-proof. 12. 29 . often affords a good support for a low tree hut.

cat-tail reeds. or two-by-one-inch hard-wood sticks securely nailed to the rails. and quite stiff enough to hold the thatching of meadow-grass or cat-tail reeds. with the greatest number of leaves at Artichokes. thereby allowing a pitch of one foot 30 A . rails two inches wide and an inch pitch can be given to the roof by cutting off the rear posts six inches and leaving six inches more of the front posts out of the ground. hut or small house such as Fig. wild sunflower. 13 depicts. A Brush-house In nearly every part of the country where there is low ground one may generally find a high growth of plant life having a long stalk. and sunk two feet into the ground. To build a brush-house like the one shown in the illustration. four sticks are to be set in the ground about six feet These should be eight feet long apart. This last should be cut away and the smaller under branches and leaves trimmed off. and will have a straight and uniform reed at least seven or eight feet up from the ground before the thick top foliage reduces it in size.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Access to the hut can be had by means of a ladder made from two-by-three-inch spruce rails with hickory rungs. and the stronger species of flag have stalks and reeds sufficiently strong from which to make the sides and roof of a or near the top. This growth is often ten feet high. This will be limber enough to be woven basket-fashion. forming a square. the upper ends being bound together with thick. leaving a comparatively straight shaft from six to eight feet long.


and the roof may be This slant is flat if it is easier not necessary. uprights At the doorway two upright sticks are driven into the ground and a rail nailed across their upper ends. as the boys are doing in Fig. made by To this wooden frame the front reeds may be attached. side frames are be bent around the end where they can be bound in the The window openings cutting out a section of one or two and turning the cross-reeds back and tying them. 15 Fig. above the doorway. Fig. Three of these frames are to be made for the sides and rear of the hut. 16 Fig. and at the front. 14. upright reeds as shown in Fig. to make. and the skeleton hut or house is then ready to be thatched 32 .CAMPING AND SCOUTING to the six-foot length of roof. however. with string or tied with grass. 17 The ends of the cross-reeds are to 1 5 . From the reeds a basket framework with eight -inch meshes is to be woven. a smaller one is to be made to cover the space between the front posts.

dry grass or dried cat-tail reeds. smaller than the one described. 16.TREE HUTS AND BRUSH-HOUSES with long. The thatching material should be from eighteen to twenty -four inches long so that it can be interwoven between three crossreeds as where a few strands of grasses are placed in position to give an idea of how to weave the grass. Never depend on the four first sides to hold together without the corner-posts. shown should get through the thatching to keep the occupants of Of course a house may be made larger or the hut cool. but the principle of good construction is the same. The thatching is done by interweaving long grasses or reeds between the cross-reeds in a vertical position as shown in Fig. Timothy or straw can be used to good advantage for thatching material. 17. as the good 33 . and if it is employed it should be woven with the heads up and not too close together. as the air in Fig.

and when the roof is made it should be lashed fast to the top of the sides and front with long reeds or grass. A The general Brash " Lean-to " lines of illustration of a brush "lean-to" (Fig. 18)./! V Fig. 34 .CAMPING AND SCOUTING wind that happened along would blow it flat. and rear. front. The roof is woven the same as the sides but is thatched and about four inches of the roof should extend closer.iuiitl //. a miniature barn are shown in the This is con- '. over the sides. and perhaps beyond the possibility of repair.. The edges of each side are lashed fast to the corner-posts with grass or string. 19 structed in nearly the same manner as the brush-house. 16 and 17. and thatched with grass or reeds as shown in Figs.

Brush huts and houses can be built on the plains where country rich in woods and forests the boys prefer the tree huts. and their materials can be picked up quickly. but on account of the romance involved in the climbing up trees are scarce. as a matter of choice. frame of scantling should be made for this lean-to the same as if a wooden structure were to be built. the ridge-pole seven above the ground. and it must be nailed together well to stand the strain of the wind blowIn general construction the frame ing hard against it. much easier to construct. of course. is A brush-house or any hut built on or near the ground not so cool to stay in as one in the trees. should appear like Fig. but it is. 19. as the boy builders do not have to move about so carefully when at work. not only for their cool location.TREE HUTS AND BRUSH-HOUSES The corner-posts feet and six inches are three feet high. and to the sticks the edges of the thatched framework of reeds is to be lashed fast with grass. . but in a to an inaccessible eyrie. and the hut may be from five to eight feet square or made oblong. either before or after the thatching is A done.




Swan's practical advice in the section devoted to organized camps is intended particularly for the organized camps which house large groups life. etc. wholesome outdoor life which has the advantage of being near supplies. For example. and kindred subjects. while Dr. where they make camp and enjoy a simple. But two 39 . is. blankets. khaki or the heavier Dux-bax will be serviceable. in his chapter on "Hiking. neys and wilderness camp them who leave their homes in neighborhood camper should read everything that he says about camp-sites. detailed suggestions in other chapters. Such boys will find plenty of useful.Chapter IV CHOOSING A CAMP-SITE chapter is written for those that twr o." Doctor Swan deEither military scribes serviceable clothing. camp sanitation. of boys. or four boys whose plans do not extend to long jour- THIS domestic who may be termed There are thousands of towns or villages for a trip of perhaps only a few miles to some lake or river. the small parties of campers three. yet every domestic or I Personal Outfit Later on.

And it is desirable not to be led away by newly patented ficial artificial baits. in some cases. The selection of a suitable is spot in which to build a a matter of great importance. the handles are As a general flimsy and should be replaced with leather. a drinking-cup. with pajamas. a pocket mirror. with two flannel shirts. it is it whether well to test one's purchases. unless one selects a better-class split bamboo and understands how to care for it. four pairs of woollen stockings. as permanent camp its situation has much to do with determining the comfort of the camp. a sweater. We should advise that a be located near some body of water. Sound ash and lancewood rods. two pairs of reasonably heavy shoes suitable for tramping.goods and department stores. however. or the super- attractions of very cheap split bamboo rods. two suits of underwear. or. soap. towels. this general description rule. is a question of fly rod. In its simplest form this is oil. unless in a very camp and success 40 . very convenient way of carrying one's personal belongings is borrowed from the sailor's ditty-bag. as far as possible. a fieldglass for watching birds. or gut leaders. and a rubber blanket to spread underneath. merely a large canvas bag. or bait rod. toilet articles. a rubber coat or oil- and two pairs of medium-weight woollen or mixed A blankets. greenheart are more reliable. a soft-felt hat. A camera. water-proofed with linseedwhich is tied up at the neck. Often. one pair of thick-soled sneakers for camp wear. skins.CAMPING AND SCOUTING pairs of strong trousers of any kind will serve. or cheap flies. Regular camping bags of can be bought at sporting . or other articles. and many other articles are questions of personal tastes.

thus rendering the proximity of a lake not only an advantage but a necessity. who necessarily depend upon fishing to a considerable extent for pleasure and maintenance and very great at . On a The success of a camp is very large lake a high wind will blow up a sea which renders cruising in a light boat or canoe both difficult and danThis extreme roughness lasts often for several days. the difficulty of locating and becoming fa- miliar with good fishing-grounds or ledges in a large lake is first. 41 . And what would life in ? camp be without the lake far out the morning plunge in the cool waters of or at close of day the moonlight paddle and song its on quiet bosom ? Camps en Lakes not in proportion to the size of the lake. Again. unless provided with a launch or stanch rowboat. such an event a party encamped on an island. This is a matter of great importance to campers. and it would be a great inconvenience to carry water from any distance to meet these demands.CHOOSING A CAMP-SITE wild region or existing for the special purpose of studying Nature in some of her many branches. and in land. the responsibility of supplying the larder falling principally upon the rod. but with local guidance and careful experimenting much can be learned. would be temporarily shut off from all communication with the maingerous. We passed three most enjoyable summers on the shores of a pond five miles long and half as wide. stant need of water for washing * There is also a conand cooking purposes. The usefulness of the gun and rifle in camps nowadays is decidedly small.

CAMPING AND SCOUTING one may as well fish on dry land as cast his line at random in a fresh-water lake. and on Sundays. The inclination to scoff at any introduction of home comforts into a camp. are impracticable. Pick out some flat camp elevated spot free from dampness but near the shore of If possible. and all food outside of those staple articles which they cannot reasonably be expected to provide. and extremely prosy in the reality. the other hand. pitch your tent near a grove of hemlocks or pines. campers have no business in town. when stuffed One cannot advise the lake. They should rely upon their own resources for amusement. and the heroic determination to subsist on frogs' legs and condensed milk. On are always opportunities for exploring expeditions. while occasional visits to the towns and villages which border on many of our larger lakes tend to break the pleasant monotony of a total isolation from the outside world. The camping near a town sary visits two or three times a week for mail and provisions. desirability of is often questhe tent at that end of the We advise pitching tioned. that the camp be situated but a few minutes' walk in order that it from some farm-house. It is desirable. into old mattress tickings. a large body of water has its adThe many islands and channels afford excellent vantages. With the exception of neceslake farthest from the village. for the dead branches are indispensable as fuel. while the green tips of hemlock twigs. may be furnished each day with fresh milk and eggs. which acceptable features of camp life. a in the selection of a particular spot 'for as in the choice of a rod or gun. however. make 42 excellent beds. .


. Here the boat-tailed blackbird builds There is his nest and the muskrat constructs his house well out of reach of the spring freshets. now nothing to break this monotony and then a strip of woods or a muddy bank left bristling with forked sticks by some midnight poutbut extremely hard to The current is sluggish. Chapter XVII. but numerous rocks just showing above the surface of the water. noted for its wildness. and invariably covered with small only two redeeming features to such a its fish. paddle against. now heavily wooded bank. turtles. on the other waving meadows 1 flowing placidly along. it is not necessary to select a river Our smaller rivers may be divided into two classes. There its lilies river and In strong contrast to this class is the sandy river which rushes over a pebbly bottom often at a depth not exceeding a few feet. almost hidden by immense marches of sedgegrass. on the one side a ex- See Doctor Swan's detailed explanations of canoeing. There are no rapids worth mentioning. except fisher. There is a monotony about a river of the former class as it takes its winding course. the occasional visits to the towns and villages through which the river flows. are.CAMPING AND SCOUTING River Cruising One out is of the pleasantest and most profitable ways to camp to cruise * the entire length of some attractive river. the muddy and the sandy bottomed. and the preparation Since much of the evening meal. of the pleasure in such a trip lies in the everchanging scenery.

tending back to the distant hills. Short sets of rapids are numerous, not heavy nor rough, for the water scarce reaches
one's waist, but with just that spice of danger which renders running them exciting. As the river widens and the cur-

rent lessens, announcing the approach of a dam, pickerel perch may be taken out with a spoon -hook.
If possible, select


a river that takes

its rise in

Thus one may few miles of home, and after a river cruise of ten days go For exinto permanent camp one hundred miles away. ample, we started within fifteen miles of Worcester, Massachusetts, and after a one-hundred-and-ten-mile paddle on the Nashua and Merrimac rivers, went into camp on the
or flows into another river.

a large lake start within a

shores of

Lake Winnepesaukee, New Hampshire.

a suitable place in which to pass the night while on a river cruise is a matter of considerable im-


selection, of

portance, since


of the real


life is

included in the

preparation of the evening meal and camp for the night. This selection should not be delayed too long, lest you find
yourselves, with twilight fast coming on, hurriedly paddling along, looking eagerly for any place where you may haul

Often during the afternoon an attractive spot or deserted building on the you shores of the river; then, if the day be not too early, stop and make your camp. Time is not so valuable to the canoeist but that two or three hours can be sacrificed for a comout your canoes for the night.
will pass



at night.

regard to running rapids will be a fitting close to this article. In running down a set of than rapids bear in mind that unless you move more rapidly

Perhaps a few words


the current you can have no control over your craft.



your canoe, and having determined your course, be in the channel or quieter part of the On striking a rock, enter the rapids at full speed.

will naturally

unless you can instantly free yourself, jump into the river, or your canoe will swing broadside in the current and capsize. Always jump out above the canoe or it will sweep

down upon you with unpleasant



' '

a long set of rapids while cruising up a

carry impossible, don your bathing-suit and prepare for the worst. The domestic camping, which is the subject of this section,

where a



means access

to fresh milk

and other home



not necessary to consider the question of supplies so carefully as in the case of a wilderness trip which is planned for in the list given below. But it will be conis

venient to have some suggestions at the outset before we enter upon the details of camp cookery which are explained
for domestic

campers later in Chapter VII, and for organized camps and wilderness camps in Part IV. The list given below is useful as indicating amounts, and

also in the



Cooking Utensils

you are to hire a guide, he will supply all the kitchen utensils, but when you expect to do your own cooking the following list of dishes will be found sufficient to prepare all meals for three men on a month's trip:

From Camp

Fires in the Wilderness,

by E. W. Burt, Forest and

Stream Publishing Co.


under the handle, over a hot fire.

These can be fitted with two rings which a stick can be inserted to reach

as the

granite iron saucepans.
fire will

Never take a

tin saucepan,

melt the solder.

Two granite iron coffee-pots, one for making coffee, the other for tea.

Three large iron spoons, six teaspoons, four knives and one wire broiler, six tin cups, six tin plates, one buck-

wheat spade, salt and pepper shakers, one small lantern to use around camp, six candles, one kerosene-oil can, one cookoven, called a ''Dutch oven." This is the only thing you can make bread with by an open fire. It is made of zinc, V-shaped, about eighteen inches long, with shelf containing

a shallow pan. These ovens are faced toward the fire, and the heat from hot ashes will soon make very good bread.


tin pails are

drinking-water. bacon, rather than to fry

It is

very useful around camp for carrying much better to broil meat, fish, or

as greasy cooking



and soon becomes

distasteful, while

a nicely broiled

steak with a


always acceptable.

Provision Supply

Of all his problems, that of the provision supply is the hardest for the camper to solve, but after many trips I have been able to make a list of the supplies that would be con-

sumed by two men and one guide on a two-weeks trip, and one can add to the list as he may choose. Of course, the amount to be taken depends upon the means of transporta4


and upon possible additions to the supply en route by hunting and fishing. As a rule, only plain, substantial food should be taken. That is the kind you will need. DeliPie and cake are not food cacies should be left at home. for hill climbing. Bread, meat,, vegetables, and fruit are what you need, and these should be of the best quality.

Evaporated fruits are so good that it is not necessary to buy canned goods and fill up space with tin and water. Best of all will be found the famous Boston canned beans. All provisions should be carried in strong canvas bags, Never risk carrying them in tied at the top with a string.
paper bags.




pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds

hard bread bacon in bag
dried apples dried prunes
salt in


pounds white flour pounds Indian meal packages buckwheat
packages oatmeal



coffee in tight in can

\ bushel potatoes 10 pounds onions


pound tea


pound baking-powder pound pepper
quart vinegar

cans condensed cream

6 cans

Boston baked beans


maple syrup

3 cans chicken

pounds butter pounds lard

jar pickles 2 bottles ketchup

dozen eggs


cost of these supplies should


to about twenty

or twenty-five dollars.





slightly defective,




A~3.MY from


second-hand government



of lo-ounce double-filling

army duck, which


the strongest material, and this is the most serviceable if one wishes to make one's own tent, which should

be 10 x 12 for a party of four.



enough the boy does not know on his first camping expedition, necessity will teach him, and much satisfaction may be had in constructing bunks and tables and the other varied parar
phernalia of

two or three boys

the all-important thing, and to make one large is not a difficult matter. What




Tent of Medium Size


shows a serviceable and roomy tent and fly of size, which measures eight feet wide, ten feet long,

and seven

feet high to the peak or ridge. The side drops or aprons are thirty inches high, and against them on both sides of the tent cots may rest on the ground as shown in

the illustration.

ten feet wide and fifteen feet long, and is an extra covering for the tent in case of a hard rain-storm; while in clear weather and with another ridge-pole and up-


fly is

right, it

can be used to lengthen the tent by extending it out beyond the front, where it is to be held fast with stakes

and stanchion-ropes.

The plan shown in Fig. 2 gives the dimensions of canvas, and when the final sewing is done the edges C C at both ends of the tent are brought together and securely overcast
with stout waxed cord.

The only openings are at front and back, and they can be by means of tabs and button-holes at one side, and
bone buttons made
fast to the other edge in a corre-

sponding position to the tabs. Where the iron pins of the uprights project through the canvas, make a circular patch at least six inches in diameter
with two or three thicknesses of the canvas, and sew it fast both at the hole and around the outer edge. This will strengthen the canvas at the most vital point, and prevent it from tearing if a heavy wind should strain the


the proper material of which cannot be had, then a stout of unbleached muslin will answer very well for clear quality weather; but in wet weather it will not shed the water so
Twilled cotton sail-cloth


the tent, but



well as the twilled duck.

machine, but they




The seams can be sewed on a stronger if sewed by hand

with white cotton cord well waxed. All the edges of the cloth should be bound with rope about the size and strength of clothes-line, so that any attachments made to the edges





be borne by the rope instead of
the dotted lines


the strain coming on

the canvas.



in the plan,

which indicates the

inner edges of the aprons, one-inch harness-rings are to be sewed on the straps, through which to reave the guy and

stanchion ropes.

There should be four straps to this tent, making five strips of canvas two feet wide; and these strengthening straps are three-quarters of an inch in width,

and made by lapping the canvas over and sewing it along both edges as shown in the little diagram marked E below
preferred instead of the flaps at the rear of the tent, a back, in one piece, as shown in Fig. 3, can bemade and sewed all around the edges, bringing the edges

the plan in Fig. 2. If a closed end

against the edge B, and joining the vertical edges to the ends of the side aprons on the main sheet.



For ventilation, a flap opening may be made at the top of this end as you can see in Fig. 3; and with tabs and buttons this can be closed when necessary, or tied back
with strings, either to the inside or outside of the tent, where they should be caught to small harness -rings sewed
to the canvas.

The fly is bound with rope all around the outer edge, from which ropes extend out from each end, so that in hot weather, if the sun plays on the tent, it may be kept cool by raising the outer ends of the fly and propping them up with poles at the four corners, and perhaps one extra one at the middle of each side. (See the illustration for the over the table and seats, Fig. 10). canopy The
ridge-pole to hold


this tent is of pine or spruce,

6. for necessary convenience in carrying them. to have the sticks in short lengths. The uprights are two inches square. and they are used to draw the ropes taut. and one inch in thickness. one inch and a half thick. and should be from seven to nine feet in length. better purchase they get in the ground the tent is anchored. making them octagonal in shape. twenty-four inches long. 5. They are to be bored to receive a halfinch pin. The lower they are the and the more securely The extra that it ridge-pole for the fly can be cut at one end so will lap in a corresponding manner on the front end of the tent ridge-pole as where shown in Fig. the ridge-pole can be in two it is . Five-eighth-inch holes are bored in the ridge-pole one inch and a half from each end. For long tents. with the sharp off. Cleats four inches long. The stakes are to be driven into the ground so that but five or six inches of them project. as shown in Fig. so that eight inches of it will project above the top of the upright as shown in Fig. 5. and through these the pins in the uprights will pass. and seven-eighths of an inch thick are provided with two holes through which the stanchion-ropes pass. The stanchion-ropes are caught around the heads of long pegs or stakes. where the strain on the long rope pulls the short end down and chocks the rope. The they upper ends of the uprights are bound with cord or an iron corners planed band to prevent them from splitting when the iron pin is driven in place. two inches wide. 4. and four inches wide.TENTS AND TENT-MAKING ten feet long. two inches wide. with a notch cut three inches from the top as shown in Fig.

and in Fig. ten feet wide. made twenty feet long. 6. feet high to the ridge-pole. erected. erecting the tent. 8 may be duplicated at the rear of the tent. with the aprons at the sides three feet high instead of inches as in the thirty smaller tent.CAMPING AND SCOUTING or three pieces. when twenty feet long and eight feet high from the ground to the ridge-pole. and embed them so that seven feet of pole will be When above the ground. lapped together at the ends as shown in the figure drawing. and in turn the canvas covering. A large camping-tent If it is is Large Camping-tent For a company of boys numbering from four to eight a shown in Fig. 9 the plan for the back is given. so that the pin in the upright will complete the union. 7. If an open back be preferred. is This tent. on which the ridge-pole will rest. it will accommodate six cots and eight and two hammocks swung from the ridge-pole. 8. A plan by which to cut the cloth and make the tent is shown in Fig. This tent smaller one. dig two holes for the uprights to rest in. Three uprights two inches and a half square support the ridge-pole. The stakes are driven three feet out on either side of the aprons so that the stanchion-ropes will line with the pitch of the tent. the flaps shown at the bottom of Fig. which for convenience of transportation may be in two pieces and lapped at the middle as shown in Fig. is made in the and a fly same manner as described for the twenty-two feet long and eighteen feet .


. if you are to stay in one place for any length of time. All around the lower edge of the tent one-inch galvanized should be sewed fast about twelve inches apart. A flag-pole four feet high may be erected on the middle upright by leaving the pin at the top longer. and when erecting one do not trust anything to luck. If it is possible would be well to make a to get some boards and a few joist. in clear weather. This will be quite necessary in the event of a storm or strong wind. for its size offers considerable resistance to a little care and forethought will sometimes strong wind. care should be taken to anchor it securely and brace it well with the stanchion and ropes. but snug your tent and keep ropes taut. it flooring. The lower end of the pole or wire to prevent splitting. will make A small it must be bound with cord pulley at the top. so that it will extend up and into a hole bored in the lower end of the flagpole. as otherwise the lower part of the tent will blow up and flap around in a disagreeable manner. and possible to raise a club flag or pennant. When guy A avert a catastrophe with a tent. a set of halyards. Through these the apron and ends may be tied fast to short rings stakes or wooden pins driven in the ground. side of the illustration. it can be propped up at the outer edges as shown at the left The fly is drawn back at the right side to show how the guy and stanchion ropes are attached to the stakes. so as to prevent the wind from blowing the tent backward and forward as well as from side to side. erecting a tent of this size.CAMPING AND SCOUTING wide is supported over the tent where.

off protected by a fly the latter will lead the water and receive the greater part of the wetting. and in length it should be long enough to cover the roof of the tent and extend a foot or eighteen inches beyond the sides. to have two flies to a tent. The overhang. so that one can be used for a canopy 57 . 7. if drawn over a ridge-pole and held up at the ends by means of poles and stanchion-ropes. when it is possible to dine out- Another use for side the tent. where it is erected over a table and seats. always well. select it Flies and Canopies Every camping-tent should have a fly that is. an extra canvas roof for no matter how good the canvas of which it is made. this overhang is to prevent the rain drivthe aprons of the tent and wetting them close to ing against the cots. Fig.TENTS AND TENT-MAKING Always ble erect around it a level. indeed. leads the water out beyond the apron of the tent and prevents the ground from becoming wet close to the tent. dry place for the tent. or extension. In fair weather. Such a if but fly is shown clearly in the illustration of the large camping- tent. the fly can be used as a canopy. The fly should always be a trifle wider than the tent is long. and if possion ground that is slightly higher than that so as to drain the surface-water away. it will become thoroughly soaked in a heavy rain. A canopy of this kind is shown It is in Fig. where it rests on the stanchion-ropes and is lashed fast to pegs in the ground. 10.

For the of canvas. lar in California boys will who are about to build a permanent camp for several years' use. Through these stanchion-ropes may be reared wherever it is necessary to attach the sheet to branches or poles set in the ground. plain pitched tent.CAMPING AND SCOUTING an auxiliary tent. and at distances from twelve to eighteen inches apart three-quarter-inch galvanized rings should be made fast. a house-tent such as prove very satisfactory. . or canopy. under which a fire can be meals cooked and eaten when it is raining. where at least six months of each year are spent out-of-doors. ii shows the house-tent closed in stormy weather or at night. A One House-tent of the latest features in the modern camp is the house-tent. in which the lower part is floored and boarded half-way up. Flies or canopies should be bound with rope all around the edges. while the balance of the sides and the roof are This style of camp-tent has become very popuand through the Southwest. or built and For a small camp a eighteen feet long. should measure fifteen by twenty-five Under one of this size a party of ten or twelve people camp it can be comfortably seated. n and 12 desirable than the Fig. twelve feet wide and prove very useful in many ways but fly . shown and more in Figs. will for a larger feet. with plenty of room all around. 12 the house is open for fairweather living. One wooden side is let down to form a piazza. and the canvas side above it is propped out with poles so as to act as a canopy or sunshade. while in Fig.

TENTS AND TENT-MAKING twelve feet long. steel-wire The flooring. 13 a clear idea is given for the framing. and out beyond is The frame the sides of the house the joist may extend to support one or both of the wooden sides. which can be let down by means of hinges along the bottom. eight feet wide. which they are spiked with long. add equally to the roof area in the sunshades. while for the under timbers two-by-four or preferably two-by-six rough stock can be used. long. way of In Fig. to nails. The uprights and rafters are of two-by-three-inch stock. and the same or wider boards may be employed for the sheathing. which is of spruce planed on the four sides. slim poles. when propped out with . The joist or flooring beams rest on the ends of posts embedded two feet in the ground. and nine The wood sides are feet high from the roof to the peak. is laid on the space within the four corner uprights. When the sides are lowered they act as piazzas and nearly double the floor space of the house-tent while the canvas sides. three feet and six inches above the floor. of four-inch matched boards. .

At the front. Folding-cots can be used in this house. The side that lets down to form the piazza is battened on where the house is the outside. forming the roof. The rolls are held to the upper frame-bar with cord or straps as shown in Fig. another cot can be placed at that side. as may be seen in Fig. The front door is thirty inches wide and is made from boards and battens. . a window can be set only back of this house-tent. while from corner to corner a hammock may be swung. At the front and back it is drawn over the edges of the end rails. on either side of the doorway. When the side is down the battens drop in between the extended floor joist or beams.CAMPING AND SCOUTING both sides are to let down. and provided with a knob lock by means of which it can be opened from either side. The triangular end-pieces of canvas are attached to the frame with copper or tinned tacks. arid the roof and both sides are of one piece made by sewing together lengths of canvas or twilled sheeting. When the drop-side is up and fastened for the night. so that they will not rust. When camp is broken up in the fall the canvas is to be removed from the framework and kept for next season. and tacked to hold it in place. It would be better to. the canvas may be arranged to roll up in clear weather. 12. or bunks may be two at the side and one built in against the side and end at the end under the window. but the frame may be left standing. n closed. but if only one side lets down the window may be arranged at the enclosed side beIf at the tween uprights the same as the rear window is placed.

The New Tent great drawback to the pitched or army tent in wet weather. three ridge-poles. . six feet and six inches broad at the top. and ten or twelve feet deep. if the house is to be used for a number of seasons. In the illustration of the new tent with French roof (Fig. and four angle-bars will be required for the frame. A coat or two of paint on the wood. . 14) you can readily see the great advantage of this new method of construction. uprights. eight The sides feet at the bottom. it One is is that not a comfortable abode unless you sit down or keep close to the ground. when one has to stay in-doors. slim poles with Two crotched ends can be cut to prop the guy -ropes out from the tent as shown in the illustration. for it affords a great deal of head room. For a party of three or four boys this tent should measure seven feet and six inches high. for they would offer too much resistance to the wind if left standing in place. and some long. twenty-one twelve feet wide. feet long and ten or and top are in one piece. for there is little or no head will improve its appearance greatly and preserve the wood. The rear end is made in one piece and sewed fast to the edges of the sides and top. At the front two flaps are sewed to the top and 61 sides. and might break or cause the framework of the house to rack and become rickety during the winter storms and high winds.TENTS AND TENT-MAKING remove the door and sashes and slide them under the floor.

CAMPING AND SCOUTING They each measure seven feet and six inches long at the inner edge. They are cut as shown in Fig. and so prevent the outer ridge-poles from straining the canvas. One of the best anchorages for the guy-ropes of a tent is made with the lock-stake and deadeye cleat shown at Fig. a notch to hold the rope is driven into the ground. and seven feet long at the outer edge. and another notched stake is driven in close to the head. There are three ridge-poles two inches in diameter and ten feet long. 15 A. and provided with two holes three inches apart. four feet and three inches long. four feet across the bottom. bevelled at the lower ends to fit against the upright post as shown at Fig. Stout screw-eyes and wire hold the braces in position at the top. as shown at Fig. and a collar of iron made and screwed to the uprights so that the tongue end of the angle-irons will fit in them as shown at Fig. and when the tent is set up the canvas will appear as shown in Fig. A stake with The deadeye cleat is cut from hard-wood seven-eighths of an inch thick. and four brace -bars two inches square. eighteen inches of which is set into the ground. fit. An iron pin (Fig. 17 B. 17 A. 16 D) is driven in the top of each upright and at the outer ends of the brace-bars over which the ridge- poles pose. they having been provided with holes for the purAngle-irons are screwed fast to the bevelled ends of is the brace -bars. three feet and five inches at the top. 16 A. 1 6 C. 16 B. 15 B. The frame is composed of two uprights two inches square and nine feet long. and is two inches wide. At one end a 62 . so that when in far enough the notch in the latter will hold the head of the former as shown at Fig. six inches long.


so that a rope may be caught in it as shown in Steel. and with this new rope -fastener it will be an easy matter to stay a tent to withstand any wind-storm. the harder of the rope caught first in the jaw can be given a turn or two around the cleat to make it fast. 17 A. 17 A. the more securely the deadeye cleat holds. 170. and the same size as the diameter of the you pull on the tent end of the rope. . and riveted at the point ends to strengthen the deadeyes. indicated by the dotted lines in Fig.CAMPING AND SCOUTING jaw is cut.wire nails are passed through the holes Fig. and the loose end rope. The manner if in which the holes are made it is used is shown at Fig. The double -peg anchorage is better than a single one.

but it is not always available. Folding cots can be bought. there are balsam trees near camp will recommend and smoothly thatched. . and free from knots or sappy places. But cots are very useful. then run two or three of stitching along both sides four inches in from the This forms the sleeve through which the poles are 65 edges. hay. A piece of light canvas or twilled cotton duck fifty-four inches wide and seventy-two inches long is sewed together so as to form a cylindrical case thirty. strong pillow-case can be stuffed with balsam or anything suitable. Lay and crease it along the edges. two inches in diameter. A simple canvas cot is easily made from two pine or spruce sticks seven feet long.six inches it flat lines wide and seventy-two inches long. A twigs. The canvas cot may seem to some more comfortable than boughs. Sleeping-bags are not recommended for summer camping.Chapter VI HOW IF campers TO FIT OUT THE CAMP the majority of old a bed of small balsam boughs. blanket. to be passed. with the points toward the neatly Over this put a rubber blanket and one woollen head. or cots may be made either of canvas and poles or of boughs and leaves.

it can be shown in 'Fig. 2 by constructing two ends. procure the can- made Fig. folding To make the cot twenty-six inches wide. and . a middle pole. so as to avoid breakage and a possible fall. should be three inches in diameter and quite strong. If a folding-cot with portable ends to appear as is desired. and four iron brace-hooks. i to extend a foot or eighteen inches above the ground.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Crotched sticks are to be embedded in the ground to supThese are port the ends of the poles as shown in Fig.5 .

From iron an inch wide and less than a quarter of an inch in thickness have a blacksmith cut four hook-braces eighteen inches long with a hole at one end and a notch at the With round-headed screws attach two of the braces other. 3 A. several lines of stitching. Bind the ends of the poles with wire or have a blacksmith band them with iron ferrules. near each end of the pole. 67 that can be swung between the uprights of a of canvas thirty inches wide and seventy-two It is lapped over at the ends and sewed with . as shown in Fig. in the form of an X. then bore the ends and drive threaded pins in. to receive the Bevel off the lower ends of the sticks bolt ends in the poles. end to end where the bolt passes through both legs. 3 B. so as to receive a two-inch bar to which the three ropes are made fast as shown in Fig. and is attached with a nut and washer.HOW TO FIT OUT THE CAMP vas and poles as directed for the first cot. the ends will lie flat on the ground as shown in Fig. 3 C. 4. as shown in Fig. These will steady the cot. 3 C. and extends from in Fig. From having nuts at the ends as shown at Fig. 2. and bore holes at one end and midway between ends. or oak two inches wide and an inch thick cut four maple legs thirty-two inches long. so that when the cot is set up the notches will hook over screws driven in the upper edge of each leg near the bottom as shown in Fig. and provide the ends with bolts and nuts as shown This is for the under brace. so that when opened. From pine or spruce cut a stick two inches square. A hammock tent is made inches long. 2. and place them in opposite directions. and prevent it from rocking from end to end as it would do if not braced.

with clusters of leaves are and on these in turn a corners. or they Any number of these can be lashed fast hammocks may be made and little very handle than a woven or braided hammock. and stakes for the legs. When making a cot of boughs the most satisfactory and comfortable affair is the basket-woven or lattice mattress of small. This in Fig. Tables and Benches Every boy should know how to make a table from some fence boards. as shown in Fig. 5. and when finished the mattress is laid on a pair of poles supported with crotched sticks. i. the strands of which are forever catching in everything and anything with easily carried. From brought together and bound the bars at each end they are to rings which slip over hooks made to the uprights. but without the canvas. The long arrangement applies also to the shorter or cross-pieces. and thus distribute the strain evenly over the lattice. Over this lattice short twigs spread. a rail or two. The table shown in Fig. They are much easier to which they come into contact. as they roll up snugly and occupy room in a bedding-kit. 6 is made from three boards about 68 . fast to the tent uprights. two can be spread and tied down at the so that the leaves may not become dislodged.CAMPING AND SCOUTING The end ropes should be twenty-four inches long and the middle one eighteen. pliable saplings trimmed and interwoven as shown pieces should be alternated so that the large end of one stick will be next the small end of another. to blanket or make a soft mattress.

but they should be strong and serviceable. the braces. should be from six to eight feet long. are cut as shown at small tree-trunks. tached. from rustic wood and pieces of board need not be so well constructed that any great amount of time should be expended on them. is shown inches high. fast with steel.wire nails as shown at C. two or three inches is The seat Fig. two tree-trunks thirty-two inches to which one end of the boards are atfrom the ground. and the back board. Two stakes three inches thick are driven in the rail is nailed across ground four feet from the trees. 8. They are is A larger table nailed fast to four or five inch rails attached to the tree- trunks and to stout posts embedded in the ground. three or four in it is built against two trees. thirty-six inches long. 9 A. seat is The made of ordinary boards nailed to the top edges . number. A simple chair that any boy can make from branches or Chairs made for camp life in diameter. eighteen inches long. The middle of the table is supported by a batten. or rail. and like the smaller one The boards. 7. and across the upper ends of them a rail is nailed fast to support the other ends of the boards. shown in Fig. are cut as shown at B. The laps are cut out with saw and chisel so as which are made to receive the seat-rails. which is nailed fast to the top of a post embedded under the centre of the table. Two pieces of wood. and the back posts are thirty-six inches high. sixteen inches eighteen square.HOW A TO FIT OUT THE CAMP eight inches wide and five feet long battened together at the ends and across the under side of the middle. and two more. in Fig.

10. and it can be built either detached or fast to the ground. 10. benches running the length of the tables are made manner to the chairs. In the illustration of a canopy (Fig. will and if the edge is smoothed off there be less liability to tear one's garments. The table is thirty inches wide and five feet long. The seat should be eighteen inches high. If the corner-posts are embedded a foot or eighteen inches in the ground it will make the table firmer and less liable to rack than if built loose or detached. but if the corner-posts or legs are to be embedded in the ground the side braces will not be necessary. in a similar Two sixteen inches wide. a table and benches are shown. page 55). as occasion requires. 9 of the rails all around. . and with a middle brace it will appear as shown in Fig.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Fig. and from five to eight feet long.


Camping Equipment



out for a camping expedition it is always best a memorandum of the things you will need some time

before you start, for so surely as

you do not do

this there

be some important things forgotten. The stuff that fill an ordinary clothes-basket should be enough for a
of four boys,


but for a greater number the supply

must be increased accordingly. In this list there must be included a

kettle, two pans, tin or enamelled dishes, a frying-pan or two, a broiler, a wooden pail for water, and smaller tin pails; a lantern, candles, matches in tin boxes, hatchet or axe, blankets, knives and

and a few other culinary accessories. The have to be taken from home, unless they dry can be purchased near the camp or from some farm-house.
forks, spoons,

groceries will


the latter



generally possible to obtain butter,

milk, eggs, a chicken or two, and other food that you may stand in need of if hunting or fishing fail you. In Fig. n, showing a corner of the tent, a portable

supporting some of the things it would be well to have in camp, and while a boy may think that he

knows what




his mother's or older sister's advice

would be well for him to take on the subject.

Lockers and Mess-kits

Lock-boxes with handles, in which to store dry groceries


and mess-kits for the kitchen and dining ware, among the most important parts of the camping outfit.

They may be made from ordinary well-constructed boxes, and provided with hinged lids, a hasp and padlock, and handles at either end by means of which they may be carried

eighteen inches wide, twenty-four inches long, and twelve inches deep, and with two thin boards four compartments are made as shown in
in Fig. 12

The lock-box shown


Fig. 12 A.

A lid



of three boards

and two battens,

and securely attached to the box with strap hinges. A hasp and padlock as well as two handles can be purchased at a hardware store and screwed fast to the chest. A mess-kit may be made of a box with both lid and bottom It is then sawed around three inches nailed on securely. from one side, dividing it so that quite a little of the wood
both sides. With hinges these are fastened together like a Gladstone bag, and on the inside, pockets and straps can be arranged to accommodate cooking-utensils and food-stuffs. Fig. 12 B shows this kit, and with a trunkstrap and a rope it can be easily carried from place to place.

fast to

For knives,

forks, spoons, kettle-lids,

and other small para-

phernalia of the

a nest of pockets may be camping made from denim or unbleached muslin, like the one shown The pockets are commodihanging on the wall in Fig. 1 1 ous and will accommodate many little things, and the nest can be folded over and tied at the corners with stout cord.


inches high,

nest of this description should be three feet long, thirty and with three lines of pockets as shown in the

The sewing should be done by hand with


linen or carpet thread, so that the stitching will not






carry-all (Fig. 13)




denim or

light sail-cloth,


be found the most convenient sort of a catch-all, may be folded over and rolled up, then bound with a
it easily.

shawl-strap to carry



piece of denim a yard wide and forty-two inches long folded at the dotted lines A A as shown in the plan (Fig.

The edges will then reach the lines B B. Sew the flaps at the two ends and divide the long pockets into smaller ones as shown in Fig. 13. Knives, forks, spoons, and a

variety of small things can be kept in this nest of pockets, and when in camp it may be hung from one end by rings, so

that the pockets occupy a horizontal position and the contents can be easily gotten at.

Chapter VII
a simple camp range which "Nessmuk" and others have approved. Two logs six feet long and eight inches thick are laid side by side some eight or ten inches apart at one end and four at the other. They

HERE many

are bedded firmly, flattened on the inside, and levelled on A forked stake is driven in at either end of the space, top.

and a

cross-pole laid on for kettles.

Start the




kindling and dry hemlock bark, keep it up with of black birch, hickory, sugar maple, yellow birch, or red birch.

short sticks

The permanent camper can make a stone stove similar This holds the fire within the to the one shown in Fig. i stone enclosure, and retains the greater part of the heat.

Flat stones should be used in the construction of this stove, and if it is possible to get some clay from the bed of a

can be used in place of cement for sealing the joints. This of course will make the fire burn better, as the only



draught will then enter at the bottom, or doorway, through which the sticks are fed to the fire. These doorways or draught-holes should be made on two or three sides of the stove, and when one is in use
the other 3


be closed or


open, according to the

strength of the wind and the direction from which
it is


The pot should be hung on the ridge-pole so that it touches the top of the stove and holds in the heat.. Fish may be fried in a pan or broiled much better than over an

and water can be boiled quicker and




This stove can be made either round or square, and if bricks are available for use they will be better than stones as the joints are closer and they are not so ungainly to

Over the stove a ridge-pole or bar should be supon a yoked stick at one end and a twin-stick tripod ported The yoked or crotched stick is embedded in at the other. the ground, or it can be the sawed-off stump of a small tree. The lower ends of the twin sticks should be let into the

ground for a foot or eighteen inches, so that the ridge-bar can be removed without its supports falling over.

Always build a fire or a stove in the shade, for it will not burn so well if the sun plays on it. In rainy weather a canopy over this stone stove will keep it dry and cause it to burn better than if exposed to the elements. Here are some other ideas for camp-fires proper. Let
us suppose that the party
sary utensils for

provided with the necescamp-cooking a camp-kettle, coffee-pot, frying-pan, saucepan, and some sort of baking-pan. These should prove sufficient, unless the party intends having quite elaborate menus. If it is intended to remain at the camp while cooking one or two meals, make your fire in this only

manner: Cut two green poles about five or six inches thick and about two feet long. In these cut notches about a foot


Level the ground where you intend to build your and lay these poles down with the notches up and about

three feet apart.
feet long


and lay them

cut two or three poles about four in these notches. Gather a good






supply of dry wood, grass, bark, or chips, and

make your on the ground between the poles. The air will circulate under and through the fire, and the poles will prove just Do not pile on wood right to set your cooking-utensils on. the armful. Add a little at a time, and you will find you by can cook rapidly and well, and not burn your face and hands
while attending to your cooking. If it is intended to remain several meals at the



pay to put up a crane. This is built in this manner: Cut two green posts two or more inches thick and three feet Drive these into the ground long, having forks at one end. at each end of your fire. Cut another green pole the same diameter and long enough to reach between the forks. Flatten the ends so that they will set snug in the forks. The poles should be driven into the ground so that when the bail of the kettle is slipped on the crane the bottom of
the kettle will just clear the fire. If the camp is to be of a permanent nature, or it is expected to remain there for some days or weeks, it will be well to

arrange for a better kitchen that will not be affected by the winds, the bete noire of camp-cooking. Dig a trench (cutting
the sides square) as long as the distance between your uprights, and about eighteen inches wide and a foot deep. Make your fire in this hole, on the ground, and you will find
that the wind will not worry you one-half as much as before If you wish to take the trouble, and the material (Fig. 2).
is handy, the plan in Fig. 4 is a most excellent one to follow. Wall up the sides of the trench with brick, add a little chimney at one end, and get several iron "S" hooks from which to suspend your kettles. This will save the lifting of

or thinks he does. or on the side to simmer. for clayey soil. flapjacks. with less difficulty than by any other means. or those indigestion-producers." but their weight in gold would not induce me to eat some that I swallowed as a boy and thought "fine. so if he camps far from a store or house where he can buy his bread he will not have to eat crackers. generally in the slope of a On one side run a shaft laterally. but in the end the laborers ticularly feet square will adapted and two feet in depth. be well paid for their work. We will now make an oven in which to bake the bread or biscuit. To make this little kitchen takes more time and a more labor. Dig down the bank to a vertical face. The plan used below is in the the best army for camp-cooking and described for all-around work. and one foot from the surface of the ground. and at equidistances pierce holes of sufficient diameter to prevent the kettles from slipping through. and six feet in length." We will assume that before going into camp your dear mother has taught you how to mix a batch of dough or a pan of biscuit. At the extreme end sink a shaft vertically and form a chimney. that the youthful I have camper knows how to make. Fig. By this mode the kettles can be placed over the fire to boil. By this method you will economize on fuel and save heat. about one foot square hill. 5 A and B.CAMP-FIRES AND SIMPLE COOKING the crane every time you wish to handle the kettles suspended over the fire. I want to tell the young camper how to bake his own bread in camp. and at eaten many a one in my 6 79 . It is parDig a hole about three young days before putting on the "army blue. A bank from four to six feet is the best for the purpose.

Fig. care being taken to keep the entrance as small as possible. Hollow out the sides of the excavation and arch the roof. hole from four to six inches will give a good draught.CAMPING AND SCOUTING the base excavate a hole. carefully "tap" the back end for the chimney. say three to four feet horizontally. 6 till the floor of the oven is about two feet wide and the arch about sixteen inches at the centre. Fig. and insert a piece of stove-pipe if handy. Wet the inside of the Now A . 6 A and B.

and place the inside. use if handy. pans of dough and cover with mud so as to keep in all the heat. commencLay it on about six inches thick.CAMP-FIRES AND SIMPLE COOKING hard oven. and other boys will doubtless appreciate bis lectures on things culinary. 3. build a good in the oven. and when it is well scrape out all ashes. heated remove the proper care this oven will last several weeks. If be burned out without danger to the oven. Si . make willow mould plaster a stiff mortar made of mud. Uncle Harry. use of willow twigs stuck in the ground it. it is not a difficult matter to construct a good oven on the level ground If a flour-barrel is by following the method below. A small mud it chimney will increase the not at hand. A bank may not be handy in which to build an oven of the kind described above." who an old and experienced camper-out. to dry for a day or two. if such proves the case. and leave to dry for a day. draught if a piece of stove-pipe is a barrel has been used as the mould it may Camp-cooking Even the is finest of camps is is a dreary place unless the com" missary department well organized. With fire. gives some useful suggestions to his nephews. and keep up a fire for half a day before (See page 77. Fig. Carefully remove all dirt. fire to bake. and when nearly dry cut out a door at one end and the flue at the other. and smooth over the walls so that the mud presents a When you are ready finish. Close up the entrance with a board. Allow ing at the base.) attempting to bake. Over the barrel or not. and bent over so as to form a mould.

If you should have no it oil. and in which a small quantity of cotton-seed oil is sizzling merrily. but near enough to the fire to keep hot until will wanted. and hung over the fire half an hour before supper. He * keep them boiling furiously until he can run a sliver of wood easily through the largest one. which is already on the stove. Then Bob will set the table. for the last meal of the day in camp is always the most important one. they must be set aside." begins Uncle Harry. only have methods of making hesitates before deciding which to try. Aleck rolls After they are cleaned. for no axiom is more true than that too many cooks spoil the broth. still in the kettle.CAMPING AND SCOUTING "Let us suppose. been told to put his coffee in cold water and let it come to a boiling hot before placing the fish in "Aleck has heard of half a dozen and 82 . "that you have gotten the camp into ship -shape order. He has coffee. Then the water must be drained from them. pork fat will do nearly as it. "Ben's fish all weigh less than a pound. These are placed in a kettle nearly full of water. and. and so are too small to do anything with but fry.time. In the mean time Aleck has pared and washed a dozen potatoes. and while he is busy over the fire neither of the others shall interfere with him or his duties. while Ben goes a-fishing and catches half a dozen trout or other small fry from the lake. We will appoint Aleck as cook. or rather dinner. and after your hard day's work are ravenously hungry and very impatient for supper. them in corn-meal and lays them carefully in the frying-pan. well.' "Ben and Bob must see that the cook is well supplied with water and has plenty of small-split firewood close at hand.

. "In preparing coffee by his old uncle's method. "Aleck fills the coffee-pot with water.CAMP-FIRES AND SIMPLE COOKING must not see the water until it is boiling. so as to leave the pot about three-quarters full. Uncle Harry. let it stand in a warm place two or three minutes. he pours off some." "Oh. and then lifts He pours out a tin cupful of the coffee. in thinking it all over he members a method perplexed. and it would have been ready 83 for you. only noticing the interruption with a smile. " If either of you had wanted tea. and then its contents place are ready for drinking. Aleck would have put in the pot a teaspoonful of tea leaves for each cup to be made. poured boiling water over it." con- tinues Captain Archer. the coffee-pot near the fire. he has heard that coffee must never be boiled. While it is coming to a boil he meas- ures out his coffee at the rate of a heaping table-spoonful for each cup to be made. you are not a bit old. which he has laid across from one log to the other of the stove. pours in all the hot water stove. As soon empties in his cupful of soaked coffee. throwing away the residue pours slowly For about a minute. or of grounds that remain in the cup. it from the it fire. and decides to try it.'* interrupts Aleck. he allows its contents to again come to a boil. and back into the pot. puts it into his tin cup. and that the only way to extract its strength is to boil it and so boil. Setting the pot back. and sets it on the broiler wires. and sets it in a warm place on the as the water in the coffee-pot boils. which his old uncle who is much Finally he reis in the army has mentioned to him. and that the coffee . and it will hold. while the rest of the dinner stands in a warm is being served.

