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The Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life The Bancroft Library University of California Berkeley Warren Hellman

Gallery January 22-June 28, 2013

2014 • Pauline Loghmana—Psychology. and taught by Francesco Spagnolo at The Magnes in the Fall of 2012. Francesco Spagnolo. Berkeley. The exhibition was created in collaboration with the students of the undergraduate research seminar. 2012 • Wing Yan Yeung—Music. Sounds were created with an iPhone 4S using the SoundCloud app. 2012 Point your smartphone or tablet to bit. 2013 • Kayla Kliger—Spanish.ly/sound-objects to play exhibition sounds.A. . Liturgy and Jewish Life. 2013 • Benjamin Rangell—History and Near Eastern Languages (Hebrew). Performing Texts: Music. offered by the Department of Music of the University of California. 3 | Sound Objects takes the “Case Studies” series of The Magnes in a new direction. 2013 • Jennifer Kashani—Psychology.. 2013 • Benjamin Kramarz—M. Folklore.Case Study No. Registrar Ted Foley. Head Preparator In collaboration with UC Berkeley students: • Nelia Barkhordar—Integrative Biology. Curator Julie Franklin. students worked closely with the holdings of The Magnes and developed research projects describing select items included in the exhibition. During the semester. 2013 • Matthew Chunghyuk—Music.

as well as those used in the havdalah ceremony that marks the end of the Sabbath and holidays—even though sound-making is not their primary function. such as the shofar. the sounds made by objects are not. they are at times adorned with pendants or bells. including the public reading of the Hebrew Bible in synagogue liturgy. ring. Many of the objects used in the course of synagogue rituals generate sound. Since the process of Jewish Emancipation in 19th-century Europe. Some are designed to produce specific sounds.Sound Objects combines the study of Jewish material culture with the emerging field of sound studies and investigates the role of objects that emit sound during synagogue rituals. many synagogues have incorporated musical instruments into the ritual. the horn blown in the synagogue during the month of Elul (preceding the New Year). or the noisemakers used during the reading of the Book of Esther on Purim. It also integrates on-site display with online resources that comprise images. books. and yet one that is located at its very core: ritual. Rather. and the sounds recorded by “playing” several of the ritual objects on view. But there are many other ritual objects that are often designed to emit sound—the ones dedicated to the embellishing. including the organ. on Rosh Ha-shanah and Yom Kippur. forms. Curator . —Francesco Spagnolo. textiles. texts. and sound-making parts are constitutive of their shapes. The exhibition includes a selection of more than sixty objects. A performative approach to the study of ritual objects may thus shed a different light on an important aspect of Jewish life outside the scope of normative religion. While the sounds made by voices and musical instruments during ritual are closely regulated by rabbinic authorities. Their sonic power is only apparently unintentional. which rattle. storing. or otherwise make sound when they are used. or made with movable parts. and functions. Jewish ritual sound objects are not musical instruments per se. carrying and reading of the Torah scrolls. The sounds they emit cannot be avoided. manuscripts and photographs from The Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life documenting ritual in the global Diaspora.

eating a festive meal.36 . along with that of other evil-doers who are considered to be descendants of ‘Amalek. It is celebrated in the month of Adar by sending portions of food to friends.Case A Ritual noise According to the Book of Esther. Mordecai and Gila Rozin Collection. Magnes Museum through the Benjamin Goor Acquisition Fund. a rare case in which noisemaking in the context of synagogue ritual is tolerated by religious authorities.78. the holiday of Purim was instituted to remember the deliverance of the Jews from Haman’s plot to kill them. 1. and reading the Book of Esther (megillah) in the synagogue. 78. children and adult congregants often make loud noises with rattles to blot out the character’s memory. Whenever the name of Haman is read. Rectangular Purim noisemaker Palestine. 1918 Wood and metal Judah L. making gifts to the poor. Special objects have been created across the Jewish Diaspora to assist in this action.

