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# Grade 9 Geography of Canada Unit 2 Lesson 5 Introduction to Geographic Information System (GIS

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Objectives Introduced to GIS as a geographic tool Learn how to manipulate data in GIS Acquire new computer skills Time Two 75-minute periods Requirements GIS Handouts Unit 2 Lesson 5 GIS Instructions (attached) Computer Lab ArcView GIS Manual

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Activity GIS Introduction Using handouts and the textbook, learn about GIS (e.g., definitions, how it works, why it is useful) GIS Lab Work In the computer lab, follow the instructions to explore ArcView GIS as a tool of geography NOTE: Work to be submitted at the end of the class

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mean calculations and data summaries. A group of cells with the same value represents a feature.. Each cell in the structure has a value.. Statistical analysis performed in a GIS is similar to that done is programs such as Excel or QuattroPro. Grids represent entities Grids are made of cells. In a GIS you can move features around. change colours and modify the map layout. there are two common types of data models: (1) Vector and (2) Raster. lake) Raster Raster data is based on cells in a grid. These are all tasks that are commonly performed in a graphics program such a CorelDraw or Microsoft Paint. An example of a relational database is Microsoft Access. CAD Graphics .y coordinates. This technology relates to how the location and attribute data are linked together and shared inside a GIS.g.Technically speaking. a GIS consists of three components: Relational database .. A grid is comprised of cells organized into rows and columns. There is a value applied to each cell . A polygon is typically defined by a boundary consisting of one or more lines that form a closed loop (e.g. A point is stored as a single x. Types of GIS Data In a GIS.A database is a set of data that can share between different applications systems.y coordinate (e. lines and areas (or polygons). road) A polygon is a set of x. city) A line is a two or more x. Vector Vector data is a coordinate based data model where features are represented as points.g.The second component is the graphics component.y coordinates linked together (e.You can perform a variety of analytical tasks on the data such as standard deviation. Statistical analysis .

Select the view World and left double-click to open and display the information in this view. In a few words. describe what you see. In the Welcome ArcView GIS dialog box. Step 3. explore. You are in the qstart. ESRI. United States and the World. A menu opens. Step 6. A file called qstart. tables.apr should appear in the File Name box. A view is an interactive map that lets you display. Select qstart. query and analyze data. You should automatically be in a sub-directory called avtutor. qstart. Project files have . NOTES: The Project Window gives you access to all the items contained in the Project File.2) Step 2. select Open an Existing Project and click OK OR Go File. layouts and text. Program. what does the map tell you about different countries or regions of the world with respect to the population in 2000? .apr extensions.Grade 9 Geography . charts.Unit 2 Lesson 5 Introduction to Arcview GIS Computer Lab . Open ArcView (double click on the ArcView icon OR go Start. Step 4. Scroll down inside this sub-directory and select the folder arcview. That is. It is called the PROJECT WINDOW. It also allows you to create and add new items. A dialog box or window called OPEN PROJECT and a directory called ESRI should open. ArcView 3.apr has three views: Atlanta.Making and Printing a Map Step 1. Left double click on the folder arcview.apr Project Window. Step 5.apr and press OK. Open Project NOTES: A project is a file in which you store your work. You will see a map of the world highlighting the projected population of the world’s countries in Year 2000. It can contain views.

click on the small box beside the Life Expectancy title to turn that information on. Some of the observed countries have low projected populations and low life expectancy. In the legend box. Still other observed countries have high life expectancy and low projected populations. select a section of the map to expand. The area around the Life Expectancy information is highlighted in a box. From your understanding of GIS. click on rivers and lakes to show these features. Click on the ZOOM IN tool (+magnifying glass) in the Menu Bar. how does ArcView create these images? You can get closer. You will be looking at a world map highlighting the life expectancy of the world’s countries (Year is most likely 2000). Remove the check mark from beside Projected Population in 2000 and the second map Life Expectancy replaces the first map. What information is this map telling you? What areas have low life expectancy? What areas have low high expectancy? Compare your ideas between the maps. and then. Left click and hold inside the raised box. To toggle between maps. how does the GIS system store data? There is a second way to toggle between layers. Other observed countries have low life expectancy and high projected populations. Click on the check mark to remove it? What happens to your map? Can you explain how the GIS system is working and storing information? Step 8 – Now. You will note that the Projected Population in 2000 has a check mark in a small box next to the title. If you did not remove the check mark from beside Projected Population in 2000. Provide your thoughts. As . albeit faint. That map (or layer) is drawn immediately. look at the Scale reading in the upper right hand corner of the Menu Bar. The map has been coloured green for easy comparison with “Projected population in 2000”. repeat the process by dragging Projected Population in 2000 back on top. To prove it. For example. click beside the “Projected population in 2000” name. and drag the information above the Projected Population in 2000 information so that the Life Expectancy information is the top of the two layers AND it becomes the map. the second map did not appear. Watch closely.Step 7 – Stay in this view and EXPLORE the legend box to the left of the map. From this observation. how could a country have low projected populations and high life expectancy? …High population but low life expectancy? Take a few minutes to continue exploring this page. left click anywhere near the Life Expectancy title. In the box with the titles.