"I think you can. enough for a first experiment. boiled potatoes. and you try hard. At any rate. They are considered delicacies on first-class tables. "The cold boiled potatoes left from dinner the night before may be cut up and fried with half a dozen slices of breakfast bacon. Take turns in frying the cakes. if I tell you how. to which you can add from your supplies bread and butter." exclaimed Aleck. and add a pleasant variety to a woodman's fare. In frying use ful of More griddle-cakes are spoiled grease as possible. the use of too much grease in frying than in any other by bit of pork rind or an oiled rag rubbed over the way. I can't make griddle-cakes. if you have them. put a teaspoonful of salt. 84 . easily cooked dinner of fried fish. for they enter largely into camp meals. and then fry on a hot griddle. a handful of corn-meal.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Here you have a plain. and mix with cold water into a batter. They are only fit to eat when hot from the griddle. Catch them with a light rod. and when all is ready you will have a breakfast to which I think three hungry boys will do ample justice. and coffee. condensed I think you will find it milk. griddle two of is sufficient. fried " "For breakfast next morning you will have coffee. pickles. and sugar. a table-spoonthe composition of brown sugar. and griddle-cakes. salt. catch frogs." " Oh. you had better try. Uncle Harry. so that "When you become tired of fish. griddle-cakes. two eggs. To make the simplest flour into a pan a quart of your prepared flour. or crackers. Stir thoroughly until no lumps are left. as little A you can be eating them as fast as they are done. potatoes and breakfast bacon. pepper.

in oil or pork fat. Stupefied by its glare. Kill your frog by a tap on let you pick them up. or until it begins to fall from the bones. and fry brown in hot oil or pork fat. salt. Throw them also cut the body crosswise into two parts. "To cook rice. to be stirred in gradually. scrape a potato into the soup for thickening. Add potatoes. When nearly done. The chief thing to be remembered in making a stew is to stew it enough. and do not be afraid to let it boil. and tail. an onion sliced. cut off his thighs and hind-legs. and strip it off in two parts. and small hook baited with a bit of scarlet flannel. Then fry them. chop off his head. pared and quartered. " In making a meat soup provide plenty of meat. and a thickening made of flour and melted butter. hissUse the fore-quarters for a stew. probably have an opportunity of adding When you have got your squirrel. they will "You will also squirrels to your bill of fare. place it in a 85 . roll them in Indian-meal.' "Let your meat boil for more than an hour. " ' An old camp jingle runs thus : A Is stew that's too little stewed understood to be no good. or at night by use of a jack-light. hot. and season with salt and pepper. the head. feet. ing "To make a stew use almost any kind of flesh or fowl. until of a rich brown. and let the hind-quarters parboil until tender. and three hours is not too long. In the morning pour off the water in which it has soaked. It is hard to boil it too much. fore and aft.CAMP-FIRES AND SIMPLE COOKING short line. let a cupful soak overnight. pepper. cut the skin crosswise of the back. into a kettle. skin them.

season Eat hot with syrup. butter. "To make mush with fry salt. sugar. without stirring. "These are the rudiments of camp-cookery. and boil it until the kernels are soft." Not an exit appetizing And the boys agreed with him. and stir next morning. Remember slowly. and it is particularly good when added to the batter from which you make your griddle-cakes. to salt it. . It is good to add to your soups and stews. Save what is left over. Rice is good with condensed milk. but I think you will find and nourishing. it corn-meal into boiling water. tended bill of fare. The same rule applies to hominy.CAMPING AND SCOUTING kettle of cold water. or syrup.

fish" they are sometimes slightingly called. and not too easily caught. much be beautiful and found in beautiful places. one cunning old trout or pickerel outwitted to a basket of stupid fish that contended for the bait. so the better. not fish. besides. It happens that by common consent cerit salmon and trout and their kindred are in Europe and America esteemed above all others. but the opportunity to angle for them is not open to every one. "Boys' but they have . one big fish to many smaller is EVERYboy gent boy knows how to go a-fishing. Sportsmanlike Fishing begin with: The chief things that make a fish desirable. in the sense of a game or sport fish. but an intelli- ones. Presently he begins to desire more delicate tackle. and most boys tain fish must get their sport with other less-esteemed kinds. not too common. and understands that he is fishing for sport.Chapter VIII FISHING RODS AND TACKLE not long in learning that the mere getting of a lot of fish is a small part of the pleasure. To If. That is why he prefers the rod to the seine. are that it shall be good food.

Cleaning fish by candlelight goes far to spoil the Do not clean fish with your pocketin will also cut bait. the cleaning is done more easily if done early. and at the end of the fishing the best may be chosen for keeping and the rest let go. and try to be at home in time to do it before supper. 88 . kill it at once by a blow upon the back of the head where the backbone joins it. Learn to do it well yourself. This is not only more merciful. If a fish is to be kept. your kit a stout one for the purpose which Such knives. if Have kept in order. Study the habits of the where and when and upon what it feeds or what it seeks. knife. but a veteran kitchen-knife or a broken tableknife. it. too. made expressly. sport of a pleasant day. This wariness you do not expect to change. for instance. if you it is caught. and these are usually the oldest and most wary. and he will get more sport he takes pains to make the worth catching and better worth having after It is better worth having. Care and Patience Now. will do excellent service.CAMPING AND SCOUTING lots of sport to give to the boy who knows how to get if it. If one is fishing from a boat or not moving about much the fish may be kept alive in a floating live-box or basket. but makes firmer meat. but you hope to defeat fish. are sold for a small sum. Clean water makes sweet fish. Let your fishing be governed by your discoveries. Fish are fish better sweeter. if cleaned as soon as possible. besides. have caught it from the cleanest water you have access to. how are you to increase the sport of the catching ? Of course you want the largest fish.

They do not feel hungry if a boy throws his shadow across their table. which is one of the great charms of angling. You win then only by dexterity of handling. You want also as good a fight as you can get. a good line 89 When you . as regards the mere catching of fish. and about the only one." be the weakest point of all. then. For instance. Remember that the fighting qualities of fish are as a rule best developed in those which live in rapid and turbulent water. But any fish will fight better if you make the struggle more even by using delicate tackle.FISHING RODS AND TACKLE And while you are offering him what he wants and when and where he wants it. coolness in handling Tackle put your tackle together you will make it far safer if you consider it as one apparatus or machine from hook to reel and if you let the rod top. or shakes it by rushing up to it. drift into the fish's sight as if you had nothing to do with it. Care in the preparait. or "tip. and in those which pursue their prey and catch it by their own nimbleness. told in The secret two words of success with delicate tackle may be care and coolness. and if you have alarmed it in any way stay out of sight and remain as quiet as possible for a long time until your clumsiness is forgotten. because by it you can best determine the strain upon the whole gear. on which the experienced angler sets much value. as quietly as you are able. and then let your lure. remember these old fellows are fussy about their table-service. whether bait or fly. Stalk your fish. tion of the tackle.

and even of this frayed or put in the sun to rot. fish the latter soon exhausts excess of line not easily Any 90 . and.CAMPING AND SCOUTING lift at least ten pounds. By testing your tackle you raise your fishing from a roughand-ready guesswork to something like certainty. But never have a rod so flexible that it will not control the tackle. when you come home. the one point of doubt being always the security of the hook in the you soon acquire the power of judging. a good snell at least three pounds if new. The strain upon the tackle is equalized by the elasticity of the rod. and every time if you it gets caught on a stone or stump or in the bushes wish to escape the loss of your best fish. avoid one which is weak reel if in the middle. the hook more than the snell. let the fish do the pulling is if you wish to safely handle if But as strong as a boy. Therefore dry your line. for Look over and test your instance. or gut which is fish's mouth. so that for fresh-water fishing will usually you may know by the the tackle is strain upon the top the joint is bearing. steady pull upon the himself fighting this elasticity. No a gentle. tackle every time you are going fishing yes. which to some extent makes up for want of dexterity. But this testing is not done once for all. while the top of an ordinary light rod will rarely bear more than two pounds of dead weight. Lastly. and if joint just what safe the whole is likewise safe. angling-tackle the rod be so held that its spring keeps the line taut and it. does not long remain sound. above all. carefully unwinding it from the you have one and winding it upon a chair-back. Good tackle which is put away wet to mildew.

Fly-rods and Fly-tackle. but it would better be deferred one knows fairly well the use of a rod and just what kind he wants. bait-rods and fly-rods. but if from a boat. without heavy. and he will probably have but one. as is done in jointed rod minnow-fishing or some kinds of sea-fishing. not above ten feet. better if bait is A 1 Mr. shorter rods are fishing within reach. a rod a dozen feet long would not be too long. if one fishes ponds or wide streams from the bank. to throw a line quite length of the rod. to be cast long distances. is nowadays factories turn out really good ones at prices above what one must pay for reliable rod-wood. Still. a shorter rod. without being finicky. Draw the yanking. Roughly speaking. as many rods as a golf-player has clubs. The Choice of Rods 1 Rods vary according to the kind of fishing. and the "allround" fisherman will probably have. or. if tired fish out gently. tailed Henry P. The making of rods is not very economical. will be more convenient. But the boy for whom this is written must make his pocket-money go as far as possible.FISHING RODS AND TACKLE controlled by the rod alone should be at once taken 4 ' up by ' ' the reel. Rod-making until an interesting amusement. Bait-rods are nearly always stiffer than flyrods the latter must have sufficient flexibility and elasticity since little . there are two kinds of rods. Wells's book. lead it into the landing-net. often several times the in choosing a bait-rod a different according to the particular sort of made Thus. selection will be But a distance. 91 . furnishes a destudy of the subject.

but if one lives within walking or driving distance of his fishing a rod in one piece. but braided for lines kink less. Beautiful and excellent rods are of . Shapes which have received names are many.CAMPING AND SCOUTING is convenient for carrying. hooks are still practically all made in England. In fly-fishing for large trout or bass the reel usually carries forty to fifty yards. any. because it can be used for bait-fishing. one desires to use the fly. let the line-guides be of the sort known as "standingguides" rather than rings. Limerick. because it is less liable to injury and because of the greater ease with which it is repaired. while a baitfly. if you have the choice. Aber9* . quite enough any and half as much would usually suffice. but not too heavy twisted lines are more easily found of good quality. the boy himself may do it if he be handy. Among the best are Q'Shaughnessy. then the best rod is a rather stout fly-rod about ten feet in length. Hooks should be of the best quality to be had. But for beginners' use the writer prefers a solid-wood rod of good quality. moderate cost but avoid very cheap ones. Whatever rod you have. such as is easily made from a slender bamboo with an elastic tip of good wood spliced on. and most of them have advantages for particular kinds of fishing. is as good for bait-fishing as If. Good fishing of the kind Twenty yards are we are considering. Lines should be sound and strong. rod cannot be used to cast a made of split bamboo. Sneckbend. besides bait-fishing. and some Lines and Hooks for the rod.

a very small fish can take any ordinary hook. gray. A well-made singleclick reel is better than any multiplier except for the one reel is A hook. you can <get some white. however. and it is weeds and to notify the inexperienced angler that a Choose one that is slender in shape and not biting. mouth. The last-named we think will meet more kinds of need than any other one. cream-colored hairs from the tail of a young stallion you can make bottom lines or leaders for light fishing without expense. form part of the first useful to keep the bait out of the fish is large. and if fish are shy may be better than a more showy one. For sinkers. line. it should be remembered that the hook is to fit the bait. Do not buy a bait-box. such as comes from tea-chests. and a prime convenience. or enough.FISHING RODS AND TACKLE and Sproat. wound around the line are as good as any and very It is easily gotten. not the fish's deen. which a beginner For fly-casting a leader or casting-line of gut between the fly and the main line is necessary for making a light cast. split shot BB size and buckshot or strips of thin lead. not so good as a bag with a 93 . reel. As to size. A gaudy float is pretty sure to angling outfit. A dry stick makes a good enough extemporaneous float. Other Tackle not so absolutely necessary as the rod. but for ordinary bait-fishing the gut-snells which are nowadays so generally sold attached to hook are bottom line If. but it is matter of making long casts from the is not likely to do.

Coachman and a few others. Begin by putting your rod together properly. a dozen or two will do for the simple camp life we are considering. the flies should include the Montreal. We give no details about flies. Brown and Black Hackle. For trout. dug a day or two before using and ''scoured" by putting them into soft moss wrung out of water. A landing-net is convenient if you fish for game which are better if Worms much is of heavy in proportion to your tackle say for fish upward a pound in weight with a light rod. hand to be inserted and The same string will serve to fasten the bag to your buttonhole or creel-strap. Dusty Miller. which will allow your will also close the aperture snugly. know how to use it. put the tip into the middle first. that the possesIt is necessary to makes an angler. Professor. See that the ferrules are well "home" and that the guides 94 . Wash it after using. Parmachenee Belle. and then the middle into the butt. of course they must be kept in water. They become brighter and firmer by scouring and are more attractive to fish. A pail is the most convenient vessel to carry them in. Probably most boys are too sensible to fall into the error which seems to beset sion of tackle many adults namely. as their name is legion.CAMPING AND SCOUTING drawstring. The bag is best made of flannel. the choice of course to be guided by local requirements. A beginner would better have but few kinds and of moderate size. If live minnows or small fish are used for bait. which must be changed from time to time. Very low-priced ones are now sold in the shops and sufficiently good ones can be made at home.

in the reel-seat and see that the reel-bands are snug and will not slip. or into the head as at B (Fig. if the current be too quick a little will probably be required to keep snell may the bait near the bottom. if side. you have one. give the line a gentle swing forward. If you have to cast it out into still water do not use your rod and line as if it were a thresher's flail. do not make a splash when you put it into the water. But when seeking many fish which are not very shy the Place the be fastened directly to the line. two or three it will be well to fasten it to the end of the line feet long and to the other end of the gut attach the snell of the hook. too. Some veteran anglers still enjoy the bobbing of the float. i).FISHING RODS AND TACKLE are all on the same reel. if there be one) shall fall 7 95 . Let us suppose that you are to fish with bait and that If you have a short gut line bait a worm. and when the bait has swung well out reach after it with the rod so that the bait (and float. In pond-fishing or reaches of a stream which are very quiet a float as well as lead may be convenient. B more likely to be taken in such a way as to insure that the hook is in the fish's mouth. so that the line will run freely. the others depend upon what is to be done. Holding your rod nearly straight up. When the worm is dead or has slipped down into a bunch at the bend of the hook no fish that you want will as be likely to take it. A is rather more attractive to the fish. Now. In fishing in a gently moving stream no lead may be needed. The hook may be put into the side of the worm shown at A. Then lead off the line through the rings and the tip-ring. These details are the same whatever kind of fishing is in hand.

Dusty Miller. that the possesIt is necessary to makes an angler. the choice of course to be guided by local requirements. Begin by putting your rod together properly. A landing-net is convenient if you fish for game which are better if Worms much is of heavy in proportion to your tackle say for fish upward a pound in weight with a light rod. and then the middle into the butt. A pail is the most convenient vessel to carry them in. as their name is legion. If live minnows or small fish are used for bait. put the tip into the middle first. which must be changed from time to time. Parmachenee Belle. Very low-priced ones are now sold in the shops and sufficiently good ones Can be made at home. Probably most boys are too sensible to fall into the error which seems to beset sion of tackle many adults namely. They become brighter and firmer by scouring and are more attractive to fish. Coachman and a few others. See that the ferrules are well "home" and that the guides 94 . of course they must be kept in water. Professor. The bag is best made of flannel. A beginner would better have but few kinds and of moderate size. Brown and Black Hackle. the flies should include the Montreal. dug a day or two before using and "scoured" by putting them into soft moss wrung out of water. hand to be inserted and The same string will serve to fasten the bag to your buttonhole or creel-strap. which will allow your will also close the aperture snugly. know how to use it. For trout. a dozen or two will do for the simple camp life we are considering. Wash it after using.CAMPING AND SCOUTING drawstring. We give no details about flies.

give the line a gentle swing forward. the bait near the bottom. line bait a Let us suppose that you are to fish with bait and that worm. B more likely to be taken in such a way as to insure that the hook is in the fish's mouth. Place the reel. if there be one) shall fall 7 95 . in the reel-seat and see that the reel-bands are snug and will not slip. the others depend upon what is to be done. If you have a short gut line two or three it feet long will be well to fasten it to the end of the line and to the other end of the gut attach the snell of the hook. i). too. and when the bait has swung well out reach after it with the rod so that the bait (and float. Then lead off the are all on the same side. If you have to cast it out into still water do not use your rod and line as if it were a thresher's flail.FISHING RODS AND TACKLE that the line will run freely. These details are the same whatever kind of fishing is in hand. A is more attractive to the fish. When the worm is dead or has slipped down into a bunch at the bend of the hook no fish that you want will be likely to take it. if you have one. so through the rings and the tip-ring. But when seeking many fish which are not very shy the be fastened directly to the line. In fishing in a gently moving stream no lead may be needed. do not make a splash when you put it into the water. Some veteran anglers still enjoy the bobbing of the float. Now. if the current be too quick a little will probably be required to keep snell may In pond-fishing or reaches of a stream which are very quiet a float as well as lead may be convenient. or into the head as at B (Fig. Holding your rod nearly straight up. The hook may be put r into the side of the worm rather as show n at A.

Then pass it through the opening. Do not be in too great a hurry to change its place. If you are fishing in running water. and. roll the rod over and over in the hands until the line 96 . drop the bait quietly into the water and so manage the rod that it shall neither hasten nor hinder the movement of the bait. reaching out over the water. In such a case. much as possible out of All the time you are feel to keep as the pluck of sight. the fish drop the point of your rod and wait a second or two before you attempt to strike the hook into the flesh. It When you sometimes happens that the place you wish to fish is so encumbered with bushes that it cannot be approached. which should travel as nearly as possible as it would if it were not upon a hook. if you cannot find an opening in the bushes you may what get at the water is left by shortening the line and winding around and around the top of the rod.CAMPING AND SCOUTING as lightly as possible.

when you can. give the fish time to make sure of the bait. and. If you have a bite. gathering it in coils upon the left force to carry the coils of line after desired point. is unwound and the and. line still farther if neces- On the other hand. hand.FISHING RODS AND TACKLE bait goes dropping down to the water. swing the bait out with sufficient it and so reach the . shorten your sary and draw your fish out. if in a fairly open place you wish to reach a point at some distance. Strike. as a spider lets himself down from his web. you may throw your bait out by pulling sufficient line from the reel.

in. that on the top is pro: by a door made of wire-cloth or quarter-inch mesh fastened to two small staples which answer the purpose of hinges. A Fig. also two cleats on the bottom piece as shown in the drawing. Under the back end of the top piece a cleat is nailed. As the shore is approached each boat closes two staffs to meet and imprison all within the bounds of the seine. 2 is Bait-boat alive. At the bow of tected 100 . The handled and spread out on the grass to dry after using superior article to mosquito-net which will last several seasons. Great care must be taken to keep the lead line close to the bottom. A much is bobinet. otherwise the fish will escape. over the opening in the bottom piece wire-cloth is nailed to admit of a free circulation of water. In the selection of the seining-ground always avoid stony bottoms. When one person works the seine one of the staff lines is tied to a rock or stake on the shore and the other line is thereby causing the the fish that have come taken into a boat. The top and bottom pieces consist of half -inch pine in the centre of each piece square openings are cut. cost of the above-described seine ranges from three to four dollars.CAMPING AND SCOUTING seine describes a semicircle between the boats. snags. and is capable of lasting two seasons if carefully it. and brush. which will cause the seine to "roll up" and tear. or the operator wades out and causes his end of the seine to describe a circle until the two shafts meet. a bait-boat for keeping the bait It is towed behind or kept by the side when fishing.

The top and bottom with nails to the edges of the top and bottom of the boat as shown in the drawing. .FISHING WITH BAIT the boat an upright piece of bottom of the bait-boat by wood is fastened to the top and means of screws. 4 A. Into this cut the line is drawn as shown in Fig. the ends of which meet at the upright piece of wood at the bow and are nailed Fig. 2 with broad-headed galvanized nails. to this frame netting sewed to form the net-bag. 3) is used. consisting of a stout piece of wire as shown in the drawing. The straight parts of the wire are bound together with fishing-line is When and constitute the handle. of the wire-cloth are also fastened handling the bait a small hand-net (Fig. A tow-line is fastened to the bow and the boat is complete. For a makeshift float nothing is better than a good-sized bottle-cork into which a cut has been made with a sharp knife or razor extending from the side to the centre of the cork. The sides of the boat consist of one piece of wire-cloth.

will be found very useful. is first roughed out with a jack-knife and finished up with fine emery or sand is beaten into shape with a railroad spike on an paper. or sunfish. the garden and proceeds to fill when he goes his box. taking a spade. the hook as shown in Fig. is very pleasant work. driven good bait for large fish is a strip cut of a small pickerel. as shown at Fig. the young fisherman naturally considers the angleworm to be the only bait he need have fishing. Through is the can and into the end of the handle a stout nail as at A. 6 A and B are hand-made sinkers beaten and carved out of old lead pipe. he seeks a moist. A in the inside of the handle punched chamfered off so as to fit close to the inner side of the can. The carved one. This beating and carving of lead anvil or smooth stone. A from the under side which is placed on Baits. is always a useful aid in and for light lines makes excellent sinkers makeshift fishingwhen bent and compressed around the line as shown at Fig. . 7. 8. and Where to Find Them As a rule. For cleaning out a boat a stiff whisk-broom made of fine birch twigs bound together with wire or fishing-line. \ loamy spot in But there is a . the lead being of such an easy and A good-natured temper. Fig. B. 4 B. 5.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Sheet-lead tackle. in Fig. perch. For a cheap and easily obtainable bailer make is is use of an empty tomato or corned-beef can as shown hole sufficiently large to admit of the handle the side of the can . and.

8 . 6 Fig.Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 3 Fig.

104 . The head is shield-shaped and armed with good. wait till you see one jump. are more successful lures with certain many other baits. moist places in meadows. Crabs are usually found under stones along the shores of a stream or pond. moist places in Seize the crab back of the pincers and it grass-lands. Just at night. chub. and large If you step very lightly. In searching for them in grass. cannot nip you. They are of a dark-gray color. as they are apt to take to the water at the first alarm. warm rain. A few words proper manner of of value. and after a size of soft. grasshoppers. not to jar the ground. dobsons. and when fully grown are about three inches long. fish. Dobsons are only found under mossy stones in swiftrunning waters. perch. and crickets. so as trout early in the season. June-bugs. you can easily pick up a box of these large fellows. worms of the a lead-pencil will be found crawling over the ground. grubs. They are not so easily gotten from the shores. dark-amber color are the best. where to find these baits and the keeping them fresh and lively may prove telling Frogs are most plentiful on the shores of ponds or streams filled with plant growth. and those of a clear. have many legs. and in low.CAMPING AND SCOUTING choice even in worms. so handle the dobson as you would a crab. crabs. These are excellent bait for bass. and in some localities in low. stout The pincers. It is well enough to have worms with you on all occasions. but there are Frogs. then catch it in your hands. as well as artificial baits. minnows.

Put frogs. crabs. Put them in a tin bait-box with some of the rotten wood you found them in. The minnows would keep alive should be put into the bait-pail as you soon as caught. If your supply must be procured from a lake or pond. loosing their hold on the bottom. Minnows of a size suitable for perch and bass fishing can usually be procured from a spring hole or the pools of a small stream. and if you find it full of holes of the size of a lead-pencil. If you stir up the water the little fish after setting it at one will drive more easily. look among the shallows close inshore until you have found a school. Cut into the wood with an axe. Those you are to use for skittering had better be packed in salt. stumps. If you are to keep them for some time change the water occasionally. They are found in partially decayed tree-trunks. then draw a small seine around them. consist of one pail freely perforated with holes to be set into a tight outer . Grubs are excellent bait for trout early in the season. will The dobsons. Large minnows for pickerel or pike fishing can be caught with a hook and line. knock it to pieces and pick out the 'grubs. as usually made. and dobsons into a pail with plenty of grass and some water. Take a rather baggy net with a small mesh. Bait-pails.FISHING WITH BAIT best way to get a supply of dobsons is to have some one hold one edge of a fine-meshed net on the bottom of the stream while you turn over the stones above the net with a hoe. and old timbers left in moist places. and end of the pool drive the minnows into it by striking on the water with a pole and punching about on the bottom. be carried by the current into the net.

such as the rubber frog and crab. tree quite a number will fall to the Grasshoppers are plentiful in meadow and pasture lands. pack the space between the two pails loosely with grass. them food to dead. 106 . other dull-colored. It is impossible to give the semblance I Do and most game fish prefer live The spoon-hook and the artificial fly. for use early in the morning and late in the afternoon and on dark days. and will strike again with truer aim. By change the water. not cork the bottle tight. and there is no chance to pail. If the quently bait is to be carried some distance. and may easily be caught in the hands. howThe spoon should be of a ever. and old planks. an excellent plan to bait a spoon-hook with a large worm. Select the largest you can find. which are to be found only in your locality. sometimes called May-bugs. The water trickling down through the grass will take up the air needed by the fish. the of life to in the water. a minnow. Put June-bugs. June-bugs.CAMPING AND SCOUTING this arrangement the water can be changed frewithout inconveniencing the little fellows. very highly. What they are It is . for use in the brightest part of the day. or a piece of meat then if the fish strikes and misses the hook it may get a portion of the bait. crickets. size in keeping with the size of the game fished for. There are many other things that can be used for bait. loose sods. never esteemed artificial baits. and it is well enough to have two one bright. hide through the heat of the day among the leaves of the trees. have proved their worth. Crickets are to be found under stones. and grasshoppers in a wide-mouthed bottle loosely stuffed with grass. and sometimes by shaking a ground.

for their capture. and offer to its companions the same kind of food found inside of it. Sometimes the fish have very fickle appetites. I used it. I then took two other strips of I . One can always learn something. and it is well to have as many kinds of bait as you can conveniently It is also a good plan to open the stomach of the carry. Fig.FISHING WITH BAIT you can learn by observation and experiment. : -3ft. but there are others which are too lively or too shy to be I set to work to devise some plan claim no originality for this trap it is hundreds of years old but as it answered my purpose better than anything else. 9). so I . Only recently I discovered that bass were fond of darning-needles. A I Trap for Small Fish the fish with always found that the scoop-net which we use to catch is good enough for certain kinds of minnows. first fish you catch. 9 took a piece of wire netting about three feet square and bent it so as to form a tube three feet long and about one foot in diameter (Fig. The way I made it was as follows caught in that way.

handful of clams or mussels. The other end of the cylinder I closed with a piece of strong bagging so sewed on that was a space left at one side which could be untied when I wished to empty the trap. A and the and when they try to get out they find it much easier to swim through the second funnel than to find the small hole in the first. sewed one funnel in about the middle of my cylinshape. and have caught as many as half a bushel of small fish in one night.CAMPING AND SCOUTING wire netting. The manner of setting the trap is as simple as its manuthere facture. and two feet at the bottom (Fig. small eels first and second funnels. 10 ing them in their position with strings from the small ends to the sides of the cylinder." as the fishermen call them. as shown in Fig. crushed so that the minnows can get at the flesh. in operation at one time. 10) these I bent into funnel . der and another in one end. one foot wide. is thrown in between the The fish. The trap can be made by making a frame sol of hoops and . I have had several of these like go in. strengthenI Fig. 9. little crabs. traps. three feet long at the top. or "pots.

At last I took an old soap-box. A Some time Water-turtle Trap ago. Fig. it steady. and n. I began the pleasing amusement of making an aquarium. but being more it is not so desirable as the fine wire. and was successThere they ful. so that it would swing inward. I carefully Ffff. would lie on logs in the pond sunning themselves. while spending the summer in the country. easily torn. and after throwing in a few bones and scraps of meat I sunk the box in the pond close beside a big log where the turtles were accustomed to sun themselves. except that I could not get a water-turtle. I used various methods to procure the inmates of the great for the purpose. but the glass box which I had made moment go into came within reaching distance.FISHING WITH BAIT lath and covering it with put a heavy stone on the box. and after I removing one end I nailed on the cover. so as to keep awaited the next morning for developments. may say that this trap takes advantage of a peculiarity in the nature of the water-turtlenamely. plump they would the water. if T Here . I then fastened the end to the cover by hinges.

great snapper as big as your hat. turtles. and the larger ones. to an ugly. This is cut as straight and free from knots as possible.a bottle-shaped basket having a funnel fitted at the bottom and provided with a hat that is held on by two straps of green oak. make a capital stew. not larger than a half-dollar. enough at having got I set rid of so trouble- After that my caught a number of properly dressed. and so ill-tempered that I let him go some a again. or mud-turtle. from one tiny. The next morning when I went to my trap I found several turtles of all sizes. The large form is usually ten inches in diameter and shaped down to eight inches at the top or neck. This form is two end. feet long and has a round stick driven in the small This in turn rests in a hole bored in a solid piece of plank. is Green oak will sliver in an even and uniform manner if it is no .. so that it is held in an inverted position and revolves in the hole. Three forms are used on which to build up the basketwork. The trap several times and smaller ones furnish a if charming addition to an aquarium. yellow-spotted fellow. that is just the place that he wants to get. Green oak is used for the ribs and bands. and soaked in water for weeks before it is split and slivered. and I calculated that the slight resistance offered by my swinging door would be just there is enough to make the turtles determined to get into my box.CAMPING AND SCOUTING a log or stone that he cannot get under. glad visitor. An Eel-pot All along the Atlantic coast eel-pots are made on the same general plan.

Ribs are tied to this form the same as in the case of the large one. when he goes through the funnel and into the pot. thus ribs the weaving will not duplicate after the first turn around the . cannot get back again. A thin ribbon of the oak is sewed over and over around the edge to finish it. 13. thin ends of the ribs are left.FISHING WITH BAIT started right. as shown in Fig. A number of the ribs are tied around the form as shown in Fig. The bottom or small end of the funnel is the trap. wide and about one-eighth of an inch thick. The ends of the ribs are then shaved thin and bent back and slipped under some of the straps. and tapers down to two inches at the bottom. then the weaving continues until the top is reached. where the ends of the ribs are shaved and turned in as before described. The top or small end of the basket is finished in a similar manner. and the weaving begins at the bottom and is carried to the top. so as to make an uneven number of ribs. Where the ends join they are shaved down thin so that one laps over the other. nine inches diameter at the large end. and here the long. The cone in or funnel form is fifteen inches long. and from the trunk of an oak-tree six inches in diameter enough material can be had to make several The ribs are three-quarters of an inch dozen eel-pots. so that the eel. by crossing the and adding a half-rib from the centre anywhere on the circle. The hat is woven the same as a basket. 12. and beginning at the bottom the bands are woven in and out around the form. while the bands are a trifle thinner and wider. turning it as the work progresses so that the immediate parts are always in sight.

112 . 15. This extra rib in Fig.CAMPING AND SCOUTING circle. 12 weaving It is then shaped down over the rounded edges of the form and carried one or two inches below the form so the lower edges of the ribs can be shaved and bent A long strap of the green oak is passed under one easily. is it is shown of at A in Fig. a part of the hat is woven it is placed on the form and two small nails driven through the ribs into the form to hold the Fig. When shown so that made wood and mounted on a block will revolve the same as the other forms. of the ribs in the hat and caught under bands of the in place. 14. A hat form.

- pot. i 6. deep begin to shape it meshes or openings smaller. A Scap-net scap-net for crabbing or landing fish on a hook may be made from a ring of heavy galvanized iron driven into A the end of a hardwood stick. Stakes or poles are to be driven or worked bottom ropes. be sunk in shallow water to keep them wet and get them The funnel is thoroughly water-soaked.FISHING WITH BAIT body. Begin lower in this manner until the net resembles Fig. Then tie one string Hang next neighbor tie all down and them again. and with tie its long pieces of string over the ring them fast with a square knot. as shown in the drawing of a complete eel Fig. eel-pots bait an eel-pot crack some hard-shell crabs or shrimp or put some pieces of fresh raw meat within the pot of the bay and the made fast to down into the them with To and drop it overboard. around the and continue circle. 17. sewed to the bottom edge of the body with As soon as the pots are finished they should thin bands. and remove the eels by unstrapping the cap and dumping them into a barrel which may be carried on the boat. but the ingenious boy can make one himself from a hoop and a ball of cotton twine. so that it will have a rounded bottom. Run the pots morning and night. seven or eight inches in at the bottom by making the it is When All the strings should . The ends of the string should be tied together or over a small galvanized iron sail-ring. Scap-net s may be purchased in almost any general store near a bay or pond.

Watch through the w ater for visitors. of the net Place some crushed crab or any good bait in the bottom and slowly lower it until the rings rest on the r bottom of the bay or pond. 18 may easily be three galvanized-wire rings and a mesh of tied The hoops should be string as described for the scap-net. but keep the small ropes clear from the net. and at the top six small ropes are tied and the ends brought together fifteen or twenty inches above the top ring. If fish are to be caught in this manner the hoops should be larger and one more added to the net. inches in diameter and separated ten inches. A mesh is to be formed across the bottom. and when the right subject is at the bait and within the rings give a quick jerk and pull the net rapidly to the surface. and will often dart up and over the top hoop faster than you can haul it up. . making it thirty inches deep. A Hoop A hoop made from Drop-net drop-net such as shown at Fig. Fish are cunning and swift.CAMPING AND SCOUTING be tied in square knots so that they will not become undone after the net has been used for a while. thus eighteen making a net twenty inches deep.



Assuming the possession of the required implements. outsider sees most his friend during his In nothing does the old adage. ''the of the game. In the city. innings at the rod. the next essential in learning to cast without a master is Thus one can rest and encouragi the companionship." more directly apply.Chapter X HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING book on angling contains directions for acquiring almost universally prefaced by the statement that little can be learned from them. Without calling in question the advantage of practical instruction by an expert. any grass-plot or a snow-field. in the country. for they should be made a pleasure and not a toil. Unconscious faults are instantly noted by "the coach" other. as well as the greater or less degree of success which may attend effort to correct these. in its absence. the house-roof may be the practice-ground. Mark your stand. and measure from it about . and each observe and coach and brought to the attention of the caster. Access to water is quite unnecessary I question whether it is even desirable. The innings should not exceed five minutes each. still it is believed no little progress can be made EVERY this art.

water-proof line you will employ in actual fishing. but the . etc. Let the coach make some comment on every cast made. and though he fully appreciates that his forward cast is a botch. for example. He cannot see behind him. E in on the paper. If a really experienced instructor can be had. all the better." "There. I confidently believe that two persons of ordinary cleverness each thus aiding the other can. learn to cast a very fair fly and in an easy and graceful manner. it in position by There place a folded newspaper." "Keep your body still. and without leader or flies.. "Your back cast was too low.CAMPING AND SCOUTING twenty-five or thirty feet. for the very object in view is to inform the caster what to cultivate as well as what to avoid. remembering to approve the good as well as condemn the bad. A This will perfectly serve the purpose. and of several thicknesses. To acquire a proper back cast throwing the line behind preparatory to the forward cast usually gives the beginner the most trouble. Here the eyes of his friend supplement those of the caster. he cannot locate the difficulty. Use a cheap linen size. be about eighteen Let this. so that a hit may at once be distinguished from a miss by the rustle of the line line for practice." "Keep your elbow to your side." "Your line did not straighten out behind. retaining on the corners. as. stones or similar weights placed your target.. to twenty-four inches square. and save whipping out the more expensive braided line is to be preferred. and knows neither to what it is due nor how it is to be overcome. that back cast was all right try to repeat it." "Your forward cast was too quick. in two weeks' time. with say one hour's daily practice." etc.

1 [Note that the illustration shows only a portion of the rod] .Fig.

at variance with the precepts of many excelis invariably Some cast at arm's-length. This is and largely a thoroughly bad method. i) little.CAMPING AND SCOUTING supervision of a self-taught caster of limited experience. while it may well be somewhat illustration The abridged. reel line let equal in length to the latter withdraw from the about one and a half times the length of his rod.joint. but be extended and bear upon the rod itself. and at such a distance as conveniently to observe every motion. beyond the perpen- from a photograph from life shows the extreme limit of this movement. First Position The coach taking his stand abreast of and on the right of the caster. in the direction that the elbow close to the side. with the shoulder. who insists on being guided solely by that experience. The thumb of the casting hand must not be closed up on its fingers. a limit by no means to be exceeded. The wrist. is to take a farther bend upward and as far as possible. but only a (Fig. and the forearm should not be raised beyond an angle of forty-five degrees with the horizon. for from the action of this joint should the impulse of the cast be almost exclusively derived. is to be avoided. I2Q . little. as well as with the practice of lent anglers. In actual fishing the casting elbow is always and invariably to be held quite close to the side. Now throw the tip of the rod upward and behind a dicular. I am aware that I am many writers. however.

as were about to impale something on the point though they before the flies light Fig. the others approximate in greater or less degree to the contortions of the greenhorn.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING fatiguing. Notwithstanding. no portion or member of his body in motion except those in actual use. 2 of the rod. Others cast with the elbow to or near the body. This method is used by many anglers whom I freely acknowledge to be I my superiors. every limb pawing the air. but just extend the arm to its full length. am convinced that it serves no useful purpose (except in casting for distance only) not otherwise readily attain- able. and rivalling in grace a duck on land. while it certainly looks labored and awkward. Though the elbow partakes slightly at the beginning . The one method resembles the postures of a trained athlete. inefficient.

habit is worse in casting than unnecessary contortions of Not only is it exceedthe one or flourishes of the other. The Back Cast The coach cast. Note the position of the thumb. Fig. taken from photographs from life. still it is the wrist that is The illustrations are really the motive power in casting.CAMPING AND SCOUTING of both the cast and recover.3 ingly awkward. unemployed arm should be kept Fig. this is mastered It is the secret 122 . and the body and No perfectly still. but it is injurious as well. for if will pay particular attention to the back all else follows. 2 represents the position of the wrist when on the back cast. The the position should be an easy one. 3 the wrist on the forward cast. since it is motion rather than the mere sight of an object which demoralizes the fish. Fig.

should in no case fall below the level of the caster's head. though this different habit has been formed. if any. as well as attained. of allowing the flies to touch the water behind the caster. and still. There is nothing in fly-fishing which so promptly grades an angler as a high back cast. everything below that should be regarded as a fault. centrate the attention on these two features of the back . The first the perpendicular on the back cast. beyond While illustration (Fig. since they bend less. have emphasized the importance of this sufficiently. Rods of varying flexibility vary somewhat in this respect. The stiff er may. and as otherwise of no consequence whatever. when behind him. Ignore the front cast altogether in the first lessons. The secret of this the butt-joint is nearly upright. be thrown a little farther back. while nothing will more prejudice reputation for skill than the habit. i) indicates the extreme limit. is is not difficult no longer the case when another and to acquire at the beginning. the upper portion of the rod will bend backward still more. Therefore It cultivate a high back cast with the utmost assiduity. when circumstances permit its use. the end of the line. is to throw the rod but little. I I trust give the line the required upward direction. considering it merely as a necessary preparation for the back Concast. of success. even when sitting in a boat.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING In practice. made clear the method by which it may be The coach must next see to it that the caster by no means begins the forward impulse until the line has extended behind to the limit of its length.

but this will be soon overcome. line sensitive hand can feel a drag on the tip when the has extended properly on the back cast. he can. know when the exact moment for the forward impulse has arrived. of course. It varies. line used. It will require a little practice on the part of the former to give the word of the latter at the proper moment. Hang to these two points as if they were all there was to fly-casting. and the allowance of the proper By . Having given the backward impulse to the line. for really this as- sumption will be but little wide of the truth. and when it has thus extended length give the word "Now!" Thereupon let the caster at once give the forward impulse. if The beginner should be it will alert to perceive this. to insist that the Unhand unemployed arm are motionless. and that the impulse proceeds from the wrist). that he may with the length of and since the caster cannot see behind him. for.CAMPING AND SCOUTING cast altogether (except. and thus tell when to begin the forward movement. no matter what A length of line his progress. or experiment in the dark. during which the line straightening itself out. it will be found that an interval must intervene between this and the forward impulse. of course. of its duration is the most com- mon of all faults. is occupied in and an undue abridgment This pause is absolutely essential. a rigid adherence to this method of coaching and practice. may be in use. materially expedite The coach will therefore its full watch the line. he must use the eyes of another. a high back cast. and on the part promptly to respond.

That the line shall fall gently upon it. without a thought or an effort on the part of the caster. If the force of the impulse is justly proportioned to the distance to be covered. but if too much power has been applied it will strike hard. but as though an object three or four feet above it were the bull's-eye.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING interval for the line to straighten out. are the desiderata. until it assumes the position shown by Fig. in and stick to it until it is. or recoil and fall short of the mark. remembering to derive the impulse from the wrist. and the beginner must make constant effort to see with how little exertion he can accomplish the result. will soon become purely automatic a mere matter of instinct adjusting to whatever length of line may be in use. for everything else follows almost of itself. The Forward Cast Now some forward attention may be profitably given to the cast. raise the point of the rod a couple of feet or so. This will turn the line point foremost. He will find that very little a long line lightly say fifty-five feet straightest in and power is required even for quite and that the line falls most those casts where the power is . Then when the line has unfolded almost its entire length. itself When game is this is accomplished. the your own hands. 4. the end reaching the level of the mark first. throw the rod forward. Cast not at the mark. the line will fall by its own gravity alone upon the paper. That cast is the most perfect in which the minimum of force is employed. To accomplish this. and cause the end to alight first.

able After about a week's daily practice has given considerskill to the right hand. 4 [Note that the illustration shows only a portion of the rod] justly proportioned. and the habit of a high back 126 . and not in excess of the work to be done.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Fig.

and this with strike the caster nor the rod in its flight. and educate fly the the left hand.e. By no means attempt thirty-five perceptible effort. straight. and you can get to sixty feet of line fair. At the end of the lesson take a couple of innings or so at forty-three to fortyfive feet. as one of the steps in that direction. must be Experience by this time will have taught that the line so thrown behind on the back cast as neither to is mastered. at that distance. and then casting side- ways same cast.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING and the pause is pretty well formed. thoroughly these modifications will then seem a mere bagatelle. fifty-five without much conscious exertion of force. Practise casting over the left shoulder for two or three lessons. moving the rod horizontally or nearly first so. with the right. principles govern success in these as But Permit me to caution you in the most decided manner not to strive after a long cast. cleanly fashion. and light. and after that practice both alternately. after you have attained the complete mastery of forty feet.. Whatever is worth doing is worth doing well. feet until thirty can be cast without and that in good. thus making your distance practice an entirely . When out the overhead cast and a high back fly and the proper pause. i. begin to educate left hand as well. Let this take care of itself. then you are ready for another step forward. for this is the sure way never to attain it. Begin and continue your practice with the fixed intention to become second to none in skill. To be able to use either hand indifferently is a great accomplishment. Do your practising. The in.the overhead master the overhead cast.

and sticking to that until you master it completely before attempting more. 128 Strike lightly . The instant considerable skill When the pebble falls the strike should follow. at the word "Strike!" from the coach. and must be practised until purely automatic. Otherwise you will never be able to do fifty-five feet decently. Fifty feet is about the maximum fishing distance ordinarily employed. This. so that the caster may not anticipate him. To acquire this the caster must draw his line toward him. may be acquired without approaching the water. trailing it on the ground. and promptness in response has been acquired the coach should abandon giving the word and signal the proper moment by dropping a pebble on the paper. At over forty-five feet you should devote at least a week to the next additional three feet. The Strike not so in as In swift water the fish generally hook themselves. provided you master the high back cast and the pause. standing close to it for this purpose. without a thought of anything beyond. too. Here the strike must follow the rise. and not till then. The coach should use care to give the word at cast. adding but two or three feet at most at each increase. add two or three feet and not more. its shadow -follows a cloud. Proceed in this way. and. Hang to that distance until you master it completely and with perfect ease.CAMPING AND SCOUTING separate and distinct thing. but by easily rigid adherence to these rules you will acquire command of seventy feet. irregular times. but still water. and then. retrieve the line at once.

like many others. and a long line is in use." with the line firmly held under the first so that while striking quickly he can graduate his energy to the size of his flies. than ample in the one case may be quite inadequate in the other. When a very fine leader is in use. Indeed. but at all events strike quickly. For small fish or small flies a mere turn of the wrist is the proper and artistic thing. the length of line he has on the water. together with flies so small that the least effort will bury them over the barb. after the beginner has gained am not sure that this is not the best method at all times.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING you can. the water free from current. and the magnitude of the fish. is not independent of circumstances. instead of being transmitted to the leader or flies to the peril of their hold upon the fish. the angler strikes too hard. there is more work to be done in striking than with small flies and on quick water where the current buoys up the line. some command of his nerves. as finger of the casting hand. But it is obvious that where the hooks are larger. The object is to transmit the strike to the taken fly with the least possible Therefore a degree of force which would be more delay. I shown in Fig. the surplus force. Then you must ''sock it to them. such resistance as the click of the reel if. This theory. is expended in drawing line from the reel. this is without doubt the proper practice. but for larger ones this method is a delusion. in theory at least. It will be noticed that without relaxing the grip of the rod . with the line perfectly free to render except for impose. Many angling books direct that the strike be made from the if of the reel that is. may Thus. 5. in his anxiety to strike quickly.

CAMPING AND SCOUTING the line may reel be firmly nipped or allowed to render freely from the finger. the rod alone was relied on to move the rod may be gradually raised to the most advan- tageous angle for the strike and kept in that position. still This method all tageous in fishing water. while the movement of the fly is continued by drawing in the Fig. or. Personally I employ this method constantly . indeed. 5 with the free hand. very advanwater where a may happen at any part of the path the fly so handled may traverse. raising the finger while the line is in. and closing the finger down on the line and rod handle when the free hand has drawn in all the line it can line drawn and must reach up well fished over all is for a fresh hold. Thus the is fly can be the water between the caster and the extreme limit he rise able to cast. by simply if it Then is if closing or slightly raising the first desired to fish over more water than would be possible the fly.