sung in Ashkenazi communities after the reading of the Book of Esther on Purim.” Esther 6:11) above the figurines.270 Decorated with a six-pointed star and inscribed in Hebrew with the words arur haman asher biqesh leabdi (“Cursed be Haman who asked to destroy me”).” after Esther 9:22) around the edge. 3. 81. 19th century Silver and ivory Judah L. Purim plate Germany. 76. depicting the parade honoring Mordecai riding a horse and dressed in royal apparel. and kakhah ye’aseh la-ish asher ha-melekh chafetz bi-yqaro (“Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delights to honor. from the liturgical poem shoshanat ya’aqov. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Dr. . Haman holds a noisemaker in his right hand. Flag-shaped Purim noisemaker for women or children Austria. led by Haman. The Hebrew inscriptions read: shelach manot ish le-re’ehu u-[ma]tanot la-evyonim (“send portions one to another and gifts to the poor.2. Magnes Museum purchase. 18th century Painted faience Judah L.58 Plate for delivering Purim gifts. Elliott Zaleznik.

68. Torah pointer with quill-shaped tip and two bells.” Deuteronomy 33:4) Eastern Europe. the scrolls of the Hebrew Bible are carried from their storage location to the reading area and then returned after use. and include movable parts. 73. and Mrs. Magnes Museum purchase. Torah scroll case and finials dedicated to a couple named Simchah and Shlomoh Yitzchaq Kurdistan or Western Iran. 82. restoring the soul. Matthew Ganz in memory of Samuel Ganz. and shields—or by those designed to assist the reading by pointing at the text. inscribed torat adonay temimah meshivat nafesh (“God’s Torah is perfect. via Israel. Ritual performance is. Magnes Museum purchase. finials.256 . India. accompanied by the sounds created by those objects dedicated to adorn the scrolls—cases. cotton.25. gilt Gift of Dr. 1. Torah pointer with hand-shaped tip and twelve bells Yemen.1 5. inscribed Yitzchaq Daniel Bamnolker Mumbai. at times. 19th century Silver Judah L.3 4. 18th century Wood.45 3. 19th century Silver Judah L. 77. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Harry Blumenthal. 20th century Silver Judah L.Case B Sounds of the Torah In order to be read during synagogue liturgy. Bernard Kimmel Collection.” Psalms 19:8) Yemen. which are often made of metal or wood.79. 75. inscribed torah tzivah lanu mosheh (“Moses commanded us the Torah. Torah pointer with hand-shaped tip and carved wooden bead. leaf-shaped finial and metal clappers.288 2. silver. velvet and paper inserts Gift of the Diaspora Yeshiva (Jerusalem). crowns. 19th and 20th centuries Wood. Torah pointer with quill-shaped tip.

WJHC 2006. silversmith Italy. plastic Gift of Mr. shaday. 76. Torah finial with crown-shaped top. Torah shield with floral motifs. the Tablets of the Law with the Decalogue. 76. Magnes Museum purchase. columns. and a seven-branched candelabrum (menorah). Max Eis in honor of Pam Levinson’s Bat Mitzvah.283 7. Magnes Museum purchase through the Benjamin Goor Acquisition Fund. a decorative shield. Calif. . 77. and Mrs. movable elements and seven bells O. a hanging lamp (ner tamid). 20th century Silver and brass Judah L.1 8. Torah crown dedicated to members of the Ashkenaz and Kunstler families [North Africa]. surmounting eagle. birds. depictions of Jewish ritual objects.273. 19th century Sterling silver Gift of Congregation Beth Israel-Judea.3 a 9. Torah finial with architectural and floral motifs. and three bells Poland. the Ark of the Covenant with cherubs and the Hebrew word. Fini. and fourteen bells San Francisco.. rampant lions. me’il.011. a burning flame. 20th century Silver plating on metal. 1837 Silver and brass Judah L. a priestly vestment inscribed with the Hebrew word.333 b Lower tier includes ritual objects of the Temple of Jerusalem: hands spread in the priestly blessing position.6.