If fishing from the bank the length of the loop is When so limited that it shall not reach the ground. . being careful. we must trust to blind luck to escape those we cannot see. where one fish is hooked others are apt to be. the loop of the line falls in the water and runs down with the current. If run out between the thumb the hand that and first finger of the free hand the rod resistance pressing the line more or less it seems advisable to impose not holding according to the is upon the fish. hidden dangers are those most to be dreaded. fishing from a canoe or boat I allow the line to drop upon the bottom of the canoe at my feet as I draw it in. since. where one can watch its pranks. let the line comparatively little. the place where they harbor is apt to be snaggy. Again. and for this are threefold and obvious. To foul a snag when a decent-sized fish is on is to abandon hope in nine cases out of ten. Furthermore. The reasons Trout love cover. using the reel fish. while we may by skill and good judgment avoid those we can see. however. A Cardinal Principle The cardinal This method has a further advantage: in playing a fish is to get it away from the place principle where it was fastened and to the surface of the water.HOW in I TO LEARN FLY-FISHING I my own fasten a fishing. as soon as possible. If wading. or sand adhere to the wet line and so be drawn into the reel when the line is ultimately wound up on it. not to step on it. lest it either catch on something. and further sport may be reasonably looked for provided suspicion is not aroused by the gyrations of the fish already fastened.

will prove rather a drawback than an advantage. If the beginner. can be dragged quite a distance from the place where it was hooked with no more resistance than if it were inert. of course. But to return to the strike: Promptness to respond is to a rise without a suspicion of hesitancy practically the important point. tending from the main object in view. in water so obstructed that no other course afforded reasonable prospect of ultimate success. he do just what he ought to do and just what the experi- enced angler does. I care not what its size may be. The ordinary reel is not quick enough. I believe. the I have found it far more difficult to induce many beginners it has been my privilege to instruct to strike promptly than to cast a very decent fly. Certainly it can be compassed in a single close season. The secret is to get a move on them at once and to keep them moving. seem to act as though they simply could not strike until the fish was felt. will only try to snatch will it away so quickly that the fish cannot reach it. especially ladies. One and all. and the automatic reel is too weak to do this. barring accidents. to distract the attention 132 . provided the angler begins to drag on it the instant it is fastened. It seems as if they did not realize for the moment what had happened to them.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Now any trout. when he sees the commotion of a fish near the fly. with never a failure. it is too late. the formation of a correct habit. Access to water. But by the method just described I have done it time and time again. Then. I have here laid out what I take to be about two months' to two and a half months' work.

that the muscles can execute. become proficient in casting the fly to a degree not by any means common even among experienced anglers. to those lessons learned only from Nature's book. still remain indisits reach. and by strictly following the directions contained in this chapter.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING At the expiration of that period. Then what the mind diitself rects. I believe that two persons of average adaptability. were the entire art of fly-fishing. Casting is but a method of placing the fly before the trout without alarming it. selection of such food as will suit. but the greater part of the difficulty usually experienced is due to a faulty beginning. Without undue violation . But the manipulation of the fly after it has touched the water is quite another matter. face to face with Nature herself. True. and to vicious and pertinacious habits thus unconsciously formed. The Manipulation of the Fly But casting is by no means all of fly-fishing. This is a great mistake and pernicious in its influence. and thus the experience of years can be compressed into a comparatively brief period. and act Some within The merely placing food before a guest. and one not easy to acquire in perfection. and talk as though casting. It is an art. can with patience and perseverance. and so serving it as to please a fastidious and fickle taste. and grade an angler solely by the distance he can cover with his flies. It is pensably necessary to induce its acceptance. this is not all of fly-fishing but then the attention is thereafter free to devote . each aiding the other.

as in the fishing of pools and of still water the very places where the best fish are usually to be a fault of the beginner. But the third is well worthy this in To do the study of every angler. if the fly is touched. a careful consideration of the following problem recommended. found. when fly is Taking any season through. It is neither to the first nor to the second of these points that I would call attention. and then only the stratum which intervenes between it and the shallow. such a manner that. 3d. if any. it is rare that a trout. takes a fly the moment it touches the water.CAMPING AND SCOUTING of the proprieties it may be considered a part of the cast. So to handle it as to simulate a living creature. it. and it is proposed so to treat Nothing during the past season has more impressed than the fact. that in no single point in fishing me fly- was error more common than in this. it. and I am inclined to think that at least ninety-nine out of every hundred . Confining our attention to pool and still-water angling. unless gaunt with famine. the trout shall infallibly be fastened. if fact it be. and one tempting to its appetite. Not so much where a strong current lends instant aid to the angler is this apparent. The problem is: i st. is it Nor To such. who with by may become is facile casters limited practical experience following the precepts of this in a position of special chapter. but rather of those whose proficiency is otherwise considerable. for they stand danger. old or new. To place the fly within reach of the trout without alarming 2d.

now. the tip to be raised three feet. the line. and consequently the impulse is tardily conveyed to the hook. possibly can. all command the rod has already shortened gone. and the power to strike is lost. Clearly. . Let us suppose the tip of the rod to be pointing at an Now suppose object exactly forty feet distant from 'it. through the line. and more line would circle of be required to reach it. It when the rod and line form one straight is line a very considerable upward movement of the tip is followed by but slight retraction of the line. in other words. It is equally indisputable that when the rod is so raised lost that the line over the former the line all it it. during Now it is mathematically certain that when the rod is at a right angle with the line a given movement of the tip of the rod will transmit its impulse with the greatest rapidity.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING trout captured in such water will be found to have taken the fly after it has been moved from the place where it It is also true that in such water some demonfirst fell. the end describing in so The problem doing the arc of a as in actual fishing. that end is more distant from the assumed point than before. since then there is the least possible lost motion. is parallel is with is a most simple one. which the hand is the centre. or. and with the maximum of effect. on the part of the angler is usually necessary to fasten the hook after the fly has been taken. must either stretch or move that difference. there is then also certain that much motion. also that the interval which this may successfully be done is brief. or nearly so. or it will be stration rejected and the opportunity lost. if it did not break.

since we have been treating the fly-rod as though it were as stiff as a telegraph-pole. ticity Thus we see that another deduction must be made from the efficiency of the strike. Based upon these considerations was the suggestion heretofore made that a cast of five and a half times the length of the rod approximated closely to the extreme efficient limit in practical fly-fishing assuming the caster to be A wading knee-deep or sitting in a fairly high-sided boat. but I believe not much. since before the movement and the of the tip can overcome the inertia of the line friction of the water upon it the rod must bend until the tension of in excess of that inertia its elas- and friction combined. the result. show that the Construction of the strike becomes less proper diagrams and less efficient as the length of the line increases. I have said a theoretical measure. the following practical conclusions would seem necessarily to follow: 136 .CAMPING AND SCOUTING Thus a at theoretical measure of the efficiency of the "strike" any angle of the rod may be obtained. Practical Conclusion as is If our mathematics are correct. Clearly we must take its flexibility will also into account. one rapidly increasing in amount as the length of line. the rod used is also a variable factor effecting I therefore stiff personally prefer a rod as consistent with pleasurable casting. and advisedly. quick eye and a prompt hand. and also as the hand actuating the rod approaches the level of the water. and its consequent inertia and friction is from contact with the water. stiffness of may The extend this distance somewhat. trained by long practice. increases.

fault. If the fish are very shy. at once elevate the tip of the rod until it forms an angle with the line. within distances in which the advantage would be with the angler. much less altogether to lose. your tered. 2d. A advantage. approach the pool slowly.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING i st. holding it between you and where you suppose the trout to lie. are: me to tendency to use an altogether unnecessary length or. and when you have reached your . -Invariably use as short a line as circumstances will permit. fish. for there are two in number. to strike. and let that angle be as near a right angle as the length of line in use and the reserved movement of the rod required to manipulate and retrieve the flies will permit. notice of the prevalence of which impelled this chapter. 2cL If it has not been done in the cast itself. the power 3d. and In either case you will almost certainly lose in the latter your rod will probably be shat- The add to ist. to fish more distant and less promising places at a disof line. the pool promising. without other and further knowledge of the I cannot too art. or I should say faults. strenuously urge this upon the attention of the beginner. nearly or quite I repeat. is Postponing the back cast until the power to strike lost. By no means draw the flies so far toward you as seriously to impair. to shirk good water. and to be fished from the bank. is almost sure to err in these respects. in other words. that he who has acquired the knack of casting with facility. cut a bush your own height.

and lifting it over or 138 . under cover of your blind. the probability of coaxing a second rise may be doubtful. I which. when the angler would it. if it halts. usually entailing the consequences of yielding to temptation. In regard to the second fault in our enumeration. supporting your blind with the left hand. and from own past experience. following him still. It was a tough job. poling a light canoe-shaped boat over rapids. very slight cover A and the avoidance success. I can give a case in point. he has reason to suppose a trout is on the way to them. and the customary cold rains held off. John and I made up our minds to follow them to where they lived. there is a way to surmount it. prefer to take his flies off the water. if of quick motion are sufficient to insure the fish are disposed to feed. whether he will not follow suit ? So the temptation to postpone the back cast becomes almost irresistible. though it have never seen employed except by the gentleman from whom I borrowed For it may well happen that. since one has been found that is attractive. if you can. The weather held on warm. that of postponing the back cast till the power to strike is impaired. my A Fish Story It was September and was decidedly an off month in Maine waters. and who can tell. paddling it over pools.CAMPING AND SCOUTING station rest the butt end on the ground. involving lots of hard work. may be in common use in some localities. When a fish is fastened get him into barren water as soon as possible. in a most exasperating manner. It is not wise to arrest the motion of the fly. So the big fish held off too. If the fish is a large one.

while the primeval forest through which it took its way shaded the waters. The descending sun warned us that we would be benighted woods before we could regain our camp. and furnished with its ruins abundant cover. and had cast all day long at every available opportunity. and had forced a boat through some six or seven miles of quick water. We The still water was perhaps a hundred and fifty feet long. that there might be room for the back cast. as we entered the foot of the pool which we determined should mark our Yet not even one single rise had I had all day. For we had footed it four miles through the woods. as far as known. the canoe gliding slowly over its placid surface under the impulse of John's skilful paddle. and of unknown depth. Surely few pools approach more closely the angler's ideal. It was the perfection of a trout-stream clear and cold. and the position of the canoe compelled a cast somewhat ahead rather than abeam. and that five years previously. entered the pool. but whatever the cause. some seventy-five feet wide. which. or they may have taken a pledge of total abstinence. and had as yet caught nothing. in order that the fly should light .HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING it under the numerous giants of the forest. Above and below I knew the stream well. and hundreds of trout had taken my flies crowding therein. had been fished but once before. return. A like return intervened between us and both food and shelter. It may be they had abandoned that portion of the river in the on the way to their spawning-beds. such was the result. a succession of deep pools alternated with rapids. Over and among "coarse rocks" the river poured in a heavy rapid into its upper end. the latter part greatly obstructed. The overhanging forest forced us to take pretty well to the middle. which the winter gales of years had uprooted and thrown into the Thus we traversed some three miles of a river stream. and left it in the same manner. and a sufficiently aggravating result it was.

At last he reached it. by accelerating the motion of the rod when moving it. might be expected to lie. when a man attacks himself he is sure to get . hoping that he would take it before the power to strike should be utterly gone. the bamboo doubled up. Clearly he was a nice fish. for which compensation had to be made by abbreviating the time during which the fly was allowed to remain on the water. the rod straightened itself. and he had not reached the fly. as he must do. So I fell to abusing myself in no measured Now.CAMPING AND SCOUTING where the trout. He turned downward. fault. The motion of the boat in the direction of the cast continually tended to slacken the line. and I assured myself of from twenty minutes to half an hour of sucti sport as would fully make good the labors and disappointments of the day. In a moment the sound ceased. the fly came me empty-handed. and I was enabled to gauge his weight at about five pounds. and stimulated by the consciousness that I had committed a stupid blunder. 140 . and I could not for a moment blind myself to the fact that the loss was clearly back to my own terms. No offer could have been fairer. and especially after seeing the motion incident to the back cast. there would not be one chance in ten of coaxing him up again. and a trout appeared wagging his way upward toward my fly. But the time for the back cast had come. As he approached the surface his vivid colors proclaimed his sex through the crystal water. What was to be done? If it were taken from the water. and the fly vanished. and the reel sang. At last I saw a gleam of gold down in the depths. and he turned to go back after seeing me. and awaited the event. if any. So. with the deliberation characteristic of trout of size in those waters. and he was gone. I reduced the motion of the fly to the minimum. and by abridging the length of the cast. Then I struck with the vigor rendered necessary by the disadvantage that I was under.

even to the extent of all the line he has out. or relaxed. so John. Now. and then. you know you are just as much disgusted with me as I am with myself. But I silenced him with. ready wit in the invention of excuses. The following The rod should be over all so held that the line a remedy: leads from the is the fingers of the hand employed. if he will arrest his rod when in the most favorable position. by partially opening or tightly closing that finger. I am through fishing. moving boat. at any rate for to-day. and allowed to render from the reel. it draw it through the rings. especially if he fishes much in strange waters where he seeks to locate the trout by casting from a reel first. who disappointed as came excuse for it. "John. being careful always to nip finger of his right with the a hand when he shifts his left for fresh hold. and exercised his I. there is really no the worst of it. he can thus keep his fly still in motion. You know that that fish was lost by my own gross stupidity. when the angler has reason to believe a rising fish will not reach his 'fly before it ought to be taken off the water. let us drop the subject and go back to camp. seizing the line with his first left hand near the lower ring of the rod. not even that I knew no better.HOW TO LEARN FLY-FISHING at heart was doubtless as much to the rescue. and at the same time always retain unimpaired the power to strike. except the Under that finger it passes. or when he has flies cannot draw his overcast a choice spot. After the . and across it without wholly or in part losing the power to strike." Emergencies of this character arise continually in the experiences of every angler. so that it may be com- pressed against the handle of the rod and checked at will. There.

thereafter to be played keeping up be brought to the net finger of the left hand. . while if of such size that a protracted contest is to be expected. In this manner he may thumb and in the usual manner.CAMPING AND SCOUTING fish is fastened. he may be played upon the slack-line hang- ing between the lower ring and the reel. thus the required tension. the slack-line will probably be wholly taken up by his first dash. and the angler will have him upon the reel. by allowing it to render between the if small.

That such actually is the case with THIS altogether too many who are otherwise experts we all know. than a careful study not merely reading over. it insurmountable to the error is humblest mechanical 10 The most common 143 to attempt the result while utterly ignoring the means by . amusing youryou have at the same time made a friend. for there is little trouble. and to receive thanks which you know are really sincere and heartfelt? At the expense of a self. what pleasure can be greater than to be able to rescue a brother angler from the consequences of disaster to his tackle. Nothing in relation to the art will better repay the beginner. but this is a great mistake. Many think this art hopelessly intricate. That such should not be the case we are also aware. and those who lack this information.Chapter XI REPAIRS chapter has been written on the assumption that the reader is utterly ignorant of this most important branch of the art. and are discouraged from any effort to acquire it. but careful study in the scholar's sense of the term of this chapter. nay. For to say nothing of benefit to yourself at a crisis. rather while nothing in skill. and put him on the watch for opportunity to requite the obligation.

and manipulations is this: dition of success Actually try each step with the book before you.First. Do you know how to wind a string around a stick ? That is what we are about to do. Take a round cane and a piece of similar size. be sure you understand that step before you essay the next. Hold the cane to the right. or string Wax in your left string." At the foundation of the majority of repairs lies covering and strengthening the injured part with a layer of silk It is thus that rings thread. acquire a few very simple principles. and the rest follows ''like rolling off a log. as in your every-day success.CAMPING AND SCOUTING which the result is to be obtained as though a man should wish to keep books without first learning how to write. and nip 144 it at B with the thumb . But if you really wish to learn from what follows if you really wish for success you must. tightly wrapped around it. you court and will meet failure. are secured to rods. accept the conditions of of that kind. knuckles up and thumb Place the end A on top of the cane some- your where near the middle. life. of fish-line. It will facilitate you. and breaks repaired. and following its directions. First Principles Now to our lesson (see Fig. hand. Thus you will be led to the goal as easily as you walk from your parlor to your dining-room. with hardly an appreciable effort. i). But if you attempt to cover the ground in either case with a leap. the con- As to knots.

against which you can pull. next under the cane. so that each turn shall lie in close contact with its predecessors. then over the top of the cane and the end A.REPAIRS to keep the side it in place. but on the side away from you. J hand. and downward. behind anything. confining that part to the cane. or a rope on a windlass. so they cannot unwind. Now shift your left thumb over upon and nip the coils you have just made.proceed to turn the cane around on the axis of its length. unless you allow the line to slip through your fingers. confining the latter to the cane. In brief. keeping a steady strain on the end C with your right hand. You thus roll the line upon the cane. Now. drawing your right hand up to the cane. E. You will have no difficulty in guiding the part C. You have rolled on four complete turns. and upward. 2). Seize MS . Bring the end C over the cane on toward you. placing some part of the cane to the right of where you have begun to wind. which envelop the cane and the part A (Fig. just as thread is rolled on a spool. you have wrapped the part C once around the cane and over the part A. c. . and hold C in your right C Fig.

the other a . for we cannot hold it The Invisible Knot There are two methods of accomplishing this one easily acquired. length. indeed. but of more limited applicability. You will make each succeed- ing turn your right than permit the more neatly against its predecessor if you allow hand to be drawn up to the cane. winding an inch and a half each time. before proceeding to the next step. and one within the scope of the most shifting the right B limited mechanical ability. Then continue your winding for the end A any desired a roller. rather line to slip through your fingers. always doing this it by using the cane as turning lie from you. Notwithstanding. you will do in any case when you wish to free your right hand for the moment. is to fasten off the end C. repeat this at least four times more. We have now completed the first step. When hand backward for a fresh hold on the the turns you have completed with the thumb part C. nip of your left hand. b. This forever. up to and against the others.CAMPING AND SCOUTING and draw the slack of the first turn. as. You see that it is a simple matter. lest they unwind.

but at the same time equal to every emergency. and then proceed to plete. draw the bight a through and under the winding. 3 extend at least three or four inches letting the actual end of where you wish to wind. and insert the the next step. in length. which will of course carry the end C with it. and confine it under the coils. to the left Having completed A your winding. seizing the end A. and the job is comTry this at least four times. about two inches Now with the right hand cut the part C end through the bight a close to the winding. Begin as before. nip the coils with the right thumb. Then. Then with the left hand pull on the end A until you have reduced the bight a to very small dimensions say one-quarter of an inch or less. 3. Having wrapped four or five times over . and Fig." and a knowledge of it should be considered absolutely indispensable to the angler. placing the bight a where the end A was in the former case. you double it as shown in Fig. This is the real "invisible knot. Then cut off the ends close.REPAIRS little more first difficult. The the end A consists merely in this that instead of placing as before.

then nip the coils already made with the left thumb so they cannot unwind. and the windings you wish to fasten. so as to form a loop. Now proceed with the winding until within four turns of as far as you wish it to extend. next under drop and then upward behind the cane. cut it off as close as you can to the wrapping.) it Now down between you and If you meet any difficulty at all with this knot it will be here. and the first and second Throw the large loop over those fingers fingers are free. You will find this operation facilitated by throwing the end C at every turn. winding toward the latter. 6. holding 148 . so that it is perfectly secured. after making the large loop. and upward passes downward on the side on the side away from you. hanging below the cane. as soon as you nip the coils with your left thumb. three inches across. to keep it open. so that you have only the end C remaining. 4 the cane. say. the cane. between the first and second fingers of the left hand. Remember C the end toward you. so that it is about a foot long. 4. Then make three or four turns of the end C between the point where the large loop meets the cane a.CAMPING AND SCOUTING the end A. Hold C Fig. so that hand points to the right. (Fig. cutting off the end C.

b. Now let us apply this lesson. putting a strain on it. Repeat this until firmly fixed in your mind. the fragfishing.REPAIRS it thus until you can reach over the cane with the right hand. ANGLER. 8 A. ANGLER. then hook your right first finger in the large loop. Now pass the end C to the left. Cut off the end as close as you can. NOVICE. The trout are rising fairly well. (Fig. Time. revolve the cane and proceed with the winding as at first. meeting a very melancholy-looking individual with ments of a trout-rod in his hands. Good-morning. and. and you have made an acquisition that will many times repay the trouble. sir. see one of those between a and b unwind. if you have followed the directions carefully and correctly. and it is done. and in close contact with those you wish to fasten. For every wind you so add you will. Trout-stream. taking at the same time another step forward. and hold it down on the windings already made.) Now seize the it lies end C and draw up the slack of the large loop until in close contact with the windings you are Fig. and draw the end C through the loop.M. You will thus wind on as many turns over the end C as you made between a and 6. what luck? NOVICE. equipped for but with a broken rod. SCENE. I have caught . and will at length have the result shown. 5. 5 fastening. under the left thumb.

having fished with the fly result. and am self-taught. I saw a nice-looking spot. my flies reached the water considerably beyond it. ANGLER. Have you silk. ANGLER. and when I cast. Let not so bad. And since you say you are a beginner. It will make no difference. I undertook to draw my flies across the spot and when my rod was nearly upright. or should always be. of the sizes known in the stores as A or B. this broken in that way. and you see the I am but a beginner. but a few times before. and at the same time give you a few hints which may be of value in the future. for I have them. and a file in your fly-book ? NOVICE. NOVICE. I am afraid my fishing is at spare piece an end unless I take to bait. It is. and if there is anything you do not understand. never go on a stream again without plenty of silk. fishing. No. and as I have no to take its place. I don't know how. much pleasure. So I suppose I may say I have had poor luck. and my did it happen ? may be that I was using too long a line for the distance I wished to cover. But first I would say. Instead of shortening my line.CAMPING AND SCOUTING a few nice ones. NOVICE. I will repair this accident for you. wax. How It . I shall be very much obliged if you will be so kind. so look and listen. a pleasure for one angler to help another. stop me at once. a nice fish struck my drop-fly. I am sorry to say. But I have just had the misfortune to break my middle joint about a foot below the smaller end. ANGLER. in your . is is me ANGLER. Why don't you NOVICE. I have nothing of the kind. splice it ? Why. I have come a long distance to enjoy a couple of days' opportunities are few. and for that I have little taste. Many a good rod see the break. but it is none the less provoking to lose all the sport which I had anticipated with so ANGLED. I suppose I must expect to make mistakes.

C. together with a little cobbler's wax flattened out between the folds of a piece of an old kid glove. NOVICE. and of such slope that when they are laid together the rod will not be larger than before. there they are complete. portions of broken joint. and with the blade from five to six inches long and from one-half to three-quarters of an inch wide. quantity of wax which. You notice that I lay the file down and place the splice upon it. so will cut most rapidly where the pressure is greatthat by varying the pressure with a little judgment the splice is soon made perfectly true. would measure half an inch in A diameter file Also you should have a flat is about the thing. if spherical.) A The file Fig. Now we will resort to the file. est. Now place them together and see what you think of it. 6. I have finished cutting. of rather coarse cut. being careful to make them incline in different ways. You see the tang is broken off the file. and see how the filing progresses. am The rod is not enlarged and astonished that it could be done . see: I take pocket-knife and cut a long slope of the broken ends. but you also notice that the joint is not a very good fit. and thus shortened I can carry it in fly-book. and you see when I place the pieces together the rings are in line. (Fig. They the rings are in fit perfectly. like this. 6 B. I Now my on each also see to it that the splice is so situated that the rings on the two pieces will be in line when they are united. so. as I have done this. I line. and never my know it is there till I need it for use. of my left hand. and while rubbing the joint to and fro on the file I press the wood down upon it with the fingers From time to time I look at the splice.REPAIRS fly-book. There. splice. Now we will finish the other.

The best test is to try a drop between the finger and thumb. is edge. Without the In mechanics. Tf the means or the skill to make a perfect fit are wanting. but not too much. ANGLER. properly fitted. and tie them together as stick any to speak of. . By that I mean It should by no glue that has never been melted before. the splice can be taken apart. NOVICE. as in life. and by means so simple. the splice " " should be so made that the joint is there enlarged otherwise it may be soft at the splice inferior to the neighboring parts of the rod in stiffness i. Having completely melted some of this in sufficient water. so to speak. and set it away till morning. since then it rapidly gelatinizes. then wet the string with warm water to swell it and make it still tighter. means be too thick. If this was in the evening I should melt some fresh glue fish-glue (or isinglass as it is sometimes called) if it could be had. as in fishing-rods. and permanently repaired with glue. a little knowlrequired to use glue successfully. You see that when I rubbed the splice on the file only the high places Of course these were soon cut away. surface became even of itself. ANGLER. body. I should apply it to each surface. where all possible strength is required. Now we have to unite the splice. I should say. and you will then be ready to continue your sport. In the first place. Subsequently. I have tried to use glue. 1 . skill consists in adapting your means to your end the desired result then almost necessarily follows. the glue used should be perfectly fresh.CAMPING AND SCOUTING in so short I a time.. slightest doubt. Considerable art. but could never make it or. and the touched. bring them together. Then you would hardly have been able to find where the wood was joined together. it 1 I really believe could do myself. and in this condition it has no adhesive power. so that it felt between the thumb and finger as if it had considerable. it is thick enough. faces to be united. wrap them tightly with a dry string. and under more favorable circumstances. if it feels Then warm the surslightly unctious. . when it will almost certainly give way again. apply the glue.e.

unfit for rod work. Some advocate adding a drop or two of nitric acid to the melted glue. so which will destroy this gelatinizing propyou can take your time in uniting the fragments. so as to squeeze out all the glue possible. They. again. in judgment. either of erty. soften the The next day it over night in cold water. these liquid glues have glue. that if your joints fit and are tightly brought together. particularly since it has more strength in the first place. as far as I have ever seen. even with ordinary glue. it . however. or melting the glue in described. in which condition it will not stick at all. one very serious defect not to be overlooked. since it soon jellies. and thus another waterproof glue can be made. One thing. and so cannot speak of their respective merits from my own knowledge. and that strength is not so apt to become impaired by time. since glue so prepared is insoluble in water after it dries. They are. I do know. and melted in boiled linseed-oil. a tedious drier. Good. well applied in the ordinary way. " Russian isinglass. will resist unimpaired many times an exposure fatal to the liquid glues. one and all. however. prefer to melt it in skimmed milk. But this repair must be made on the spur of the moment. are prone to absorb moisture if given the opportunity. ordinary glue. glue by soaking my will resemble a stiff jelly." that known as preferred. and their always-ready character makes them so convenient to use. These pieces are then dried with a cloth.REPAIRS Fish-glue is to be difficulty. and they insist that this does not impair the strength of the While this seems to be true. take hours of soaking in water and the subsequent application of considerable and continued heat before they can be separated. it will. will and you have no vinegar. Some therefore. the more particularly since they may now be bought at almost any hardware shop. But I have always feared to try these when anything depended on the result. and so loose their grip. though retaining its original form. but it must be handled promptly. This last is. Some.

can. they are to remain. made in place with my left thumb. or. if you meet with no further accident. and they are ready to wrap with silk. as you see. and hold them in that position a moment for the wax to stiffen a little. better still. being careful that each turn shall lie close beside I have wound up to the string. Having waxed my silk well with the cobbler's wax. You see it requires close inspection to discover how the silk is fastened. some oil varnish. cover the winding with two or three coats of shellac. and your rod will. How does so gluing is and my cobbler's r it feel? . since if you make no mistake here you will have no difficulty in mastering this knot. and now I have wrapped the splice its whole length. You see I warm the splices wax and coat both the former with the I now place them together in the position in which latter. and it only remains to fasten the winding.CAMPING AND SCOUTING out of the question. now be removed. Now put it together and try it. upward on the other side. and we are through. last for years. You will notice I cut the I hold the windings silk so I have about a foot of end. for without this knot I could not have angler As soon as you conveniently securely repaired your rod. Watch me closely. if you can wait for it to dry. Thus I make a large open loop. and then over the rod. which may its predecessor. I wind it on. and cut off the end as close as I can. pass the end already of the silk downward between me and the rod. and running toward the completed winding that I am holding with my left thumb. under it. squeeze them tightly together so the layers of wax between will coalesce. so neat is the finish. as tightly as the strength of the silk w ill well bear. To these two points I wish particularly to call your attention. since the wrappings already on will steady the splice. I now wind this string around them for about half their length to hold them in position. I then finish thus. This is one of the most valuable acquisitions an can make. within which I take three or four turns of the end around the rod.

NOVICE. Only remember never to go fishing knife. Good-evening! You see I have brought as my rod you suggested. You have done well. It seems a than before.REPAIRS NOVICE. and this makes it a double pleasure to assist and instruct you. Both necessarily follow from shortening the which of course cannot be avoided in making a splice. a TIME. What luck did you have after we parted this morning? NOVICE. while without them you will be helplessly crippled. You have the true angler's spirit. evening. NOVICE. But it is not essential to my enjoyment of stream fishing that I take a trout every five minutes. rod. Before we enter on new ground. not so bad. Bring it to me this evening at the farm-house where I am lodging and I will replace it. and the beauties of the trees and flowers which shade and grace the stream these. little stiffer. and good-luck! ANGLER. to ask NOVICE. ANGLER. for with these you can repair on the spot most of the accidents to which an angler is liable. How long should the splice be by which the fragments are united? For it seems to me that a short splice can hardly stand the strain inseparable from use. together with the constant endeavor to improve my cast. and the sense that my efforts were not in vain. fragrant air. though I caught but few fish and those not large. Not at all. But I notice a ring is missing from your rod. I am a thousand times obliged to you for your kindness. again without silk. on the other hand. made the day one constant pleasure. and a file. and lighter in the hand ANGLER. Oh. while. same characters. wax. . ANGLER. I should like you one or two questions about mending broken rods. The cool. Good-day. an excessive length unnecessarily shortens the rod. the music of the running water.

This is either one of the most difficult. perhaps even a little more if the rod It is well in such case to roughen is very dense in the grain. 7) should be very oblique and very shallow or you may divide . NOVICE. for there is then nothing to form one part of the splice from. The question is very pertinent. to give a better hold to whatever adhesive substance you use to unite the parts. or one of the simplest. and if the ferrules are merely cemented in place instead of fastened by a pin. scored. then the repair is a And after balancing all I have heard or trifling matter. into the discussion of which we will not enter now. and so is The purpose lose the strength of some of the fibres. using some of your gobbler's wax to . the break is always short across. B. If you have no dowels to consider. but by other considerations of equal or even greater force. of emergent repairs.CAMPING AND SCOUTING ANGLER. trim the broken end square with your knife. warm the ferrule and push out the broken portion. What course should then be followed? ANGLER. and replace the ferrule on the joint. 7 A. joint. can imagine on all sides of the question. splice. Fig. I cannot but think that both the dowel and the fastening pin should be excluded from fly-rods. The length of the splice should be at least twelve times the diameter of the joint at the break. (Fig. I have been driven to this conclusion not merely because of difficulty of repair. It has occurred to me that the method you showed me this morning is not applicable to a break close to a ferrule. When the rod gives way at the ferrule. the surfaces you propose to unite. or to score them obliquely But these scores and in a criss-cross manner. If the rod is united by simple ferrules without dowels. according to the construction of the rod.

replace the female ferrule as before. If. and proceed as before. rod is a fine one. is generally the case in fine rods. and the loss will be only [qual to the length of your ferrule. if for no other I'eason. Assuming have cleared the ferrule of the broken portion. and can replace it as before. because it offers not the slightest advantage over the :ement it in place. aside from the lifficulty of making it perfectly central and a good fit. to cut off the dowel irom the male ferrule. If the dowel seems part of the metal of the male ferrule. by which I mean I . are mounted with ferrules the bore which is smaller at the mouth than within. md use your rod without the dowel. on the other hand. Some rods. the break is below the female. the accident is more serious. however. ferrule. I cannot but think this a vicious construction. since. on your In case of absolute necessity. ferrule. "he only practical recourse is. construction of a new dowel from the body of the joint tself should never be attempted. eturn home. and if you heat it well you can msolder and remove it without injury. or mtside. or entering. t shortens the rod to a degree not to be thought of. except The maker will. how are you to bore the hole to receive This clearly requires a special tool tnd fit the dowel? lot readily found in the neighborhood of most trout streams.ume the break to be above the male. Let us |f your . you must file or saw it )ff only as a very last resort. l/ou have now the accident in its least embarrassing form. since it alone steadies the of the entering joint and prevents it from shaking. you are indeed in trouble. It is usually only united to he ferrule by soft solder. In such the |>f jiowel is absolutely indispensable.REPAIRS But if your rod has dowelled ferrules those in which the upper ferrule is provided kith a tenon to enter and fit a hole in the joint below then. ror if you have means at hand to drive out the fastening pin. insert a new piece. kou can burn out the broken piece. then. until you can put it In the maker's hands.

8. I take a small round stick a match will do and. and twist the ends of the pin around flinty that I Am T 158 . NOVICE. but he will find its action so impaired that its use will give little Does any other question occur to you? pleasure. ANGLER. applying it to the middle of the pin. never mind that. No. bend the latter around it. But I see you have lost the end ring from your tip as w ell. Oh. and we can proceed. for a pin as it comes from the manufacturer is too stiff for our purpose. NOVICE. ANGLER. but as neither of these is at hand we must resort to pins for our material. and a break in the upper portion of the second joint is not hopeless. But I have never been able to make a splice in the lower half of such a rod. Now they are annealed. NOVICE. Tips may be repaired without difficulty. I have another one. You see I insert the points of these pins in a stick.) I now insert the loop in a crack in the floor or in a cleft stick to serve as a vise (since we have neither the latter nor a pair of pincers). and heat them red-hot in this lamp.CAMPING AND SCOUTING cylindrical ferrule. rod will then hang together and can be fished with. though I have tried The splices must then be made extra long. and repeat the process. and then at some future time you will be able to aid or instruct some brother angler in both of these particulars. We may just as well do both. If we had some spare rings. I cut off the heads and insert those ends in the stick. Now that the points are cool. or even some small copper or brass wire. Then let us replace that ring on your rod. thus forming a loop. and with this the user must rest content His until he can replace the broken joint by a new one. (Fig. One other question: bamboo is so dense and should think it difficult successfully to mend I correct in this? such a rod by splicing. repeatedly. Partly so. ANGLER. while a break of the kind under consideration at once disables the rod beyond immediate repair. I think of nothing more. and well scored. it would help matters.

Thus. give a slightly wedge-shape to the end of the tip. A rod should be provided with plenty of rings. 10. you notice. insert it in the fork of the tip end. loop in middle of pin. it will at no one place reach the And while I would not recommend you breaking-point. body of pin. It will not be amiss to give the loop a bend toward the ring side of the tip.) NOVICE. (Fig. but had I not been so anxious to learn this I should not have permitted you to trouble yourself over so trifling a matter. since then the line will render better. showing sharpened to suspend fishing at a favorable moment. I am very much obliged. ends. to twist the loop. in the form of a tuningfork. I then thin the ends in the same manner. since they equalize and distribute the strain over the whole length of the rod. omitting. (Fig. merely because a single ring became detached. . a straight wire provided with a loop at a right angle in its middle. in effect. loop. I now bring the ends together. and wind it on with silk. tapering them gradually away from the loop to a sharp edge at each extremity. c and d. ends of pin. B. body of pin. 9 .REPAIRS they are at a right angle with their former position. 8 Fig. I now wind this on with till We now have. I bend the second pin around the match as before. B.) NOVICE.A. 9. thus. This seems much simpler. You must not think so. ANGLER. still you should replace it before the next day. I then file the two ends. waxed A 6' Fig. Now let us put a new end on your tip. silk in its proper place. while its aggregate may be great. top and bottom. and it is finished. But I notice that in this case you did not make your "invisible knot" in the way you showed me. made A.

This knot is the one with which the heads of flies are finished. Having first cut off the silk so as to leave me about a foot of end.) when I pull on the end A the loop C diminishes in size. If in so doing the silk has fouled the ring D. In the case you allude it was tied in the middle of a joint. exactly as before. But here there is no long piece extending to which B Fig. A. This evening 1 60 . holding the windings already made firmly with thumb. and a loop. and under such conditions it must be made in the way shown you. n. and as though I were merely extending my winding. A. I clear it. You seem so willing to give information that I should like to ask you a few more questions. The principle is exactly the same. 10 is to be. I make beyond where the knot the loop C. C. on the right. until it disappears altogether. and this left my to the extent of four turns or so. I then proceed to wind over it. NOVICE. exactly as if it were not there. and we can take advanof this circumstance. and you see I have the end A projecting toward the left and fastened by some turns of silk over it. and the fastening is complete. Now (Fig. and hold it there.CAMPING AND SCOUTING ANGLER. I will repeat the knot for tage your benefit. Having wound as far as we wish. I place this end upon the windings.

repeat the operation until it consents. Heat. Here is a leader. saving the looped end intact. but it may be used. Let me see the fly. though principle its highest development was then reached.REPAIRS I could hardly get rod apart. from which we can cut a foot or so ? NOVICE. NOVICE. however. and then wipe them dry before you joint your rod. is extremely efficacious when opposed to obstinacy of any form a well known even prior to the Middle Ages. and this should be repeated every third or fourth day. If it refuses. but the gut is so frayed that I fear to use it to- morrow. but warm the obstinate ferrule over a lamp chimney. or if not. ANGLER. then we wrap it above the knot with well-waxed silk onto the upper side 161 . properly and continuously applied. the angler seizes one joint and his friend the other. ANGLER. to expand the outer before the heat reaches the inner ferrule and to do this the heat must be applied but for a few seconds. . yet they went together easily enough in the mornIs there a remedy for this? ing. the ferrules stuck so tightly. and it will or You must remember that the object is easily separate. Can it be repaired? ANGLER. you will never be troubled that way. then. a spare leader. do not call a friend and go at the joints as though you were wringing clothes. Yes. and the ferrules stick fast. it will not look very well. the only one of the kind I have. Yes. If you will tallow my oil your ferrules. Here is a fly. and then try to separate it. Have you a spare piece of gut. turning the ferrule constantly so that all parts may receive their due proportion. caution. we tie a hard knot in the other end to prevent its slipping. The trout seemed to have a decided preference for this to-day. First we will soak it in tepid water till it is soft. If. and a most simple one. a sudden and powerful jerk will often separate ferrules which have obstinately resisted both torsion and a steady pull. if the rod But if you have neglected this preis left together so long.

In stream-fishing he can then land his fish on the bank. and it is complete. play Then. and it will work just as well. and thus remedy the defect. he may cut out the doubtful part. coat about an inch of each end well with the wax. just below the body. It sometimes occurs that an angler buys a new rod. if neatly made. or at least make it quite soft so that it will penetrate well into the line. but he can tie the reel to his rod with a string. We have certainly covered almost all and I can think of no others. Now we catch the hook in or around anything that will hold. then part the wings with a pin. This splice. and sew them together with a fine needle. or if not. In this if unprovided with a spare line. take a good pull on the gut to be sure it will stand. and lay the gut in the division and upon the upper side of the body. In either case he should his fish until quite exhausted. It may happen that he frays his line on a sharp stone or otherwise. and finds the one will not fit the other. slide his hand down the leader and grasp the fish by the gills. so be sure to perfect yourself in it. the ends may be scarfed a little with the file to roughen them. a leather thong. or a new reel. will render through the rings very well. . better still.CAMPING AND SCOUTING of the hook. and give the wax a better hold. NOVICE. case. Are there any other accidents likely to happen to the angler which you have not mentioned. and over the tail. and fasten it again with silk over the wing fastening. melt his wax. lap and squeeze. but a test strain of at least six pounds should be applied before using it for if it will not hold it is better to know it. and then wrap tightly with well-waxed silk. 162 . and which admit of repair? ANGLER. You see the "invisible knot" lies at the foundation of all these repairs. or. He may forget or lose his landing-net. so that he thinks it no longer safe. throwing his rod behind him and over his shoulder. if it is sloping. and repeat the operation. If it is an enamelled waterproof line.

I have myself. lost many good Any . I have seen. which holds the rod. steady motion. and by a sudden but steady increase of force throw him out. enter the screw beside the thread. while the angler performs like a cat on a stove in the vain endeavor to kick it higher up on the bank. All that is neces- . the largest that can be had. there take it between his thumb and finger.REPAIRS grasp the leader with his left hand. He can then slide his hand down the leader and grasp the trout. and turn the screw down to its head. but the weight of the fish in air so exceeds that in water that the impulse given will carry it but a short distance on the shore and when it strikes the ground it unhooks itself with the first flop. fish in this If way. and about three-quarters of its length. holding it so he can at once let go if the fish shows signs of activity. in which he will be much aided by a thread-glove with the fingers cut off. must not be the slightest approximation to a jerk. or tie three or four hooks. on a stick. let him make a gaff out of a piece of telegraph or other stiff wire. Occasionally the screws of a reel show a tendency to work loose. or he can lead the fish toward the bank. he is to fish from a boat. then cut off the projecting end close. and use that for the same purpose. Broken rods. when the break is in the upper half. nay. carry the part seized to his right hand. and fitting. may be temporarily repaired much more speedily than by the method I showed you. and no landing-net can . effort to lift or throw the trout out by the rod will probably be followed by disaster. everything must proceed quietly and by an even. Not that the rod will break. though not so borrowed. and repeat this until the But during this delicate operation there fish is quite close. insert a waxed thread to the bottom of its hole. caused by the jar of the click and indifferent The remedy is simple: withdraw the screw.

wrap the rubber band around the lap. gencies. and There. using one or more bands as may be required. a double layer of well-stretched rubber. lap one part of the break over the other without any trimming. and tie its end down with the twine so that The lap should be covered with at least it cannot unwind. I think I have covered all the repairable contin- . Breaks in the upper half of a tip may be very nicely repaired with a quill.CAMPING AND SCOUTING sary is a piece of twine and a rubber band or two those about half an inch wide are best and as long as possible. and one edge trimmed When so until it just fits when wrapped over the break. flattened out. stretching the rubber well when so doing. It is then to be split preferably warm. until quite soft. its pristine stiffness. Then it is allowed to dry thoroughly so as to regain well varnished. The quill is to be soaked in water. fitted the quill is to be wrapped over the break and tightly wound with silk its whole length. lengthwise on one side. Cut the rubber band so as to form a strap.

For example. Tents and blankets can be rented. there are almost always dealers near the approaches to the camping-grounds who specialize in outfitting. higher than at city stores so far as the staples are concerned. of a domestic character. in addition to canoes. and the guides. given which indicates the essentials for wilderness camping. of course. They are accustomed to outfit logging-camps as well as sportsmen.Chapter XII WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING T ET le us consider a few details connected with a long camping trip when one cuts loose from the base of supplies. In the preceding parts of this book A Few Outfitting Points While supplies can be taken from reliable grocery stores near home. in the Moosehead Lake region of Maine there are storekeepers at Greenville at the foot of the lake and at Kineo. Outfits can be obtained . The prices at such places are. since it implies a fixed camp usually within reach of such luxuries as fresh milk and At the end of Chapter IV a list of supplies was vegetables. yard camping camping away nevertheless. to we advanced from backfrom home. but camping. have cooking utensils.

flour. and also something sweet. underwear. in Bear mind. which are the foundation. it is not necessary to burden one's self with staples carried from home. or at St. the Hudson Bay Company can be Canada. oil-skin suit or rubber coat. one to contain 166 . A wilderness camp is no place for dress-suit cases. or strong walking-shoes it is essential that clothing. John's. own should be kept dry. John if it is a question of New Brunswick. Newfoundland. Winnipeg. moccasins with stout insoles. Toronto. or at Montreal. In other words. hunting-boots. things and superfluities are to be avoided. also. But bear in mind that desirable to have something acid. or usually wherever the nearest important point val for of departure may be. bacon. Dux-bax. canvas bags or tins. pork. In the water-proofed ditty-bag or articles reinforced camping-bag described on page 40 can be placed small bags of denim or any strong material. all these must be transported in a canoe. and wet flour have been the bane of many a camping trip. for a trip on that island. In the stores of. or at St. so that the supWet blankets plies will keep dry and be carried readily. khaki. and toilet to one's outfit. or at Quebec or Roberin ouananiche fishing. and often by hand. in addition to the depended upon it is while etc.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Portland and Bangor for Maine trips or in Halifax if the camper has Nova Scotia in mind. like pickles and a few lemons. Personal Belongings that everything must be packed. for reliable supplies. usually in water-proof As be whatever the choice of clothing may or wool..

and a multiplying braided-silk water-proofed line for trolling-line of double the length. a good sheath-knife will often prove useful.proof cans or boxes for matches. another underwear. It must be confessed that the old-fashioned. too self-respecting to be looking for tips and is soft snaps. simple. and and a reel. a guard on hatchet or axe. had regarding the The Vexed Question of Guides This advice should include everything attainable in regard to guides. a well-protected and reliable compass are among the things which are so obvious that they are frequently overIn addition to the usual strong pocket-knife.WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING toilet articles that these and pocket-mirror. trolling-rod.. an ash and lancewood or welltested greenheart or bethabara rod with interchangeable butts and tips which can be used either for bait or fly fishing." not common The advent of wealthy often not sportsmen everywhere has wrought many changes . worth consulting. if it is likely to be used. Flies and trolling gear are to be selected according to the best advice to be particular trip to be undertaken. thorough-going woodsman. although written for men and largely with a view to hunting trips. Mr. etc. fifty.yard reel. For a wilderness trip it is well to take three rods areliable split bamboo fly-rod. his heart in his out* ' door life. Kephart's "Check List" in his Book of Camping and Woodcraft is looked. There should also be a large water-proof bag for blankets. with to-day. Water. and a stout wooden This implies a fly-fishing. so more personal articles may be kept by themselves.

and. ease. as happened to the writer at the of a recent trip in the Moosehead Lake region. or whoever it may be who seeks to In Maine and glean this harvest in the capacity of guide. This is not an agreeable subject. the rate of travel. unused supplies to a guide if one wishes. the time. With the increasing number of public sports- men's camps. When make their headquarters at large hotels or sporting guides end 168 . farmer. as to the disposition of It is all very well to present supplies at the end of the trip. the and other aids to camper is Of these many guides will take full advantage. of public conveyances on carries or portage paths. after verifying the quality of a guide. finally. And this counsel applies emphatically camping trips in the West. many unopened. canoes. but it happens too often that the camper from the city is regarded as simply the summer harvest for the lumberman. It is quite another matter for a guide to disappear silently with a quantity of supplies. as in choosing the route for a camping trip. Get the experience of those who sulted. But the best plan in choosing guides. Secondly. of logging steamers on lakes which will transport obliged to consider a rapidly mounting bill for expenses in addition to three dollars a day each for the guides and the cost of the outfit. the chances for sport. is to obtain personal references and verify them carefully.CAMPING AND SCOUTING for the better. have a clear understanding at the outset as to your wishes and plans. in the Adirondacks and some other places there are associations of licensed guides. questions of expense and extras. have to tried the men. especially in the case of more elaborate journeys with horses and pack-trains. and their secretaries may be con- Many campers are emphatically ' ' tenderfeet ' ' .

Honesty. but this is naturally for the use of members. knowledge of the country. energy. two ounces castor-oil. one ounce pennyroyal.WILDERNESS GAMPS AND FISHING camps. Failing this. flies Among citronella. after you have established a good glaze. You will hardly need more than a two-ounce vialful in a season. sobriety. In his comprehensive Book of Camping and Woodcraft. . verbena. Mr. Another receipt substitutes vaseline for the castor-oil. good-nature. and of woodcraft. Rub it in thoroughly and liberally at first. An adequate information bureau open to the public would be of the utmost value. be said again that the lavishness and laziness of many of the "city folk" who go through the motions of camping may are responsible for much of the demoralization that exists. and. thoroughly and in ample time. the proprietors would do well to exercise a closer But it supervision than they are usually inclined to do. and lemon grass." This is from his well-known book Woodcraft. cloves. of fishing grounds. culinary ability. and patience are among the points to be taken into account. lavender. Simmer all together over a slow fire and bottle for use. a little replenishing from day to day will be sufficient. There is a club of sportsmen in New York who are en- deavoring to make a card-index list of guides and their characters. other safeguards against insects are the oils of pennyroyal. Insect Pests "Nessmuk's" favorite prescription for keeping off black and mosquitoes is as follows: "Three ounces pine tar. make your inquiries for yourself.

Fires will be permitted for the purpose of cooking. and Game Commission : of New York posts the following notice FOREST FIRES RULES AND REGULATIONS TO PREVENT Fires for clearing land near a forest must not be started until the trees are in full leaf. and insect smudges. But either " Nessmuk's " tar -oil preparation or the oil of citronella will serve any ordinary purpose. notwithstanding notice may have been given to the fire-warden. and ticks is oil of citronella. although he finds them less efficacious in hot countries." There are many blackTfly ointments and other remedies which are prepared and sold at drug stores and sportinggoods stores. and some of them are reasonably efficacious. fleas. for Warnings Campers The camper in Maine will probably be visited by a firewarden who will take his name. His ultimate summing-up is that "the most satisfactory all-around 'dope' that I have found to discourage attacks by mosquitoes. and the person starting such fires will be held responsible for all damages. warmth. . . fires so lighted must be thoroughly quenched. Fish. midges. He will also see printed warnings posted conspicuously along the rivers. before the place is abandoned. After such fires are lighted. but before such fires are kindled sufficient space around the spot where the fire is to be lighted must be cleared from all combustible material and. flies. The Forest. competent persons must remain to guard them until the fire is completely extinguished.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Horace Kephart sums up his experience in favor of tar "dopes" in comparatively cool climates.

So is the erection of any permanent shelter. but board floors may be used. Fallen timber only may be used for firewood. Fish. sold. fire . lean-to. other than those hereinbefore mentioned. 1 1 fish last Camp Fires in the Wilderness. nor can one be granted River. care should be taken that lighted matches are extinguished before throwing them down.patrolmen. . but must be kept as wild land for the enjoyment of the people. or log camp. and pipes. [The balance of the notice refers to fires.] Some Familiar Fish Here are a few general notes upon familiar game' which are due to Mr. game protectors. The constitution of the State of New York provides that the land in the Forest Preserve can neither be leased. and all citizens are requested to report to the Forest. Lake George. Fish.WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING All fires. and the St. Burt. in regard to INFORMATION FOR CAMPERS Any citizen may camp temporarily on the State land in the Adirondacks. Hunters and smokers are cautioned against allowing fires to Especial originate from the use of firearms. Lawrence No written permit is required. and Game Commission immediately all cases which may come to their knowledge of dam- age or injury to forest trees arising from a violation of these rules. are ab- solutely prohibited. such as a bark house. Another notice is issued by the Commission camping on State land. and Game Commission. Foresters. Peeling bark is absolutely prohibited. Forest and Stream Pub- lishing Company. by C. by anybody. Tents are the only structures permitted No person is enin the woods. By order of the Forest. W. Burt. Girding and peeling bark from standing trees is prohibited. nor exchanged. Portable houses are prohibited. the Catskills. All persons are warned that they will be held responsible for any damage or injury to the forest which may result from their carelessness or neglect. with the exception of the note on the ouananiche. cigars. titled to call any particular site his own from year to year.

They grow very large. and. is also much Lake Trout The lake trout is a Northern fish. or even more. such as the Rangeleys of Maine and the lakes of the Canadian wilderness. Here the female sweeps away the sand with her tail. seeking shallow spots with clean gravel bottoms. which has a dark-crimson body with gold tinsel. is really a char. As the spawning season approaches. eastern Canada. New Hampshire. the lake trout has been taken of all weights up to and over ten pounds. and the Great Lakes are the waters it inhabits. It is found chiefly in the cleanest and purest cold water of the mountain streams. I have found the best trout flies for Maine the Montreal. 2 The Parmachenee Belle and Professor are among those which should be added. pushing aside the gravel with her nose. the rainbow trout of the West are now not unfamiliar in Eastern streams. In this the eggs are deposited. over which a good current flows. Its color is a dark gray. and the Red Ibis. and when fertilized upon by the male are covered with loose gravel and left until hatched. trout of any of the varieties In deeprarely exceed two or three pounds in weight. weighing sometimes fifteen or twenty pounds. water lakes. It differs from other trout in having its tail decidedly forked instead of square. and subsists almost entirely on live food. 1 . The inland lakes of Maine. the Salvelinus fontinalis. which has a scarlet silk-ribbed body and ibis wings.CAMPING AND SCOUTING The Brook Trout 1 The brook trout is beyond question the handsomest and most delicate fish to be caught in Maine. The Brown Hackle used. 2 In shallow streams and rivers. New York. forms a shallow nest. the trout ascend the small streams. and the The brown trout and This.

As cold weather approaches the bass seek deeper water. Its flesh is either a light pink or yellow shade. and cases are known where knives have been ing everything. At times bass absolutely refuse to take any bait whatever. fights hard for a short time with much strength. worms. as it will fight to the last without seeming to tire out. to a bull-dog. but always in bays that contain weeds and soft mud.WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING body and fins are covered with pale white or grayish The lake trout is a deep-water fish and is taken only It is omnivorous. With the exception of the ouananiche. and vegetables have been found in their stomachs. The perature. crickets. it makes a very hard The small-mouth bass can be compared struggle for life. while at other times they bite greedily at almost anything. and seem to thrive under varied conditions. on the other hand. the black bass is the gamest and hardest fighter of all fresh. the small and the Both are able to stand great extremes of temarge mouth. In point of weight the two varieties average about the same in Northern waters. tadpoles. rats. and the small-mouth invariably spawns on stony or gravel bottom. and it is usually boiled. Black Bass There are two kinds of black bass. Small snakes. natural food of the black bass varies greatly and depends on the temperature of the water. Much skill and patience are required entire spots. The large-mouth bass. The largest small-mouth bass . Their natural food comprises crustaceans. to catch the lake trout. but is then taken to net with only a few additional rushes. No matter by what method it is caught. found in its stomach. minnows. They usually spawn in shallow water not far from the shores. and devour all other fishes and even their own kind. dobsons. and flies. They are very voracious.water fish. frogs. eatat some distance below the surface.

The name is derived from that given it by the Indians of Canada "maskinonge. Their average weight is from one to four pounds. they burrow into the mud and remain there during the winter. and especially where the bottom is covered with long weeds. During the winter season they become dormant and seek the deepest water possible.' It might well T . size." A muskallunge of good size on the end of a line presents a hard problem. five or six dark bands running lengthwise on the back and sides. The resemblance of the muskallunge. Another member of the bass family is the white bass. and weight there is much difference. In these the fish lies hidden. Their color is silvery white. markSome people ings. Muskalltmge The muskallunge a name with many spellings is very abundant in Canadian waters and the Great Lakes. Unless it is very deep. is found in the Great Lakes. and pickerel is very close in general appearance and contour. Sometimes they reach seventy or eighty pounds. My friend captured one on a large trolling spoon.CAMPING AND SCOUTING of which there is any record weighed between ten and eleven pounds. but one has only to keep in mind a few points to distinguish them at sight.season and refuse them food. They are usually found in water from six to fifteen feet in depth. and they are peculiarly striped. darting out to capture the large or small fish which form its food. but I have caught This species in the waters of the Great Georgian Bay weighing six. It weighed thirty-five pounds. Even when placed in aquariums. and in such circumstances they seem to be able to go without food for several months. they remain motionless during the cold . and we were obliged to run the launch up to shore in order that the fish might be landed on the beach. pike. call them all pickerel. In size and fighting qualities the muskallunge is the greatest of the three. but in color.

The in Italy as the luccio. then. both being American. especially in the Province of Quebec and at Georgian Bay. but the average runs about seven pounds. being found in all the States east of the Alleghany Mountains. entire cheek and the upper half only of the gill-covers have On the pickerel the whole of both the cheek and gillscales. Perch are most The yellow is 1 The familiar pickerel of New England is a constant source of sport. as its mouth is very large and armed with formidable sharp teeth. stiff rod and a frog's leg or even a piece of pork. The simplest and quickest way to distinguish between the fish is by the scales on the head. in Germany as the hecht. either through trolling with a spoon or "skittering" with a long. with numerous round yellow spots dotted over the entire body. but generally throughout Europe. and the jaws are remarkably strong. They also inhabit the Great Lakes. In European 1 countries the muskallunge and pickerel are never found. which in the muskallunge are found only on a very narrow strip on With the pike the the top of the cheek and gill-covers. never vertically. in Europe it is especially prized. with occasional cases The pike is differently of twenty to twenty-five pounds. that any pickerel over five pounds is a pike. It is to be assumed. covers is entirely covered. While here the pike is considered a good fish to eat. 12 175 . It has a greenish-yellow back and sides. in Sweden as the gadda. French name is also applied in Canada. Pike weighing from forty to fifty pounds have been taken in Canada. The true pike is found not only in American waters. sometimes known as the striped perch. marked from the pickerel. one of the best-known fresh-water fish in this country. It is known in England by the same name as with us. The true pickerel rarely exceed five or six pounds in weight. The spots on a pickerel are oblong and run lengthwise along the sides.WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING be called a fresh-water shark. and in France as the brocket. Yellow Perch perch.

When skinned. feeding principally on small fish and often on any dead fish or animal matter." in New York as the "ling. while the dorsal fin and tail are green. the back a decidedly greenish-bronze.white Six or eight black-colored bars. and those taken are usually about eight to ten inches long. perch make a most exThis is due to the fact that they cellent fish for eating. its color is a silvery white. though often found in brackish waters. in which immense numbers are caught. black bass. and are easily caught.CAMPING AND SCOUTING The body color is a bright yellow. They lurk about clay or muddy bottoms early in the season. It is shorter and wider than the yellow perch. or fresh-water cod. very similar to those of the brook trout." They are a most voracious bottom fish. Where it is found no similar fish will be taken. which is found in the lakes and rivers of the Northern States and as far north as the Arctic Circle. and a yellowish. The wide. A most noted river for white perch is the Potomac. 176 . lower fins are bright red or orange. and average about three-quarters of a pound in weight. The Burbot Before concluding this chapter it is well to give a little attention to the burbot. While not a large fish. They are often called "cusk. weighing practically the same about three-quarters of a pound. The back from the head to the dorsal fin is arched or humped. extend from the back midway down the sides. but a little later are found near weeds or rocks and old stone and wooden piers. The perch is a small fish. fully half an inch belly. They take the hook readily. their In shape this perch is very similar to the quality is good. They are caught only in rivers that flow into the sea. which is properly a salt-water fish. The yellow perch is in no way related to the white perch." and in New England are known as the "eel pout. without any noteworthy markings. with strikingly marked. usually subsist on live food.

They make the best eating when dried and salted.WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING is . It is really the Salmo Sebago. The name means "little salmon.waters of the Saguenay in Quebec. The most familiar fishing- . Fish come down from the great rivers which empty into the lake. running here and there. is and recognition of its favorite with sportsmen. Then they ascend the rivers. They are most frequently taken during the ally Occasionally they are night on set lines placed quite deep. it is usually a question of a minnow or trolling. and are in the lake in the early spring. In weight they range from two to four pounds. is the ' ' little The Leaping Ouananiche It has been said that the gamest fish on this continent the ouananiche. Another game fish not described by Mr. and it is great sport trying to get them through the small fishing-hole. In the Lake St. There In appearance they are like the bullhead and eel. it and many lakes in the has become a East have been stocked with the land-locked salmon. but sometimes reach forty pounds. Burt salmon" of the North. after dark. generfighting qualities. game qualities. Later. John region of Canada the lake itself seems to occupy the relation of the sea to the Salmo solar. Early in the season the fish will take the fly. When they take the hook a great fight is on. which bears the name of the Maine lake where it was discovered a number of years Since the first identification of the Salmo Sebago ago." The fish is a specially developed land-locked salmon which was first identified at the head. They twist and squirm. and will easily jump out In the winter they are taken of a boat if not killed at once. through the ice. caught when angling for other fish with minnows for bait. not much about them to attract an angler except their They almost always bite at night. as do the salt-water cod. or seagoing salmon.

By courtesy of the "Field and Stream" Magazine THE LAST LEAP .

four or five feet above the surface. The canoemen are Indians half-breeds usually who live at the Hudson Bay post a few miles away. When the fish strikes it is almost a quick. At the Hotel Roberval. including Lac a Brochette. but the Discharge. characterized by an amount of agility on the part of the fish which like is 179 . The fisherman. In these white. The latter trip includes a journey up the river (the name of which signifies ''where they watch the moose"). and then across a larger lake. and then across several small lakes. hard blow. Another is the Ashuamouchouan trip. These rivers are specific gravity than ordinary river water. not only on account of the strength and endurance of the fish. viscid masses flies are caught. where ouananiche can be caught at certain seasons. using most frequently a Jack Scott or Silver Doctor fly. "The water is strong. but from its These rivers are very large. The fly gradually sinks down and is moved underneath the white surface. which is a question of three or four days." It really seems to have a higher say. casts into these cakes of foam. and the fish come up from below to feed on them. full of rapids and sometimes large falls. arrangements are made for camping trips. Lac a Jim. is so readily accessible from the Island House that place there are usually too many fishermen to admit of any large degree of success. ground This fishing is particularly interesting. John. often a foot or more thick. and usually the next instant there a flash like silver in the air. As the Indians peculiarities. As the water pours down at the foot of the falls and rapids great cakes of foam form. is up the Perebonca. This is the beginning of a severe struggle.WILDERNESS CAMPS AND FISHING is immediately below the main chute of the Grande Many good fish have been taken there. which is filled with pike. at Lake St. returning down the river. and then down the rapids of the Wassiemski to the tenth falls of the MisstasAnother long camping trip sini. One of the short trips is to the fifth falls of the Misstassini.

whether for ouananiche or salmon. it is an expensive sport. is uncertain. is air. Half of the time the fish seems to be in the and for the rest there is usually a succession of quick. as is usually the case in pursuit of the salmon family. of course. Furthermore. there is probably no fish on fierce runs. but Labrador fishing. the continent which has the endurance and strength of the It is probable that the average size will not ouananiche. is. It should be added that ouananiche-fishing.CAMPING AND SCOUTING unequalled. There are times when they refuse the fly. and then phantom minnows or spoons are used. Since the first vogue of the ouananiche began. though this is less sportsmanlike. although they have been taken of a weight of from eight to ten pounds. the fish has been identified in many of the rivers farther to the east along the Labrador Plateau. . Pound for pound. be more than two or three pounds. a quite elaborate matter.



living-space. .Chapter XIII THE GROWTH OF ORGANIZED CAMPS was perhaps in the early eighties that a general moveto take distinct IT ment toward shape. and New England saw the first camp. boys' breathing-space. They realized that the initiative to build They saw that the and delve and construct as any normal boy ought to do was being eliminated. real outdoor life began Among hotel and other features of the reaction against stereotyped " " life and the continuance in summer of cottage the winter's conventions was the birth of a most beneficent institution the organized Boys' Camp. Unusual Opportunities foi Boys' Camps The physical opportunities in the eastern part of the United States were unusual. his opportunities for the expenditure of normal activity were being slowly cut off. These were camps conducted by earnest. thoughtful men who had the largeness of vision to see what it would mean to a boy's future as cities crowded and schools enlarged.

with camps had their own farms. churches. colleges. afford splendid thousand-odd miles of coast line. its noble rivers. villages camps. The camping idea spread like wild-fire. as a rule. Boys' camps soon became an important business. where comfort was found but simple living not lost. Family Camps The majority also for of these were for boys. is gaining more boys' camps. and its wonderful lakes.'s. with its tributaries to the St. M. Canada. They brought money into the rural districts.CAMPING AND SCOUTING The long line of lakes extending through the heart of hills of its New Vermont. and waterways were all carefully considered. began building Popular authors advertised camps. but there were men and women family camps. Clubs. From a humble collection of tents and a shack or two. schools. and pay was prompt. with a lumber-jack or native farmer-wife for cook. ice-houses with pure ice cut near at hand. and the green opportunities. Lawrence and other rivers. and it paid the farmer to bring his best vegetables. and a small all army of professors and teachers entered upon the new calling. trees. A. boys' camps became institutions with careful and well-constructed buildings. which the caretaker cultivated. exerted a lure that few boys could resist who loved the open country. He avoided a long haul to a village market. fruit and eggs and milk to them. while Maine. There were canoes and boats of the best and latest models. and each season saw a half-dozen or more spring into life. The surrounding vegetation. Y. kitchens where sanitary and dietetic rules were observed. Some Hampshire. and ferwinding tile valleys. countless lakes. so-called camps and . C.

but it was a poor place for the boy. know- and enthusiasm of the director as well as the quality 185 . no late hours. informamay be secured regarding organized camps or places and hunting. Investigate all phases. and be as independently aloof or convivial as they desired. and.THE GROWTH OF ORGANIZED CAMPS In the family camps a tired business or professional man could rent a log cabin for himself -and family. The father could have his own catch of fish served up to him at his own table. turning back to its advertising section. carefully selected companionship. business-like conduct. there will be found a considerable space devoted to camps. But his vacation might be short or he could not get away to a camp. Make sure of the character. Indeed. so great is the volume of camp advertising that several magazines have created departments which give their attention to various forms of out-of-door living. and absence of hall. Fashion was dead and comfort King. to which he sat down in his flannel shirt and rough boots. . danger. But it was found that the organized boys' camp offered good food. constant amusement and instruction in the out-ofdoor world. It is always desirable to obtain references and to look them up. and obtain meals at a central pavilion or dining- camps for girls. tion By writing to the manager of such a department. and his growing son must be sent somewhere. or had no desire for it. The wife and daughters might go to a hotel. There are poor camps as for fishing well as good. Organized Camps Take up almost any popular magazine in the spring or summer. ledge.


Objects of Boys' Camps With the return up the question. finding out things. the food. in "What no normal. or to the beaches. started a man named Balch New Hampshire as a private ven- to the that Mr. Dudley turned its management and equipment over New York State Y. and examples the best thing for him? . Long months fact. from the very force of the nature within ing. and. Origin It seems that about twenty years ago a for in camp boys but as far back as 1885 Sumner F. Dudley had invited six boys to camp for four weeks on Lake Orange.." and the question at once arises. who conduct it to this day on Lake Champlain.THE GROWTH OF ORGANIZED CAMPS of the Speaking merely commercially. with trips in an automobile. "What is it wisest for him to find out?" Does he receive the best form of physical development at home. M. a payment of from $50 to $150 a month for a boy's camp life deserves an camp. A. near Poughkeepsie. An idea of the far-reaching benefits of this one man's efforts for growing boyhood may be gained when we learn that some twenty thousand boys have enjoyed the benefits of this simple manner of out-of-door living. C. adequate return. healthy boy will remain long in doing nothHe will be. " him. amusement ? Even in the best hotels is the life. of the summer months each is season comes wisest to do with our boys?" of idleness are certainly not good. with the summer theatres for the hours. This camp nourished and grew so rapidly ture.

act instantly. tramp. normal living. sail. which is the salvation of this nation. But camping! What does it mean in a well-conducted boys' camp? It means a maximum of fun and the acquirement of robust health. association ? best preparation for the future is the present well seen to ? Has he learned to speak straight. as Dr. of course. to practise some self-denial. and. make camp. row. fish. It means the association of manly men and boys in a sane. think quickly. Has he learned that the and do each day some unselfish thing for the other fellow? Has he learned to look up at the stars in quiet peace and be glad just to be alive because the pure red blood is pounding in his veins. cook out-of-doors? and has he come to know and love Nature because of intimate self-control. "the getting of more iron into the blood and phosphorus into bones. upright living has he learned ? Has he been taught to swim and dive correctly." . healthy.CAMPING AND SCOUTING much to amuse him. Oliver Wendell Holmes used to say. to paddle. but at the end of the summer how much is he benefited ? How many lessons in There is and in manly.

scouting. well-known physical trainers are emsary. Boys are shown how to scientifically construct kites. measured. carpentry. model aeroplanes. In the best camps experienced men have been brought to teach woodcraft. If the boy Fig. and sail boats. healthy. ployed to coach the boys in swimming. happy. There are camps and camps. whichever term one prefers. brass and leather work. 189 . and wellfor boys or girls in these modern times much of a profession as practising medicine or law.Chapter XIV HOW TO CONDUCT A CAMP CONDUCTING is ^. i shows a typical measurement chart.^ ordered camp as a successful. Each boy is carefully weighed. and charted. has any physical defects they are systematically and scientifically helped by corrective gymnastics. Men skilled in handicrafts have been brought to teach wood-carving. Trained Directors With the tremendous popularity of this form of out-ofdoor living there have come great and desirable changes. and to give them setting-up drills. paddling. running. and campcraft or campercraft. and close inquiry is always necesIn the best.

" lastly. This great enterprise is so comparatively recent that many grave mistakes have been made. definitely organized system created to place a premium on honor. and show him the "hidden meanings afield and afloat. The organized camps for boys. this chapter may afford some value and assist- ance to the many manly. courage. and indifferent. like all the world. This chapter a boy after his arrival in camp to "get into help things" intelligently. and will bring home to them an understanding of the methods of di- rection. it is fostered and brought out by glee clubs and musical Saturday evenings. and hardihood. is A very skilful. if he has a camp of his own. expecting to have a successful camp simply because they were away from the city. and under this heading I include girls. His social atmosphere is made as pure and refined as cleancut men can make it. or with friends. location. of good. of launching sincere gentlemen who are taking up this work and maintaining boys' camps. bad. Men have rushed to some out-of-the-way place with a crowd of boys. memory of pleasant trips alone. routine. or. unselfishness. truth. fall in the general classification. They have kept a and have not realized the 190 . selfreliance.CAMPING AND SCOUTING a boy has a musical taste. without any preconceived plans. The little courtesies of life at table If and to women are carefully studied and helped. The It is will Profession of Conducting a Boys' Camp hoped that here suggestions may be offered which prove of value to parents in selecting a camp. will and amusements.

....CAMP MEASUREMENT CHART Age Weight Height Girth Cheet " Chert Fall .

of the sources of supplies. I heard one man. And there are who have taken up this organized camp life for purely commercial reasons." thirty-five or forty boys practical." While is it is to get certainly true that the object of a boy's camping away from the city and town life.CAMPING AND SCOUTING others serious responsibilities of a boys' camp. who was thinking of starting a boys' camp. we shall not need one the first season. Cooking on a flat stone for may be romantic. it seems to me to be assuming a dire responsibility to take twenty -five 192 . Truly it was as he said. His camp was to have about one hundred and sixty boys. Nothing could be farther away from the ideas which go to make a successful and beneficial boys' camp. over almost impassable roads. The questions of buildings. it's good practice cooking out-of-doors. "Real Simple Life. and that if I but once saw it there would be no doubt as to my report. drinking-water. and that it was ideal in every way. mostly under sixteen years of age. lightly pass over the question of a cook-stove with: "Oh. but it is not Several years ago I was requested to go and see some property that a gentleman was thinking of acquiring for a He told me that he had seen it three times boys' camp. and in a country infested with all sorts of wild animals. The property was in the heart of the mountains. It was two hundred and fifty miles from a hospital and sixty-five miles from a physician. twenty-seven miles from any railroad. of culinary arrangements. and that a small country affair. and seven miles from a store. and camp sanitation never seem to trouble some men until they arrive on the spot.

I went down to Governors Island in New York Harbor and spent an hour with the surgeon in charge. and this is true of many homes as well as camps. larger than the average person This is it the comfort and happiness of the home dependent on carefully selected anci prepared food. realizes. When I was first to have the medical care of a boys' camp. numbering nearly two hundred men and boys. is . Quantity is not always The the only thing to consider in choosing and serving a boy's appetite. courteous and helpful. good place to get such information is from a medical officer in the United States Army. always open to any intelligent inquiry and I have found them most Dietetics director should also inform himself on the simple principles of dietics and food values.HOW to civilization. A These officers are during their hours on duty. which has proved of value to me beyond description. To a very large extent. and the chemistry of it is as precise as the chemistry of the laboratory. The preparation of food is a science as well as an art. TO CONDUCT A CAMP one hundred boys far away from the routes leading to Sanitation The director must inform himself on the latest camp sanitation. a subject which does not receive the attention that deserves.

I have travelled thousands of miles examining and surveying land without finding one acceptable spot. Is it a popular hunting-ground. and hunting-lodges. any district where there is a land boom. 194 . out-of-door school-room. thought. is still terial In a growing boy. A spot which is to be the playground. and that is that mamust be supplied for his growth plus the food which It is supplies the actual loss of substance. possible points of view.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Boys' Growth growth to show the importance of food values. as you would the plague. would put into the selection of a place to erect one's own home. Besides the wear and tear of the day's work there is a proportionate amount of work in merely keeping alive and this waste and wear and tear on the engine must be met as inI cite telligently as possible. camps. Ask yourself if the district is one that is likely to be populated rapidly with cottages. and home for a group of men and boys for two months or more cannot be observed too carefully from all In choosing a permanent Ideal sites are very difficult to find. this law of demand and supply which maintains that poise and balance between waste and repair which we call health. with the attendant dangers to boys of firearms in the hands of reckless individuals ? Avoid. however. there another factor to be considered. Location of the Camp site for a boys' camp the same and foresight should be observed that one care.

should be very carefully and may strike should . in a reasonably short time? Have you thought Can you secure the what you would do for appendicitis or in case a boy had to be operated upon some kindred trouble? (I have had four operative cases in camp. mountains. and surrounding country as given by the United States Survey maps. a diver be removed.HOW TO CONDUCT A CAMP Physician services of a physician. see to the general dip of the land. the direction of drainage. swampy ground where malarial mosquitoes breed. Look up the average thunder-storms. Give him a general idea of the country that you are interested in. Stumps rainfall. as will be seen later. if that is not possible. this is very important in the erection of tents. Surroundings Find out the direction of the prevailing winds. and rocks upon which sand or clay predominates. each season. or. should you need one. The beach. accidents by and see whether lightning. marked out with a white or red flag. the elevation of the lakes. These may be obtained from Washington. general consistency of the soil. at five cents each.) Could to a hospital in a reasonably short time you get the invalid twenty-four hours ? Ask the ing local physician fall how many seasons. by writing to the Director of the United States Geological Survey. seen in the last three ten cases of typhoid he has Look over the surround- miles for low.

as guides and passing hunters and fishermen are never too careful when camping on an attractive bit of beach in the spring and fall when the regular camp is closed. Remember that many hurrying feet are going to and fro during the coming weeks. Soil sandy or light soil always makes by far the better camping-ground for a boys' camp. and hauling a load or two of fine sand. paddled into a large boys' camp at the close of four . The steep clay bank. A The earth must be of a quality that permits the rapid Pools of standing filtering through of surface moisture. water are never good sanitation. A clay soil. and general rubbish. old tin cans. after a heavy rain. and your grass will be worn away. This is very important. built a chute down the side of a It was dirty. even for horses. like that along the west shore of Lake Champlain. looking for amusement one rainy day. In Chapter I XX it is explained how an effective chute can be built. Michigan where the boys. If a beach is rocky and unattractive it may be improved by picking out the worst stones. and the soil underneath will make a great deal of difference in the comfort of all. but certainly slippery. will make walking all but impossible. with thirty or forty boys days' carrying huge cakes of tenacious mud from tent to dining- hall. raking down carefully.CAMPING AND SCOUTING systematically cleared of broken bottles. Three rain in a district of this sort. will reduce a is camp cook in There a camp to maniacal mutterings. boys stripped and slid down to the river below.

which is. a steep incline of clay. His only satisfaction was then to join the group and wait for another unfortunate. or shelving ledge of rock. of the soil in regard to the cesspools and with relation to the source of drinking-water and the toilets. As the most common transmitter of malaria is the mosquito. somewhat the worse for wear. where he was rescued. it may not be out of place here to say a word on that subject.HOW TO CONDUCT A CAMP rainy days and found a group gleefully watching the campThe approach was down ers assembling at the dining-tent. and a load or two of clay can usually be hauled by a farmer from a clay bank or brickyard. by his comrades. that acts as a perfect conductor of all filth to the well or stream from which the drinking water obtained or the cove in which bathing is permitted. and immediately underneath a clay outcrop. then up went his feet and down he slipped on mother earth the rest of the distance. While it is true that a clay top-soil will make a good tennis court. Boy after boy got half-way down. studded with outcropping rocks. an excellent filter. Frequently this will show a surface soil of sandy quality. of course. The common house . the disadvantages that it offers for the baseball field is are enough to offset it. should always be borne in mind. danger of polluting the bathing-place. Mosquitoes The surrounding country should be looked over for malarious and swampy regions. The importance A hole of soil should be dug to ascertain the quality and variety to the depth of six to ten feet.

while eles body lies nearly parallel when sitting on the wall or The Anoph- ceiling holds its position with a pair of legs against the wall or hanging down. The body. protrudes at an angle of forty-five degrees. ceiling holds its position with a pair of legs curled up above back. or feelers. of the Anoph- eles plainly mottled. of the Culex. As a general and visitors. instead of lying against the wall or ceiling. they are long. as were. or non malarial mosquito. I camp the day after a boy had been requested . (3) its The Culex when its it is sitting on the wall or to the wall. constantly passing launches. while on the Anopheles. It is not the city-bred but the country-bred insect that causes all the trouble. are very short. (4) The Culex when lighting settles horizontally. and upset parties A stream of discipline. giving the insect the appearance of having three pro- boscises. and only seen on close observation. called at a large Most camps have regular visiting days. detract from the regular routine. head first. while it the Anopheles alights. or malarial mosquito. Privacy proposition.CAMPING AND SCOUTING mosquito is not the malarial one. it may be laid down as unwise have a boys' camp near a popular summer resort or nearer than several miles at least to a large or fashionable to hotel. One or two simple points are sufficient to afford a ready distinction by almost any individual. (1) The palpi. (2) The wings of the Culex are finely lined.


it should never be placed over a depressed place in the ground or hollow and never under thick foliage. 2-6 P. which deals with individual as distinguished from organized camps. the subject portance. First. M. Tent-placing In Chapter V. In erecting a tent either near one's home or in the wild woods two points should always be observed. some excellent explanations have been given of tent-making and of pitching tents. but is where the midday rays where the early and last rays have . legend greeted us at the fence: The following CAMP BLANK PRIVATE PROPERTY No Trespassing Except on Thursday. Tents will soon it more complicated. and the ground under them will retain dampness and moisture much longer than under a building. and the conditions so much is of so much im- that of seems advisable to consider this life in greater detail with a view to the requirements of a considerable body of campers. The ideal place to erect a tent of the sun are shaded. They should always be erected where the sunshine may enter during the morning or after- noon hours. While many things which are said there are applicable to the larger or organized camps. and other branches camp become soggy and damp in shady spots.CAMPING AND SCOUTING to paint a sign referring to visiting days.

or." such as the birch. There are certain trees that are less attractive to lightning and are said to be struck less frequently. Permanent camps should never be built on low ground. because of the cold winds. and maple. Sandy beaches in sheltered coves are always desirable for bathing. In the Middle Atlantic States a western or southern frontage is best both for the pleasure of watching the sunsets and for the milder winds. Islands.tents. driving away flies. and care should be taken to indicate a safe place. and there is usually an atnight with tractive bit of landscape. tents should never face north. mosquitoes. off. are nearly always excellent camping-grounds. for non-swimmers.HOW free scope. so much water about. which is a point to bear in mind in the erection of in juices. gradually deepening. and cottonwoods. as . and the one direction best. "fat bearing. however picturesque the scenery. for the reasons already stated above. elm. least A ridge or sloping hillside with good drainage in at is Most promontories jutting out splendid spots for camping. There is the advantage of the sweep of air through the trees and grass on two sides. beech. They are those rich they are sometimes known. The non-fat . in a narrow valley or ravine. bearing are the oak. into lakes or rivers make many little It is always cool at pests of the field and forest. a tent should never be placed under or within falling If the tree is living but distance of a dead or rotten tree. As a rule. and doing a neat job. has dead branches extending over the tent. cut them using a saw if possible. TO CONDUCT A CAMP Secondly. remembering the number of fallen trees or broken branches that one sees after a violent windstorm.

undoubtedly. and in a dress-suit case. and others is too light on bright days. page 55). and softens the light that so frequently prevents new campers from sleeping after sunneath it and the tent surface. they may be purchased at a low price from secondhand stores that sell supplies purchased from the Government. while a silk tent of the same size would cost about . occur to me as examples. Peck.CAMPING AND SCOUTING piece of canvas known as a "fly" will be found a great advantage to the comfort of the dwellers. that canvas one's khaki tents are too dark and gloomy on dull days. of York. Bannerman's. The size one of moderate can be packed balloon-silk tents are very light. they light up very brilliantly. and they The brillare about twice as expensive as the other two. It sheds water. ter V. so that one must make own choice. I have heard boys complain that khaki. The disadvantages are that they crackle in a breeze like a crumpled newspaper. Tent Material Tents are made of canvas (the best is 8 or lo-oz. 7. iancy The khaki tents are. of the light may be tempered by a khaki fly. a khaki of the same size costs about thirty to thirty-eight Newburg. permits a circulation of air be- The extra which is a decided advantage in exceedingly hot weather. keeping the tent dry. on Broadway. and balloon silk. rise or when the moon is full (see Fig. duck). New York. and George C. A 10 x 12 canvas tent costs about twenty to thirty dollars. New dollars. more durable but As was said in Chapslightly more expensive than canvas.

HOW last. untie them. and in a fixed camp are nicely rounded with the ends bound in zinc or . Now take the fly and place it over the top of the tent (still on the ground) in such a manner that both eyelets or pegtent is holes will be over each other. so that later. Tent Poles poles are three in number. so that it is difficult To Erect a Tent To fully unfold it. or they may embarrass you untangled. not between them. TO CONDUCT A CAMP The Government does not use the to purchase one second hand. or peak of the it out all flat on the ground until it is perfectly the guy and foot ropes are clear and no knots. supported by a brace at each end. or ridge pole. The pages horizontal. (See illustrations. having If the flaps are tied together. 63. Have your assistant hold the top of the peak up while you slip the under side of the fly down under the tent. If you are alone put a rock of some weight over the upper edge of tent. or even a large nail. 55. 51. sixty-five dollars new. It will not bear the strain otherwise. should always rest on top of the uprights. to which it is attached by spike or ball. as you would slip a cloth school-bag over a book. roof.) The Poles are usually made of spruce or pine. and draw' erect a wall tent (see illustrations in Chapter V) careTake the tent by its ridge. the long one for the ridge pole. smooth. See that when the up you may enter from either end freely.

gives Roll up the top layer of fly and tent until you can readily put the ridge pole in position. it can be avoided. rustic appearance. anything to the sides until the corners are secure. . (Consult Chapter V in following these details. choose sand to It feels soft sleep on. Do not attempt to do sistant stake out the four corners. Iron ones at least three feet long. Two points here: be careful not to draw the tent too much to one side by staking one side tighter. raise your house. Be very begin at each corner just as the tent is started. Cedar poles . (See also page 53. and have guy ropes in a direct line with the Now.CAMPING AND SCOUTING sheet-iron to keep them from splitting. stake out the fly.) Floors if Tents should always have some sort of flooring. strong.) kept on. The fly should not be permitted to sag anywhere. while you hold them. have your asperpendicular. may if be cut with a butt some two inches in diameter the bark. Never nail a tent down to the flooring. arch of the roof. sharp ones are best for the four corners. The edge of the tent wall may be attached to the floor by slipping the loops over screw hooks or nails driven under the floor. long. The tent will now stand alone and the staking out of the guy ropes along the side will be begun. Now seize the uprights and Be sure that your uprights are exactly and. them a fasten them to horizontal ridge pole and fold your rolled-up Have your stakes ready four tent fly down over them. and not till now. slip your uprights into place. Never. sure that it is free from the tent roof by at least four inches.


13. trunks. penknives. has been described for for home-staying boys in Chapter II. On the trail on trips away from the main camp tent floors may be made of canvas or skin rugs. as we often call it. Figs. or wigwam. Fig. I add an explanation boys in the woods. The slight extra page 55. This promotes a free circulation of air. carried for that purpose. and page 59. Of course in erecting a camp for a protracted stay a house camp a board floor is the thing. 2x4. or camp furniThey are ever ready to receive fountainpens. It is a mistake to econo- mize lumber by placing boards so as to have a space between them. 12. Elevate the flooring on stringers. up or place the beds. for u. Wigwam or Tepee in the Woods Although the building of a tepee. or logs at least inches thick.) This may be constructed of any boards an inch thick. holes plug them ture over them. (See illustrations. A considerable portion of time will be spent crawling or feeling under the tent floor for lost articles. expense involved in using boards planed on one side will be more than compensated for by the lack of splinters picked up by the bare feet in the night. Drive a peg in the centre of a space that has been pre206 . keeps 4 the ground dry. until no position is comfortable. which is the proper Indian term. or boughs.CAMPING AND SCOUTING about an hour and after that it packs down to fit every contour of the body. and permits exploration for skunks and other If the tent floor has knotpests that might set up a home. and various small articles.

over these uprights. Horace Kephart in his excellent work. 15. and spread their butts out around the circle at Place the pole cover or tent proper equal distances apart. The department - stores carry Sibley tents in their sporting goods departments. which is seldom permitted to blaze. They are round and taper up to a point like a cone. on Broadway. or Atlantic Avenue. In an Indian tepee a smoke-hole is made at the top poles. Get about ten or a slim poles.) Sibley Tents Sibley tents are not used as much as the other varieties. They are set up with one pole in the centre. or at manufacturers along South Street. 16. and tie these all together at their tops. if desired. and lace or pin up. New York. The method given by Mr. like a fishing-rod.HOW Now mark TO CONDUCT A CAMP viously cleared and. describe a circle. and 14 I take it direct from him: 207 . alder will do. but is kept down to a smudge. (See illustrations on pages 13. They can also be purchased at Bannerman's. In a treeless region these tents have the advantage of not needing any other support. This pole may be in sections. attach the latter to the centre peg for use just as a compass is used in drawing. and closed by two long by flaps which are opened The Indians build a fire in the middle of this tepee in a hole dug about 6 inches or i foot deep. The Book of Camping and Woodcraft. is as good as the tent and sail any. and because of their steep pitch shed water very well. tying a peg to a rope. but have some merits. The outer boundary of this will dozen the limits of the tepee wall. in Boston.

and another at such a distance from this as will mark the radius of the tent farther out. these circles." . also another loop marking the radius of the guys.CAMPING AND SCOUTING "For a Sibley tent make a loop in one end of its leech ropes. and then make them all taut. loop on the gromet lines to the former. with the other peg used alternately in the other loops. loop the end of the line over it and. when set up taut. If the tent has a wall. drive a peg in the centre of the space that it has to cover. draw two concentric Drive the pegs and guy stakes in circles on the ground. respectively. raise the tent.

. canned sardines (the French variety) and lemons are always welcome.Chapter XV THE BILL OF FARE is entitled to a good appetite. whereas on a canoe trip canned goods are excellent ballast. There are are very necessary features of the food supply. Dried several articles that make fine additions to an outfit. on the nature of the trip. A CAMPER ter we shall consider the requirements of long trips. od of transportation determines at once. The "grub list" will The methdepend. corned beef. chapter we have been introduced to the comparatively In this chapsimple requirements of the domestic camper. and also of camps containing a number of boys. Sacks of flour and cornmeal. not be loaded down with a lot of canned goods. 209 . particularly. Soups are always welcome. There is a variety of beef capsules called "Sterzo" that come in watertight tin boxes beef. to a very great The boy on a walking trip canextent. of course. on cold. The amount. quality. and variety of food is one of the young camper's greatest problems. raw days They can be made of almost anything. when one has a pony to carry them. which make an excellent beef tea instantly by adding boiling water. what can be taken. but he should In a previous be able to prepare his food himself.

the cooking utensils will be carefully grouped together. spoons. it is an excellent plan to prepare at home as On much as possible for the meals.) Food the canoes turned over. in some secure place. In the former will be found orderliness and neatness. a valuable addition to the larder. the arrangement o a camp. forks. Sandwiches always make Dough may be prepared beforehand under competent direction and carried in cans and baked on a hot. and plates in tin boxes with watertight covers. page 73. or the construction of a camp-fire will at once mark an old from a new camper. or improvised table. and the food supply. These 210 . knives. Coffee may be ground at home and sewed up in a small sack which can be thrown into water that is boiling. the food supply will be raised above the sand or moss on a rock. n. A glance at the contents of a for canoe. This shows the novice. and the bedding carefully elevated (Refer to Fig. cups.CAMPING AND SCOUTING short trips where possibly two school holidays come in succession. for Canoe Trips Here the cooking utensils should be carefully placed in one box. always plan preparation in advance. with the idea of "fixing up things after they arrive. One his most important things for a young camper in outfitting is to remember the importance of careful of the As far as possible. It is not at all unusual boys to hurriedly throw all their equipment together. " pellmell. box. flat rock or a sheet of tin beside the glowing coals. the meals out before leaving home.

and sardines are easy to prepare and make excellent ballast in the canoe. fruits. These things have an astonishing way of slipping down into sand or becoming buried in moss or pine needles. corn.THE BILL OF FARE be purchased in any department store in the houseUpon landing for a meal.f. boxes should be at once taken from the canoe. beans. densed eggs. Canned tomatoes. This avoids their getting lost and keeps them clean until needed. the furnishing department. and most beef extracts are very 211 . and plates may be taken out of the tin box as each one comes for his rations. Nearly everything edible. conof these things are abominations. while the knives.' > I v AT DINNER IN A BOYS ORGANIZED CAMP meats. the cook- may ing utensils arranged as needed. in general. forks. has at some time or another been canned. and a great many Condensed coffee. spoons. soup. condensed beef. There are various makes of canned goods which are excellent food. M.

rieties carelessly made. with the addition of a little water and The directions for making salt. as they have been carefully worked out by the manufacturers. and it will pay to follow them. But those purchased from any reliable house and thoroughly endorsed will are without danger. or the quality that solder. Here is a recipe for one dozen biscuits: wood . soldered in a clumsy manner. can make biscuits or flapjacks. True. is known as "Aunt Jemima's" self-raising flour. canned goods have met with a great deal of undeserved criticism. with a little care. If baked of in a Dutch oven be sure that the coals of the best. can be con- verted into flapjacks. the food must be poured from the cans at once when opened. However. main in the* cans. as it readily The food must not be permitted to redecomposes and dissolves the This renders the food poisonous. are printed on the package. Hardtack is harder and it will therefore keep better in damp weather than pilot bread. as previously described. where the can. while condensed one can stand its peculiar taste) will make a (if valuable addition to. permit decomposition of the food. They are best baked in a tin reflector or an oven dug out of a bank. Any boy. HOT BISCUITS are not difficult to make. One important point must be remembered: That is. and give the proud camper a feeling of wonderful independence of the women folks at home. fire has a large bed Grease the pan with anything bacon rind or a piece of bacon is good. there are frequently cheap vapoor food. The self-raising or Hecker's prepared flour. in about fifteen minutes. a meal.CAMPING AND SCOUTING cream Condensed milk is a good thing.

but there are several good preparations. stirring up the paste. butter. add condensed milk if desired.THE BILL OF FARE i^ pints of flour i heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder teaspoonful of salt tablespoonful of cold grease i pint of cold water or milk i i Lard. Place your cups in a row on your improvised table or log and put a heaping teaspoonful of . minutes. then add boiling water. OATMEAL WATER makes a very particularly palatable. Phillips' s Digestible Cocoa in powder and shorten the time necessary is probably COCOA.cocoa in each cup. nutritious. although not drink. This will prevent the coffee from boiling over for boiling it. Stuff in a wad of paper or leaves in the nose of the coffee-pot. then add about a tablespoonful of water and carefully make a paste. Beverages COFFEE as a steady sailing it is : diet for boys is not advisable. On cold mornings or after an exhaustive day and may be made very welcome. of paddling or in the following manner Measure out the number of cups desired by pouring the cold water into the coffee-pot and add an extra cup for Boil this water and. and not before. sweeten to the taste. Many trainers use it for . when actively possible evaporation. add one tablespoonful of the ground boiling Boil about five berry for each cupful and one for the pot. or fried-out fat can be used. one of the best.

beef. with . This is simple and reliable of the feminine tea- ball at home. assist dishes at once after finishing a meal. All these may be put together into a pot and warmed up. tomatoes. An old wives' tale that soot burns around the rocks or in the fireplace it will rain in twenty-four hours. can be made by sewing or pinning a heaping teaspoonful of tea in a piece of cheesecloth or clean rag and dropping into a pot an imitation of boiling water. pots. also. box. Canned Pointers In cooking it is always wise to follow printed directions on cans and boxes placed there by the manufacturers. They have worked the matter out carefully. and kettles on. flat rock. Do An excellent range not leave anything on the ground. If any old biscuits are about put them in for dumplings. Paper will Firewood ashes make excellent scouring material. Add TEA. as has been previously said. Have a pans. or beans. It is easier Use sand or leaves to remove grease. Stir to prevent burning on the bottom. with the addition of boiling water and a little condensed milk* thickened with flour. a clean cloth. Be sure to put things back in their places or they will be lost. may be built of clay and stones. corn. It is cold water for meal or soaking it in several hours and then straining off through boiling out made by salt.CAMPING AND SCOUTING athletes. makes good soup. or is hewed if log to put knives. Wash and will soon be over.

Of course. When done take out the vegetables. carrots. and Many of these receipts are from Canoe and Camp Cookery. put into a pan of cold water. 1 . mash and return them to the soup. rinsed and drained. squash. washed. by "Seneca. or the staves of an old pork barrel broken up and placed around will do. and cut into small pieces from a quarter to a halfinch thick. Canned corn or tomatoes may be used in this soup the same as fresh vegetables." and they are used through the courtesy of the Forest and Stream Publishing Company. pared. cabbage. l Soups Here are some good soups that can be prepared readily: VEGETABLE SOUP. with a chimney at least three feet high. BEAN SOUP. Let this cook slowly for a reasonable time. turnips. Tomatoes should be scalded.Onions. the soup should be stirred occasionally to prevent the vegetables from sticking to the bottom of the pot and skimmed frequently. and soak them overnight in cold water. Cooked meat or bones may be added. parsnips. On opening them the contents will be ready to serve.. iron pot it should be transferred as soon as done to an earthen or tin vessel. Pick over two quarts of beans. wash. It should be built under a bank. boil one minute. Camp fireplaces have been discussed in detail in Chapter VII. The simplest way of preparing canned foods such as beans and meats is to place the cans in boiling water for ten minutes. After finishing cooking and before sitting down to a meal do not forget to put on the dish-water. peeled. potatoes. should be picked over. Scrape clean one pound of salt pork. a piece of stove-pipe is a luxury. While cooking.. etc. The chimney may be built of stones chinked in with clay.THE BILL OF FARE covers and holes like any stove. cauliflower. beets. season and serve. If made in an Just before this is done season with salt and pepper. and sliced.

chop up fine one medium-sized one. skimming constantly. leaving out as many bones as possible. FISH SOUP. Repeat the layers except pork until the pot is . but plenty of pepper. take out the pork and mash the beans into a paste with a wooden masher or the bottom of a large bottle. over that a layer of sliced raw potatoes. then stir in one cup of boiled milk. should be used for seasoning. The soup will be good if the milk is omitted. constantly stirring. Use more salt than with the bean soup for seasoning. Season and serve. stirring frequently then put in the pork. and let them boil gently for half an hour. FISH CHOWDER. . Cut stale bread into square pieces. Clean the fish and cut up all except the heads and tails into small pieces. 1 TOMATO SOUP. then a layer of chopped onions. and slicing them (the same amount of canned tomatoes may be used). Boil slowly for an hour and a half. Boil gently for an hour. Pea soup cools and thickens rapidly therefore if squares of fried bread are thrown upon the surface before serving. then a layer of fish. Then drain off all the water and put in the same amount of fresh boiling water. When the beans have become tender enough to crack. Cover the bottom of the pot with slices of fat salt pork. with one tablespoonful of soda. Then put all back and boil slowly an hour If no soda is used. Not much salt. and let it come again to a boil.CAMPING AND SCOUTING cut into thin slices. removfry in boiling fat for an instant. with a piece of salt pork for two hours. ing it as soon as brown. it should be done quickly and while the bread is hot. on the fish a layer of crackers first made tender by soaking in water or milk. and stew it. . and put all the ingredients with a pinch of salt into one pint of cold water. put them into six quarts of cold water. except as to the preliminary boiling in PEA SOUP. Drain the beans. Prepare about one pound of tomatoes by scalding. Make the same way as bean soup. above Treat the peas exactly the same as the beans in the water with soda. and Take care it does not burn. and boil gently or it will surely burn. Cut up large fish. Mix one tablespoonful of flour and a piece of butter the size of an egg into a smooth paste. Bean longer. and if you have onions. peeling. stirring frequently enough to dissolve the tomatoes and prevent burning. after it has been cooled from a previous cooking. into small pieces. longer boiling will be necessary. recipe. soup will burn if not constantly stirred. FRIED BREAD FOR SOUPS.

what is better. Spread the shelled clams on the seaweed. and fry both sides to a clear golden brown. and on it skewer small trout and thin slices of bacon or pork in alternation. Hold over a bed of hot coals and keep constantly turning. then green corn. Sprinkle lightly with pepper and salt just as it is turning brown. Then put a couple of stout boughs across the open top of the oven. add more milk. so that there will be no smoky taste to the chowder. A cupserve. be cut up. Cook it till it is rather thick. and either a bluefish or a cod. even to the faintest cinder. the chowder put on. if extra-orthodox). a rich and nutritious fish chowder. ORTHODOX CLAM CHOWDER. The first thing necessary is an outdoor oven made with flat stones. This makes piece of butter. then a layer of sweet or Irish potatoes (or both). so as to retain the heat The stones should be extremely and in it as long as possible. enough cold water to moisten the whole mass well. When it has cooked half an hour or so let the company attack it en masse. Start a rousing fire in this and let Then rake out it burn until every stone is hot all the way through. Have enough pork fat or lard 217 . over them a layer of onions. Roll the fish in dry cornmeal or flour.THE BILL OF FARE Every layer must be seasoned with pepper and salt. Sharpen a small. SKEWERED TROUT. Fish but large ones should bubbling hot in the fryingpan to well cover the fish. or the chowder will be a failure. and it is ready to Tomatoes may be added as a layer after the onions. thoroughly heated. condensed milk will do and a large ful of milk may be added Just before taking off. and cover them with fresh seaweed an inch or two thick. and the whole covered with great haste. and pile on seaweed till no steam escapes. nearly full. Now cover the whole arrangement with a large cloth. then stir it gently.stick. dip it into well-beaten egg and then into bread or cracker crumbs. or. Small fish may be fried whole. uncovering it gradually as it is eaten. and the cinders should be cleaned out. cover the pot closely. so as not to give the stones a chance to cool. then a lobster. then the fish (cleaned and salted and wrapped in a cloth. so that FRIED FISH. either alive or boiled. set over a gentle fire and let it simmer an hour or so. Put in the coals beneath. straight .

fish. then rake back the coals and loose earth. the skin will peel off and leave the flesh A fish prepared this way need not be scalded. the same as pork or bacon. Slice thin. Some fish boil quicker than others. leaving the hot ashes in the bottom. and simmer steadily until done. etc* In selecting salt pork. Remove the coals. PLAIN BAKED FISH. using extra care that the smoke and flame from the drippings do not reach the pork. put in frying-pan with cold water enough to cover. or soak one hour in cold water. FRIED SALT PORK (OR BACON). Fry the ham first. Dig a hole in the ground eighteen inches deep and large enough to contain the fish build a fire in it and let it burn to coals. and pour over it a right. BOILED FISH. then turn off the water and fry brown on both sides. spoonfuls of salt and four ditto of vinegar are put into the water the A About twenty-five minutes is necessary for and over that six minutes extra to every pound. and one boiled too long is insipid. cover with another layer of grass. a three-pound hot sauce. and fry with a little butter or lard in the pan. skewer the tail into the mouth. be careful that it is smooth and dry. If the pot is too small for the Put it into enough boiling water fish. Damp. as the scales will come off with the skin after it is . let it come to a boil and boil two or three minutes. very few minutes will suffice to cook the trout. Slice thin and broil on the end of a green switch held over the coals. but only disclean. remove the cloth carefully. Put the fish on the grass. embowelled. . especially from a country store.CAMPING AND SCOUTING the juices will not be lost in the fire. An underdone fish is not fit to eat. Ham and Eggs. In an hour the baking will be complete. HAM AND EGGS. Meat. and build a small fire on top. Tie or pin the fish (which should not weigh less than three pounds) in a clean cloth. fish will cook sooner. to cover it about an inch. BROILED SALT PORK. then roll in bread or cracker crumbs. clammy pork may cause ptomaine poisoning. cooked. as a general rule those of white flesh reIf a couple of tablequiring less time than those of a darker tinge. on which place a thick layer of green grass. When the meat separates easily from the backbone it is cooked just Take it up.