2008. a lion. Torah finial with hand-shaped top and six bells. Austria Franz Anton Gutwein (1759-1805). n. silversmith Augsburg.79.224 b 11. 68. and seven bells United States. n. a crown.11 b 12. and nine bells. dedicated by Meir Chay Levy to the memory of Leah de Levy Iran. Torah finial with eagles. Bernard Kimmel Collection.2. a surmounting lion. 19th-20th centuries Silver Gift of Seymour Fromer. Germany. bb . Hoffaktor of the Jewish community of Hohenems.d.1 13. Parcel gilt silver 67. Torah finial with floral motifs. dolphins. a crown. honoring Joseph Lazarus Löwenberg (17741839). Torah finial with floral motifs. Nathan and Leonard Norack in memory of Ida Norack. hand-shaped top engraved with the Hebrew word shaday.d. Magnes Museum purchase. Silver Judah L. 73.10.1 b. 1799-1800 Gilt silver Gift of Arthur. and eleven three-beaded clappers India.

engraved Hebrew letters.” Isaiah 2:3) Ludwig Wolpert (Germany. Cantor’s hat United States. 20th century Silk and leather Judah L. worn by Cantors Jerry Grodin of Congregation Beth Jacob in Redwood City and Paul Gardner of Congregation Sherith Israel in San Francisco. crown-shaped top. Torah finial with floral motifs. and five bells Morocco. Palestine.2.66 . 67. and United States. Elliott Zaleznik. Magnes Museum Purchase. chazan) evolved over time into a musical and pastoral profession (or voluntary service to the community). Magnes Museum purchase. 97.. Torah finial with orb surmounted by a crown made of Hebrew letters spelling mi-tziyon tetze torah (“Out of Zion the Torah comes forth. Bow tie worn by Cantor Jonas of Hildesheim. Its primary purpose. 2008.2 3. California Bentley and Simon. however. [before 1940] Silk 81. 18th century Brass Judah L.4. b 2. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Dr.35 b 15. Germany. Bernard Kimmel Collection. the cantor embodies the tension between the dimensions of sound and of music in Jewish ritual. 20th century Textile.13. Inc. Israel. 1. Torah finial with floral motifs. including the texts of the prayers. Germany Ott & Heinemann.2 16. To this day. of liturgical poetry. 1900-1981).69 a.14. 92. 78.226 b Case C Cantors The role of synagogue cantor (in Hebrew. 19th century Silver Gift of Seymour Fromer. New York. Robe and prayer shawl for the High Holy Days. sculptor Silver Judah L. Frankfurt am Mein. and eight clappers Iran. is that of sounding out—rather than “setting to music”—the liturgy. plastic Gift of Paul Gardner. and of the Hebrew Bible.

which create sound during use. 20th century Silver and semi-precious stone Gift of Mrs. 1.0. n.63 3.d. each marked by objects that assist in the ritual.22 . Anonymous. le-shanah tovah tikatevu.20. Spice box in fish form. A happy New Year Bilingual pop-up greeting card for the Jewish New Year Hebrew and English Germany. I 5. Harry Lieberman (Poland and United States.4.3 Case D Havdalah | Separation The ceremony marking the end of Sabbaths and festivals (havdalah) is introduced by blessings over wine. Jeune fille d’Israël Dopler. four eagles and four bells United Kingdom. 96. Havdalah candle holder with two bells Jerusalem. 1915-1930 Silver Judah L.2 Harps. 19th century Engraving Judah L. 80.12 4. 69. 19th century Silver. Magnes Museum purchase.4 5. with articulated movable body Poland. Spice box in tower form with hinged door. semi-precious stone Gift of Max Eis. Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts. 18801983). Judah L.76 2. 86. hinged flag.40. Blowing the Shofar United States. 1975 Oil on canvas board Gift of Ethan and Greta Hamm. Paris. 82.2. Mary Schussheim. Magnes Museum purchase through the Benjamin Goor Acquisition Fund. Spice box in tower form with five hinged flags and a bell Italy. 19th century Silver 86. 2003. Magnes Museum Purchase in honor of Magnes Docents of 1986. Spice boxes and candle holders may be complemented by bells or made of movable parts. aromatic spices and light. ca.