BROILING IN A FRYING-PAN. steadily till a sliver will easily pierce the largest. working in pepper. MASHED POTATOES.THE BILL OF FARE Break each egg separately fry the eggs in the fat left in the pan. and all the juices are preserved. and simmer Strain when done. but both the fore and hind legs of large ones. butter. and in the latter case put them If they are of unequal size cut in cold water and allow it to boil. ROASTED POTATOES. Do not permit the broiler to be over the fire. If mashed in an iron pot they will be discolored. but will taste just as good as if mashed in tin or earthenware. into a cup. 219 . salt. into enough boiling salted water to cover them. and set the pot near the fire. by which means the yolks are kept intact and bad eggs are discovered before it is too and While the eggs are frying dip up some of the fat with a spoon and pour it over the tops of the eggs. A broiler is conveniently carried and is the best method of cooking steak. unless old. seasoning with pepper and salt. They are best broiled. Put. FROGS. but may be fried late. cut out bad places and eyes. and slice off a piece of skin at each pointed end. but at one side. Heat the empty pan very hot first. shaking them occasionally to dry them. as those preferable to large ones. Stir frequently and fry slowly. in butter. Use only the hind legs of small frogs. Wash and wipe them dry. After boiling. Peel and slice cold cooked potatoes. and sufficient hot milk or water to make them into the consistency of soft dough. Do not make the common mistake of putting them among the live coals of the fire. Small or medium-sized potatoes are Choose those with small eyes. Vegetables BOILED IRISH POTATOES. then put in the meat to be broiled. the large ones. Do not pare unless they are very old. Broiling can be done as well with a frying-pan as with a gridiron. not cooked through. so that they will boil evenly. with large eyes are generally about to sprout and are of poor quality. cover over with a tin plate. wash. and thence transfer it to the pan. and cut off the ends. and turn the meat often in the pan. and put them into enough "screeching hot" lard or pork fat to cover the bottom of the pan. or they will be burned. Bury them in the ashes till a sliver will easily pierce them. FRIED COOKED POTATOES. peel and mash thoroughly with the bottom of a large bottle.

Cut the corn from the cobs and shell the beans. and other "weeds" are good. Put them in the pot in time to be done with the meat. reevenly. Season to taste. They should be picked over carefully. If too many potatoes are put in at one time they will chill the fat and will not fry Turn and fry a light brown on both sides. then drain and put in enough boiling salt water to cover them. If The string beans are used. narrow dock. discarding unripe and hard parts. Cover. mustard. Peel by pouring over them boiling water. and slice very thin. and stir till it boils up once. and stew gently. corned beef. Stew gently till tender. pepper. SWEET POTATOES quire a longer time. seasoning with butter. When in camp or on a cruise a most delicious dish can be made of boiled greens. stirring frequently. put into a pot This of boiling salt water for about twenty minutes or until tender. of which a large variety of weeds and Dandelion leaves. as they "boil away" and lose more than half in substance. Then Season to taste with butter. cabbage.CAMPING AND SCOUTING FRIED RAW POTATOES. Greens are good boiled with salt pork. Put few at a time into enough boiling fat to float the slices. and boil steadily till tender. string and cut into half-inch pieces. but in a yacht's galley it is if it rather difficult on a camp-fire. peel. and salt. when the skin will easily come off. bacon. leaving as much of the grease as possible in the frying-pan. plants furnishes the material. kale. or ham. Cut up. turnip tops. mountain cowslip. then drain. salt. per. but re- SUCCOTASH. pepdrain and press out the water. are cooked the same as Irish potatoes. Put them into enough boiling salt water to cover them. if very acid. and. right proportion for succotash is two-thirds corn to one-third beans. Wash. BOILED MACARONI may be readily cooked be provided with a regular yacht stove. Wipe the macaroni carefully. two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Cover. move with a fork. add a cupful of milk and a piece of butter the size of an egg. Put into a pot. nettles. . When done. break into lengths. and soaked in cold water half an hour. STEWED TOMATOES. spinach. poke. young beat tops. Press them down till the pot is full. sprouts. washed in three or four waters. and then shake them up in a covered dish to eliminate the grease still further. GREENS. milkweed.

The edible kind A little grated cheese sunny and fresh poisonous in shady places. and spring up after low-lying fogs. and. Finally. nearly or After half an hour's boiling an ear had best be quite twice as long. The tint on being bruised. The gills of the poisonous variety are red. milky juice. damp ground. They first appear very small and of a round form. The skin of the former is easily peeled from the edges. and others exude an acrid. and the poisonous have sometimes a similar odor. The flesh of the edible kind is compact and brittle that of the poisonous generally soft and watery. or orange red. as the size increases. in clear. removed occasionally and the kernels prodded with a sliver to see if they have cooked tender. or heavy rains. Put the corn into enough boiling salt water to cover it. mushroom should have all of the above-named characteristics of the edible variety before it is put into the pot. and if you don't know a salmon color from a yellow. Drain off the water as soon as the corn is done. twenty-five minutes. The sweetness of corn is better preserved . if old. or if a silver spoon with which they are stirred while cooking turns black. soaking dews. the upper part and stalk being then white. and the Some poisonous ones assume a bluish seeds are mostly angular. and are most plentiful in . on a little stalk. the skin of the latter is not easy to peel. and the seeds or sprouts are for the most part roundish or oval. After the mushroom is a day old this salmon color changes to a russet or dark brown. They grow very fast. if a white peeled onion cooked with them turns black. Edible mushrooms are found fields and elevated ground where the air is pure ones are found in woods. open. then replace the inner husks and tie the ends. 221 . Turn in the boiling if the outer layer of husks only is stripped off. but generally smell fetid. as they change color after being picked several hours. and sometimes white. don't eat them. Boil. back the inner husks and strip off the silk. and the two kinds are then difficult to distinguish. let somebody gather them who does.THE BILL OF FARE food also comes in cans and is fairly palatable. blue. Overboiling spoils corn. is a valuable addition. green. MUSHROOMS. and it is safest not to select mushrooms gathered by somebody else. The latter have an agreeable odor. yellow. the under part " gradually opens and shows a fringy fur (called gills") of a delicate salmon color. low. BOILED GREEN CORN. August and September. if young. but they never have the delicate salmon color of the edible mushroom. upon putrefying substances.

beaten light. and mix with it one-half teaspoonful of salt. Drop thin batter in with a spoon. turn it and cook on the other. and then only occasional greasing will be required. and the latter should then be boiled until it is of such consistency that it hang well together when taken out with a spoon.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Mush Hoe-cakes Slapjacks Biscuits CORNMEAL MUSH. Put one quart of sifted flour in a deep dish. then into bread or cracker crumbs. two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder. add more water (or milk). and this is best done with a clean rag containing butter. so as not to stop the boiling process. Or. and fry. OATMEAL MUSH is made the same as cornmeal mush. Cut cold cornmeal mush into slices half an inch thick. ficient of the batter should be stirred in to make a thin mush. and then pour this batter into the pot of boiling water (slightly Sufsalted) very gradually. Then add two eggs. and when the cake is cooked firm on one side. do so very gradually and will stir it constantly to prevent its lumping. CORNMEAL SLAPJACKS. If fried in lard add a little salt. SLAPJACKS. too much grease is perfectly clean and smooth inside. If it is sprinkled into the pot of boiling water dry. if long boiling makes it It can be advantageously boiled too thick. Scrape it after each panful is cooked. one teaspoonful of salt and one or two teaspoonfuls of baking powder having been stirred into the 222 . two hours. but must always be sprinkled dry into the pot of boiling water. and if they do not thin down the batter suffiBeat thoroughly and cook imciently. mediately the same as slapjacks. Disturb it as little as possible. Add warm water (milk is better) sufficient to make a thick batter. The main difficulties in making good cornmeal mush are the care necessary to prevent the formation of lumps and the long time required to cook it. and. The surest way to avoid lumps is to mix the meal first with cold water enough to make a thin batter. To properly cook slapjacks the frying-pan should be If it is not. The longer it is allowed to boil the better it will be. FRIED COLD MUSH. but is eatable after twenty minutes' boil. add more boiling water. BATTER CAKES. so that the cake will be very thin. and one teaspoonful of sugar. dip each slice into beaten eggs (salted). and fry on both sides in boiling pork fat or butter. One quart of cold water is mixed with meal enough to make a thin batter. required in cooking.

cover closely and cook gently until soft probably from one to one and one-half hours stirring frequently to prevent When necessary to replenish the water add boiling scorching. Into a frying-pan nearly full of boiling water containing a teaspoonful of salt slip carefully the eggs one by one. and soak overnight in cold water enough to cover it. FRIZZLED BEEF. To one quart of the wheat add one tablespoonful of salt. a It is then teaspoonful of salt. Keep them on the surface of the water. Do not break the yolks at first. etc. and sufficient water to make it stiff. POACHED EGGS. of Hecker's prepared flour with one-half pint of cold milk or water. It is called "Maryland Biscuit" along the Potomac and Chesapeake. SCRAMBLED EGGS. "Frizzled Beef. In the morning put the wheat with the water it was soaked in into a pot. and throw them into the frying-pan with a lump of butter and salt and pepper. it. sealed 15 and in small Chipped beef comes in glass jars hermetically one-pound boxes. even when there is a The dough galley-stove with a good hot oven on board the vessel. Break the eggs into a cup to insure their freshness. if possible. This is the kind almost wholly used by coasting vessels. beaten or hammered lustily on a board or smooth log until it becomes When cut up into biscuits it can be baked in the portable elastic. and boil gently three or four minutes. Eggs is FRIED AND BOILED EGGS are so easy to prepare that no instruction necessary in these familiar methods of cooking them. Stir over a fire of coals until they are almost hard. This makes a very good food. dipping up some of the water with a spoon and pouring it over the tops of the eggs.THE BILL OF FARE latter. 223 . CRACKED WHEAT. The addition of one or two well-beaten eggs Cook on a very hot pan. Cook as above. Mix well one pint will improve water. HECKER'S FLOUR SLAPJACKS. as above. and is cooked in a frying-pan. UNLEAVENED BREAD. is mixed up with a quart of wheat flour. one teaspoonful of lard. Serve on toast. oven among the coals. breaking each previously into a cup.

just cover with cold water. Cut bread into slices about one inch in thickToast the slices slightly without hardening or burning. PORK AND BEANS. therefore. Put half the beans into the bake-kettle. and let it be equally melted.CAMPING AND SCOUTING be eaten as sandwiches or it may be frizzled or fried in a good idea to make a flour-and-butter gravy. as has been described. latter method. and pare off the crust. and toast all over the fire on a broiler. skimming the scum off as it rises. parboil the pork and cut it into thin slices. Pick over the beans at night. and put them to soak in cold water until the next morning. HASH. hot. to pour over it. WELSH RAREBIT. put in onions. they will bake on the outside quicker. By placing the hash on this hot surface and quickly turning it. but This inside. Then. and in this case the pork should be scattered around in different portions of the pot. or game with potatoes and Mix carefully. and the beans left may be rebaked for another meal. Welsh rarebit may be obtained already prepared in cans which merely require heating. enough lard or butter to cover the bottom. then the pork. wash them. on account of the thirst that it will it and may butter. It is cause. have the frying-pan piping hot. and they will be done in the morning. Chop up some fish. and boil till the beans are tender. drain the beans and put them with the pork in the pot. If the bake-kettle is enveloped in hot coals on the surface of the ground. should only be used when in a hurry. set over the fire (with the cover on the pot). where the pork is. CORNED-BEEF HASH requires but little salt in seasoning. and pour over them half a pint of Bake among the coals till the top is crusted brown. it will be nicely browned. they will not be baked at all. If buried in the ground. then the remainder of the beans. if only boiled pork and beans are desired. and spread with butter. 224 . cut slices of cheese not quite as large as the bread. lay it on the bread. The right proportions are two quarts of beans to three pounds of pork. it is best to put them in at night when going to bed. with a good supply of coals. Spread over the top a little mustard already prepared and seasoning of pepper. If baked beans are wanted. and serve very ness. boiling water. meat. Be careful that the cheese does not burn. then drain the beans and boil as above.

Practical Hints Broil before a fire. while in the latter manner they are lost in the fire and tend to give a smoky flavor by their ignition. fill with clean water and let this boil half an hour. all together. which should be eaten with sugar and milk when it is cold. If little jets of smoke the fat issue is enough. because juices of the meat can be caught and used as a dressing. moment a substance is dropped into fat at a great heat the exterior pores are closed and no grease penetrates it. add two eggs beaten light.THE BILL OF FARE Padding CORN-STARCH PUDDING. is an important element of success the practice of the lazy or in- NEW IRON POTS. ingredients Guessing at proportions different cook. It is then ready to use for cooking. it is hot insufficiently hot. Dip a cup or basin in cold water to cool it. then scrub it inside with soap and sand. constantly stirring. is Preciseness in the preparation of in cooking. The lard or fat used for frying should always be very hot before the article to be cooked is put in. anything cooked in while the will taste of the grease. FRYING. the article should be turned frequently. mix small pinch of salt. In broiling. 225 . and turn into it the pudding. MIXING INGREDIENTS. not over it. it If from the top of the fat. Dissolve three tablespoonfuls of cornstarch in a small quantity of milk. Boil a handful of grass in a new it iron pot. and a Heat three pints of milk nearly to boiling. and boil four minutes.

Four tablespoonfuls One wine glass. or a piece of canvas stretched out. One quart granulated sugar One pound nine ounces. One pint closely packed butter One pound.table may be readily thrown together of two or three boards placed over a stump or on . made by it away in a It serviceable yeast for leavening bread may be mixing flour and cold water into a thin batter. One quart powdered sugar One pound seven ounces. when it is ready for use adds greatly to the comfort with which a meal may be enjoyed to have some form of din ing. It is near enough to accuracy for cooking purposes: Three teaspoonfuls One tablespoonful. A camp. Two wine glasses One gill. One tablespoonful salt One ounce. a hewed-off log. Three cupfuls sugar One pound. pint. One quart sifted flour One pound. Set bottle until it A sours. Three coffee cupfuls One quart. YEAST.table. This may be an overturned box. Ten eggs One pound. Seven tablespoonfuls granulated sugar One-half Twelve tablespoonfuls flour One pint. Five cupfuls sifted flour One pound. The following table may be of use. Two Two gills cupfuls One tumbler One pint.CAMPING AND SCOUTING TABLE OP APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. or cup.

that no damp clothing is or you have where it will burn. AND Now Fall to with a good appetite! . DON'T FORGET To put on dish-water before sitting down to eat. sticks of Throw on a few eat.THE BILL OF FARE stakes driven in the ground. the frying-pan from the neighborhood of the in Put the match-box back your pocket. Connect the end-stakes with I cross-pieces and lay planks from one cross-piece to another. Have sand or Sapolio for scrubbing out cooking-dishes. the fire. if the weather has been damp been overboard. And be sure. A sponge or old cloth may be used for a dish-rag. wood before sitting down to Remove fire. Make it high enough to get the legs and feet under comBuild it away from fortably When sitting on the ground.

Screening causes dark corners and permits the over- looking of scraps of food or dirt which is of vast importance in . meat . . kitchens. cesspools. Health is largely dependent upon absolute cleanliness. but in my experience it has not always seemed wise to screen the entire kitchen unless it is a spot where no breeze can blow through it. knives and saws. are of utmost importance. milk-cans. as it attracts Boxes or store-rooms are best screened. The latrines or toilets - must be considered by themselves. both for flies keeping the temperature quitoes out. kitchens. waste . down and keeping and mosand the The garbage-cans should be emptied twice 228 daily. Where a number of persons are living closely together the constant and unremitting care of food. it summer also keeps out the breeze. sinks.blocks. damp drain spouts. and the cleanliness of the cooks themselves. KITCHENS AND FOOD.pipes.Chapter XVI KEEPING A CAMP CLEAN F)ERHAPS 1 the most serious problem that presents itself to the director of a boys' camp is that of solving the sanitation question. After a meal there should never be any food flies. left about uncovered or unscreened.

Milk will sour very quickly when poured into cans that are the of hands for scrubbing. It will All floors. should not be placed in the same refrigerator with milk. or a piece of canvas sewed around a barrel hoop and perforated with holes. the small scraps may be burned in the stove and the larger amounts disposed of as follows: Dig a well about six feet deep and two feet in diameter.KEEPING A CAMP CLEAN A it cans washed out with lime-water and hot soap-suds. Fish. I have tried all forms and found the heavy tin.tables. and turned upside down in sunlight and air. a gunny -sack. and strong food like cheese. It will also sour if chilled. He will be glad to have for pigs.tables. cover it at once with sand and direct the dishwater in another direction. meat -blocks. be thoroughly washed. carving . serving . meat. permitted to become warm. The waste water may be poured into this and the solid materials which are sifted out should be burned or buried with lime. . For this reason slightest bit foul. large-mouthed cans best. absorb various odors very quickly. In the opening thus left place a pail with a wire bottom. onions. If the discharge from a kitchen sink makes the ground soggy. convenient way to dispose of garbage is to either sell or give it it away to a farmer. fill this with stones loosely up to about two feet of the surface. They should always be large enough at their mouths to permit the entrance Milk-cans should demijohns do not make good milk receptacles. If this cannot be done. scoured. Sandy soil is better for this purpose than clay or coarse loam.. etc. The liquids will run away and disappear. and chilled again.

Look out for any marks in this by a should be pure-minded and free from profanity. The army method of digging a trench. A daily bath in the morning before the day's work is begun will keep many a cook in good health. camp I tried the Japanese army method of each day spreadclean straw in the pit and each evening saturating with ing coal-oil or gasoline. A man to live in a boys' camp. fresh. and gradually Another and fairly satisfactory way is to cover the deposit daily with lime In one chloride sprinkled from cans with sifting tops. any form. and food -lockers should be scoured once a week with boiling water and sand soap Be careful not to spill twice a week in very hot weather. soap. dry dish-towels must be provided. He should also be Dish-washing is sanitation. The same care of the dining-room should be observed as to scrupulous cleanliness. or the like. and a more important thing good spirits. There are several methods of disposing of the excreta. milk. and clean. throwing the dirt back of filling it in is commonly employed. once. free from disease of drunkphysician if in enness or moral or physical taint. and if this happens wipe it up at one of the most important parts of kitchen Plenty of hot water. where there must necessarily be some contact. Be assured of doubt.CAMPING AND SCOUTING shelves. but the odor of burning straw and kerosene is very unpleas- . COOKS. The latrines or toilets are all too frequently a source of menace in a boys' camp. LATRINES. This is fairly satisfactory. refrigerators. it. and burning. at least soup. Cooks must be clean in their habits and bathe frequently.

There should always be separate receptacles for water and fasces. There will be scarcely any odor. The pits are covered with lime chloride or earth until full.KEEPING int. This and no other should be used. Whatever form of disposing of this most important question is adopted. and another dug. Sawdust or fine sand may be placed on top. is beyond criticism. A lantern should be placed at night by both latrines and urine pits. The latrine should be made as nearly fly-proof as possible. one thing should always be uppermost in the director's mind the danger of mosquitoes or flies transferring infection to the kitchen or the persons of the campers. There should be day and night pits for this purpose. is now replaced. The pails or tanks are washed with sand and hot water or lime-water until perfectly clean. The . This method On trips away from camp with small parties the leader should designate a spot for the latrine at each stopping-place. a mile or more. Dne for each seat. Pine needles are still better.sod. Tacking cloth around the seats will sometimes do this. and buried in a deep pit. A CAMP CLEAN The ideal way is to have deep tanks or iron pails. Pits may be dug for the former four or five feet deep and filled in with small stones for one foot. and a new pit dug. When a pit becomes foul it should be filled in with stones or sand. The same general methods may be employed as in the main camps. Fly- . It is now recognized by medical experts that flies are a great source of danger in transferring disease. which has previously been carefully removed. in which the excreta is deposited. These tanks or pails are taken every morning at daylight away from camp.

" to empty these barrels and pick up carelessly dropped odds and ends. paper or will help. This should be promptly looked after by the counsellor in is number absolutely necessary. it was found upon investigation. He should be sure that each boy delivers to him a pair of pajamas. POLICING CAMPS. . very careless Boys are liable to be about their underclothing. They may be emptied into the fire or into pits and burned. skill of LAUNDRY AND CLEAN CLOTHES. charge.CAMPING AND SCOUTING and any other method that the ingenuity the director can devise will aid to safeguard the health of those intrusted to his care. Their plain marking by name or Boys will at times be careless about completely undressing and getting into pajamas. counsellor tolled off to go about on Saturday night or Sunday morning and collect the soiled clothing. old shoes. l generally. I was camp called to see a peculiar case of skin disease in a boys' at one time which had resisted the treatment of the The boy was wearing a red swimmingshirt which. There should also be appointed a ''white -wing squad. and jerIt is wise to have an older boy or seys unless watched. and socks and stockings. belts. stockings. had not been washed for six weeks and had been worn day and night. trouble. Barrels or boxes should be placed about and discarded litter all Into these material should be thrown and the camp-grounds kept as clean all the time as a gentleman's lawn. Washing it and a soap bath for the boy cured his skin local physician. but should never be dumped back of military term for cleaning up a camp. papers. underwear. for candy-boxes.

Trunks should be opened every two weeks. and the counsellor in charge should see that nothing is under the floors. unless it is or foggy. .KEEPING A CAMP CLEAN buildings or into clumps of bushes. and cracker boxes. This should be compulsory. This should not be permitted for the same reasons as given above. Otherwise clothing will readily mildew and leather will rot. and rats and other vermin. and. An ropes. They will attract flies TENT HYGIENE. and the contents exposed to air and sunlight. and wind and air permitted to circulate fully. as the food attracts flies and other pests and also overloads boys' stomachs. cake. the end and side flaps should be opened early on sunshiny days. blankets must be hung out on a line prorainy vided for that purpose. Consequently. A tent will grow musty and its contents stale very quickly in damp weather or if closed up. the trays taken out. Damp bathing-suits and towels must be hung on guy Mattresses are to be turned daily. Tent floors are frequently the storehouse for candy. inspector may be provided for this purpose it is who makes rounds to see that carried out. " Tent " spreads and "feeds" are bad hygiene.

Chapter XVII HOW TO USE A CANOE in BEARING now that we craft mind the many have varieties of nomenclatui in the out-of-door world. with a boathouse. how to land how how and and how to police going on a hike or tramp he. If he to wear. there is the boy who makes trips away from the main camp where he will choose his own camping-place. and what to take. cook. He must know on these trips to pack and care for it. what sort of shoes and socks is camps. and cut wood. The arrangement 234 of a blanket . a cabin. will be fitted out very differently than for a canoe trip. at night a constant and ready shelter from sudden storm. I shall use two generic terms because woodcraft and campcraft. such aircraft. Secondly. icecraft. for landing. water-craft. to equip a canoe.. to paddle. build a fire. how launch these frail and silent Indian craft. or campershall here consider we is two conditions. He must know how to care for his feet. there dock a place for housing his canoe. a First. plainscraft. erect a tent or lean-to. or tent with a cot or bunk ready to tumble in bungalow. etc. the boy living in an organized camp having meals cooked and served for him. of course.

it at $10 A birch-bark canoe is easily injured. . Any panoe under sixteen feet is a dangerous affair. are good examples. very different from that on canoe Canoes and Their Cost Canoes are made of various materials. lakes. In the Canadian rivers. birch-bark canoe. according to nickel fittings.This naturally increases its safety in rough water. The canvas-covered canoe is the one most frequently psed. The canoes manufsuch a canoe should last for years. Its short length does not beam for any stability.HOW 'or i TO USE A CANOE is transportation on a hike trip. having a small cockpit. The kind of voykge intended will determine the variety of canoe. and sharp sticks on beaches. :Maine. appear the graceful. or by the Racine Boat Company of Racine. Wis[permit of sufficient . and with care in landing and a lookout for nails in jhauling over dams. and (where a few Indians live. stumps. and should be used only by an expert. These .consin. frail. and the seams need attention every night on landing if the paddling is done in a river where sandy shallows or rocks scrape the bottom. A sixteen -foot canoe costs The wooden canoe is made of cedar. factured by the Old Town Canoe Company of Old Town. canoes cost from $65 to $150. there will I some parts still of Maine. usually with oak ribs and combings. jabout $35. If it is to be used as a sailing jcanoe it is generally decked over. t chased an eighteen -foot canoe for $15 and sold when I came out of the woods. They are light and easy to I have purtpaddle when not going against the wind.


How ing of i to Paddle To paddle a canoe needs a its tempt to little practice and understandNever push out from shore and then atjump in.HOW To mend a TO USE A CANOE Repairing a Canoe tear or rip in a canvas or bark canoe. the sternman has not floated the canoe. the sternman sits or kneels down. then step lightly in do not jump two are going. the canoe afloat beside a rock. or let the bow ^merely touch the sand. as you might do in a rowboat. I have camped with Indians who 'carry a small pot full for that purpose tucked up in the bow of the canoe. if possible. and isurgeon's plaster will answer this purpose. the canoe by holding to a branch or rock. a hundred miles from [broken paddle [handicap. . always reverse ends. Beeswax will stop leaks. or the seams. he assists and him Jin so doing. home may be a severe The bowman now steps fif in and sits down at once. Have ways. if [steadying and if he desires to steady the boat by his paddle. Adhesive tape will also mend a canoe. and let the handle bear the weight. there is a gumlike substance that tighten up can be purchased at any outfitter's which when heated forms a waxlike covering over the opening which is watertight. or. using the handle of his paddle in pushing put. The blade is very A easily cracked by pushing against stones or sand. The Indians melt a little pitch and rosin in an iron pot and [smear it on with a stick.

He will soon tire or get a very painful shoulder wliich corresponds to the neuritis. At the end of the stroke the upper arm should always be straight. In steering it is from side to side. This is accomplished by twisting the paddle. Two canoeists adapt themselves very readily to each other's strokes after a short time. very rarely advisable to change the paddle This marks a novice at once. until by a sweeping. The novice will make the mistake of beginning his day by paddling as though his life depended on covering a certain distance in a given time. with which violin-players become affected at times." The heavier man must always paddle stern.CAMPING AND SCOUTING In loading a canoe always be careful to ballast it "by the stern. The bad name that canoes have as to "tippiness" is undeserved if any sort of care and judgment is exercised in their management. In paddling. steady motion. the sternman steers. in turning the canoe's head in another direction the motion is reversed. This is straightaway paddling to keep the boat in a direct path. Bear in mind that a canoe usually upsets while the paddle is out of water. as it is drawn back in the stroke. In fifteen years' experi- . the arms as straight as can readily be done. just as a pedestrian does in walking. circular motion outward the blade in is parallel to the boat. Of course. Canoeists drop into a regular stride with a sweeping. recovering as quickly as possible. In rough water use short. for the second one is sure to go better. This will depend somewhat on the length of arms and the position of the paddler. If things do not go smoothly for the first mile do not be discouraged. snappy strokes. Begin It is good form to keep slowly and paddle comfortably.

as well have never had a spill. the canoe he would have been saved. They 16 are strong but clumsy and heavy. A young man was reading in one end of the canoe and dropped his book. that. .HOW as on the ocean. reached suddenly for it. ence with these boats on lakes and rivers of two. 239 Bird's-eye maple . I TO USE A CANOE all sizes. particularly if the water is not too cold. never to retain his hold on a boat almost indefinitely half mile. was more serious. tried to swim in. The bowman always shorter They should always be varnished. forgot that he was in a The second canoe. Equipment Paddles should be six feet long for a boy five feet and eight inches or over in height. Two young men went fishing in a seventeen-foot canoe on a rough day and lay broadside to the waves. and have seen but at a small Maine lake on a perfectly calm. eral rule to until It is a good genabandon a capsized boat or canoe help conies or the feet can touch bottom. Be sure that the wood is seasoned. while but few boys can swim more than oneif frightened.The best ones are spruce or maple. Had he retained his hold on stand. and five feet and six inches to five feet and eight inches has the for a boy under paddle. then released their hold. The Canadian Indians use hard wood (oak or ash) paddles as they pole a great deal. A steamer's wash made a sea that no canoe could One occurred They swam to within fifty feet of shore. and got a swim. and one never reached the shore. A boy can make. still day. since this makes them shed water better and keep longer. holding to the canoe.

.00 Back rests and for a passenger. making it impossible to sink.50 $16. . selected First quality . Loading Put your axe. fire-irons.50-13. however. They keep the ballast.. . .50 $ i oo .00 Sponson canoes have air chambers along both sides.50 6.CAMPING AND SCOUTING makes beautiful paddles. For sailing a canoe a lateen sail is used with lee boards over the side. .. and no real woodsman ever uses one. . but they are more expensive.stove. Roll or fold the tent as tightly as strength can do it. lay it lengthwise articles in the 240 . They are. . $1.50. collapsible . The cost of paddles is as follows : Second quality spruce or maple spruce or maple Bird's-eye maple. not so easy to paddle. They cost from $i to $2. The outfit would cost approximately: Mast and step Lee boards Sail (50 feet area) . and much heavier. and act as stringers on which to place weight. Double-ended paddles are only for fancy work around a boat-club dock. and difficult to capsize. folding-slat canoe chairs are comfortable but they are not needed for a trip where boys do their own paddling.00 8. They will support three adults sitting on the rail without capsizing. $1. $2. and other heavy middle of the canoe.


The best thing that I have ever found for fore it carrying dishes. knives. cheese. If a steamer passes near. spoons. In going up a rapid rocky stream use a pole and push up. This will keep 7 them dry until all-day grind. is a tin cake - box.CAMPING AND SCOUTING and aft. point the canoe's nose toward the waves raised. The feet will often tire in an and paddling in stocking-feet is often a relief. convenient. including your fine cedar flooring. you need them. Keep the boat ends on to the waves either In whirlpools going to windward or running before them. This will keep them together and not get smut all over the other things. and any food that water or sun will spoil. and rapids let the bowman paddle and the sternman keep his paddle in the water to act as a rudder. and make excellent receptacles. comtwenty The pact. even on a still day. and minimize the amount of time that in the air. coat. Rough Water much it is In rough water keep the paddle moving in the water as as possible. or shirt. forks. The lid will shut tightly and has a clasp. Reserve the small 6 or bow and inch decked-over places in the stern for the sweater. crackers. square kind about i J feet long are best. in any department store and are watertight. for at least stern seat. bread. Put your cooking dishes in a small box. . pepper and salt. Put it under your These boxes can be purchased -five cents. and slip under the seat in the bow. do not attempt to paddle. ready at any moment to swing to avoid a rock or hidden danger. In such a box also put such odds and ends as mustard.

Desert Island in a blow riding the waves like a sea-gull. and wary in in light of foot. . judgment carry you silently and the very embodiswiftly "along the listening woodland" your canoe. I have seen Big Thunder. of gravity is In other words. a canoe with its occupant sitting placed. It will ment of its savage maker. If alone. an almost unbelievable amount of heavy sea will be weathered. With man and a sack or two of flour and camp duffle resting in the middle. or kneeling in the bottom is much safer than one with the more buoyant the lower the centre crew a sitting on the seats or thwarts. strong of arm. besides the paddlers in either end of a seventeenfoot canoe. put a weight in the bow and paddle from the centre of the canoe. chief of the Old Town Indians.HOW and is TO USE A CANOE A well-ballasted canoe is always safer than one lightly loaded. in a birch-bark canoe outside Mt. So be steady of hand.

suppose we paddle along shore to some small. or to secure a back log and plenty of wood. It is the wilderness hearthstone ." Comfort equip how to paddle a canoe. without fresh water. attractive island and see how one would go about "making in a woodland camp does not consist in having a number of patent contrivances. An hour of intelligent land into a home work will transform a wild piece of woodthat looks and seems and feels like home. Because we constructed it ourselves it seemed "homey" when the camp-fire gleamed between the great rocks. HAVING pack and camp. and the tide went out over flats for a half-mile. It is astonishing how Looking back ten years. And then the matter of that camp-fire! It will pay to take time and trouble to construct a carefully built fireplace. It was a lonely place. I spent a week on a Maine island. true this is. and lay the bed. how to how to erect a tent. and collapsible beds. I recall with tender memories a certain brush-house where. with two companions. but rather in taking the abundance that Nature offers and adapting it to answer needs.Chapter XVIII MAKING A TEMPORARY CAMP now learned it. cushions and chairs.

or the paddle might away by waves or a swift. and from which Paddle the canoe gently to the beach. the place that draws the group around most of the comfort comes. One man the beach and takes the stern up. place the hand under the deck in draw down carrying a very heavy load (175 or 200 pounds). the f ending-iron touches. way to avoid those incomprehensible and numerous losses which are so annoying to new campers. as would be done with a boat. selecting a large rock. lighten the canoe before carrying far. ously described may be left in the canoe temporarily. Never paddle a canoe upon a beach with any force.MAKING A TEMPORARY CAMP it. either end. spread out a blanket. or poncho to place them on. Together they lift the bow in it along until the stern lands. Unpacking Before unpacking any small articles. the bowDo not throw be washed ashore. It may strain the woodwork. as this might split the blade. The bowman now the air and steps out and steadies the canoe until the sternman can get ashore. It is the only piece of canvas. or fallen tree which offers the best landing place. In picking up a canoe.running stream. An excellent plan that I have often adopted when stopping for a noon meal . and tonow goes gether they carry the load to a place of safety. When man it puts his paddle carefully into the canoe. If In making camp it is of vast importance to have the work In unpacking place cooking dishes tocarefully divided. while provisions in the tin and wooden box as previgether.

and the fire may be built against the same rock. or the proper kind. This avoids the danger of spreading a fire. (Refer to Chapter VII. old An . and. ledge. and after you have done that get some more wood. and makes a better bed for your coals. It is a good idea. Firewood camper and guide said: "Get all the wood you can." Having it cut and ready may save a meal. The back be against a bank. is to select a log with one side hewed. Have the fireplace almay ways face the wind. Do not build a stones placed together somewhat under overhanging dry branches or on a floor of pine In fact. and place everything on that. or a large.) A simple fireplace is soon constructed with two or three like the letter U. possible. have I seen them gather the damp surface carpet of leaves and mouldy sticks with which the forest floor is covered. Of course. or log. only a temporary smudge results. or the log used as a back stick.CAMPING AND SCOUTING en-route flat rock. or a trip into the dark woodland to collect it. which will be described later. however. I know of no one thing in the making of camp where boys fall short more frequently than in gathering wood and building a fire. New campers seldom ever have enough wood. in the woodcraft tests in boys' camps. heaping them together. when fire needles. While one boy is unpacking the other should be building a fireplace and gathering wood. It creates a draught. to build the fire in the shade. always clean the floor of your fireplace. Over and over again. expect a fire. It is a wonderful time-saver.

fire. making thus a feet long and about " sideboard Take or "dresser" for dishes. Hew the tops flat. choice is permitted use dry-seasoned hard wood that time. by cutting two logs six to eight five or six inches thick. or impossible. making a hot. pans. Pitchy woods light quickest and burn more readily. pots. all novices make the mistake of building a large." cover with small dry sticks. Firewood should be split and about a foot long. but if a stay is expected it will have to pay construct a cellently. blazing thus scorching their faces. and will nest too closely to allow air Driftwood is good material to start a to feed the flames. not coals.MAKING A TEMPORARY CAMP Hard wood makes the hottest coals and burns longest. burning up their Never difficult. and placing them side by side at an angle. fire. but burns out rapidly and leaves ashes. It should also be as near a uniform size as possible. Feed this with larger and larger sticks until the regular firewood size is reached. or "range. This may be done ex- explained before. to cook until the fire has burned down to coals. blazing If fire. so that they meet at one end. and light. attempt or a small blaze. as more elaborate one. a large handful of shavings or birch bark " and place at the open end of this fireplace. Round wood does not burn readily. etc. I has been down some If one is stopping for one meal the fireplace that described will do. If large and small sticks are used the small ones are dead ashes by the time that the large ones are coals. if your pot is hanging over the fire on a and making cooking forked stick. Almost food. . forming a long letter V.

The larger pot or pail with cereal or stew may be placed down farther on the ' ' stove ' ' nearer Here the fire will make this the juncture of the logs. . Permit this to burn out completely. get plenty of wood. or moss. with the handle resting against the coffee-pot or an end of the logs. both large sticks for the Do not gather leaves. will ignite wood Remember that the splintery inside much more rapidly than the outside. and little gusts of wind will not In then blow ashes into your face or upon the food. dig out the coals. fire and small ones to start with.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Arrangement of Cooking Dishes Place the coffee-pot at one side over the coals. put them at one side. and the frying-pan upon them. Build a carefully laid fire. damp of twigs. of the hole a little larger than the pot they are to be cooked in. and leave six or seven hours. dig a cooking beans. Building Fires As has been previously said. and sticks of nearly the same size. and it cannot be reiterated too frequently. placing the wood in the formone stick on top of the other. or anything which requires hours. simmer. Always sit to windward fire. A broiler with steak may stand up at an angle over the bed of coals. as it is cooler. Use hard wood split. Place the bean-pot in the hole and cover carefully with will coals. of a hollow square You understand this when you think of the manner in which a log cabin is constructed.

or birch bark for base. built third. Consequently. if you have any choice. campfire may be built in several shapes. which is around in a sticks resting on spokes of a wheel. the Indian fire. etc. some form in the log-house fashion. have a back for the wind to fan against If building a fireplace in an open and create a current. build your fire where the wind from the river or lake will blow into it. first fire driftwood. secondly. and around the fire. etc.MAKING A TEMPORARY CAMP A Be sure that all your materials are at hand before you commence to work. (4) the direction of the wind. sticks. or mud construction. where a hollow square is constructed of sticks of the same size and length filled in with shavings. (3) sticks of a oxygen under. which may be covered or uncovered with flat stones according to uniform size. broken boxes to make the real wood of the cooking or warming blaze. in. splinters. Good fires require patience and skill in construction. 249 . That is why there are drafts under the kitchen stove and furnaces. what would correcircle like the first spond to the hub of the wheel being the element of fire constructions in shavings. with the each other at the butt. small twigs. split open. spot leave two or three openings on opposite sides. Air must rush into the fire or it will not burn. One. splinters. If possible. but they all require four things: (i) Some light inflammable material such as shav(2) ings. splinters. when of fireplace is employed. paper. Fires are usually built in one of three forms. but are worth the effort required. rock fireplace. as two logs in V-shaped formation.

smaller branches all of rotted almost any fallen tree or a stump that has not down to the ground. and from that a fire may made. tamarack. For flint. makes kindling beyond comparison if split . cover them with hemlock Woods bark. however. lost. The soft woods are good only Balsam. hemlock. while birch. and sycamore are all good fuel. oak. not become carried in a waterproof match-safe. and comfortably by rubbing two have never been able to do it. with a cover that will To keep coals while absent from camp. fir. Sparks will. It can be done. and maple are the best. or during the night. basswood. for kindling or for quick cooking-fires. or birch bark. gray pine. be struck from a knife blade or quartz or steel or but to convert this into fire is very difficult. boy campers I would suggest that plenty of matches be it is true. A glass crystal will quite readily ignite dry punk or paj A watch crystal will do also. Along the salt water driftwood open.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Making Fires Without Matches The " Deadwood Dick Stories" always but I describe the hero as building a fire easily sticks together. Kindling may be obtained from the dry. hickory. Firing a blank cartridge on a dry linen rag placed on tl barrel of a gun will ignite it.

using only the material found out-of-doors. or fallen tree. may be dried by rubbing to protect the flame. In the woods there may be frequently found a half-dry It is spot under a shelving rock or a large tree fallen or standing around this will be dry bark. or in a felt hat. however. even for five minutes. or fallen wood. Carefully shaving off the outside of most small fallen will reveal a dry surface for splinters. This may be practised at home first. Matches that have been wet by being dropped into a pool of water. it will still burn in a bad storm. small twigs. Camp Stoves There can be no doubt that cooking may be accomHowplished quicker and with greater ease on a stove. Strike the match and instantly cup the hands Face and point the match-head toward the wind. . .MAKING A TEMPORARY CAMP Building Fires in the Rain good practice for boys to build fires in the rain. on the inside of high boots. wood To Light the Fire Long tramping or paddling may have pretty thoroughly soaked the camper. If a fire is even slightly sheltered from the direct pelting rain by a rock. A dry spot for striking a match will usually be found. foggy day. Protect the kindling and splinters with the body or a blanket until they burn well. or on a damp. them through the hair. shelving bank.

depending on where it is purchased. the boy or girl who loves the open country. to use as nearly as possible woodland materials which Nature has provided with There are. apply a match. They cost $7. I have used one on a yacht. causing it to burn with great department The force blow -torch. There are two chief one using alcohol and the other kerosene as The alcohol stove of two burners is compact and when a stove It is simplicity itself. because the true camper. and have an oven that will bake bread and biscuits. after the manner of a plumber's The stoves are called Primus. The kerosene stoves are of two varieties one with gravity A good example of feed. They can be obtained in any large store. and after it was started without further trouble this automatic servant served up piping hot coffee and cereals. A fair average is With care a quart will last a week. Fill the tank with denatured alcohol. the former is the blue-flame stove manufactured by the Standard Oil Company. there are cook on the woodsman's own stove. times varieties fuel. The objection is the expense. Street in and intense heat. . A two-burner alcohol stove with a copper tank costs about $9.50 to $5. Denatured alcohol varies in price. forced-draft stove has an arrangement for pumping compressed air into the flame. of course. and the other with forced draft. 25 cents a quart. a lavish hand for those who can see. turn on the stopcock. and it is done. light. One. cost about $4.CAMPING AND SCOUTING two very excellent reasons why stoves are not always advisable. in the house-furnishing department. and may be at any yacht outfitter's along Chambers or South purchased New York. is advisable. prefers to bake and ever.

It has a around the top. and one is supposed to cook with it. My advice regarding this is to leave it at home. a tin pail where the oil cannot reach your proKerosene has a way of getting into everything on a cruise. This prevents the pots from going adrift.MAKING A TEMPORARY CAMP There is also a small kerosene stove that is really nothing but a lamp with two burners. If you feel compelled to take it. for a fixed regulation range for camp or burning wood and yacht. there is the The best for coal. Then. smelly. of course. . It is smoky and it put in visions. yachts rail is the Shipmate range with four covers.

Various conditions must influence the length of march. fresh color and general robustness of the English people is due. "Hiking. in large part." or tramping. Decided harm may be done a boy in his early teens by forced marches either from an organized camp or from his home on a jaunt of a day or two. as every army officer knows. and the frequency of rests. the amount carried. It ought to be a rule in all boy camps that no one whose heart not first examined should be permitted to attempt a mountain climb over one thousand feet or a long march. Pride will often keep him going long after he ought to be recovering his spent vitality. and the amount of intelligent care that is put into it will determine the pleasure and benefit derived. to their being a walking nation. No doubt the fine. It is a pastime looked down upon with scorn in too many instances in this TRAMPINGattractive the most country. is an art.Chapter XIX HIKING OR TRAMPING through a country is undoubtedly one of ways to view it. I have discovered "heart trouble" caused by leaky valves is in boys where it would not have been suspected from their . The first factor is age and physical development.

climate. Obviously. must invent and devise various methods ing. and other an overnight trip or longer. In speaking of a march or hike. as the head of boys' parties will be called here.HIKING OR TRAMPING robust appearance. etc. food. have seen a tired and drooping party of boys cheered up by singing. The other considerations which should govern a counsellor. Dust. with advance and rear guard. and grade must be those most frequently considered. character and condition of clothing if torn. This ' may mands ' ' as "Form ! fours! !' be accomplished by such comMarch!" "Form twos! March!" If these commands do not correspond Single file March to the latest military tactics they will answer for the purpose. of keeping his I good spirits. weight carried. or leader. master. adds interest. are equipment are carried for the weather. a boy cannot walk as far in a rough. reference is made to those on which the blanket. rations. country passed through help a boy's imagination. mountainous country as 17 and in these the condition of the 255 . roadway must figure prominently. binding. roads. as he may be termed in a boys' camp. and a good counsellor. Placing the little party into military formation. sand. Drumming out the time of footsteps on cups is a wonderful help in climbing hills. mud. This is of great importance. while changing company formation will make walking seem less Stories of command in the monotonous. chaf- Also the spirit of the party. water. the distance to be covered is influenced by many factors. Distance to March As has been said.

(2) Be sure to have one or two optimistic spirits along. and are accustomed to the level pavements. flannel shirt The and a jersey or flannel prevents the too . Many boys cover twenty-five miles easily for three or four days. Begin gradually and work up. (6) If a boy limps. It may save him weeks of suffering. but they in are exceptionally strong. They are not trained to carry blanket-rolls and provisions. It stiffens muscles. It would be a mistake for a party of city boys to start out expecting to make a forced march of eighteen to twenty miles the first day. A good average. Do not wait until camp is made. but not sitting down. is twelve miles a day for a seasoned walker. however. and keep together. Some general rules that I have worked out with several hundred boys may be found useful: (1) Choose boys of about the same age and strength. if possible. (4) Gargle the throat frequently with cool. fresh water. (3) March two miles and rest two minutes. dropping packs. The good "spirit" of the party is in danger at once. Clothing Every boy should have a sweater around his waist. The stronger (5) Keep a steady pace. but do not drink except at meal-time. investigate immediately and take his shoe and stocking off at once. ones hurrying ahead and appearing on the next hilltop beckoning tend to discourage the weaker marchers.CAMPING AND SCOUTING a level farming district.

The matter of trousers is not important. The hat most comfortable felt is a Some men linen hat. Have broad. have a uniform some of flannel and ganized boys' camps others of khaki. flannel one substituted.HIKING OR TRAMPING rapid evaporation of heat and the consequent catching cold. and they a canvas or Never wear They permit the rays of the sun to come directly on the head and after a long rain are about as much use as so paper. wearing a linen or silk shirt. will make a drinking-cup or a pitcher is adapted to all sorts of weather. high should be so wide and long that at They the end of a day the toes do not crowd into the end of the shoe. This should be true in the hottest weather. Shoes should fit evenly without pressure or pain anywhere. I have hat with the sweat-band torn out and a found. The high hunting boots" are too cumbersome for long walks. low heels. much SHOES. windy nights. BELTS should be broad and worn loose over the hips. Army 257 leggings are a wonderful . HATS. are a comfort on cold. whether by canoe or walking. Always have plenty of air space in the crown. Never pull tight. ment on walking boots are best. Always have " lace shoes not button. A heavy pair of thick-soled. This is a very important feature of the equiptrips. the boy can wear any old pair of comfortable ones. in all weather. prefer a flannel or cheviot hat or cap. Under no cir- cumstances should a boy start on any trip. Rubber heels do not make much difference on country roads or mountain trails. Do not wear patent leather or any fancy shoe. fitting around the Many orhips so that a belt and not suspenders is worn. It sheds water. as they may injure the abdomen.

thickness prevents the leather rubbing on tender flesh and keeps out sand and dirt. The SOCKS. the famous walker. at least two pairs should be taken and a clean pair put on each morning. the feet frequently is one of the most important Bathing points to consider. To permit a boy to start the day with dusty. In wet grass or muddy roads they are a Weston. even in summer. Try them. I . HIKING THE DIVING-BOARD In hot weather and in particularly sandy or dusty roadit is sometimes advisable to wash the feet as ways many as three times daily. end of the march as regularly and faithfully as the getting of the evening meal. one being washed out and dried before the fire or at some friendly farmer's soldiers of all nations The extra pair may be carried inside the shirt. soiled feet and damp socks is to court disaster. Woollen socks. comfort indeed. This should be done every day at the each night.CAMPING AND SCOUTING help in walking. have seen boys come into camp after a two-hundredmile jaunt through the rocky roadbeds and deep dust of the Adirondacks as fresh and buoyant as if just starting. are best. and the wear them.

It is forty-five by seventy-two inches. A bit of castile or Ivory soap softens the tender spots when washing in the hard water very necessary point also is to dry the feet carefully and thoroughly. Extract them as needed. store. and may be utilized as tents or shelters. Blankets vary costing about $i all BLANKETS AND PONCHOS. Some ponchos have a slit in the middle through which the head may be thrust and a rubber coat thus improvised. It may A convenient be purchased in almost any large drug way to carry it is to have a small bundle of powder papers made up as the druggist prepares medicinal powders. A the to way from the thin half-wool and the heavy "army" one costing $5. Give a regular soldier the choice between discarding his felt hat and blanket or poncho and he will throw away These are all made everything but his rubber blanket. will result.HIKING OR TRAMPING On these trips the boys' feet were all washed twice and sometimes three times daily. with eyelets in the four corners.50. poncho is a rubber blanket and is absolutely indispensable on any outdoor trip. Dusting powder on the feet and between the toes is an I use a powder that is employed by the soldiers in the Kaiser's army. If this is not done various forms of skin irritation. called German Military Foot Powder. varying from meje chafing of mountain streams. and costs $1. A to real eczema. . excellent plan. Slip these into a small envelope or pocketbook. in papers folded twice in the middle and on each end.50 to $2. They may be carried in the trousers watch-pocket. which are convenient for lashing about blankets or other bundles.

By placing one poncho under and the other over them. and hummocks are removed. cork and chain. and the heavy one will pay for its extra cost the first cool or damp night out. In rainy weather dig a little ditch around the bed so that the water may drain down a small elevation. One of the first things to do in making camp is to cut small balsam boughs. if they can be had. The one used United States army is an excellent heavy block tin with a patent lock. When travelling in a country where water is difficult to obtain a canteen in the may be found a great comfort. which is soaked with water at time of filling. for the bed and "thatch" it. The sweater. cut head and foot logs. and covered with thick absorbent felt. stones. For present purposes we need to amplify the It is made of description in Chapter VI. Two boys may keep reasonably dry in a forest by sleeping together. A heavy dry canvas covering is then drawn down and laced over the soaked felt. It holds half a gallon. makes a good pillow.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Gray or dark blue is the best color. Lay the poncho black or rubber side Drive pegs through the eyelets each end to prevent its creeping. stake them in in place by inverted crutches or down. After the "mattress" of boughs or hay has been laid on a smooth spot. rolled up. care having been taken that all sticks. confining the moisture and retarding evaporation. and the cost is $1. thus reducing the temperature of the contents of the canteen. Roll yourself up in the blanket so that a fold will be underneath as well as above. a rather severe rainstorm may be . This canteen can be used as a hot -water bag in camp. IN THE RAIN.75. pegs. example. CANTEEN.

Cut two forked sticks and connect them with a cross-piece Before you turn to dry the socks and damp clothing on. Put in any articles that you may wish to carry in the roll. as towels. 25 cents a dozen. Cost. etc. to a roaring blaze that scorches everything. and may also be used to convert the blanket into a sleeping-bag. Spread the poncho. Have small split sticks near so that the fire in preference Try and find a replenished during the night without getting up. Roll up as tightly as possible then unroll and roll up again. Strap with a skate the middle and at each end. or tie in this is lost more compact.HIKING OR TRAMPING weathered in comfort. blankets. and lay the blanket smoothly on it. BLANKET-ROLLS. wisest to follow the Indian plan of making a small FIRE. . There is also the advantage of double warmth from two pins -will Sleeping together except in " Horse-blanket safetyrainstorms should be discouraged. AROUND THE it is In building a fire to sleep around. this second trial will ON MAKING make it smaller and strap. soap. black or face side down. fire hardwood and getting the back close to it. Now strap the two ends of the blanket together and slip over the head so that it rests on one shoulder. Be sure that of the roll or done below the contents they will be by the wayside. extra socks. also canned goods may be comfortably carried in this blanket-roll. good hardwood log. Put a slouch hat over the face to keep rain out. ' ' prevent the feet from becoming exposed. These large safety-pins may be obtained at any harness store.. may be in make preparations as fully as possible for the work of the next day.

WHAT TO CARRY: 4^ 2 Blanket.. large spoons. according to trip of . of the absolutely indispensable articles. 45 x 72 ins.. Here. SLEEPING IN BARNS. It obamount of oxygen taken and lowers the vitality. Make no light at all in a haymow. Canada carry the load by a ''tump line. knife. ARTICLES NEEDED FOR COOKING. Hay Fever: Many times a kind- hearted farmer will permit sleeping in his barn. Beware of the danger of fire here. stewpan. structs the Never carry weight so as to press on the chest. Share cooking utensils. As to carrying extra food and equipment. divide the work. high neck. there is the choice between the Adirondack pack-basket and the regular army knapsack. Sweater. about Food. weight. Lay your blankets . etc. Hay makes a good bed if smoothed out. may be divided equally among the party. 2^ Ibs. as in the canoe trips described. Ibs. weight i^ Ibs. 4 Ibs. cups... This is a list POINTERS.CAMPING AND SCOUTING The articles in common. weight Ibs. weight Poncho. The Indians in comfortably going uphill." which suspends all the weight from a band passed around the forehead. the latter is light and holds less. Always go into camp an hour before sunset. hatchet and pail... etc. This is said by those accustomed to it to be as comfortable but hangs less as any way of toting. army. one going for wood and water.. while another builds a fireplace. as coffee-pot. varsity. . 14^ Ibs. The former is stiff and holds more. matches.

HIKING OR CAMPING before it gets dark. no will The only test that the leader of a party can apply is to determine in a general way the A river just below a town is always source of the supply. but not much. If one has time. then coarse sand. Fill in fairly large stones (walnut size). A brook running through a barnyard and a well polluted. An intake pipe in a well or lake below a latrine or toilet which . AFTER HEAVY RAINS. a filter may be constructed by boring a hole in the bottom of a pail and attaching a piece of hose or a pipe to it. important. and odor drinking. then an inch or two of smaller ones (pea size). If water from a lake must be used at a cottage or camp. finally fine sand. Take care There is of the drinking-water. Boys with a tendency hay fever should not sleep in a haymow or near freshly cut grass below two thousand feet elevation. behind a stable are always to be avoided. It is vastly and at once which pure enough for help some. The New York State Board of Health and the Ver- mont all State Board of Health both give Lake Champlain and large lakes having any manufacturing or towns on their shores as unsuitable for drinking purposes. I have spent some uncomfortable to nights for not doing so. Pure water will result. Remember that after a heavy rain rivers and streams are apt to be polluted by foul material that has been rotting in the sun beside the normal waterways. have the pipe sunk as deep as possible with a filter on its end. WATER. FILTER. color. test that can be readily applied determine whether or not water is Its appearance. and pour your water on top.

after a day's march. The city lad's nerves are not attuned to the new conditions of the great out-of-door world. pinning with wooden slivers.CAMPING AND SCOUTING has a slope toward it is always in a bad place. REASSURE BOYS AS TO OUT-OF-DOOR DANGER.M. do so quietly. and you have it. Water may be obtained from wells at occupied Do not camp along river bottoms. Do not drink from the wells of abandoned farms. All the houses. They may contain dead animals. Look out for knot-holes is or worm-holes. There in no danger from wild animals in sleeping out except extremely wild countries. and they are indeed strange to one who has perhaps never previously slept out of his own room. The leader should reassure a party of boys on this point. and even then very little with a camp-fire going. It is most important for a leader boys in bed at 7. These make excellent camping farmspots. Cut a strip of birch bark in oblong shape and fold up its ends. boys more than loss of sleep. such as boys would seldom visit.30 P. If it is necessary to move about the camp. ETC. and are thickly timbered. Dishes may be made from birch bark that will hold hot coffee or soup. Put the pipe around a bend in the shore line or where the land dips in an opposite direction. Go up to the high Maine rivers have very high banks ground at night. WOODEN DISHES. LONG HOURS OF REST. 'They Nothing will recuperate wonderfully after a hard day if given good to have his debilitates food and ten or eleven hours' sleep. and avoid loud talking. MOSQUITO-NETS are of great value when camping in a .

and costs 60 cents. will A pocket flash-light and a can-opener be found useful. It may weighs be carried in a leather sheath. and crawl in. which springs in the handle when not in use. Be very careful to shut all the openings after you. Weight. . A hatchet (No.plated guard for the blade. one and a half pounds. Their weight is not a factor. and they can be rolled up in a small space and lashed firmly to prevent tearing. as the mosi) has a fourteen-inch handle. sixteen ounces. Build a little framework over the head or erect three short poles. quitoes will sting through it. tepee fashion. The netting cannot be simply placed over the face unelevated.35. Costs $1. HATCHETS. This costs 75 cents. The Marble safety pocket -axe has a nickel . drape the netting.HIKING OR TRAMPING country where these little pests abound. over the body.

and all the territory on the other side belongs to the opposing forces. say the war is to begin at ing hostilities. This may cause dispute if not attended of one party now endeavor to get into the country of the other without being seen. and end at i P. If one scout calls the name of another that scout is "dead. or a stream. A certain line of division is decided upon. Next. See that the watches of all the party are set alike to. .M. as a roadway. a fence.Chapter XX CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES War Game No* \ THE boys' war game as played at some of the New England camps is readily adapted to boys in the suburbs played in the woods. All the territory on one side belongs to one army. 10 A. a given time is agreed upon for beginning and endFor example. divided into two armies which may be called It is best of cities or in the country.M. Commanders and officers are next elected." When two or more The scouts scouts have the same name the first name or initial must be given. The party is the Northern and Southern Army or Red and Blue Army.

wade up a stream. or may sally forth into the country of the enemy and endeavor to head him off. The attacking party may use any ingenious means that they can devise to cross the border-line except to disguise themselves. trees. etc. and pick their men off as they attempt to cross. or go under a bridge.CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES The defenders may post themselves along their line of defence behind rocks. swim down a pond. They conceal themselves be- . The winner is the side that has the larger number of men left at the expiration of the agreed-upon time or the greater number in the enemy's territory. The chief point of this game is for the scout boy to admit honestly and fairly that he was seen and his name called out. will frequently ing. another joined a gang of section men and rode over the line stand muttering and sputterIn Maine last summer one boy on a hand-car. unable to say a word.. If two boys shout each other's name at the same time they can draw lots to see who is ''dead" or disabled. as when two scout boys suddenly come upon each other and in the excitement of the moment They are unable to recall or shout the other's name. The Besieged City Game A a certain small town or group of farm buildings is surrounded by number of scouts. They may ride across the line in a load of hay. If any boy does not act honorably. Sometimes amusing incidents occur. climb out on the limbs of trees and drop down. of course that whole game is lost at once. rode through the lines safely curled up in a baby-carriage. fences.

Bonfires may be built by the defenders to discover the enemy. If he can escape and perform his duty it still counts to his credit. The camp is divided into two parties one is to defend the stronghold and the other to attack in canoes. or the station agent. the postmaster. The besiegers may not enter the town beyond a point agreed upon. Attacking Party in Canoes played at night. Any number may play the game. canoe is beached. it is a winner and its occupants may not be molested. but lanterns and electric torches are barred out as artificial and unfair aids. This is an exciting game and holds the interest at an in- tense pitch. they are out of the game. and a scout volunteers one point. they win. and it is best played on an island or promontory. and if he succeeds in bringing a return message it counts two points. If they are discovered and touched before the . The commander may be some one previously agreed upon as a friendly storekeeper. .. In this game the scout boy carrying the message must be caught and detained. to go through the lines of the besiegers to carry a message to the commander of the city. If he gets through the line it counts trees. etc. If the canoe party has more men landed safely than the defending party. since the longer shore line in either The game is case will offer more chances for landing. The canoe party must actually get foothold on the land to count. Should a canoe succeed in landing.CAMPING AND SCOUTING hind walls.

the director lines up the ensai-tai party and reads directions for their start (equipped with ponchos and " blankets and two days' rations). and can be played by any number of boys over any amount of country. cross this at right angles to the road and you will come to a men employed and Report on the power em- N ." This letter may ''Follow this road. At that house ask read: for the second letter. Cross this and camp for the night. Ask the keeper of the bridge for a third letter. going southeast. Proceed at once. game is always entered into with great spirit by boys. you will reach a large oak forest. be found "Now proceed to the of make note number of output. For example. Leave ployed.CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES Ensai-Tai Parties These are Japanese words meaning exploration party. following the main road to a fork. A chief counsellor or The element created is the director has previously gone ahead and ''planted" messages which are to be found by the party one after the other. in . Fresh water will a spring there." Second Day: Third letter says: town of N see the cot ton -mills. as will be This seen. The incentive to go on is ever present. until you come to the river. following the railroad track two miles. going north. . take the right-hand branch and walk until a red house is reached. of uncertainty and romance in this game is the fact that no one in the party knows where he by going or how long he is to be gone. turn east and follow the eastern bank of the river until you come to the toll-bridge.

is "Cutting out " may the be practised. and the guide's name is is found. and identified. will home. and either the canoe or its oclong cupants may be touched. and will directions. on the country passed through. and turning. Behind his cabin one hundred yards. be varied in a hundred ways. as in the game on Water Baseball with another. The cabin is X He friendly guide you. camping-places." Here reward. like . . played is much floats for bases. The touching all done with this stick. dig for more careful to our interests. or three is and teaches rapidity Any number of canoes may parbe in Two may a canoe. land. at the foot of a pine-tree. Canoe Tag This game tests the skill of canoeists. swimming from one to and watertight. It is a neverdepending ending source of amusement and interest. is follow this until a guide's cabin of logs. birds seen . . of farms passed the nature of the country the characteristics of the people encountered. A boy's powers of observation may be trained by having him report on the number and quality of wells the number game may." It is small enough and enough so that it will not hurt any one. of paddling ticipate. . Each canoe feet provided with a willow switch about four light is the "tagging stick. and perhaps an invitation This be found a can with the directions for coming to some festivity as a of course. the players The ball used large game ashore.CAMPING AND SCOUTING trail.


scout boy may rush from each of the four points of the compass at the same time. If he is seen by* any member of the defenders and his name shouted. The attacking party creeps up as near as posopen space without being seen. of course. Then some one make a dash for the flag. "deer-hunts.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Capturing the Flag A small American flag is placed in an open field not more than two hundred feet from a thicket or woodland. The scout boy making the dash for the flag not be disguised. It is may or may a good plan for the attacking party to completely Any flag and gradually stalk the defenders. as previously agreed upon. The defenders will.. he is wounded and out of the game. The defenders conceal themselves around this spot behind trees and rocks." etc. games which have been practised at some The boys have obtained costumes. . Indian Games In addition to the woodcraft learned originally from Indians. On the other hand. if any of the attacking party see and call out the name of any of sible to the is selected to the defenders. erected tepees. but the writer has never found these rather artificial recreations necessary. and held dances. which is touched upon elsewhere. there are various so-called Indian camps. according to rules. they are out of it. ensurround the deavor to pick them off.

or it may be a point toward the permission to wear the camp This emblem.CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES Map-making To teach accuracy of judgment and habits of observation. of course. He is given a paper and pencil to answer vaIn two of the "How rious questions. points Various questions are asked to secure a boy's idea of feet and inches. one of the toward the camp emblem is the Woodcraft point. streams. maps of the surrounding country may be made for a radius of two The or three miles. camps in New England. ?" This last is such as: "How long is the canoe? " how wide?" feet many wide wide would a roadway have to be to permit the passing of two touring cars?" "Can you pace off one hundred feet?" is square yards a railroad track?" in the mainsail of the boat?" "How "How How many game may be competitive the boy winning. These are then marked according to the standard set by Government maps. points of honor are taken and at the end of the season the boys having the . lakes. and roadways should be put in as accurately as possible. Other helpful questions that have real value as general information may be added. such as: "How long is this tent?" " "How far is it to the canoe?" high is high?" How my hat very deceiving. Helpfulness and Courtesy In several count of. Feet and Inches camps with which I am familiar. who gives the greatest number of correct answers.

one to another. is very important to instil into a mind the necessity of boy's being courteous to farmer folk or other people met in the I always caution boys to remember that they are country. and a mile out of town discovered that they had one dollar too much change from the country store. to encourage this attitude is to give a party of boys one." as it is called. or three hours in which to report. This will serve to encourage the boys. Again. counts toward the winning of To develop this. Boys from well-conducted camps are instructed to obsame habits of courtesy and good. or It particularly to the people who are encountered en-route. who may once a week publicly announce the points due.breeding toward a farmer's or mountaineer's wife that they would expect serve the toward their mother. a party of eight boys and a counsellor were going up the Kennebec Valley. and a reputation for honesty and good-breeding was created in that town for any subsequent party who might come from that camp. two. A halt was made at once and a volunteer asked for to go back those two hot. may be employed. courteous thing done and report it to the director. various devices the camp emblem or pin. of subsequent parties of camp or scout boys For example. One is to have the officer of the day in an organized camp make careful note of each unselfish. Eight volunteered. making the way easy or difficult.CAMPING AND SCOUTING most to their credit are publicly commended and ' ' this Fel- lowship Point. on trips walking or canoeing trips the counsellor in charge may note the conduct of boys. dusty miles. on their One way .

incline 80 feet. at farm-houses for opportunity to help bring in the night wood. but He was had not quite strength to do so. Shooting the Chute The accompanying diagram shows a modified water to- boggan slide which boys can build in large part themselves with supervision. or do a thousand and one They may apply little services. dressed on one side. M. hackmatack. endeavoring to put up the top of his carriage. helpful things they have accomplished. read to one whom they know is ill. Elevation 25 feet. Spike securely on good trestle not farther than 8 feet apart. or oak.CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES honor. queer-looking old farmer. A. camp I saw two boys put down an armful of bundles and jump to the in assistance of a shabby. Use eightpenny nails in se- curing sleepers and rails. write a letter. placed on edge 18 inches apart. Traffic rails of straight-grained spruce or cypress 4! inches. C. It affords an amusing way of coasting where there is a high. are laid on sleepers i x 6 x 18 inches of any good available material. go on an errand. The impetus when the car is released and shoots down will carry it over the surface of the water for a little distance to the great joy of the boy in the car. clear bank on the water's edge. 275 . How to Build the Chute In building the chute use stringers 2x4 inches of pine. what unselfish. Once camp a small village near a Y.


8 two-inch F. The catch is held The automatic in place by a coiled steel spring. & f Co. then many passing again and seeing how successful you were. release at the top of the clutch is made of a steel angle with arms 16 and 12 x f x i inches. |-inch face Four wheels. o Special. and is secured to the post with a f-inch lag screw. wheel base 30 inches. screw. tread 10 inches. 3 inches in diameter. as shown in the drawing. One side has a coin 277 . INDOOR GAMES Seeing and Remembering This is practised by having five or six articles on a table and allowing a scout boy five seconds in which to remember as many as he can. B. No. Up. and is manipulated by means of a wire to the lever. Fairbanks and f-inch bore. level Start the track on a float with the surface of the water and curve to line of incline. Bore and countersink for inches apart outside to outside. H. with the rear cleat is fitted with The iron sole for the finger catch of the automatic release. Jenkins is ! played by dividing the camp into two parties and placing them on opposite sides of a table. edged and rolled.CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES spruce or cypress J inch square.. rails of Guide a No. It is good practice to remember as articles as possible in passing a shop window. are secured in mortises in the car by the use of lag screws x 4^ inches. car is The made 2 of white pine ij three cleats x J x 16 inches. x 14 x 40 inches. dash is made of a piece of galvanized iron 10 x 16 inches. dressed on are fastened to the traffic rails and spaced 1 2 four sides.

This presents an opportunity for the blindfolded one Failure of one in the circle to called. to slip into a vacant chair. he must identify him. all hands are elevated and must come down palms open on is the table at the same time. at a given signal from the leader of the opposite side. the captured one is blindfolded. The blindfolded one may also slip into a vacant chair if he can find one. Of course. each having a number. as Boston" or "All change. for rainy days. When all is ready he shouts two numbers.CAMPING AND SCOUTING which passed along under the table from hand to hand until. consists of identification when the identifier is blindfolded. At his discretion the one who is blindfolded " may shout a word previously agreed upon." and every one must change his chair for another. the coin goes to the other side of the table and the manoeuvre is repeated. Identification One indoor game. causes change places. and the owners of these numbers must exchange chairs. One is chosen to be blindfolded. if they do guess it correctly before the last hand is ordered up. If successful in this. the coin is still retained by the same side and. the coin is under one of them. The campers sit around in a circle. and he stands in the middle. and the opposing side may demand one hand after another up. of the man the middle of the . when him in to forfeit his chair and take the place circle. vice versa. If the opponents do not guess which one it is under. If the blindfolded one can catch one of those exchanging places.

. and theatricals all go to make up pleasant evenings. This is and the ball is returned to the centre of the table again. such as a tennis-ball.CAMP OR SCOUTING GAMES I Spy! Part of a rainy day may be pleasantly passed by the following game All of the campers go out of the room but one. charades. : who in places a coin or thimble where it is entirely in view but an inconspicuous place. The campers are assembled. it counts a goal. mock trials. Of course. As soon as one finds it he goes and sits down. and consists in one side endeavoring to blow a light ball. saying nothing the second one does the same thing until an agreed-upon time has passed. Once across the line. and the hunt for the object begins. Wind-ball a test of lungs. across a line into the enemy's territory. The one who first discovers the thimble now hides it.

sailing-boats. Harper's Outdoor Book for Boys. and Elements of Navigation. and this may town. at least as wholly needless boating accidents every summer. whether house-boats. E. L. various special books tage.Chapter XXI THE HANDLING OF BOATS T IVING aboard or L' power - boats. Me Arthur. and this knowledge must be absolutely thorough. boats. If he lives in a seaport New York or Boston. E. but a few principles and bits of advice are There are offered to campers on the water in this chapter. may very well be construed as camp- tials of regards outdoor life and many of the essenfood and clothing. 1 like be learned very quickly. But obviously it is necessary first to understand the handling of the boat. W. A thorough treatment of the whole subject does not belong to this book. Henderson. Roff. The Landsman. 1 which may be consulted to advan- but practice and experience under wise direction are always essential. or in a lake city. The A B C of Boats A boy should know the parts of a boat in a simple way. 280 . C. like : For example J. Navigation Simplified. There are too many ing.

strong race. The parts of a sailing-ship are many and of full of long names. or addressing the Bureau of Navigation. 281 and hitches used in . boy usually begins his boating experience with a small cat-boat or sailing-dory." "coming about" are all terms that he should learn at once and thoroughly." before it. and the deep-sea fishermen on our own Atlantic coast. but are not beyond the ability any boy who really loves the sea." "running free." "jibing." "starboard tack. open boats." "by the wind. "Beating" or " to windward." "wind aft. bends. and in it the principles of sailing are learned as well as in a schooner yacht. The rules of the road or directions regarding right of way in sailing. Navigation is a technical subject. knots." "port tack. The various splices. C. D. The sea always has and always will develop a hardy. This is readily seen in studying the races who have been sailormen the brave Norsemen who crossed the northern Atlantic in small. some very interesting books will be sent free which describe By fully every portion of the sea-coast of the United States with relation to light-houses and light-ships." "close hauled.THE HANDLING OF BOATS Chicago." "rungoing "to leeward. applying at the custom-house of any seaport town. There is nothing that will develop quick action and clear thinking in a boy as rapidly as boat-sailing. lights. brave. They give full sailing directions and many photographs." ning A "wind abeam.. Washington. but worth the study of boys in seaports. an old sailor can frequently be found along the water-front who will feel flattered to describe the parts of a boat and its rigging. and fog signals may be learned in an hour.

as the rope holding the mainsail is called. be sure. an oar broken. Do not attempt to weather a heavy squall by reefing or headto it. a mast sprung. have it anchored with the sail furled and everything made as snug and tidy as though you expected a gale before morning. a leak started. carefully coil so that they will run quickly if necessary. where they are fully illustrated. If there is water in a boat. that it is firmly "stepped" into place. Always overhaul the running rigging and see that none of it is "fouled." but that in it is all ready to run clear. In leaving a boat at night. Have no knots rigging. Do not stand on the coil of this rope or permit all halliards. any running and always any one do so or let baskets or boxes stand on it. Make this a rule. and the poorest. repair will never lose your boat or its rigging. up Never tie the sheet-rope. or any part of your steering-gear is out of it promptly. after the anchor has touched . lower the sail at once. Masts and Rigging In setting up a mast in a canoe or in a row-boat. always bail it dry before starting.CAMPING AND SCOUTING sailing may be learned from the explanations in Harper's Outdoor Book for Boys. Anchorage A mud bottom affords the best anchorage. If a squall of any seriousness hits you. a order. ing into If sail is torn. When a sandy one anchoring. and you a rope parts. before starting.


all run hang out a "riding light" or lantern to avoid being When sailing a boat. There is an indescribable coziness and homelike feeling when I which safely anchored in a harbor after a day's sailing do not believe is quite equalled by anything else in the world. work the time. it is safer to into. Give more if the water is very deep or the sea heavy. and. . he is looking at the sky. In sheltered waters much pleasure may be derived from building and living on house-boats. When anchoring a boat where there is shipping. These may be very easily and simply constructed. keep your attention on your a professional sailor at the wheel or tiller. probably a catamaran. Power-boats Now little that every other fisherman's dory is fitted with a gasoline engine. and his boat practically the entire time. Watch though he may be talking. water.CAMPING AND SCOUTING bottom. pay out at least three times as much rope as the boat is long. For older and more experienced boys a cruise in a sloop or cat-boat will give an outing full of new and novel attractions. For a small and non-capsizable sailing 1 boat. and some weeks may be pleasantly passed afloat. the art of managing motor-boats of is one kind or another constantly brought to the attention 1 Harper's Outdoor Book for Boys explains the building of house-boats and catamarans. 1 These boats will sail nothing quite equals very fast and are easily handled.

laying courses. learn l everything that there is to know. It is command of a motor-boat. A. these cruises the boys stand watch. and regular On work is done. sailor steering. 1 for 285 . Only. Order and discipline are observed. Camp-yachts Some organized camps offer regular yachting crviises. a boy should good guidance. and tending sails. During the winter the ship lies at the foot of Twenty-third Street. where a knowledge of sailing may be gained from men competent to teach it practically. and the time is told by bells. scrubbing Nautical Schools The Y. of New York' City affords such a cruise on a ninety-foot schooner yacht at a very moderate cost. but regular seaman's duty is done by the boys on the cruise. There is a sufficient force of regular enlisted seamen to man the ship. like decks. M. and his prudence should be carefully tested before he is intrusted with the of boys. C. This is a training-ship under the command of officers of the United States Navy. however small it may be. Harper's Machinery Book Boys will be found helpful.THE HANDLING OF BOATS something to be undertaken with care and but it is worth while. Under the auspices of the Board of Education of New York City there is a nautical school conducted on board the United States steamship Newport. and regular public-school subjects are So far as books alone are concerned.

Many of the graduates have taken good positions in the Merchant Marine Service. as the Newport is an auxiliary ship.CAMPING AND SCOUTTNG pursued. . real In the summer months long cruises are taken to Europe. Both sail and steamship work are taught. and on these the boys have an opportunity to learn seamanship under very efficient guidance.

To CONTROL THE BLEEDING of wounds. limb above or below the bandage and compress around the wound as indicated. remember that bits of may have been drawn into the wound. the strongest pressure is to be applied upon the itself. or below. Pressure on the blood-vessels by a tourniquet. Of course. cut and punctured. In dressing a punctured wound. three measures be employed: Direct pressure of a finger or compress on the wound. remove them. in case of a vein. Or tie a fastening the ends to a stick and twisting tight. Keep it clean by dressing. Wounds may be incised. or torn and scraped. passing a handkerchief or strip of cloth around the compress. like a stab or bullet wound.. This (1) may (2) is made by placing a compress some folded cloth above the wound in the case of an artery. Clean the wound.Chapter XXII OR ACCIDENT rules IN CASE OF ILLNESS TREATING WOUNDS there are three general to IN follow (a) : (b) (c) Stop the bleeding. put a stick under the bandage and twist. 19 artery or vein . thread. and be careful to etc. lacerated. clothing.

sew it together. since the blood will wash out Then it may be bathed freely with clean warm impurities. CLEAN A WOUND. it To KEEP A WOUND CLEAN. Tie each stitch separately. This is best. Peroxide of hydrogen. These must be boiled or soaked an antiseptic solution. any clean. Take stitches far enough away from the edge of the wound to prevent tearing out. tail in . it is a good plan to permit By it to bleed freely for a few seconds. or cold water. This antiseptic has the advantage of also checking bleeding. which should be in the camp medicine-chest. In using a handkerchief or sheet apply the part that has been folded in.CAMPING AND SCOUTING (3) To the use of very hot or very cold water. After arresting the bleeding may be washed with a solution of bichloride of mercury This is made by adding one of the (i-iooo strength). fresh-laundered linen or cotton may be applied. Soap or ether may be used to remove grease. If this cannot be done. Draw the edges of a wound together with sticking-plaster or surgeon's plaster. and silk or hair from a horse's may be used as thread. Sterile gauze may be purchased by the yard in boxes. nary needle may be used. To DRESS A WOUND. tablets. to one quart of water. This will be free from dust. An ordiplacing stitches one-quarter to one-half inch apart. also useful in camp. may be applied directly to a wound or diluted one-half strength with water. After the bleeding has been checked or controlled. A clean handkerchief or any freshly laundered linen can be used here. Do not put cotton directly on a wound if it can be avoided place the cotton over the other dressing.

expelling through the mouth. open them by slitting Do not remove the skin. baking-soda. deep breaths in through the nose. one spot. plug the nostrils water. (2) Pain of a sharp character in This is Crepitus: by pressure. try holding the head far back and taking long.IN CASE OF ILLNESS OR ACCIDENT Always wash your hands WHEN DRESSING WOUNDS. The bones most frequently broken are the skull (i) The collar-bones and the forearm bones. A COMPOUND through the limbs. Always with shake the bottle before using. FRACTURE skin. Or one may snuff very cold water up the nostrils. A SIMPLE FRACTURE occurs when a bone is broken wholly or partly across without laceration of the skin. The sound. If blisters have been formed. and knives that are to be used. or vinegar and in the case of THERE is If this fails. except the oil are spread on in a thin paste made with water. Pressure on the upper lip just under the nostrils will frequently check bleeding. needles. If possible. It and lime-water. ' IN CASE OF BURNS ' Carron Oil " is an ideal dressing is made of equal parts of linseed-oil for almost any burn. boil them before using. (2) Clean carefully any scissors. the application of oil. one where the bone protrudes Two-thirds of all fractures are in the is and spine are rarely broken. PERSISTENT BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE. flour. with cotton or gauze. or hydrogen peroxide. Saturate a piece of cloth it. SIGNS OF FRACTURE. but dress as their whole length. All these or starch will check the smarting and pain. IF any wound. and in a sense the increased feeling of . (i) thoroughly before touching any materials for dressing.

and systematic. Set the bone as well as you can. Treatment. and do not ful. to see if Remove is the dressing after four or five days dislocated bone in the bone in place. produced when the ends of the broken bones grate against each other. Never put ice or ice-water over a broken bone. Remember in applying a splint This may be done by using cotton. roughly speaking. Altered appearance of joint. Treatment. I. having carefully arranged straw. (3) Swelling. Loss of function and power. Now. cation. be quiet. grass. III.CAMPING AND SCOUTING roughness. sickening character. II. cheerDo not rush at the sufferer. will boxes. make a temporary always to pad it. place it over the broken bones and bandage firmly into place. cardboard. paddles. of motion or a bending where there should (4) False point be none. DISLOCATIONS. Always compare the two sides of the body the injured with the uninjured member. and heat. is to manipulate the bone until it can be forced into its socket- A finger can be . Symptoms. IV. In making an examination. A pillow bound about a limb will splint. To remove clothing cut on the seams very carefully. or soft rags. Make sure that it is not a disloseize his bones roughly. or almost any firm material that support the limb. hay. redness. This. the body is The most frequently at the shoulder joint. Local pain of a dull. Head of bone felt in a new place. and then apply some firm Splints may be made of cigardressing to keep it in place. the padding on the splint.

rub sand or ashes on it. and blood-vessels around the Pain results from this unjoint are torn or stretched. place the patient the injured side. Immerse the limb in water as hot as can be As the patient becomes accustomed to this water. If bloody and slippery. a special description of that will be given. As the shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated bone. this dependent on the length of time the limb is immersed and the temperature of the water. take your shoe off the by nearer the patient. except that no bone is found out of place. SPRAINS. shower the limb with cold water. Take the patient out of water at once. In carrying the patient. make it hotter and hotter. muscles. place the foot in his arm- force sit grasp the hand and wrist in both your hands. but a dislocation must be attended to as soon as possible. successful. The symptoms of a sprain are like those of dislocations. To is on his back. foot that pit. and the pain will be less. The complete success of borne. Treatment. DROWNING. Elevate the injured part. If hot water is not obtainable. Swing this arm forward over his body. After drya rubber bandage and pour hot witch-hazel or a ing. and pull steadily as hard as you can in a direction toward your own body without relaxing your pull. always do so with the head hanging treatment is . The tendons. ligaments.IN CASE OF ILLNESS OR ACCIDENT very readily pulled back into place. try again and pull harder. it back into its socket. There is no special hurry about setting a fracture. apply lead-and-opium wash on the dressing. The bone can be distinctly felt by the If not patient and attendant if it slips back into place. natural stretching.

fallen back into throat. pull forward and have an assistant hold it with a handkerchief in his throat that will wrapped around or put a pin through it with the ends resting against the teeth. or other material prevent the air rushing in. may be pulled out fifteen or At the time of the Slocum disaster in New York. She was supposed to be dead. and draw them straight above his head until his hands touch the ground back of him. Having an assistant press upon the lower ribs when the arms are elevated over the head is an additional measure that helps. naturally. seaweed. grasp his arms above his elbows. In the excitement of the it is moment it may be done too hurriedly. Pull steadily and firmly in that direction. and had been dragged ashore behind a launch. also the tongue twenty times a minute. or until he breathes . these two motions twelve to sixteen expiration. a girl was in the water more than three-quarters of an hour. The first motion is an attempt at respiration one.CAMPING AND SCOUTING down. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION. three. Lay the patient on his back. so that the water may have a chance to run out. See that his tongue has not. two. Repeat times a minute until an hour has passed. Place your hands underneath the abdomen and hold him up for a minute until all the water has run out. and yet she was revived by respiration. If it has. Then place him on his back. down to his the second. Be sure there is no mucus. artificial . counting Then quickly bring his arms chest at the sides until you have counted three. and well to time yourself by a watch.

blindly for consciousness remains. loosen clothing. or opium (soothing syrup. patient awake. hot. alcohol. If he should succeed in seizing you. Drowning persons fight and may grapple the rescuer and drown both. poisoning by carbolic acid. epileptic fits. if possible. gas. and some cough mixtures). air. aromatic spirits of Opium. rubbing. ammonia . ice to the head and hot water to feet. black coffee. Alcohol. Use a boat. tickle the throat with a feather to produce vomiting give hot coffee and stimulants. UNCONSCIOUSNESS. Keep patient quiet prevent him from banging Epilepsy. place something between his teeth like a towel. . Apoplexy. pushing him away by placing your feet against him. give stimulants.IN CASE OF ILLNESS OR ACCIDENT It is it not wise to jump into the water after a person if life. Do not break the grip of hands. morphine. Keep the . apoplectic fits. grapple you with his arms or compelled to jump into the arm around the person to be rescued If Hold him so that he cannot legs. keep quiet and do not give stimulants. rub to get warm. keep the crowd away. This may be due to faintness. heroin. if he is biting tongue. . Do not lower head elevate it. take a long breath and sink. plenty of fresh Fainting. move bowels freely. and throw out an arm of a coat or sweater if can be avoided. and the characteristic symptoms. Emetics. paregoric. loosen collar. water throw your left with his back to your side. etc. and sunstroke. his head or injuring himself. The table on page 294 indicates some of the usual causes of unconsciousness. TREATMENT: Lower head. codein.


In some cases. unconsciousness. giving half a teacupful. Antiseptics. Artificial respiration and stimulants. if temperature remains above 101 put the patient in tub of cold water. Put on rubber gloves or thrust your hands inside rubber shoes and pull patient away from contact. Wash out mouth with pure following the drinking of something. mercury (i-iooo). sweet-oil or olive-oil. Mustard. ice to head and wrists.IN CASE OF ILLNESS OR Sunstroke. Carbolic-acid Poisoning. Ptomaine Poisoning is usually caused by eating tainted alcohol. sometimes a rash. Follow up with milk. one-tenth grain calomel every twenty minutes for ten doses. ACCIDENT fan constantly. watch pulse.water warm water. easily digested in meat or fish. a solution of bichloride to. Remove The symptoms are sudden in- tense pains in abdomen Give large doses at once of Epsom salts in water. then light. Electric Shocks. of Corrosive sublimate. headache. fever. The symptoms are pain nourishment. . soap and water tickling the throat with feather or a finger. to shade. one tablet added 295 one quart of water. vomiting. raw eggs. cream. If this is vomited. Administer castor-oil or Epsom salts. . MEDICAL HINTS: teaspoonful to a pint of lukesaltwater. Mouth and lips white. Emetics. about one to two hours after eating. Give no food for ten hours. and if it is feeble give stimulants while in the bath. Odor of carbolic acid about patient.

look out for it. If necessary. is recommended. Rub in cold water or snow.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Scissors or knives may be rendered sterile by boiling ten minutes actively or soaking in pure alcohol. Wrap a pork rind around throat or a piece of flannel. Tie something around the limb ABOVE the wound to prevent the poison entering the body. and hot cloths if cold weather. Gargle with hot salt water. from mattress. fruit if possible. Apply a hot raisin or oil Suck the wound and spit of it cinnamon. have and get up a sweat. Constipation is a common thing in camp.tea and put something Cramps. out. grass. straw. cotton. Give dilute ammonia internally or whiskey. Put on all the sweaters and heavy clothing you Cold. The freely cut of wound should be of around the bite and a solution potassium poured into the wound. hair HEALTH HINTS Toothache. Headache. Coarse bread. Padding may be made of hay. The poij not hurt you in this way. Lie down in a cool place and put cool cloths on forehead if hot weather. Take some hot ginger. Use three-fourths water to the crystals in making solution. Throw a hot rock in a bucket of cold water and inhale the steam. Diet and exercise are better than medicine. Frost Bite. hot on the abdomen. plenty of good drinking-water are helpful. Sore Throat. Water may be sterilized by boiling five minutes. castor-oil . This permanganate may also be injected around the wound hypodermically. : Snake will Bite.

small doses of blackberry brandy administered cautiously under competent direction.IN CASE OF ILLNESS OR ACCIDENT Diarrhea. . or a quarter of a grain of powdered opium in milk. if available. The eating of cheese or chewing of starch may Sun cholera mixture is worth trying. or. be helpful.




their politeness if one stopped to question them. and during the holidays you may find them camping out. and their briskness and cleanness and intentness. In summer public common. khaki. Organizing the Boy Scouts These martial-looking youngsters are the Boy Scouts of England. and You will come across them in miniature mountaineers. knickers. and long staffs. juvenile football-players. They look like a cross between toy soldiers. haversacks. cow- ONE of the commonest is boy hats.Chapter XXIII THE BOY SCOUTS OF ENGLAND sights in England. playing their esoteric games. with loose flannel shirts. plunging into woods. on a Saturday that of groups of boys clad in afternoon especially. clambering up mountains. summer and autumn on nearly every open space or spring. bare knees. had re- peatedly struck my fancy. giving public exhibitions of their skill. I had often noticed them in the past year or two marching in patrols of seven or eight through the streets of London with a military swing and precision. and the credit for their existence as an organiza301 .

called the Boy Scouts. The idea met with a success so immediate and widespread that in order to give the movement a general uniformity a new organization. . had to be formed. and his spirited and ingenious defence of Mafeking was one of the brightest incidents of the Boer War. Recruits have continued to pour in. keepthus ing lookout.CAMPING AND SCOUTING tion belongs to Lieutenant-General Sir Baden-Powell. was organized in 1905. with permanent headquarters and an official staff. Beard's American organization. "B-P" to give him the name by which he is known all over the empire is himself one of the ablest officers and quite the ablest scout in the British army. While Mr. Lord Edward Cecil. Daniel C. " The Sons of Daniel Boone. At the end of 1907 up by the various l ' ' B-P. Brooks's history of the movement is of value to all who are concerned with the scout idea. got together them in uniform. it will be of peculiar interest to Boy Scouts in Canada. 2 Notably in Canada. and acting as orderlies and so on the boys in the village. put adding to the strength of the firing-line by releasing the grown-up men who had hitherto been employed on these duties." of which scouts and scouting were an important part. 1 Mr. Mafeking "B-P's" chief staff-officer." in a series of lectures in different parts of England. It was during the siege of that the first corps of Boy Scouts was organized. suggested that scouting should be taken societies and organizations that concerned themselves with the welfare of boys. and there are to-day probably 150. drilled them. and as many more in other 2 parts of the empire.000 Boy Scouts in Great Britain alone. and used them for carrying orders and messages.

20 . The Scout Law The Scout law is comprised in nine articles: (i) A Scout's Honor Is to Be Trusted." and the recruit is informed that this means that he must always be in a state of readiness in mind and body to do his duty ." The Scouts' motto is "Be Prepared. If other people at all times. and that he must train his body in strength and activity so that he will be able to do it. But before being allowed to join the organization every boy must pass certain tests. paying two cents a week each to the common fund. Any number of boys. The oath is as follows: "On my honor I promise that I will do my best (i) to do my duty to God and the King. He must know the Scouts' laws and signs and salute. between the ages of ten and eighteen. may agree to enroll themselves as Boy Scouts. Now for its spirit and workings. know how he passes these tests he is permitted to take the Scouts' oath. that he must have disciplined himself to be obedient to every order. (2) to help to tie four common knots. he must know the composition of the Union Jack and the right way to fly it and he must . and must have thought out beforehand any accident or situation that might occur so that he will know the right thing to do at the right moment.THE BOY SCOUTS OF ENGLAND The English Scouts' Oath So much for the history of the movement. (3) to obey the Scout law.

A Scout Obeys Orders of his parents. and to his officers. or scoutmaster without question. and his employers. A CARDINAL POINT IN THE BOY SCOUT'S EDUCATION (4) A Scout Is a Friend to All and a Brother to Every Other Scout. to his parents. A Scout Is a Friend to Animals. STUDYING THE COMPASS. A Scout Is Thrifty. his country. Scout's Duty Is to Be Useful and to (3) Help Others. (5) (6) (7) A Scout Is Courteous.CAMPING AND SCOUTING (2) A A Scout Is Loyal to the King. . (8) A Scout Smiles and Whistles under (9) circumstances. all patrol leader.

and someIt is in the club-room times even making the furniture. these animals would form a secret call among the members The patrol leader and corporal of the respective patrols. and Bull. are the two smartest boys in each* patrol." boy remains for one He is only awarded . and expounds to them the meaning of the Scout law. corporal. be named. call. and in whom are vested very considerable The scouts forming a troop are powers of discipline. if they are also the oldest. who must be over twenty years of age.THE BOY SCOUTS OF ENGLAND Patrols and Troops Such scouts. is the law which each scout binds himself to observe. to provide themselves with a uniform and equipexpected ment. so much the better. patrol has a different name and may be known as the Sixth Thus. Tests On becoming a member " month on probation as a of a patrol a tenderfoot. supposing there to be three of them. that the scoutmaster instructs the boys in their business both by little lectures and by practical demonstrations. A patrol Each a troop patrols consists of a patrol leader. At the head of the troop of three or more patrols is the scoutmaster. who can enroll scouts and discharge them. and an imitation of the cries made by Wolf. while its London Troop. and six or eight and three patrols are sufficient to form a troop. though those who cannot afford to do so are allowed may to dress as they please. or one is by local sympathizers. Cat. the scouts themselves doing the cleaning and decorating. lent or given to them They hire a club-room.