21 4. at the full moon for our feast-day.6. and it is still in use. Yom Kippur. Strauss collection. and in the month preceding them (Elul). Siegfried S. Strauss collection. without modifying the mouthpiece. both of which are naturally curved. In synagogue liturgy. Jubal: Father of All That Handle Harp and Pipe—Genesis IV-21 From the portfolio. Palestine and Israel. bereshit.15. 67. 17th century Horn Judah L.1. Jerusalem. 67. Abel Pann (Abba Pfeffermann. wax Judah L. Chevrat Eretz Yisrael le-hotzaot omanutiyot.22 2. Strauss collection. Carved and engraved shofar. No. a shofar should be made of a ram’s or wild goat’s horn.15. The horn may not be painted. Magnes Museum purchase.24 3. Engraved shofar with lamb-shaped ring carved at horn’s opening Germany. but can be gilded or carved with artistic designs. it was sounded to proclaim the New year. According to the Talmud and the Shulkhan ‘arukh.15. inscribed in Hebrew with verses from Psalms 81:4-5 (“Blast the shofar at the new moon. Siegfried S. Siegfried S. 18th century Horn Judah L. mi-beriat ha-’olam ‘ad hamabul / Genesis. an animal’s horn prepared for use as a musical instrument. First mentioned in Exodus 19:16. 67. Magnes Museum purchase. an ordinance of the God of Jacob”) and 98:6 (“With trumpets and sound of the horn”) Germany.143 Case E The Voice of the Shofar The shofar. 17th century Horn. is the only ancient Jewish liturgical instrument that survived the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE. [1925]. Latvia or Belarus. Magnes Museum purchase. 25 Color lithograph Gift of Dr. 18th century Horn Judah L. Leon Kolb. 75. Carved shofar Germany. Siegfried S. 1. For it is a statute for Israel. and Mrs. Strauss collection.1.15.1. 1883-1963). 67.1. Magnes Museum purchase. the Jubilee Year.23 . and as a signal and a call to war. From the creation until the deluge. it is sounded on Rosh Hashanah. Carved and engraved shofar from the Pinkas synagogue Prague.

Bernard Kimmel Collection. Shofar from Congregation Sherith Israel. Magnes Museum Purchase. 88. Das Schofarblasen am Neujahrsfest. Museum of the City of New York. le-shanah tovah. Happy New Year.17. India.13 10. Albert Elkus.88 9.24.3 8. 19th-20th centuries Horn Judah L. Hertzliche Glückwünsche (The Shofar blowing on the New Year. 68. WJHC 1968. Shofar Yemen. Heartfelt congratulations) Bilingual greeting card for the Jewish New Year German and Hebrew Frankfurt am Main. 19th century Horn Judah L.d.202 11. 68. 76. San Francisco Horn Gift of Congregation Sherith Israel. WPA Project.6 Drawers (from left to right) Drawer One Postcards 1.26.5. Hoffmann. Carved shofar Lodz.234 6. Maharashtra. via Israel. postmarked in 1902 Gift of Jacqueline and David Berg. 19th-20th centuries Horn Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase. 19th-20th centuries Horn Judah L. 82. n.006.5.7 2. Blowing the Shofar.10 7. 20th century Horn Gift of Shalom Abraham in memory of his father. Magnes Museum Purchase. Bernard Kimmel Collection. Shofar Yemen. via Israel. A. I. Gift of Seymour Fromer.2. 79.3 . 1937 Bilingual greeting card for the Jewish New Year English and Hebrew New York. 80. Shofar with carved ornamental holes at horn’s opening Morocco. 20th century Horn Gift of Mrs. Poland. Carved shofar from Knesseth Israel Synagogue Tala. Magnes Museum purchase through the Benjamin Goor Acquisition Fund. Photograph by Arnold Eagle. Sabbath Studies. 76. Shofar Israel.