(6) cooking quarter of a pound of meat and two potatoes without cooking utensils other than the regulation billy. alphabet. in a savings-bank. T REVEILLE AT THE CAMP or. . >LKESTONE WHERE CAESAR ALSO CAMPED if in a town. describing satisfactorily the contents of one shop-window out of four. (5) laying and lighting a fire. (2) signalling. (3) elementary knowledge of semaphore or Morse tracking half a mile in tw enty-five minutes. observed for one minute each (4) going a mile in twelve minutes at ''scouts' pace". the sixteen principal points of the compass. ing (7) having at least sixpence (8) know- To obtain .CAMPING AND SCOUTING the second-class scout's badge after passing the following tests: (i) Elementary knowledge of first aid and bandaging. using not more than two matches .

or.THE BOY SCOUTS OF ENGLAND a to first-class scout's badge a boy must in addition it. to go on foot to a point seven miles away and return and write a report on the journey. error. to describe or show the proper means of saving life in case of fire. must demonstrate how to stop bleeding from vein or artery. list is This sounds a formidable how must know the proper fireman's way of lifting or dragging an insensible person. to point out a compass direction without the help of a compass. or metal-work made by himself satisfactorily. or skin and cook a rabbit. to produce an article of carpentry. a boy proficiency. must be able to bandage an injury. to read a map correctly and draw an intelli. must show how to deal with choking. size. poison. be able to swim fifty yards unless the doctor forbids show that he has a shilling in the bank. of accomplishments. or pluck arid cook a bird. drowning. to send and receive a message either in semaphore or Morse at the rate of sixteen letters a minute. to judge distance. or grit . runaway carriage to cook satisfactorily two selected dishes. but it master them and how eager astonishing quickly boys they are to go and win the extra badges awarded for special Thus. as an alternative. must be able to improvise a stretcher and fling a life-line. gible rough sketch map. diagnose and bind a fractured limb. burning. joinery. and to bring a tenderfoot trained by himself in the points required for a tenderfoot. numbers. to use an axe for felling or trimming light timber. must prove that he can improvise splints. to gain the ambulance badge. must show how to induce artificial respiration. must show the position of the main arteries. and height within twenty-five per cent. sewer gas.

appearance and markings of twenty of them. model bridge or derrick. .CAMPING AND SCOUTING in the eye. perhaps. is only awarded if a scout can produce a stalker's series of twenty photographs of wild animals or wild birds taken from life and developed or printed by himself. reptiles. or if he is able to name sixty different kinds of animals. or if he has done colored drawings of twenty flowers. or grasses. as in fire. For the signaller's badge a scout must pass tests in both sending and receiving messages in semaphore and Morse at twentyfour letters per minute. ferns. neatly and quickly. to tie eight kinds of knots quickly in the dark or blindfolded. or birds in a museum or zoological garden. and to build a hut suitable for three occupants. to show the presence of the enemy. mounted. to make a camp kitchen. must give and read signals by sound. or grasses. or if he has dried. and must of the laws of health have a satisfactory general knowledge and sanitation. fling a rope coil. ferns. to lash spars properly together for scaffolding. insects. and give particulars of the lives and habits. and correctly named sixty species of wild flowers. Badges The most coveted badge of all. or twelve sketches from life of animals or birds. the badge. For the pioneer's badge a scout must prove his ability to fell a nine-inch tree or scaffolding pole. must make correct smoke and flame signals with and must be able to give the proper signals. The to build a seaman's badge can only be won by a boy who can tie eight knots rapidly in the dark or blindfolded. infantry training.

state direction by the . sew and darn a shirt and trousers.THE BOY SCOUTS OF ENGLAND row a boat single-handed. swim fifty yards with climb a rope or pole of fifteen trousers. punt it with a pole. in case of A boy who emergency. THE CLOSE OF A DAY S MANCEUVRES sign a certificate showing that he owns a bicycle in good working order and is willing to use it in the service of the government etc. wishes to win the marksman's badge must . socks. stars and sun. scull it over the stern. and name the different national flags and rigs of To gain the sailing-vessels and classes of men-of-war. cyclist's badge etc. steer it when rowed by others. a scout must be able to repair punctures. and chart. for carrying despatches. bring it alongside box the compass andr read a properly and make it fast .. repeat correctly a verbal message. show weather wisdom and knowledge of the tides. understand the general principle of marine engines and steam or hydraulic winch. read a map. and shirt on feet.

the tents pitched. So. assisting the police at personal risk. and must show himself a good judge of distance on unknown ground. helping at a fire. the sigactual demonnalling. such as stopping a runaway horse. medals are also awarded (i) for saving life at risk to one's own. quarter. jiu-jitsu. A the site selected.CAMPING AND SCOUTING score not less than 114 points in thirty shots. Besides these badges.staff. the lessons in observation. the arrangements have to be made by the boys themselves cooked. and so on sense. It will be seen from all this that the Boy Scout movement week of camping-out when all fetches a wide compass. wrestling. the seamanship stration and participation are the basis of them all. the woodcraft. the food provided and is an education in itself in common- competency. and love of nature. boxing. all discipline. or for twenty various good deeds. with the other arts and accomplishments of the boy scouts the tracking. . (2) for saving life or helping to save life without risk to self. but where life might have been lost. etc. and the badge of master-of-arms is given to a scout who shows proficiency in three out of these six subjects single stick. and fencing. and (3) for meritorious service. too.

and a host of other places have seen patrols and troops of into instantaneous favor. He drew more fully on the works of Ernest Thompson Seton. of . 1 Cities such as Cleveland. even if the movement was started in England. and Dan Beard. book written on boyhood that has not been forced to con- was not the makIn planning for the work and there has hardly been a tribute something to the movement. and it is no uncommon sight to see from twenty to thirty Scout encampments on its outskirts. of the Woodcraft Indians. New York. General Baden - Powell IN emphatically stated that his intention ing of soldiers. in the larger Scouts spring up spontaneously. or Sons of Daniel Boone. Utica. Paterson. Springfield. Alexander and the Sunday-School Times. so that. By the courtesy of John L. he drew largely from all sources. San Francisco. but of citizens. its principles and fundamentals were produced on American soil. . New Jersey. Massachusetts. All over this continent the Boy Scout idea is springing and groups of boys are being orand smaller cities of the United States ganized and Canada.the Boy Pioneers.Chapter XXIV 1 THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA starting the Boy Scout idea. Toronto has become a Scout city. Chicago.

State. local committees are now in process of formation. Prominent business men and our leading . The PARADE OF BOY SCOUTS to be followed in this country is a slow but sure growth. a managing secretary and and field secretary have been engaged.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Detroit. the leaders of the movement being determined to benefit by all the mistakes that have been made by their is idea which English brethren. New York City. Who Fifth Directs the Movement? Headquarters for the movement have been opened at the Avenue Building. and national. and others are now forming city.wide committees to guide this new movement. New York.

the position of the main arteries. D. George D. this work of representative men from the among the boys of America. Livingstone. how to deal with choking. Pratt. how to drag an insensible man with ropes. of Pratt Institute. He must also know the Schaefer (latest) method of artificial respiration. of the Playground Association of America. how to stop bleeding. Robinson. and the general laws of health. are now grappling with the as Ernest Thompson question of national organization as well as giving their attention to the executive direction of the work in the field. C. Hanmer. which are achieved by passing certain definite tests in the various subjects. Such men Seton. Dan Beard. whether internal or external. and a great popular organization that needs but little equipment is now sweeping our country for the purpose of the recreational education of the boyhood of America. of Washington. of the Russell Sage Foundation. At the present time a committee on organization committee being made up various agencies at is directing the movement. of the Boys' Work Committee of the International Young Men's Christian Association.THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA educators have gotten behind the movement. the author and naturalist. poison. Edgar M. grit in the eye. Lee F. sprains and bruises. how to fling a life-line. D. how to improvise a stretcher. Thus. Luther Halsey Gulick. of the Settlement movement. how to improvise splints and to bind a fractured limb. Boyce. and W. of the Sons of Daniel Boone. burning. to gain the ambulance badge. Jacob A.. he must be able to know the firemen's lift. The progressive and educational value of the Boy Scouts may be readily understood by a little thought of the scope of the badges of merit. Dr. the Chicago publisher. Riis. . Colin H.

then takes the Scout's oath. " Scout's pace. . bowline. middleman's. 4. the composition of the national flag and the right it. elementary knowledge of first aid without cooking utensils other than the regulation billy. and so be able to pass his tests for the merit badges. a boy must pass through three stages. lack of venand cleanliness.CAMPING AND SCOUTING tilation including the danger of smoking. observed for one minute each. Elementary Signalling. light 7. sheet-bend clove hitch. Have at least one month's service as a Tenderfoot. and is enrolled as a Tenderfoot. Lay and a fire. before he can become a First-class Scout. fisherman's. or degrees." 5. semaphore or Morse alphabet. Before being awarded the Second-class Scout's badge a Tenderfoot must pass the following tests : He 1. Go a mile in twelve minutes at 6. To become a Tenderfoot he must pass a test in the following points before taking the oath: What a Boy Must Do to Belong Know Know way the Scout's laws and signs and salute. Cook a quarter of a pound of meat and two potatoes 3. Track half a mile in twenty-five minutes. and bandaging. Besides the other thirty -four badges of merit and the other requirements. if in a town. 2. and is entitled to wear the buttonhole badge. describe satisfactorily the contents of one shop window out of four. sheepshank. using not more than two matches. incontinence. or. : to fly Tie four out of the following knots Reef.

for Second-class Scouts: Swim fifty yards. in phore or Morse. AN AMBULANCE CORPS which case. Before being awarded a First-class Scout's badge a Scout must pass the following tests.) 2.THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA 8. Signalling. Send and receive message either in sema3. . the sixteen principal points of the compass. Must have fifty cents at least in the savings-bank. sixteen letters per minute. 9. in addition to the tests laid down i. or perform some equivalent selected by the Scoutmaster. (This is may be omitted where the doctor certifies that bathing dangerous to the boy's health. he must run a mile in eight minutes. Have Know at least twenty-five cents in a savings-bank.

hunter's stew. Also make a rabbit. 7. or. Describe or show the proper means for saving life in case of two of the following accidents (allotted by the ex- aminers) : Fire. numbers. produce ^an article of carpentry or joinery or 8. size. alone. or pluck and cook a bird. bacon. runaway carriage. made by himself satisfactorily. or a "twist" baked on a correctly. drowning. go to a distance of fifteen miles and back. Read a map and draw an intelligible rough sketch map. of half a pound of flour. or bandage an injured patient. sewer gas. to a point seven miles away and return again. Go on foot. Use an axe metal. as Porridge. Bittig a Tenderfoot trained by himself required for a Tenderfoot. ice- breaking. [These and other requirements are pb- . error. or row a boat. and height within in the points twenty-five per cent. Point out a compass direction without the help of a 9. 5. or if conveyed by any vehicle or animal. drowned person. Cook satisfactorily two out be directed: may of the following dishes. for felling or trimming light timber.CAMPING AND SCOUTING 4. or revive an appar- ently 6. 10. It is preferable that he should take two days over it. as alternative. Judge distance. or skin and cook a "damper" thick stick. and write a short report on it. The Guide of the Scout The guide of the of the Boy Scout is laid down in the nine points Scout Law.

A Scout accepts the other and makes the best of him. and and thin against any one who talks badly of them. cripples. as he finds him. A Scout is a friend to animals. and old people and inAnd he must not take any reward for valids. or to help injured try his best to do a good turn to and life all. loyal to his country. or by not carrying out an order exactly when trusted on his honor to do so. etc. A Scout is courteous. especially to women and children. man being helpful or courteous. He should save them kill and should not is any animal unnecessarily. except for the allegiance in the second clause of the Law and a few other points. Alexander's explanations are added here. A Scout a friend to and a brother to every other Scout. he may be directed to hand over his Scout badge.] If a Scout were to 1. any time to save And is he must He to help others. 3. his parents. 2 . is A snob is one who looks is down upon another because he resents another because he poorer. But Mr. A Scout must never be a snob. A Scout's honor is to be trusted. or who poor and is rich. He must stick to them through thick is A Scout their enemy or who even A Scout's duty at is to be useful must be prepared persons. and never to wear it again. he is polite to all. . his officers. but 5.THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA viously practically the same in America as in England. his employers. Killing an animal for food allowable. no matter to what social class the other belongs. as far as possible from pain. That is. somebody every day. 4. 6. He may is also be directed to cease to be a Scout. break his honor by telling a lie.

nor whine at one another. and after he has done it he can come and state any reasons against it. hang-dog sort of way. not in a slow. all the same. or Scoutmaster without question. Scouts never grumble at hardships. because it is his duty. but he must carry out the order at once. he must do as soldiers and sailors do he must carry it out.CAMPING AND SCOUTING 7. 8. patrol leader. A Scout obeys orders of his parents. The punishment for swearing or using bad language is for each offence a mug of cold water to be poured 318 . A Scout smiles and whistles under all circumstances. nor swear when put out. When he gets an order he should obey it cheerily SCOUTS IN AMBUSH readily. Even if he gets an order he does not like. That is discipline.

which are located at the Fifth Avenue Building. to others a modern interpretation of the old vow of knightly chivalry which is interpreted so beau" " Idylls of the King and the boys' orders of the tifully in the is when they need This law of the Scouts it. he saves every penny he can and puts it in the bank. The secretaries of the Scout movement are ready to give their advice and help to any Sunday-school for the organization of a local movement. are available for any information about the Scout movement. or that he may have money to give away 9. and thus not make himself a burden to others. is A Scout thrifty. only. Knights of King Arthur and the Knights of the Holy Grail. 21 . instead of dealing with a language of a by-gone age. that is. The headquarters of the Boy Scouts of America. so that he may have money to keep himself when out of work. It was the punishment invented by the old scout Captain John Smith three hundred years ago. the law is couched in modern.THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA down the offender's sleeve by the other Scouts. Small pamphlets for free distribution have been prepared and will be sent to any address on receipt of a postal-card. up-to-date phraseology.

dry streamwhich direction the water ran. swim. and how rapidly a bird can fly. sail. and should know how to read storm 320 .Chapter XXV TRAINING IN SEEING CLEARLY a boy goes on a camping or scouting trip is it BEFOREbe wise would Often the term is for him to train his "scouting" powers. that he will know that an Indian toes in and a white man toes out. the taps of a woodpecker. the chatter of a squirrel. but that he has also keen powers of observation. "Ah! he a good scout !" And what does it mean ? It should mean that he can not only row. He should know the kinds of clouds. These are a few of the points which an American boy should know whether he 'is a member of any organization or not. with some slight difference. He a general way its force. paddle. the call of a bird. that a bear track looks like a human barefoot track. and make camp. that he knows from the appearance of a bed in Learn to Observe He should tell at once the drum-drum of a partridge's wings. and what they indicate or foretell in . tramp. heard in homes or on the street. the direction of the wind how to predict storms. that he will read a track quickly.

east. falling leaf. A a bent twig. or west with any correctness? Do you know at what hour the sun rose and set on the day that you read this page ? Do you know at what hour it rose in London and in San Francisco. south. weather flags. had marvellous powers like Daniel Boone of observation. Begin at home. He should quickly discover any strange appearance about his or street. boys away on trips for twenty-four hours. and why there is the difference in time of ? Even the back yard a city house will many times hold . After a note the clouds heavy wind-storm the "guess" may be verified by reading the daily papers which print accounts of wind velocity. The good scout sees things that the poor or careless one continually overlooks. and the different flags on ships that are seen flying at various parts of the rigging and masts. old hunters and scouts. and then upon their return asked each one separately to describe what he saw and where he went. study their general drift and estimate their speed. and the descriptions on page 323. There are many excellent opportunities for boys in cities and towns to train their "scouting" powers. home The famous or Kit Carson. or a crushed plant caught their attention at once. Do you know how many church spires may be counted from your roof? How many public buildings? Can you sit in your room and point north. as the escape of water into walls or under sidewalks. the smell of smoke or something burning. the varieties according to the names in the physical geography.TRAINI NG IN SEE I NG CLEARLY signals. and let nothing be too small to observe I have sometimes sent as a means of preliminary training. Go up on the roof.

A I square flag. A square blue flag alone indicates rain or snow. black 323 . stationary temperature. II with a black triangular flag below colder weather and snow or rain. with a black triangular fair flag above it it indicates warmer. stationary temperature. I with a black triangular fair weather. The parks offer many opportunities for the city scout boy sit down to observe the ways of birds should sight know at least twelve trees. The flowers. colony of ants will form a whole chapter of achievements. weather. half blue and white. flag.CAMPING AND SCOUTING treasure-houses for the keen scout. flag below indicates colder. No. and animals. or watch a spider spin his web. No. No. and insects are all interesting. leaves. III. II. sta- tionary temperature. The scout boy may well A quietly for half an hour and watch them dig and carry their huge burdens. it No. alone indicates local rain. A square white flag alone indicates fair weather. UNITED STATES SIGNAL SERVICE Northwest winds: White pennant above red centre. Every one and also twelve birds by and note. WEATHER SIGNALS I. I indicates it indicates with a square white flag with black centre indicates a cold wave. No. II with a black triangular flag above warmer weather and snow or rain.

A white above a red light will indicate westerly winds. nimbus. The cirrus clouds are the light. A red light. HURRICANE SIGNAL. and west are printed on the face. fleecy masses that one sees on a pleasant day. Red flag. black centre. black centre. east. above red AT NIGHT. cerning the expected hurricane at any station of the Weather Bureau. There are three chief kinds of clouds cirrus. Instead of the hours. will At the bottom of this rod have a cog-wheel fitting into another cog-wheel. having the vane swing on a long. Northeast winds Red pennant above red flag. dangerous to A scout boy may get full information connavigation. black centre. movable rod. black centre. The hand w ill T point to the one from which direction the wind comes. south. above white : Southwest winds: Red pennant. CLOUDS. feathery ones that float high up on a clear day the quality of cloud that forms a mackerel sky.TRAINING IN SEEING CLEARLY Southeast winds: pennant. light Two red flags. An interesting contrivance for determining the wind's direction is to make a weather-vane. This last one be set on a rod which operates a hand on a dial like a clock face. The cumulus are the more solid clouds. easterly winds. This signal denotes the expected approach of a tropical hurricane. also an extremely severe storm. flag. that drift like great white islands midway between the horizon and zenith the beautiful. the directions north. cumulus. summer .

clear before eleven. and flashing lightning general actions. Then there up the western sky after the sunset color has faded and the sun dipped over are the scattered cirrus that flame far the horizon. trailing their lovely garments like grand princesses. their marvellous colors. serene. OLD WEATHER PROVERBS Rain before seven. Sudden heat brings thunder. 324 . morning. If the sun goes down cloudy Friday. their directions. bright sunny day. You Fog Between eleven and two can tell what the weather in the is going to do. Sure of a clear Sunday. sure sign of rain. The huge. and the little children call them sheep. the Rain will dew is on the grass never come to pass. Some clouds drift leisurely across a blue sky. little white bits go by in groups lazily to and fro. When . threatening thunderheads. Three days' rain will empty almost any sky. and muttering in their long gray beards. Tiny.CAMPING AND SCOUTING The nimbus are the great towering masses piled up in the " " west at sunset. It will pay any scout boy to lie on his back for an hour and watch the drifting shapes in the sky. and observe their change of form. * Sun drawing water. piled-up nimbus all at sunset rimmed with gold we are familiar with. pure. or the black.

of clearing weather. A circle in the circle. the sailor takes warning. . Red sky Red sky at morning. tails sails. is : another version It's lighting up to see the rain. many stars as are If a crescent moon is so tipped that it will not spill water it is a sign of dry weather. it doesn't count. the and it will surely rain to-morrow. high. it will rain shortly again.TRAINING IN SEEING CLEARLY If it clears off If it rains during the night. the rooster crows standing on a fence or high place." As many days before it will rain. it is a sign of wet weather. Evening gray and morning red Sends the traveller home to bed. If clear. and the sun is shining at the same time. Mackerel sky and mares' Make lofty ships carry small is A deep-blue sky usually followed by a storm. at night is the sailor's delight. When grass is dry at morning light. whipping his wife. If it is so tipped that it will spill out water. for rain before the light. for rain before the night. it will Swallows flying low are a sign of rain. Evening red and morning gray Sends the traveller on his way. so round the moon means "storm. if on the ground. A sailor's version of closing and opening of clouds is: An Is Still opening and a shetting a sure sign of wetting. devil is When Look Look the grass is dry at night.

bright. The boy is expected to finish it: BIRDS OF THE AIR CATCHING FOOD AS THEY FLY. bluejay. It blows the bait in the fish's mouth. It is of all the winds the best. This list not complete. When It's the wind is in the east. West wind brings clear. The old folks should not venture forth. BIRDS MOST FREQUENTLY SEEN IN THE UPPER HALF OF TREES. South wind brings heat. goldfinches. Kingbird. nighthawk. When the wind is in the south. BIRDS OF birds. robin. cool weather. bluebirds. wrens. Scarlet tanager. for neither man nor beast. chickadee. When the wind is in the north. barn-swallow. Baltimore oriole. thrushes. good Familiar Birds The scout boy may also train his powers of observation and his woodcraft instincts by studying birds and carrying this study as far as possible. table of information regarding habits and season of residence will serve as a starting-point. Sparrows. When the wind is in the west.CAMPING AND SCOUTING A storm that comes against the wind East wind brings rain. humming-bird. North wind brings cold. Low TREE OR THE LOWER PART OF TREES. and any The following good bird book is will furnish a wider knowledge. is always a thunder-storm. mocking326 .

Woodpecker. nighthawk. BIRDS SEEN FEEDING ON THE GROUND. sparrow. This may be observed around any over. kingfisher. chewink. There are the permanent residents. Before an early winter the birds will be seen leaving much sooner than when there is a late fall. Thrushes. lish Bluebird. wrens. crow. and autumn migrants always of and November). Robin. of thickets found near salt water. Crow. In this latter class will be found bobolinks. summer residents (between April only. bird residents at different seasons of the year. blackbird.sparrows. It will also be interesting to make a list of the kingbirds. They always fly Vlonger than the other. fair storm and return after When . and birds that sing on the wing. warbler. with one arm of the One V constantly changing as he becomes tired. The scout boy may also find birds of the field. eagle. of meadow and the roadside and fences. BIRDS OF THE WOODS. song. BIRDS OF GARDEN AND ORCHARD.TRAINING IN SEEING CLEARLY BIRDS OF TREE-TRUNKS. woodpeckers. robin. the winter residents and visitors. The shaped. I have seen the small birds leader is who live along the sea-coast it is all disappear just before a big weather is due sea-gulls always fly high. interest. near streams and ponds. wren. and with bad weather imminent they always fly low. of marshes and boggy meadows. of the earliest signs of spring is the geese flying Boys should watch for that. BIRDS THAT CHOOSE CONSPICUOUS PERCHES. spring The dates of migration are north. Eng- song-sparrow. meadow-larks.

Caroline K. provides these means of identification. or their dwelling-place or habitat. by months In the case of trees. In popular books. trees. Whenever it is possible. in the loiw A bird whose nest is built bushes will always run. 2 Mr. flowers of A summer camp life are classified in three different 1 ways by their color.CAMPING AND SCOUTING seaport town. on the approach of a stranger. or according to their of blossoming. on the ground or away from the nest Flowers and Trees should add greatly to a boy's knowledge of flowers and trees. Creevey. the leaves and the bark and the habitat may be taken as guides. the character of the needles or cones should be carefully observed. In the case of evergreen trees. . familiar animal and fishes should be included in the camp outfit. by Mrs. life. as distinguished from the deciduous or trees whose the autumn. leaves fall off in 2 good popular books on flowers. although somewhat bulky and expensive. calling. all Harper's Guide to Wild Flowers. Romeyn Beck Hough's Trees of Eastern North America is an 1 admirable book.

oilcloth. To STEADY PAILS. scout boy often carries two pails A through the woods over rough paths and is annoyed by the This may be prevented by pails knocking against his legs. and place the fully near and covered over. one of padding. If ice is placed in one corner of this. it will keep butter or milk very If. Stuff with hay. cold. making it into a hoop and laying the . place the box in a sheltered place where the wind will not blow over it. it is desired to keep the food warm while absent from camp a considerable time. or if it is put near a stream.Chapter XXVI HINTS FOR CAMPERS AND SCOUTS How warm or cold TO KEEP FOOD WARM OR COLD. egg will sink to the bottom. steaming hot its sides. which may or may not have a straw food. taking a willow switch. FRESH OR STALE EGGS. it will come to the top. tack burlap. on the other hand. Food may be kept by an improvised heater or ice-box. or heavy sheeting around the inside and over the bottom. Take an ordinary wooden box the size desired. if stale. is To determine whether or not an If fresh. it fresh drop it into a bowl of cold water. careThere should be a top for this improvised box.

gether so that they will form a triangle. This road may be readily seen by placing the ear to a railtrack. WARNING OF THE APPROACH OF AN ENEMY. Take a sight over the long side of the triangle. slice the top from an onion. POST-CARDS IN THE WOODS. 330 The vibra- . If he desires ink and has none at hand. The boy standing inside will thus be saved this annoyance. The distance from the triangle to the base of the tree If the distance between the will be approximately its height. arrange the triangle so that the perpendicular side will face the tree. stick one blade open into the ground and place the ear to the other. To MEASURE A TREE'S HEIGHT. upright side of the triangle twice as long as the other two. It will be necessary to apply heat to the surface of this card Nail three sticks to- in order to make it legible. dip the pen in the onion juice and write with it. To determine if men or horses are approaching. moving its base backward or with the sight taken. two blades of a knife (straight out). An approaching train may be heard several miles away. Carry this out some distance from the foot of the tree. A piece of birch bark makes a very good post-card. and. lying down on the ground. one side having an Have the stick that forms the angle of forty-five degrees. Every one knows that the ground will transmit sound better than the air. The scout boy away from home may make post-cards or stationery. and if stamped with a penny stamp may be sent anywhere in the United States as readily as the regular post-card. forward until the top of the tree falls into line ground and the triangle is added it will be more accurate.CAMPING AND SCOUTING hoop on top of the pails.

Choose a hard spot of earth for this. In coming out of the woods into a field or clearing where crows are feeding there will be found one who is acting as while the rest feed. He will warn will all fly directly toward them and calling loudly. muddy will denote something TRAIL MARKS. In the woods listen for the cracking of dry branches. A clear stream suddenly becoming farther up-stream. on a clear day. Crows flying about excitedly and calling always indicate the presence of something unusual. enemy may be concealed in the The dropping of nuts or bark. or the unusual rustling of leaves. may also be done by placing the ear directly to the ground. or bending and swaying of branches will give warning. In tracking in Indian or war games. indicate that some one has been wading. away from the danger. The habits of birds and squirrels may be observed in the rest by flying They party make parks The excited chattering of squirrels tells of the presence of some one. .HINTS FOR CAMPERS AND SCOUTS warn the scout boy of approaching men or horses. screwdriver Do not forget that the trees above. the snapping of twigs. If a scout suspects that their own camp is watched. In going through the woods a scout boy. no one has passed within twenty minutes. turtles are sunning themselves is dry. A file or lions will This may be stuck into the earth for this purpose. circle and a smoke away from camp. or a boat or canoe has just passed. if a spot where mudas a start in woodcraft. A wet place an inch or so high on a rock will. If you suspect the presence of outpost an enemy observe closely this crow outpost.

their toes are dug more deeply into the ground. but the stride longer. In a trot or walk the tracks are similar. moving rapidly. It is important to know how 332 . A man wearing moccasins strides farther than one wearing shoes. and the off (right) forefoot similarly just behind the print of the off hindfoot. prints the near (left) hindfoot being placed in front of the near forefoot (right). more deeply into the The tracks are more than a yard apart. yard. may leave directions for his friends to follow by tying knots in weeds and bending them to the right or to the left. or directly ahead. A man in walking puts the whole flat of his Each track will be a little less than a foot on the ground. according to the direc- tion in which he desires his friends to follow. they kick up the dirt. and their paces In walking. WAVY LINES in earth or sand drawn with a stick were used by the Indians as a sign of water.CAMPING AND SCOUTING in a general way. There are several instances in history where women and children left such directions after having been captured by the Indians. FOOTPRINTS. The hindfeet of a horse are generally longer and narrower than the forefeet. the toes are dug ground and a little dirt is kicked up. TRACKING OR TRAILING. they broke or bent twigs or foliage pointing in the direction . In running. in which they were going. is At a canter the two front tracks are wide apart and the two hind tracks are together. If a scout attempts to deceive you by walking backward it can generally be determined by noticing if the stride is shorter. a horse makes two pairs of hoofare longer. the toes turned in. If animals are and the heels deeply impressed.

do it against the sun if possible. It is good practice to watch each day the hoof-prints of the grocer's or postman's horse and see if at last they can be This may be practised distinguished from other horses. would not stop to cook or bake bread or biscuits) the way in which canned goods have been opened will denote haste . observing a cat's tracks It in snow or human and animal tracks in mud and dust. scout boy can practise tracking by observing for several days running the difference in a track one day old. whether or not it has been rained upon. that one may study daily at home. or leisure . the number of seeds or leaves that have blown over it. lose a track always immediately retrace Don't attempt to find it either to the left or to the right. In tracking a difficult trail. Information may be gained from the ashes of fires whether they are still warm or cold from the scraps showing the kind of food the people were eating (men in a hurry is . two A days old. In throwing a pursuer off the trail. Try a lame one. made in the same place. with dogs. one may climb a tree. very interesting to observe this. Walking in the bed of . If you your steps. This may be determined to a very large extent by the freshness of the earth. and three days old. walk out on a limb and drop off. the manner of constructing a fireplace might also determine a party's haste or leisure. so that the slightest dent in the ground will show a shadow. and whether the trodden grass is dry or withered from having been destroyed a considerable This following and studying of tracks is something time.HINTS FOR CAMPERS AND SCOUTS long since the tracks were made.

This will give them a fine pink color and will prolong their life. Feed angleworms with the white of a hard-boiled egg. If walking in a country road. emerge to the roadway again and make another track. to the surface. enter the woods. Fish will live longer if carried in a sack rather than on a string.CAMPING AND SCOUTING streams (either dry or with water in them) walking on logs. then. then a confused crisscross running track. are also useful methods. A piece of onion is still better. leave a broad. retrace your steps for five or six hundred yards. Do not eat snow. you may shortly escape. Keep under cover and they will pass you. Thirst may be little. plainly marked track in the dust. for fifteen or twenty feet then sud. backward and forward. attract fish to a certain vicinity suspend fly-blown meats over the hole and let the live maggots drop continually in the water. To 334 . knowing their manoeuvres. Always dig for worms after a heavy rain. suddenly repeating the manoeuvre of leaping to one side. retrace your steps until you hear the pursuing party. Odd Notes A scout boy may dry his wet boots after a day's trailing by pouring heated oats into them. being careful not to disturb the bark. drink but gargle the throat and mouth frequently. denly jump as far as possible to the grass at one side. and. . They then come in the ing. allayed by carrying a non-absorbing pebble In tramp- mouth.


Don't have your hooks or
smaller one.

are fine for trout-fishing in the early spring. flies too large. Always choose the

Somesuccessful, look over your tackle. be wrong. Don't always blame the fish. thing may Cast near the edge of weeds, lily pads, etc., for bass and

you are not

You will always find fish in the most difficult place to get at. Go to a little trouble and be convinced. You can catch frogs at night by turning a bright light on them. They will not jump away, and you can pick them
up in your hand. Never let the fish observe you; always hide in some way. If you get wet keep moving and you will be all right. Trout generally refuse to bite in cold weather and during

hot weather the best time


in the early

morning or evening.



between the eyes to kill them. drop of sweet cicely, anise, or asafoetida on your bait

will attract the fish.
If you wish to make a cot in camp, before you leave have your tent-maker take a piece of canvas 3! x 6J feet, and have him sew a double- stitched hem about six inches wide on the long sides. When you get to camp drive four forked

sticks into the ground.

Brace them


Then cut two

three-inch saplings about a foot longer than the canvas. Trim these and run through the loops. Rest the ends in the

and you


have a cot that





than most cots sold at the present time. Another way: Use a gunny-sack by cutting out the closed ends and slip it over the poles. If you do not have an oppor22


tunity to cut the forked stakes, lay the poles over two logs. Cut notches in the logs to keep the canvas tight. These
plans are sometimes useful in a wet ground. The poncho placed over the cot thus improvised is a decided help. Remember when sleeping on cots to always put as much

under as over one.


It is often

very important

interesting for scout boys to signal.

They may do


from their home roofs by wigwagging flags, the code of which is very easy to learn, or by a prearranged series of signals.
In the field, signs may be made during daylight by the Indian smoke signals. This may be accomplished by building a smudge fire and waving over it a blanket, the number 336

of puffs going

up having been previously arranged

for cer-

tain meanings.

The code may be something as follows: One smoke column, ''Come here." Two smoke columns, ''I am lost. Help!" Three smoke columns, "We are going forward."
Four smoke columns, "We are returning to camp." Signals may he made at night by bonfires, rockets, or
waving lanterns. It is very interesting to practise this from hilltops around the camp. ON BEING LOST IN THE WOODS. All men who have had any experience in the woods agree that the first thing to do when lost is to stop at once, sit down, and calmly think it over. They also agree that any one may become lost. It is pretty sure that a boy who is going to do much camping in the woods will at some time or other become confused and lost. There is hardly ever any real danger unless the boy gets frightened and loses his "nerve" completely. Keep cool and try to recall all the landmarks and points that have been Think at what hour camp was left and how passed. steadily travel has been pursued, and about how much dispossible, any cross-trails, and kinds of trees. Have the fir and pine trees changed to hard wood? Has the virgin growth disappeared and a burnt -over strip or second growth of low bushes and alders taken its place? Has a clearing been passed, a camp or old logging road, and when and where and how long ago did it occur? Were the sun's shadows long or short when the camp was left? Was it shining in your face during most of the tramp? On your

tance has been covered.



streams, bodies of water,

Consider calmly all these things right or left side ? see if some clearer idea cannot be arrived at.

and then


thought over all points that may throw any light on the situation, climb a tree on some elevation and look carefully


These are some ways of determining directions and holding a course in the woods that may be found interesting and Of course the general east and west may be dehelpful. termined by the sun on bright days. To DETERMINE DIRECTIONS BY A WATCH. Point the hour


at the

o'clock will be south.

sun and half-way between that and twelve This is reversed below the equator.

In a general way, north may be determined by the thicker bark on that side of a tree. The boughs are thicker on the south side, but this is only general and not very reliable, The same is particularly when a boy is confused or lost. true of the fact that moss grows thicker on the north side
(This may also vary in regions where wind blows usually from other directions.) On a cloudy day, to find the direction of the sun, hold a
of rocks.

knife-blade perpendicular to a piece of paper or a watch,


a faint shadow will be cast.

A stream is usually a great help in finding the way out of the woods, for of course it must bring the scout boy out somewhere! If a stream-bed is dry its direction can be determined by carefully examining sticks and dry grass to denote which way they point. Confusion may often result in following a winding stream
or on coming to the forks of a river.

remember being

lost in

Canada and getting a great


It was about two hundred miles north of the St. Lawrence and on the headwaters of the Rouge River. I had left the Indians, and was crossing, the country, following A wide swamp intervened and I made the river going south: a detour to get around it, and in floundering about finally became confused, but, struggling on, arrived at the river


banks, only to find the river flowing in the opposite direction

from that in which it had been running when I left it. I at once thought that instead of travelling toward Montreal and home I was going toward Hudson Bay and starvation. What actually had occurred was that I had cut through from one side of a V-shaped bend to another. I left the
river running

down one

side of the


again running up the other side. and stick to the stream.


and came upon it beware of wandering

following up any moderately sized river, forks are arrived at, the main stream can be determined by w^atching closely the currents or distance.


by following each one
in the

for a short

On most New England mountains and
cairns are built of rocks

are con-

above the tree




by placing two or more rocks on top

of each other.

many places scratches on the rocks will be the guide. Blazes are scars cut in trees for marking a way. They are

always cut high enough to be above the snow line. Mr. Horace Kephart tells us that he has noticed in threefeathery top, the topmost little branch, of a towering pine or hemlock points toward the that is to say, a little south of east." rising sun
quarters of the cases,


The bush and old

trees are thickest

on the north


and the


rings as seen in transverse sections of a tree are This was thickest on the north side almost invariably.

by the New York State Forest Commission among the black spruce in the Adirondacks, and the following interesting table was presented after an examination of seven hundred trees:
Northeast East

81 106





Total north and east .658


Southwest Northwest
Total west and south
. . .

6 8




however, the


spend the night. dling enough, make a fireplace, a wind-break, and prepare to The firing of two shots in the woods, or wo settle down. columns of smoke, is always supposed to be a signal of disThe- smoke signals may be made by throwing green tress. Build them far enough leaves or boughs on a brisk fire. will not mingle and be confused. After apart so that they making the signals keep a good fire and wait for assistance.

out cannot be found, make plans to Before it gets dark cut wood and kin-


a horse or a good dog


with you, leave


to them.



always come out. Of course a compass


a great help, and will eventually

bring one out if used intelligently. The way to do this is to fix on some distant point and get its direction as exactly

Then follow this line until this point is when another point must be selected. The reason reached, for this is that in the woods a winding tortuous course must " be taken, and what the sailors term lee way" is made.


while going in a general direction, merely following the compass, no direct line will be adhered to unless some


is picked out by the new scout boy to be ''steered" In handling a compass always get a good one and rest

it level.

At night the north may be determined by following the
north or pole star. This may be located by remembering that the two stars forming the front of the bowl of the dipper
point due north.

To sum up what

Stop at once. be recalled as having been passed. Climb a tree or elevation and see
Recall the
direction as laid

do when lost or confused: Think over calmly all the points that can


of these can be

means of determining and following any given down here.
that the waterways will bring one out, or a


good dog or horse will always find a

way home.



familiar Morse code of dots

THE to many other purposes than those of the telegraph. ed
It is

and dashes has been adapt-

used in heliographing long and short flashes from a It has been utilized for signalling with smoke and for taps on any hard surface, and for communication by fire, locomotive whistles, a method used by Thomas A Edison

when a boy, according
in his Electricity

to a story told

by Mr.


H. Adams,


Book for Boys. The complete Morse alphabet

as follows:











(Dakota.SIGNALLING AND SIGN LANGUAGE The sign language of our North American Indians is one of endless variety and infinite interest.) Hold the closed right hand at the height of the elbow Bear. before the right side." (Kaiowa. with Sign Language Among North American Indians. place the left near the breast. then push the hand forward several times. and spring open the fingers. then throw the hand downward and outward toward the right to arm's-length. Garrick Mallery. resting the tips against the thumb. open left * pains. Wichita. Bad. and move the right over the left toward the left side. back up. at some disChief. Apache. of tribes using these gestures and of some students of the subject who have made reports are added: ling with fires and by 1 In the sense of one thing above another. (Wied. then place the left hand. pointing upward.) Brave. Ache. by Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. Point toward the zenith with the index finger of the closed right hand. Bring the hand. Hold the open right hand several inches above the left hand (the distance depending upon the degree of height to be The fingers of the right hand are extended in a represented). It includes signaland smoke. In the sense of above the earth. Ponka. Pani. 1 Col. and by waving blankets or robes. Close the fingers of the right hand. Close the fists. direction perpendicular to that of the fingers of the left hand. "Paw and long claws. Comanche. palm downward. . in front of and a little to the left of the body. then move the hand sharply in several different directions to symbolize the darting Above. tance before the right shoulder. 1879-80. Bring the extended finger of the closed right hand over and parallel to the afflicted portion of the body. riding horses in various directions and at various Here are some examples of talking with the hands paces.) Place the extended index. extend and curve the thumb and little finger so that their tips are nearly directed toward one another before the knuckles of the closed ringers. The names taken from Colonel Mallery's exhaustive study.

CAMPING AND SCOUTING BRAVE CHIEF . back upward.) Place the tips of the fingers of both hands together in Tepee. (Dakota.) Place the extended and separated index and second Horse. describes with the arm a horizontal curve outward.) Log House. Superior to others. just back of the index then in passing the index upward as high as the head. (Dunbar. with the wrists some distance apart. 344 . as if screwing something. Partly fold the hands.) House or Lodge.) Good. front of the breast. The hand half open and the forefinger extended and separated. The hand held horizontally. Arikara. fingers and thumb extended and separated. then raise the hand upward and give it a half turn. (Absa- roka. (Arapaho. (Long. the fingers extended in imitation of the corner of an ordinary log house. draw the left hand downward a short distance.

outward. (Dunbar. and depressed. The hand held up before the face.) Large or Many.SIGNALLING AND SIGN LANGUAGE fingers of the right hand astraddle of the extended forefinger of the left. (Long. Little or nothing is signified by passing one hand over the other. as in the act of chopping. and the palm SOLDIER YES HORSE . The hands are held with the edge upward. (Dunbar. This sign seems to be more particularly applicable to convey the idea of death produced by a blow of the tomahawk or war-club. which is repeated in proportion to the greater or lesser quantity.) The hand held up with the thumb near the face. (Dunbar. and the right hand strikes the other transversely. Ojibwa. (Creel.) Motion of rubbing out. The flat of the right hand patting the back of the left hand.) Nothing.) The palm of the hand upward and carried circularly Question.) No. with the palm outward and vibrated to and fro. Kill. Not. (Macgowan.

thumbs Soldier. separate them about two feet horizontally on the same line. the breast or shoulder. Wichita. at the same time carrying the left hand to front. palms forward.) Place the radial sides of the clenched hands together before the " " All in a line. and slowly for large ones. P. Hamersley & Co.. Move the hand several inches to front 1 L. who has included in his book many interesting comparisons with the sign language of deaf mutes: 1 Bird. 346 . others and thumb closed.) Strike the back of the extended index Trade. R. in front of body.) certainty. leaving the index and thumb extended. bringing the index against the inner side of the thumb. S. palm outward. American. by W. then draw them horizontally apart. (Cheyenne. Wolf.) Here are a few explanations of sign language which are based upon the comprehensive studies of W. Clark. (Dakota. The upright nearly closed hands. being in front of the body. Move the right hand to the rear a few inches. (Dakota. Clark. separated. Bring the open hands. then rotated upon the wrist two or three times edgewise. 1885. palms outward. near right shoulder. against the middle of the forefingers. Then bring left to rear and right to front and repeat. U. lower edges a few inches apart. with their thumbs near together. at a right angle against the radial side of the extended forefinger of the left hand. to denote un(Long.CAMPING AND SCOUTING directed toward the person of whom the inquiry is made.) Hold the naturally closed hand before the right side of Yes. or a wagon. in front of the shoulders. backs downward. Philadelphia. (Dakota. The hands are in the same horizontal plane. Conception: wings. Move them simultaneously to the front and downward repeat motion several times. Barter. The Indian Sign Language. and pointing upward. first and second fingers extended. A. chest. P. Hold the extended hands. then throw the hand downward. Hold the right hand. Suggestion of tepee-poles dragging. Exchange. All in a line in front. Ankara. birds. Comanche. rapidly for small . Trail.

return to civilized sign language.SIGNALLING AND SIGN LANGUAGE and slightly upward. well in front of body at height of mouth. Bring right hand. Wigwagging may be practised with the aid of the alphabet and instructions given in the signal corps manual of the United States Army. The first and second fingers are extended. one form of military To signalling by waving flags. receives of much attention among the Boy Scouts England. the other fingers and thumb being closed. Mostly by wrist action. so that extended fingers point to front and upward. turning the hand a little. Make sign for Wolf. back upward. to the left. and with colored electric lights at night. Scout (To). and point to the front. which is familiarly called wig- wagging. . turn the hand so that these fingerc will point to the right. At sea signalling is done with different arrangements of parti-colored flags or semaphores in the daytime. separated. and downward.




vigor. the Cats- and the Adirondacks contain hundreds of lofty out- only be attained with a proper amount of stimulating effort. unknown to fame except among the .Chapter XXVIII MOUNTAINEERING AS A SPORT outdoor sports that are steadily gaining must be included mountain . steadied the nerves. and there are few forms of exercise which develop the physical powers as quickly and beneficially as the effort of climbing in pure. which brain. and clears the The White Mountains. the Alleghanies.climbing. in order to enjoy this exhilarating sport. There are few things enjoyment which drive the clouds from a wearied mind as does a farextending view from a mountain-peak. in It A^IONG popularity mental stimulus. or even to our own Rockies. light air. and a high order of for both body and mind. or to travel in Mexico or to the Alps. strengthens the muscles. looks which can In the White Mountains I of the remember an unpretentious peak on the southern edge White Mountains. and which present views of the lower world so broad and unfamiliar that they have the effect of an inspiration. kills. It is not necessary to seek very lofty or difficult summits. offers health.

was situated near the southern border of the Adirondack region. only some two thousand feet above there opened before my astonished and fascinated eyes a vision of tumbled mountains on one side. and probably has been influential in later years in leading me I to the top of cele- brated mountains in distant lands. I which. It was an event in my early life. Even yet the remembrance of my first climb comes back to me like a scene out of Swiss Family Robinson. had been longingly fixed dver since a quaint old hunter had fired my imagination with stories of its incredible steepness and height. When I reached sea-level. and armed with a pocketpistol. with a single excepever climbed. summit.CAMPING AND SCOUTING farmers and villagers at its tion. and the peak that I assailed. and a rifle borrowed from a descendant of the celebrated trapper Nick Stoner a rifle that carried an egg-shaped I started bullet. the like of which I have never seen since one day for the peak. old. and green plains glittering with winding lakes on the other a view so apparently illimitable and so wonderful in the diversity and strangeness of its elements that I seemed to have dropped upon another world. was fourteen years and on which my mind An Adirondack Adventure Attended by one companion. which was locally known as the Pin* ' 352 . was the first mountain its feet. I doubt if such a variety of pleasing recollections crowds into the mind of the devotee of any other form of sport as that which illumines the memory of the amateur mountainclimber when he sits by his winter fire and cons over his adventures.

and notwithstanding the a few minutes I realized. and I struggled desperately in the deepening gloom." so remote A SPORT and was was nearly It rose in the outskirts of the wilderness. hands were cut by the sharp edges of rocks. On one side lay the wilderness. where nothing could be clearly distinguished. now on my knees. but the climbing soon became so stiff that he had all he could do to pull himself up without aiding me.MOUNTAINEERING AS nacle. collecting a heap of dead branches. and there we made a bed of pine twigs. I am certain / didn't carry it. a great dark gulf beneath us. and which seemed to stretch my . a few yards down. and unhitching our weary horse found him a comfortable lodging for the night. with a thrill of excitement. and occasionally swinging by my arms from roots or branches projecting over the edge of a miniature precipice. that the slopes of the magic peak which had so mastered my fancy were actually under my feet and rapidly lifting me skyward. but we found a comparatively open place in an angle of rocks on one side. My companion was much older than I. helping myself up with the aid of trees and undergrowth. and the jagged points of broken pine and hemlock limbs made havoc with my clothing. My face was scratched with invisible brambles. Stunted evergreen-trees covered the top of the mountain. and. in gathering darkness. soon had a roaring fire at our feet. now on all-fours. It was pitch-dark long before we reached the summit. How we managed to get the heavy rifle up I don't remember. from the nearest settlement that it my companion and I arrived at a pioneer's nightfall barn by the foot of the mountain. when Then we struck into the woods. as I stumbled over the broken rocks.

" we 354 . the open country began. for descent. In the opposite direction. we fell asleep. tearing our clothes and our skin. Down this we went. but none appeared.CAMPING AND SCOUTING away without boundaries. and kept on the qui vive for dangerous enemies. far away the glimmering lights In an hour the moon rose and shed a faint With the pistol grasped in hand and the rifle lying between us. which seemed to our inexperience truly frightful. soon manifested itself in the evident fact we had lost our way. We had brought our breakfast in our pockets. From among its trees the cries of wild animals came up to our ears. we came upon the dizzy brow of a precipice which length was too smooth to afford any foothold. Involved in a "windfall. Near the foot of the mountain we came upon unmistakable traces of the presence of bears. But unwittingly we had chosen the worst possible place illumination over the scene. and we searched anxiously for a place where descent could be made. and after it was disposed of we started to descend the mountain on another side. but glad of even this chance to escape from our difficulty. Another danIn a few minutes cliffs ger. The cliffs towering behind seemed to forbid return. and my I never slept more soundly. that however. Fortune directed us to a dead pine which had fallen against the face of the precipice and remained leaning there. In the morning the wilderness was like a green ocean surrounding our island peak. we were involved among and headlong pitches of the mountainperpendicular At side. attracted by a lake that we had noticed shining in the light of the moon. at and we could distinguish of a settlement. a distance of a few miles.

need not necessarily be faced. The ascent of Mount Washington. although somewhat trying on unpractised muscles. This time. But when we approached the latter we found it was surrounded with swamps. which prevented us from reaching the shore. Mount Lafayette. aptaineering in its simpler forms. we were steering that the right way. after the manner of Natty Bumpo. and when Mount Washington is enveloped in driving clouds.MOUNTAINEERING AS A SPORT struggled desperately with the tangled mass of broken branches and upturned roots. by climbing a tree and taking a look around. for grandeur and dramatic effect. it often presents views which. and when we came upon a hunters' or loggers' trail all our difficulties blended into the single one of tramping for a few hours without food on a path that was wearisomely long. that attended proaching my first climb. and we had to turn in another direction. . without knowing it. until. are not much inferior to the most famous spectacles of the high Alps. it is inspiring in a high degree. culty. Mount Monroe. after spending the greater part of the forenoon in advancing perhaps half a mile. but which led out of the wilderness. and other well-known peaks in New Hampshire. From our observing tree a vista fortunately opened in the direction of the lake. or lashed by a gale spitting hail and snow. in some instances toward peril. Mount Adams. I have recalled this youthful adventure as an example which shows how near at hand lie the fields in which the amateur may learn at least some of the elements of mounBut the difficulties. Mount Jefferson. we got our bearings. presents no danger and no real diffiOn the other hand.

but. G. on the contrary.CAMPING AND SCOUTING For climbs like those that the mountains of the Atlantic seaboard afford. a strong ironstrong but not cumbrous clothing. and hired saddle-horses and a really The expedition 356 . Stout shoes studded with iron nails. standing at the head of Puget Sound. There we laid in a stock of provisions. Indeed. of muscle come of themselves after a little practice. without the slightest discomfort. Within a week we ascended Mount Adams again. and looking down upon the Many years ago I started one city that bears its name. containing Crater Lake. shod staff. F. no such elaborate outfits and no such preliminary training as Alpine climbing calls for are needed. The first climbed Mount the entire Presidential range. and a pack a small supply of food are the principal necescontaining The increased breathing-power and the elasticity saries. with that sense of physical power which is popularly said to "make a new man" or Rainier of one. of course." and a companion with me was made sick by his exertions. Mount Tacoma There is one of our Western mountains. began at a mining settlement near the base of the mountain. day from the city of Tacoma to visit an enormous cavity in the side of the mountain. whose vast snow- clad form rises with a peculiar fascination before my mind's eye as I write Mount Tacoma (Mount Rainier). and then tramped over the top of stimulus. Plummer and two other gentlemen from Colonel Tacoma accompanied me. in this respect the mountains possess an almost magical time I Adams I was almost "tuckered out.

to boil coffee MOUNT RAINIER The Here I first fording of the experience that smacked of adventure was the Carbon River. swollen with recent rains. and stopping at noon to make a and fry bacon. Within five minutes from forest that clothes all the lower the start the immense Mount Tacoma had swallowed us up. learned to appreciate the surefootedness and intelliI rode. gence of the gray pony that The yellow water was . A SPORT mountain slopes of rode. All day we gradually ascending.MOUNTAINEERING AS pack-pony. fire trail Early the next morning we started out on a toward the peak.

I could sympathize then with the feelings of the cowboy who. watched our pectors. The horses of the other members of the party in their greater had a slight height. and raising herself and me after every stumble in a manner that was truly wonderful. for in places large rocks rose nearly to the surface.CAMPING AND SCOUTING rushing angrily between its banks. dripping on the opposite bank I could not help uttering an exultant shout. and I expected every moment to find my horse down and myself swept away by the angry current. cannot restrain the tendency to "let himself out" with a yell. I believe there would not have been one chance in a hundred for us to reach shore. bracing her body against the push of the rushing water. turning aside when her knees struck an invisible rock. but they did advantage not make a more creditable crossing than that of the little weight and gray. and round Two prosthese the water whirled with dizzying speed. If I And as apparently the pony knew the danger just as well I did. on the bank of the stream. But the pony. seemed to feel her way over the rough bottom. with ears pricked. Once down. encamped attempt with breathless interest. The water swirled around the saddle-flaps. and of course the bottom could not be seen. 358 . But we knew it was rough with boulders. The moment we entered the water my gray plunged had thought of the possibility of keeping my feet dry I instantly abandoned the idea now. with a good horse When we emerged beneath him and perils left behind. up to her throat. They were prudently little awaiting the subsidence of the river.

In the middle of the night a sprinkling in my face awoke me. I found the fire sputtering. For the rest we trusted the fire. made a hasty When day broke it was raining fast. where progress with horses seemed impossible. whose trunk was eight or ten feet thick. Our camp-fire roared near the foot of a Douglas spruce. wistfully poking their noses toward the light and warmth of the fire. The same immense trees yet surrounded us: And now I had reason to admire Occastill more the agility and intelligence of my pony. got into a tangle of fallen timber. were standing in a circle around the camp. Our horses. and we piled more wood on the embers. fanned up the flames. which had been turned loose. saddled our horses. I awoke the others.MOUNTAINEERING AS A SPORT In a Wonderful Forest At nightfall we encamped beside an ice-cold rivulet. We had ridden the entire day an unbroken forest of such trees. and stretched rain the canvas of a small tent across short poles to keep the from our faces. many of which through were still larger than this specimen. under the roof of the grandest forest I have ever seen. and a fine rain falling through the thick branches overhead. towering straight as marble of at least columns. high above our heads one hundred feet above the ground together with about the innumerable great trunks. breakfast. and quickly found ourselves ascending a main spur of the mountain. and which rose to a height two hundred feet. with me on her sionally We we . The first time this occurred the little gray astonished me by leaping. produced an indescribable sense of spaciousness. and their canopy of the first branches appearing leaves.

shoot to the botfeat 360 . until she had extricated herself from the maze. over the obstructions. cut perhaps an inch into the hard white surface and gave her a grip which she lost only once. but it seemed too late to stop. the utmost confidence in her. judged by the eye. without shoes. and fried our bacon at a fire built on the snow. in which we soon melted a large hole. She carried me up slopes as steep as a barn roof. There seemed to be nothing that she could not do. horse and man. although it was the beginning of July. and so close along the verge of precipices that my outer I had learned stirrup appeared to project over the edge. and safer now to go on. Here my pony performed a which threw her preceding exploits into the shade.CAMPING AND SCOUTING back. but the gray no sooner approached the slope than. she sprang upon it and began to cross. We ascended on the back of the cliffs arrived near Crater When we overhanging the lake to an elevation of sohie six thousand feet. without waiting for me to dismount. When my friends saw her slip on that occasion they expected to behold us both. and gave her her to place head in all difficult places. Colonel Plummer shouted a warning. Midsummer Snowbanks Lake we found ourselves travelling over enormous snowbanks. The pony's shapely little hoofs. The others dismounted and carefully led their horses across. In order to reach a point near the rim of the crater-like depression in which the lake lay it was necessary to cross a broad slope of hard snow which. lay at an angle of at least forty-five degrees.

with the utmost sangfroid. began to rain again. hundreds of feet below. But the quickwitted animal caught another hold before her flank touched the snow. she carried me across the remainder of the incline without an accident.MOUNTAINEERING AS A SPORT torn of the slope. MISQUALLY GLACIER. Regaining our camp . On our return down the mountain and we were soon wet to the skin. and then. MOUNT RAINIER and accepted a lump of sugar from our small store as ample it reward for her dexterity.

I was wearied nearly to exhaustion with 362 . I was once caught in a snow hurricane near the summit of Mont Blanc. enough to light a fire. and placing the open end of the tent next to the fire. wrapped ourselves in blankets. . and. and as close as prudence allowed. and the blood is invigorated to such a degree that the body more effectually resists a chill.CAMPING AND SCOUTING we found it necessary to split open the largest dead timber we could find in order to obtain wood dry at nightfall. But in the morning not one of us had a stiff joint or a touch of pain. all ordinary physical ills seem to be more easily borne and overcome on the mountains. My shoes were so thoroughly soaked that sea-level. and was compelled to pass thirtysix hours in a rough refuge-hut nearly 15. In fact. Our tent was too light effectually to keep off the rain. You don't catch cold " among them as you do in the heavy. lying down amid the wet. The Health-giving Mountains And this illustrates another peculiarity of the mountains which adds largely to their charm. we dried our boots. in the when I pulled them off the leather in a little while appeared to freeze solid. slept soundly Anywhere else I should have expected of such an experience with a well-developed to come out case of lumbago or rheumatism. surcharged air of the lowlands. bare to its ribs. Evaporation goes on more quickly in light air. but we succeeded in making a roaring blaze in the hollow left by the roots of an upturned giant tree. in its wildest almost seemed capable of stripping the mountain moments.000 feet above ' ' midst of a tempest which.

or to attack lofty and formidable peaks. AN ALPINE PILGRIMS' PROGRESS I immediately entered upon a period of bodily health and t vigor. We had no fire. as I remarked at the beginning. it is by no means necessary to travel far. or to undergo great fatigue and the perils of snow and ice in order to enjoy many eering. . battling against the storm every element for the foundation of a lifelong infirmity seemed to be present and yet when the storm cleared. are and. of necessity. and. after a few hours. Yet.MOUNTAINEERING AS A SPORT and seeking a refuge through the blinding. their immediate . and we glissaded down the great white slopes to Chamonix. which was as fine as bird-shot. and as hard. driving snow. high. A mountain that lifts of the delights of mountainits head a mile above sea- level affords a four miles much finer view than do summits three or From the greater heights all detail is lost. no food.

Here is a world of pleasure and health lying open to any one of sturdy heart who chooses to march to its conquest with a strong stick and a stout pair of shoes. while the precipices of the Matterhorn. in the Sierra and the sharp pinnacle of the its peak Nevada of Spain. to crawl groaning and hissing over its bottom. interest which arise from the In my own experience. with distant glimpses of the crimson towers of the Alhambra on one side and the blue expanse of the Mediterranean on the other.CAMPING AND SCOUTING and lacking the charm and marks of human occupation. . are treasures of the memory more yet not less pleasing is attained but quite as stimulant joys that are offered by the precious than gold the recollection of the more easily near-by mountains of New York and New England. with weird shapes of fire appearing. the ice-cliffs of Mont Blanc. of Veleta. the immense crater of Etna looked into at night.



There is. and their days are filled with wholesome tasks. too. the girls are shielded from stress of weather. perhaps is one of the distinct advances in the last dozen years of scientific interest in the welfare of our young people. at the outset an objection to face: " that girls are not physically adapted for roughing it. In these camps the rough work is done by servants and experienced guides. but armed against emergencies. and brought into sym- ." and that the very ones most in need of the out-of-door freedom are those whose strength is not sufficient for some of the of out-of-door life This is most cermeet this condition that the many private camps for girls have been organized during the last few years. some of the hardships involved. it is tainly true. and that they are beneeven more than their less restricted brothers. why not for girls? Why IF should not fited they. so planned as gradually to build up both the and the skill of the young campers. made self-reliant and resourceful. of course. and to activities. so that by the strength end of the season they are not only fitted more thoroughly to enjoy the out-of-doors.Chapter CAMPING FOR GIRLS camping is good for boys. inherit the sound wholesomeness ? That they do.

A The day for time is Day's Program ordinarily begins at six-forty-rive with reveille. raised so that the cold school.CAMPING AND SCOUTING pathy with that healthful simplicity to which too many of our modern young girls are strangers. for the morning setting-up conducted by an experienced teacher of physical After five minutes of snappy exercise there is a training. of course. From under the khaki pure air may sweep unobstructed across the cots of the sleepers. and more gentle ablutions from the dock wise. for those for whom the cold shock is not considered bathing are." as the tent- surrounded clearing is called. race for the bathing-beach : for most successful camps are near some body of water where there is a swift cold plunge for the stronger girls. in the and tennis shoes. brown stockings. drawn from the actual experience of the writer. A half hour call is and the breakfast girls. girls tumble out with a joyous promptness that would do credit to a military tent-sides. disappear. hungry comfortable and picturesque camp costumebloomers and "middy" blouse of khaki. and in five minutes again emerge in bathing-suits. in every tent. answered by a group of rosy. drill. Pajama-clad figures scamper here and there closing the tents. to assemble on the "campus. marked by bugle-calls. but these are generally scorned for the superior attractions Facilities for of the lake. is given to the morning toilet. What all of this means how it is actually accomplished may perhaps most easily be explained by a description of the life in a typical girls' camp. 368 .

CAMPING FOR GIRLS Breakfast is eaten in the bungalow or on its wide veranda. when the folding mission tables are removed. trunks are kept under the cots. so that between meals. and a piano. well-filled bookshelves. This more or less picturesque building faces the tent-circle. guitars. and each Saturday the camp banner is is publicly awarded to the tent having the best record for the past week. or the like. three sides of the building and is partly screened in for an out-of-door dining-room. and contains the dining-room. for tentthere is work followed by military inspection which penetrates into every corner. it makes a delightful living-room and a cozy shelter during any protracted The wide veranda extends around spells of wet weather. and kitchen. serving-room. make up the camp orchestra. Tent-work is followed by a gathering at the bungalow for A counsellor in charge of music leads the morning "sing. . together with the office of the director of the camp. surrounded on three sides by screened windows. while any of the girls who play mandolins. Work and Play After breakfast a half -hour girl is is given for tent-work. Each expected to make her own bed and keep in perfect order her quarter of the tent for three girls and one Small steamercounsellor ordinarily occupy each tent. and fitted with a large stone fireplace. The dining-room is large and airy." at the piano. violins. There is a friendly rivalry in the matter of neatness. and for immediate necessities a swinging-board shelf suspended from the ridge-pole.

or girls are learning to row or paddle may go on the lake for a lesson at this time. Perhaps a fishing party is organized. After the noon dinner there follows " Here. Every one learns to swim before the in season's end. or all may gather for a class in handicrafts held on the lake shore or on the breezy veranda. Basketry. every one goes off by herself for a little breath of quietness. Singing over. the girls scatter for the morning occupations. structor in correct form in swimming. with writing materials. or a group of girls with a counsellor start for a two or three hour horseback At eleven . are some of the branches offered. book. photography. and that means bathing-hour." a peaceful period when. and there is always an inride. and each girl may choose what most appeals to her. contributed by members with a gift for making jingles. one of the very few 370 camp rules is rigidly . The beach is patrolled by counsellors in boats.thirty the bugle sounds the assembly. brass or leather work. and these are practised with an enthusiasm that reflects the camp spirit. use of the canoes is forbidden to any one who cannot make at least three hundred yards in case of emergency. The Rest-hotir rest-hour. stencilling. for beside the incentive of fun water sports for those who are expert. The unfortunate ones who must make up school or college work in the summer disappear into who the grove with the counsellors in charge of tutoring. embroidery. A tennis tournament or basket-ball practice may draw them to the courts.CAMPING AND SCOUTING There are many original camp songs and calls. or merely rug and pillow.


with various contests including both skill and fun. leading through the neighboring woods and fields. as is usually true at is during the summer. breezy -day a paper-chase may be or- enforced ganized. or hideand-seek in the elusive shadows of the grove. and a committee is appointed to attend to the all-important and wholly If an out-ofdelightful task of preparing the picnic meal. to-bed" rule and absolute quiet reigns. In the latter event. and occasionally there is a field-day. taps sound. in a considerable number of good camps 372 . a camp-fire with songs and stories. fill the interval At nine. of course. dancing and games in the bungalow. girl carries her own door play is in preparation. tennis courts are always in demand. with slight variations. means almost absolute ending. signalized by a bugle-call. share of the supper. this the time for some time The rehearsal. but after an active day in the open. Variety of Amusements This program is one that is carried out daily. On a cool. tents are blown out.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Its the quiet of "rest-hour" must be observed. freedom. or there may be a tramp to a hilltop not too far distant to make each return by twilight a possibility. the lanterns in the before bedtime. This "earlymay first seem a hardship on moonlight summer nights. and the short evening passes Sunset on the lake. six. Taps The supper bugle blows at all too quickly. she who does not fall asleep before she has had time to grumble is rarely at to be found.

of the girl alike of the energetic and the and the girl whose and whose strength gradually made equal to the demands of the active life. are less on golf or tennis. still others rely on the water sports chiefly.CAMPING FOR GIRLS every summer nowadays. And it is this variety of choice which gives outlet for her vitality. tramping is the major interest. feature of coaching and horseback parties. There are always. But nearly all of the best camps combine the various occupations. a number of trips away from camp. but growing with the strength of the girls in . rowing and paddling contests. in Camping Trips typical of only one part of camp that part spent actually in camp. Of course. Others make a whose they may be as healthful. mainly special features. for the chief sources of interest and activity. while or field sports. hockey. depend situations. and almost every day means some new point visited. and have camp Those crews. those in the mountain regions. and the like. different camps have In some. basket-ball. in the out-of-doors must be won. the bare necessities of living the organized an unaccustomed fashion are too apt to share with lounging the hours of daylight. and the ideal camps offer of which there are a sur- prisingly large number a range of activities wide enough to meet the needs anaemic girl. picturesque. interest who needs an camp so large a superiority over the family where. because the scale of living is smaller and the camp. varying with the location. individual responsibility greater. life in addition. short and But the day described is easy at first.

towel. for a night or two. By way of illustration. and five days are taken for the trip. sleeping rolled in blankets out under the stars.CAMPING AND SCOUTING length and difficulty. extra stockings. be. and such things as cannot be bought of farmers along the way. with the addition of short khaki skirts. and In addition to this. sombreros. bacon. On such trips as this the girls are not expected. and generally fruit. as boys would be. bread. thick-soled. bathing-suit. sugar. each has a pack containing a sweater. may be of interest. to carry their own blanket rolls and boats. comb. in this way the food is fresh. potted meat. trips in which the girls have a taste of the delights of really "roughing it." of cooking their own meals over a camp-fire. and warm army blanket. are provided by farmers with whom arrangements have previously been made. condensed milk. provision baskets contain baked beans. milk. Outfit an account of one of the annual trips taken by the members of a well-known girls' camp. as the case may These go in wagons or provisions. coffee. compactly rolled into a surprisingly small bundle and strapped into a rubber poncho which is slit in the centre so The that it may be slipped on over the head in case of rain. Both counsellors and girls wear the camp uniform of khaki "middy" blouse and bloomers. Its objective point is the top of a mountain whose foot is some forty miles from the camp. Eggs. and. and are at hand when needed. and the amount necessarily carried much less. tooth-brush. and butter. high tramping-boots. In the pails are packed aluminum drinking-cups .

CAMPING FOR GIRLS and plates. while girls and counsellors are divided into committees who. and since the country is ideal. this gives ample time for a good noon rest. and the like." At night a camp is made. Supplies and packs are stowed under the seats of big canopy-top wagons. in the woods. Twenty miles a day is the required distance. collect firewood. . carry water. complete the outfit. which AT LAST WE REACHED THE SUMMIT also carry the girls in relays so that undue fatigue is guarded against. in rotation. The guides care for the horses. cook and "wash up. These. fork. and a few utensils for camp cookery. and spoon apiece. gypsy-fashion. and one knife. with a couple of lanterns and an axe.

but these should be. In a few camps where tramping is a special feature. How which to Choose a Camp "In well-conducted camps" there is an important phrase will. but ordinarily the is considered the crowning event of the day. bear a word or two of interpretation. possible because of the eager interest of the in well-conducted young campers. so that. Overdoing is restricted to the exceptionally strong girls. perhaps. The horses and wagons are now left behind and the lunch divided into equal parts so that each girl carries her share. but camps the experience of the counsellors. perhaps." the party reaches its camp at the foot by twilight. : "How shall I choose a camp for my daughter " ? is a question .CAMPING AND SCOUTING or permission is gained to sleep in a friendly farmer's field or orchard. On more than one occasion a loft full of new- mown hay delight of sleeping in the open has been generously offered. the longest land trip taken at this particular camp. too-ambitious in- dividual. And how one does sleep ! The third day is devoted to climbing the mountain. and generally are. together with the advice of the resident physician or trained nurse. because experience has shown it to be the longest which can fifth This is be taken without fatigue by the average girl. is successful in restricting the activities to the strength of the. The climb takes about five hours. The homecamp is reached in time for a celebration supper on the start and a couple of hours for luncheon afternoon of the day. longer walks and more ambitious climbs are boasted of. with an early and "the view.

first place. of course. if not immediately restricted quarters. and accordingly there should be enough ground in the camp proper to give fairly wide freedom for wandering about within its boundaries.CAMPING FOR GIRLS naturally to be asked by one not familiar with the subject. the number of members rather than the extent of territory was meant. be a town within easy reach by boat or wagon in case It is obviously important that no girl shall of emergency. for no In the far group of people. the latter is a feature worth consideration. can live restfully in tooThere ought to be. a lake or This adds inestimably to the river suitable for swimming. at least within short walking distance. By the size of the camp. sufficiently removed from the beaten track of tourists. to insure privacy and freedom from uninvited guests. as has been Membersaid. in the opinion of the writer. though. the make-up of the camp council. leave camp. for at least 377 . as the group of directors and their assistants is generally called. a camp for girls should be sufficiently from any town. : The important points are. however congenial. the use of a spring or deep well whose water has been tested being the safest plan. but by no means least. pleasure and comfort of the summer. its size. though there should. however small. without a counsellor as chaperon. and last. at hand. however safe the neighborhood. ship in a beneficial camp of restricted numbers is apt to prove more than in a camp of larger proportions. for porcelain tubs and tent life do not go hand in hand! But under no ordinary conditions should this body of water be expected to supply Definite provisions should drinking-water for the camp. be made for this. three the situation of the camp.

They must be studied individually and guided with considerable care. as it is thusiastic. But. girls have not at the outset the physical endurance average girls for too strenuous a life. but. fortunately. and valuable. though they have often a nervous force which makes them eager to pursue any new interest and blinds them to their own limitations. are usually college bred. but its numcamp important. and in very many cases trained 378 . some commercially organized camps mere money-making schemes in which the welfare of the girls is of secondary importance. easy to see how. all enthe spirit of one might carry her beyond her the overactivity proving quite as harmful as no strength.CAMPING AND SCOUTING one very excellent reason. not as policeber is man. all. these are few and easily detected by a jolly girls are easily led thorough investigation. in a group of say fifty girls. for not only its character. of course. not only of references. activity at Counsellors And of the this leads naturally to the third point the members council. and quick to appreciate genuine Young and unselfish interest. should be pampered sort of thing ! Not that any one It is which in the escape from exactly that many instances makes camp life it was granted in the beginning. but as companion as well as tactful adviser. to act. There are. but of former The men and women who undertake this work patrons. There should be at least an average of one counsellor to every three or four girls. Unless a large camp is conducted with rather extraordinary care. the weaker members will not receive sufficient consideration.


not of flirtations. but of games . has been taken for granted that a resident physician or a trained nurse of experience is a member of every camp council for precaution's sake. wholesome food. have a sympathetic understanding of young people. exciting and exhausting. and the eager interest for each new day's adventure- surely here in itself is a prescription beyond any doctor's art. late elaborate dinners. and either the unnatural responsibility of creating her own position. or of a cooling lotion to will tire of its a severe case of sunburn ! The long day in the open. or the necessary but ungirlish caution in the meeting and judging of strangers which leads to false standards early hours and regular nourishing meals. Advantages Consider for a of the Life moment the difference between such a sum- mer and that spent by the average young girl at the average summer hotel. important to everybody's health and happiness the cook! Above all. though the wholesomeness of the life generally reduces their duties to the application of collodion to the occasional scratch. but It if it is well and daintily served no one necessary plainness. through experience. though not a counsellor. he must be really skilful. Instead of nightly dances. a half-dozen toilets to be made in a day. for camp fare is simple at best. and confections at all hours instead of the nerve-stretching whirl . the long cool night's refreshing sleep. of social life. who. veranda 380 interests centred in the out-of-doors. plenty of plain.CAMPING AND SCOUTING teachers who. And here must not be for- gotten one is member of the camp. instead of constant teas.

a sum easily spent on the frocks and pretty fripperies required for the months at a good summer resort. fair play. healthy. when a khaki divided skirt must be added. and three changes of plain underwear. kodaks. and finally. Hammocks. It is worth conmore and more. for the expenses of the camping season are generally to be estimated within two hundred dollars. Usually each cases. girl is required to take her own sheets. and a rubber blanket sleeping out-of-doors. are absolutely all the requirements. self-reliance.CAMPING FOR GIRLS and nature study. unless the girl plans to ride. a bathing-suit. simplicity and perfect comfort of dress. racquets. is sweater. towels. sidering. go to make a normal. are of And the course welcome though unnecessary additions. The life is within the grasp of almost any girl. pillow- for use in two army blankets. musical instruments. The camp outfit. parents are beginning to that. extremely simple. and contentment the qualities that . strong and flexible muscles. tennis and walking shoes. keen interests. obedience to the laws of consideration for others and of playing the game for good sportsmanship. steamer rugs. keen sym- pathies. fishing- rods. rain-coat or poncho. on the game's sake and the other hand. even of moderate means." shade hat. the khaki uniform of blouse. lovable girl. appreciate this fact the ever-increasing number of successful camps proves. bloomers. expenditure for this out-of-door summer buys what ? Clear eyes. and short skirt. warm bath-robe. white skirts and blouses for Sundays or the occasional "dress affairs. the unselfishness generated by that intangible but delightful and "catching" thing called "camp spirit "the spirit of community interest.

and our big hoops slung on behind. must have stood aghast at the sight of our When. 38* . on a lumbering vehicle swaying through the narrow streets.Chapter XXX A CARAVAN TRIP IN ENGLAND OUR out little caravan was a gaudy wagon of bright yellow picked in blue and red. we left the shade of Jane Austen. our big bay horse. stood patiently between the shafts while his owner explained to us the intricacies of a cart-horse's harness. and pointed to our little yellow dog. The small boys followed us in the hope of a show. Starting from Bath certain bright Wednesday in August. Bath. which pervades the quaint. in spite of our friends' warnings that we should come to grief. Moreover. Prince. the front door was decorated by a letter-box as well as a brass knocker. for there were few who could view with equanimity the spectacle of four girls setting out alone on a caravan trip of a fortnight through England. with tiny green shutters at the windows. Certainly the inhabitants did. quiet old city. as proof that we were travelling performers. so we felt very superior to all other caravan-dwellers. We were taking no man.


two light. fourteen miles from and there we found an hospitable farmer who readily Bath. a rope was then tied to a nail on fire . First.tent was rigged up. and now grown so huge that it is a miniature wood. and we fell to on bread and cheese in the silence that comes from keen hunger. Then began the real work six o'clock of the day a Making Camp Prince was unharnessed and fed. resting easily on the warm grass. There we dismissed the boy with the extra horse Prince was unharnessed and given a nose-bag and a pail of water which we fetched from the nearest farm. interesting bits of antiquity. For this tent. seven feet in diameter. Later. some At we came to Old Sodbury. the tables and chairs set up and prepared for The bath. with every muscle relaxed. permitted us to camp in his field. Then a rug was spread in the shade. supper. we drowsed in the noonday heat. the made. . the bath-tubs lifted from the rack and unpacked. with occasional halts to in- Once it was an vestigate old oak mentioned as a boundary-mark in the reign of King John.CAMPING AND SCOUTING We put on is a chain-horse to climb the surrounded. wooden hoops. and the food cooked and the tubs pumped full of water. 384 . Then the tent hoops were untied. All the afternoon we marched. our blue and red mugs were filled with cider. were furnished with rings to which was hooked a straight piece of chintz about eight feet high. after which he grazed at will through the night. For five miles the road hills by which Bath wound up till we came at last to the top of the Cotswolds and saw Somerset and Gloucestershire lying at our feet.

On the inside of the curtain were large pockets to accommodate towels. No That day we went through Berkeley and saw the castle. Beside the dog. one on a ledge above. wound around one side of the upper hoop. Promptly at six the next morning we were up. and in case of rain a This tent could tarpaulin could be drawn across the top. Two slept on a broad shelf below. and by The dusk eight part of the day was more delightful than the setting -out in the cool of the morning on an unknown road with all our adventures before us. so that it formed a triangle on which the tent hung securely. perhaps. Our lighted van looked wonderfully cozy when at last we were ready to turn in. and then came what was. thick grass for a carpet and the moon for a candle. with the night wind stirring the branches that formed our roof. To sluice off in clean. hot water all the dust and weariness of the march. and the fourth spread her mattress on the floor and lay like a knight in effigy with Robert at her feet. The lower hoop rested lightly on the ground. While the dishes were washed and resquely everything put away for the night. and in case of wind could be steadied with a few stones. fell rapidly and our camp-fire glowed pictuunder a big tree. is an experience to be remembered. with the short. we had for defence a spade and a stout bludgeon. the most delightful experience of the day. had struck camp. fastened to the nearest tree or hedge and brought back to the van in the same way.A CARAVAN TRIP the outside of the van. once a royal palace of Queen Elizabeth's and still filled with 385 . which unfortunately we never had occasion to use. etc. be set up in ten minutes. the bath-tubs were heating on the fire..

. and it was good to turn from the grim castle to the open road and travel gayly along to Cirencester. Berkeley's chief interest lies in its association with the murdered King Edward II. during which the culprit insisted that the sign had no business to be there. van walked by Prince's head she forgot her responsibilities. to Gloucester in the quiet streets and went creating great excitement to afternoon service in the As the The next day we passed through Tewkesbury. lunch under a thatched haystack fifteen feet high. glass lantern which overhung the painful scene ensued. That night we camped in the fields of the "Golden Heart. who left Tewkesbury feeling that. anyway. the road runs straight and broad to Gloucester " From there For the Roman wrought as a Roman ought and we shelter A for street for the cars of kings. But gypsies have no rights. girl in charge of the van crashed into a large road." The keen wind swept across the uplands. it had deserved all its misfortunes. the ancient Roman camp. Sunday we came Cathedral.CAMPING AND SCOUTING treasures brought her from the four corners of the earth by that glorious band of adventurers whose names stand out in a golden cluster. doubtless. A Up Strenuous Life to this time the weather during the last three days of 386 had been fairly cool. and that it A was not worth more than a shilling. and the through High Street. but that week the thermometer ." and a new moon rose over the hill and poised above our valley. and public opinion extracted five shillings from the offender.

A stood at 95 country. and. With broad hats pulled over our eyes. the next best place is at the never should one stand on a level stretch where the along and the thirsty one must spring off. for those inns How we looked passer-by. and encouragement to the horse till he stopped exhausted. we were now in a hilly was often impossible to procure chainhorses. stum- choking in the dust. three miles an hour up hill and down. all grasping the rest. since it under a burning sun. in the shade. where a smiling landlord would bring us four great mugs of sparkling cider. with a great heave the wheels were started and we ran alongside pushing. while the country folk gazed at our van. Up those hills we pushed the caravan which over a ton and a half stopping every few yards to weighed One to each wheel was how we did it. spokes firmly. hastily drink something. yelling when the block was slipped in place and we fell by the roadbling. where it CARAVAN TRIP Moreover. Even our noonday halts were van rolls easily in. panting. is it possible to march is out of the ques- From ten to four the air vibrated with heat. rush often curtailed in those days. and 387 . while resting in tion. and the automobiles whirled past filled with people who laughed and stared. and how eagerly we inquired for them ofrevery The place for a public is at the top of a hill we were foot all agreed on that. cracking the whip. at the word. sitting on our little shelf. with frequent stops at the inns. and sleeves rolled over the elbow. and side laughing Israel!" exclaimed "Gypsies!" as they flashed by. and run after the van in a choking cloud of dust. and gasping till the call "To your tents. we trudged along in the shadow of the van. O brought us once more to our posts. which we would drink.

but harmless enough. when the ownership of a pitcher was discussed. though hilly. dreadful-looking creatures. The next day we 388 . passing us with a nod of fellowship. so that we were glad of rugs over our sleeping-bags. following meekly the shepherd who walked In the north the stick. The sheep were no more the small. chivy- ing them with dog and but in the soft southland they to pasture. but as soon as the sun declined the air seven o'clock we were apt and damp. stolid creatures." for the speech varies in each county in a surprising way.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Prince was white where his harness touched him. leading them Sight-seeing On Wednesday we reached Hereford. and all the cows are red and white." said a Somerset farmer to us we. what we called a steep climb the country we found it country folk called "a bit of a bank. and by to shiver and pull on overcoats. Going through Worcestershire and a lovely. pace slowly in front of their flocks. men drive the sheep. When we had gone Ledbury we found through the quaint market-town of ourselves in Herefordshire where the hopgrinders stand out weirdly against the sky. "That don't belong to us hasn't no jug like she. and revelled in the cool river banks after the dusty highways. where we rowed upstream after seeing the Cathedral. but big. and it was frosty enough fetching water across the fields in the early morning. black-faced variety at their head. That same day we fell in with numberless tramps going to the hoppicking. we had seen when we started. grew chill The nights were nearly always cold.

we pushed the van till we were well tired. and went along the bank of the Wye. and the view below was unately enough to compensate us for much hard work. which runs between beautifully wooded hills. knowing we should rest the next day.A CARAVAN TRIP paid toll at Kyrle Bridge after leaving Ross. an exquisite little ruin dating from the time of the Conquest. as no chain-horse was proFortcurable. and. We were all rather tired after the hard week and the fierce heat. while to the right. the Severn glistened like a blue unique . By then it was one o'clock and the sun was fierce. The same day we visited Goodrich Castle. Across the valley rose magnificently timbered hills. After a wind down a long incline. great secrecy one night to confer with the ancient Marquis. whose devotion to his family was unbounded. We dragged our things up a grassy slope above the Abbey. A magnificent stone staircase leads to his apartment. it was pleasant to ride along the flat. Beyond Tin tern there is a three-mile hill. leaving Prince to rest in a field. Saturday dawned bright and hot. On Friday we reached Monmouth and. took the train to Raglan. It contains a veritable gem of a Norman window. shady road till Tin tern Abbey came in sight. from which he could look on many miles of the fair country he had lost. but we started in good time. beyond rolling meadows. the road was shaded. one of the finest It was here that Charles came with ruins in England. and its buttery-hatch is almost in England. So we harnessed up and departed after a visit to what is perhaps the most beautiful abbey in England. and rested in the shade till a constable informed us we were liable to arrest as vagrants and must move on.

and lounged on the shelf as we ate a large. where and the van lurched When we reached the bridge at the end we went. A little turnhalted despondently. down a of the town we "held a council. steep hill rose before us and no chain-horse could be hired. ness. standing beside the river- farm. cool melon. and the prospect of a late camp. as Rest in a Turnpike House On through like the town Prince's hoofs clattered on the cobbles a ship at sea. there was nothing to be done but to go on." miles. was to be found for two gate. We bent to the wheels and pushed wearily up the hill the evening was misty. Prince's head was drooping pitifully and we were all worn out. However. Breathless and footsore we stumbled on for half a mile. a long. and then around a bend in the hill we saw our port.CAMPING AND SCOUTING and when we saw the Severn we Xenophon's soldiers of old. eloquent of comfort from 390 . whose lover was among the Roundhead army. ribbon in the sunlight. waved her kerchief from the weakest spot. The loafers on the bridge grinned as we No was nearly seven o'clock. Over the cruel hill. and is remarkable The walls are of extraordinary thickfor its great strength. joyfully we climbed aboard. with all the work to be done in the dark. that we had at last reached that which we had come so far to see. was not encouraging. they told us. On two sides it rises in a sheer wall from the river. cried aloud. At six we reached Chepstowe and stopped to see the Castle. it . terrible hill. so that one can well believe the story that Cromwell besieged it in vain until a girl. pike house stood at the corner.

in till the middle of the company drove away hedge. hurried through the work. shady trees fire. the pump was close at of during the siege of Chepstowe.truck and crossed the Severn from Lidney to Berkeley. there was a pile of firewood in one corner and. Behind a mighty hedge which screened us from the road the field rolled away over low hills. and convenient stones for the hand. What this meant can be appreciated by those who have been forced to camp sometimes a quarter of a mile from water. Before turning in we walked over the hill to see the tower in the moonlight and fancy the shadow. best of all. figure of the great Protector behind every trees The next day we lay under the afternoon. thick grass with various ponies and donkeys. and ate until the pans were empty. while Robert all strange creatures with ostentatious valor. which shone In the doorway sat a dear old lady. and when we who looked with amazement on had squeezed through the gate we cheered for joy as we saw our resting-place. Joyfully we unharnessed. on one which stood a tower used by Cromwell to grind his powder There were big. There we saw friends On Monday we put greeted us with who amazement at sight of our tanned faces . Prince browsed happily in the long. the dusty travellers and gave a ready assent to our request for the use of her field. She and her husband came to show us the way. cozily through the dusk. in the and stretched out shade to dream of rabbits in the After Two Hundred Miles the van on a railway.A its CARAVAN TRIP vine-covered porch to its lighted windows.

of the burly carters we met as far north as Hereford. and our outfit showed signs of wear. It would fill a volume to tell of all the quaint sights we saw. of the winding roads that led new and unexpected places. So we returned safely after a fortnight which none of us will ever forget. of the cool gardens we to ever passed. From Roman roads fight. and. so the fortnight's excursion cost us each about twenty dollars. stopped half-way down the of hill for our last camp. and. planned their own route. but most of which we bought on the road. who hailed us as fellow-travellers from the south country. making ten dollars apiece for us for the fortThen there was the food. of the kindnesses shown us. and of flaxenhaired children who flitted shyly 'behind the van in the dusk 392 . We had covered over two hundred miles. where the hollyhocks leaned over the wall to look with lovely. The cost of the expedition? Twenty dollars a week for horse and van. The real joy of the trip can be measured only by those who have taken the trail themselves. One remembers the towns by own difficulties. Tuesday we took the homeward road. we had seen the to cannon taken in a modern sea- name. and we thought it cheap at that. and surmounted their history of England written clear in earth and stone and wood. with us. above all. laughing faces at the dusty wayfarers. but the best memories are of the shady inns where the women set out water for our thirsty little dog. some of which we took night. after a march of twenty miles. the lights Bath shining below. that came to eight or ten dollars apiece. done their own work.CAMPING AND SCOUTING and tattered boots.

For all who love the Long Trail. bearing gifts from their mothers. who are not afraid of hard work and unknown paths. there is but one word " Send the road o'er you.A CARAVAN TRIP and crept in like shadows to watch the camp-fire. is clear before call for you when the old spring-fret comes And the Red Gods you." .


95. Scouts of England. Blankets." 34. 74. 94. Burns. 66. . second-hand. 104. 79-81. 291. 313. Bread. 173. and Boy Scouts. 287. artificial. 281. 96. 326-328. 104. location. 170. 104. 177. 244. 228-233. 283. 189-208. 75. 101. 165. dislocated. darning-needles. 302. 67. camping in the. organized. 194. crabs. Dan. notes on. 282. lockers and mess-kits. how to Boats. 253. 94. 65-74. equipment. trained sanitation. Sir. 107. 301-302. 303. capsules. 79-81. nautical schools. 102. Book of Camping and Woodcraft. law. origin. headAmerica. 172. 193. 197. 101. ABC bed fit out. unleavened. oath. 30-35. 316. the. 305-307. Bill of fare. . 289. from nose. 282. 68. to conduct. . 105. 65. 280. chairs. 183-188. 189-193. Bait. anchorage. 212. Bleeding. Beard. dietetics. 252. yacht. stone stove. 222. 69. 8 1-86. 305 . 106. Brush houses. Boy how organizing. 286. stoves. the guide. 105. 213. fractured. 176. of boughs. a "lean-to. grubs. notes on. 280. directors. 73. crickets. 102. a carryall. 261. rented. objects of. privacy. boat.INDEX A BC Army Army of boats. familiar. 65. Black bass. 187. 289. 223. treatment. hot. 94. 301310. dobsons. 226. Boy Pioneers. boat. 285. 8. tests. 98-100. 68. 100. 75. Biscuits. badges. cooking. canvas cot. 285. 207. 70. 49 to. Horace Kephart. folding-cot. camp yachts. 35- Burbot. 67. 316-319. 303 patrols and troops. 72. 71. of. 232. 308-310. 282. Beef. 290. army kitchen. tents. tent. 104. 290. draw. 76. sanitation. The. backs BADEN - POWELL. tests. 312-314. Bones. 289. 68. Blanket-rolls. to control. 311 -319. 9. Bait. 71. tables and benches. 174. 280-286. 285. simple range. bag. surroundings. 106. power. 106. Beverages. the. worms.Boys' camps. CAMP. notes on. Adirondacks. 188. frogs. 281. 98. Bailer. seine for live. 311. policing. Batter cakes. 284. 198. 200-208. 103. fires. Artificial bait. hammocks. 209. treatment. 9. 187. 102. 75-81. 209-227. Anchorage. 6 1. Bass-fishing of the Delaware. 69. kitchen. masts and rigging. 314quarters. net. Birds. 195-197. of Brook trout. minnows. for large fish. a temporary. frizzled. handling. ^69. 311. 193. 223.

93. bill of fare. Casting line or leader.. Lord Edward. work and Eggs. in Dobsons as bait. 239. building. rods. making camp. Scouts. Wells. sinkers. how to choose a camp. 47. 170. Caravan trip in England. 65. 234-243. 67. a day's 4. lines. Canned goods. piration. bait-net. Flapjacks. 101.Fly. 292. DARNING-NEEDLES Camper's responsibility. 128. sign language. 71. 248. repairing. 374-376. P. knowledge of. for camping-tent. 328. 212. Elements of Navigation. Canoe. cooking. cast. starting from Bath. Crickets as bait. cooking. landing-net. West and South. 251. in New York. 94. for insects. danger 1 of. 165. 289. . canvas. amusements. artificial r< 8. 46. 91 n. taps. 170. 249. canvas. 93. folding. 302. 136-138. camps on lakes. > 368. position. river. 184. 93. 171. as bait. 292. 8. 367-381. equipment. and Boy 396 . how made. 41. 370. varieties. bait-bag. 74. 01. counsellors. 321. Floats. river cruising. 9. 57. practical hints. 371. J. reels. 92. 378-380. 40. Flies. 369. provision supply. Cruising. 57. 230. 264. outfit. 58. 166. loading. Cooking. to use. for camping-tent. boys' cam] 68. 291. 93. cost. 131-133. 214. Firewood. advantages of the life. 388-393. 250. carrying. in Canada. 1 4. the dinal Clouds. 1 71 . 92. 295. pointers. 210. 10. Canoe trips. 9. 373. F. 104. 89-97. 92. 170. 346. 73. 68. W. 237239.. 324. Crabs as bait. 1 Dudley. 96. 209-227. for girls. bait. Electric shock. Fly-fishing. Fires. to paddle. 246-250. oil of. Flowers. 212. information 3-4. forest. Sumner 39. strenuous life. 95. 185. ings for. outfitters. Fishing tackle. how to learn. W. 101. cooking utensils. 219. 167. Cooks. rough water. rest hour. 245. 223. 171 n. 6. principle. Maine. warnfor. Dishes. 166. 169. lines. hooks. utensils. 215. 369. 384386. 242. 243. 40. 370. food for. Burt. bag. 380-381. 122-125. 251. a carClark. 217-218. 323. equipment. general notes on. 102107. Citronella. 66. "Carron Oil" for burns. of boughs. Canopy. 104. 93.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Fires in the Wilderness. 187. 241. 372. 166. 98. choosing. 91. program. 39. 107. flies. Dux-bax. cleanliness. 133-136. 93. repairing. Fish. 58. 374. 280 n. 248. wooden. Hen- FAMILY camps. near home. casting line. 92. Camping. 169. P. first back 120-122. 46. a. 171. derson. 382-393. 258. Camp Cot. 44-46. 2 2 5-2 2 7 arrange. 110-113. Fly-rods and Fly-tackle. Feet. W. ment of dishes. forward cast. 44-46. 47. H. manipulation of the fly. 70. 240. 172-180. 94. Cecil. 125170. 10. 386-388. 171. 168. 259. 93. 93. 231. 102. tri ps. Camp-site. 48. 166. play. 235. practical conclusion. 40. 171. 382. 37 2 373. Carry-all. C. 167. 128-131. 47. 376-378. 39. EEL-POT. sight-seeing. 143164. 65. 94. floats. 169. care of. 237. the stride. personal outfit. to light. how 211. Ditty-bay. Drowning. 10. 106. 117-138.

KHAKI. helpfulness and courtesy. camps on. map-making. 92. tar-oil preparation for cooking articles. oil of. 169. pointers. Morse alphabet. 294. 79-81. capturing the flag. Lines. attacking party. 356. 329 Net. 14-17. tree. 18-30. Leader or casting-line. 2 Sow. Mush. 41. beds. I spy. 169. 94. Lockers. 167. Ingames 272. 351-364. 171. Arthur. cooked. 68. OBSERVATION. 222. canteen. 169. 279. tack. 167. Caroline A. HAM Hard and eggs. 262. 8. MAINE. 270. Kitchen. Personal outfit for campers. 295. C. Hammock. war game No. 261. 277. Jenkins! identification. 231. 98-100. House-tent. 34i- Hooks. dian Masts and rigging. LAKES. 167-169. nets. Mountain-climbing. Mount Washington. 197. Outfitters. "dope" for. 265. a. 39. 105. 277. 175. 280. 4. power Ouananiche fishing. Mount Tacoma. 171. 92. Meat. 170. 93. personal. 11-14. Roff. camping range. White Mountains. 166. 275. . military. 218. 72. Adirondack adventure. 297. 166. 71. 12. Fish. 272. Mosquitoes.Nessmuk. Harper's. feet. 212. Muskallunge. rules and regulations to prevent. 165. Health hints. Hatchets. 279. trout- canoe tag. Poncho. 104. 267. ket-rolls. 221. Hints for campers and scouts. 6. 272. 261. Mrs. fishing in. blan. seeing and remembering. preparations for. 293. in. i. 93. 170. Outfit. Mess-kits. Guide to Wild Flowers. 172. Hiking. malarial and non-malarial. Guides. 58-61. 397 . how made. 170. 280 n. 264. Hash. 273. 260. Creevey. fish. 232. 266. 285. notes on. Hoop 114. Huts. 296. Minnows as bait. 166. knapsack. E. 177-180. for insect pests. 258. 169. camping ensai-tai parties. L. 231. camp or scouting. care of Navigation Simplified. notes Outdoor Book for Boys. 170. NAUTICAL schools. 105. 40. 353-355. Landsman. 259. 296. INDIAN. besieged city. 75. sign language. 42. warnings for campers. PENNYROYAL. Mount Adams. insect pests. 265. army. notes on. Latrines. clothing. 260. 259. Mushrooms. a seine. Forest. 173. 218. 357-362. 356. Grubs as bait. 166. 198. 259. Up. transmitters of malaria. 71. 67. wigwam. 282. on. canvas. 72. fish.INDEX and Game Commission. 273. of. Mcblankets. 174. camping. 328 n. 39. 320322. 262-265. Medical hints. Poisoning. shooting the chute. 170. 266-278. 39. 351. 8. 286. 278. 276. 230. Policing camp. 254-265 255. Landing-net. distance to march. 256-258. 295. 6. 312. 260. 269. 224. The. Lake trout. 343-347. E. feet and inches. GAMES. Insect pests. 40. Frogs as bait. Forest fires. tepee. wind ball. drop-net. 260. 268.

288. and tent rented. 288. stone. 102. the invisible knot. YEAST. Unpacking. 223. Provision supply. weather. knowledge of. 169. 208. camp. and lightning. Weights and measures. Pudding. States. 245. notes on. 264. 49. 5457. 222. 15-17. 61-64. 29. in New England craft Indians. 262. camp. 328 n. 336. 166. signals. size.. material. wood. 91. 2426. a low twin-tree hut. preparations for insect pests. first principles. a high twin-tree hut. a low single-tree hut. 330. Trees of Eastern North America. 284. United States. Stove. 14. square. 328. 289. 324-326. 204. 293-295. THE END . Romeyn Beck Hough. 201. 207. tree huts. 337. S Signal Service. for small fish. 287. 113. 206. 275. 93. 165. Wilderness camping. 11-14. to erect. 215-217. a single-tree hut. warnings. 167. 322. table of. 225. 165. 107-109. 76. 324326. cooking. Ernest Thompson. 61. Indian. Sign language. 15. 1824. 295. pies. 199. 203. 48. Sleep. Nessmuk. vane. . 203 poles. 202 to erect. 93.Worms. Tents. 98. Wounds. 47." beef capsules. ridge-pole. 144146. 322. 291. 30. 104. second-hand army. as bait. 176. a house. drinking. 287. placing. 196. 201. hygiene. Signalling. plan of chute. 18-30. 206. 287. 114. UNCONSCIOUSNESS. . 170. "Sterzo. water. 3 2 3- Trees. 276. Wigwagging. Sibley. 8. 75. Sibley tents. 233. 96. proverbs. Shooting the chute. 224. to control bleeding. 149. Repairs. Trap. SANITATION. 226. 146- Rods. 171. of 170. Proverbs. 75. 58-61. belongings. in Pike County." 94. 169. dressing. 347. treating. outfitting points. Weather. medium 49-54. Wigwams. for REELS. 200. 209. a large Woodcraft. Indian. the new. 109. 175. 202. 323. Scap-net. "scoured. 49-64 . personal Sunstroke. Seton. 347. WATER. 28. Tourniquet. 143164. 76. Sprains. camping. corn-starch. 29. 228-233. 2 6. VEGETABLES. 226. 323. Slapjacks. 102. 167. 92. 103. Power boats. Tepee. Yellow perch. 9. 219221. 48. 264. 246. 57. 207. fishing. 12. flies and cano. guides.CAMPING AND SCOUTING Pork and beans. loss of. 252. TENT. 207. how made. Welsh rarebit. 207208. - making. essentials. 58.turtle. 311. 166. height of. 253. floors. 165. 204. 263. Sleeping in barns. 224.Trout . 343~347Sinkers. Soups.




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