Jüdisches Ceremoniel (1724) Berlin.3.28. 86. New Year) Postcard reproduction of an engraving by Bernard Picart (18th century) Berlin. Juda[h] Roswald. Das Fest Pürim. A happy New Year Bilingual pop-up greeting card for the Jewish New Year Hebrew and English n... Joseph Spiro. Elliott Zaleznik. A happy New Year Bilingual pop-up greeting card for the Jewish New Year Hebrew and English n. Joseph Spiro.0. 2 . Israellitische Gesänge der zweÿ Festtagen (r[osh] ha[shanah] .. avodat shaliach tzibur.17 7. Joseph Schlesinger.4 6. chazanut le-shalosh regalim. B14. Handbuch für Cantoren. postmarked in 1956 Postcard 2013.n.d.d. 92. 1906 2. Awaudas Scheliach Zibur.. 1830 Ms. Schopharblasen am Rosch-haschanah (Neujahrfest) (Shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah. Manuscript collection of cantorial music for Festivals and High Holy Days German and Hebrew Neubrunn. n. Freund. moreh le-shaliach tzibur. New Complete Manual for Use by Cantors) German and Hebrew Vienna-Budapest. 77. Gift of Dr. 1868 3. Neuestes vollständiges Handbuch zum Gebrauche für Cantoren (The Service of the Community’s Envoy. 92. Israelitische Gesänge der dreÿ Festtage. (Manual for Cantors) German and Hebrew Prague. Josef Singer. yehudi me-’edot ha-mizrach qore ba-torah. Vorlesung des Buches Esther in der Synagoge (The Festival of Purim. Gift of Serge Klein. le-shanah tovah tikatevu.. Gift of Serge Klein. Thuringia.. Israel. Wilhelm Flamm.5 5. Palphot.28.0.30.. The reading of the Book of Esther in the synagogue) Postcard reproduction of an engraving from Paul Christian Kirchner. An Oriental Jew Reading the Torah Herzliya.1 Drawer Two Cantorial Texts 1. Germany.5 4..ve-y[om] k[ipur]). le-shanah tovah tikatevu.d.d.

Ya’aqov Kallir. King David playing the harp 17th century Tempera on vellum Gift of Rabbi Irving F.1. Germany.106 Painted Machzor (High Holiday Prayer Book) leaf written in square Ashkenazi Hebrew script. Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts. f The motif of a harp by willow trees and flowing water that characterizes this souvenir from Palestine is a visual representation of Psalm 137.1 a. 67. David. Wimpel (Binder for Torah Scrolls made from a circumcision cloth) depicting a harp Bechhofen. 2. The first word embroidered on linen is the child’s name. Upon the willows in the midst thereof we hanged our harps.17 Ritual textile inscribed in Hebrew for a child named David. The first letter of the poem (aleph) is illuminated with gold leaf. & Mrs. Strauss collection. 76. 15th century Hebrew Judah L. so that each line beginning in black ends in red and vice-versa. 1742). Reichert. Siegfried S. Magnes Museum purchase through a gift from Mr. born on Monday.” Drawer Four The Shofar in the Text 1.Drawer Three Harps.35.306 3. 85. The page on recto includes a poetic insertion (piyyut) with incipit esa deyi ve-tzedek (“I will rise my thoughts in righteousness”). alternatively written in red and black ink. 1742 Embroidery on linen Judah L. attributed to Eleazar b. . Leon Mandelson. Mary Schussheim. containing text from the shofarot section of the Musaf Service of Rosh Ha-shanah. Each verse ends with the word shofar. 1-2: “By the rivers of Babylon. son of Yonah. 20th century Olive wood Gift of Mrs. 68. Souvenir desk set Jerusalem.21. Magnes Museum purchase. there we sat and we wept. when we remembered Zion. II 1. Painted manuscript leaf highlighting the word shofar Germany or Northern Italy. and the subsequent verses (arranged in a double alphabetical acrostic beginning with the letter alef) are written alternatively in red and black ink. [5]502 (corresponding to June 11. 9th of Sivan. illustrated by the adjacent depiction of a harp.

19th century Ink on parchment Judah L. Strauss collection.2. sidur tefilot be-shem adonay el ‘olam Manuscript Prayer Book with notation for sounding the shofar on the Jewish New Year Yemen. Shabbat. Siegfried S. and Festivals with an anonymous commentary and miscellaneous liturgical. paraliturgical and rabbinic texts.37 . 1797 Hebrew LIB 78.5. bound together with a selection from the Mishnah and a Tiqun Purim.2 Bound manuscript written in square Yemenite Hebrew script containing the text of the prayers for the weekdays.1. Page 85 recto includes the indications for sounding the shofar with a graphic representation of the shape of each sound. High Holy Days. 67. Germany. Magnes Museum purchase. Manuscript instructions for the ba’al toqea’ (person sounding the shofar) Attributed to Loeb Hertz Zunz (1775-1831) Frankfurt am Main.15. 3.