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Grade 9 Geography of Canada Unit 2 Lesson 5 Introduction to Geographic Information System (GIS

Objectives Introduced to GIS as a geographic tool Learn how to manipulate data in GIS Acquire new computer skills Time Two 75-minute periods Requirements GIS Handouts Unit 2 Lesson 5 GIS Instructions (attached) Computer Lab ArcView GIS Manual

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Activity GIS Introduction Using handouts and the textbook, learn about GIS (e.g., definitions, how it works, why it is useful) GIS Lab Work In the computer lab, follow the instructions to explore ArcView GIS as a tool of geography NOTE: Work to be submitted at the end of the class


You can ask questions about location (e. latitude and longitude) attribute information (e. and then uses a map to display the location information and it uses a table to store the attribute information.. charts.. and graphics to specific geographic locations for multimedia presentations Layout and print a map. air quality. the spatial and attribute information can be analyzed through the multiple layers of information. This system uses the power of the computer to answer geographic questions by arranging and displaying all kinds of data about places in a variety of ways (maps. elevation) can be added.Grade 9 Geography of Canada Unit 2 Lesson 5 Geographic Information System (GIS) Introduction GIS Definition: A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system designed for displaying.. analyzing. video.g. surficial geology.information about places on the planet. Display geographic information in the form of maps. With a GIS you can. human population) This information is stored in a computer in various databases.. water quantity.g.. .. relationships. A GIS links this information inside your computer. querying.g. and tables) based on questions and decisions made by people.g. other information (e. and details about places at different scales and in different map projections Perform statistical analysis and database functions Add data sets of your own creation and join data from outside sources to existing geographic areas Create your own geographic areas for mapping and analysis Link photos. The two types of information can be layered one on top of the other. On the “base map” of an area. table. As a result. chart. text. and tables Design simple to sophisticated "what-ifs" in the form of database and map queries Investigate patterns. charts. For every element of our world. all other descriptive information such as geology.g.. What provinces have population over 2 million people?). there are two kinds of descriptive information: location information (e. What provinces border Ontario?) or attributes (e. modifying. and storing spatial data -. and graphic images. graphs.

mean calculations and data summaries. A group of cells with the same value represents a feature.. Each cell in the structure has a value.. Statistical analysis performed in a GIS is similar to that done is programs such as Excel or QuattroPro. Grids represent entities Grids are made of cells. In a GIS you can move features around. change colours and modify the map layout. there are two common types of data models: (1) Vector and (2) Raster. lake) Raster Raster data is based on cells in a grid. These are all tasks that are commonly performed in a graphics program such a CorelDraw or Microsoft Paint. An example of a relational database is Microsoft Access. CAD Graphics .y coordinates. This technology relates to how the location and attribute data are linked together and shared inside a GIS.g.Technically speaking. a GIS consists of three components: Relational database .. A grid is comprised of cells organized into rows and columns. There is a value applied to each cell . A polygon is typically defined by a boundary consisting of one or more lines that form a closed loop (e.g. A point is stored as a single x. Types of GIS Data In a GIS.A database is a set of data that can share between different applications systems.y coordinate (e. lines and areas (or polygons). road) A polygon is a set of x. city) A line is a two or more x. Vector Vector data is a coordinate based data model where features are represented as points.g.The second component is the graphics component.y coordinates linked together (e.You can perform a variety of analytical tasks on the data such as standard deviation. Statistical analysis .

Select the view World and left double-click to open and display the information in this view. In a few words. describe what you see. In the Welcome ArcView GIS dialog box. Step 3. explore. You are in the qstart. ESRI. United States and the World. A menu opens. Step 6. A file called qstart. tables.apr should appear in the File Name box. A view is an interactive map that lets you display. Select qstart. query and analyze data. You should automatically be in a sub-directory called avtutor. qstart. Project files have . NOTES: The Project Window gives you access to all the items contained in the Project File.2) Step 2. select Open an Existing Project and click OK OR Go File. layouts and text. Program. what does the map tell you about different countries or regions of the world with respect to the population in 2000? .apr extensions.Grade 9 Geography . charts.Unit 2 Lesson 5 Introduction to Arcview GIS Computer Lab . Open ArcView (double click on the ArcView icon OR go Start. Step 4. Scroll down inside this sub-directory and select the folder arcview. That is. It is called the PROJECT WINDOW. It also allows you to create and add new items. A dialog box or window called OPEN PROJECT and a directory called ESRI should open. ArcView 3.apr has three views: Atlanta.Making and Printing a Map Step 1. Left double click on the folder arcview.apr Project Window. Step 5.apr and press OK. Open Project NOTES: A project is a file in which you store your work. You will see a map of the world highlighting the projected population of the world’s countries in Year 2000. It can contain views.

click on the small box beside the Life Expectancy title to turn that information on. Some of the observed countries have low projected populations and low life expectancy. In the legend box. Still other observed countries have high life expectancy and low projected populations. select a section of the map to expand. The area around the Life Expectancy information is highlighted in a box. From your understanding of GIS. click on rivers and lakes to show these features. Click on the ZOOM IN tool (+magnifying glass) in the Menu Bar. how does ArcView create these images? You can get closer. You will be looking at a world map highlighting the life expectancy of the world’s countries (Year is most likely 2000). Remove the check mark from beside Projected Population in 2000 and the second map Life Expectancy replaces the first map. What information is this map telling you? What areas have low life expectancy? What areas have low high expectancy? Compare your ideas between the maps. and then. Left click and hold inside the raised box. To toggle between maps. how does the GIS system store data? There is a second way to toggle between layers. Other observed countries have low life expectancy and high projected populations. Click on the check mark to remove it? What happens to your map? Can you explain how the GIS system is working and storing information? Step 8 – Now. You will note that the Projected Population in 2000 has a check mark in a small box next to the title. If you did not remove the check mark from beside Projected Population in 2000. Provide your thoughts. As . albeit faint. That map (or layer) is drawn immediately. look at the Scale reading in the upper right hand corner of the Menu Bar. The map has been coloured green for easy comparison with “Projected population in 2000”. repeat the process by dragging Projected Population in 2000 back on top. To prove it. For example. click beside the “Projected population in 2000” name. and drag the information above the Projected Population in 2000 information so that the Life Expectancy information is the top of the two layers AND it becomes the map. the second map did not appear. Watch closely.Step 7 – Stay in this view and EXPLORE the legend box to the left of the map. From this observation. how could a country have low projected populations and high life expectancy? …High population but low life expectancy? Take a few minutes to continue exploring this page. left click anywhere near the Life Expectancy title. In the box with the titles.

Step 11 – Click on the box labeled PROJECTION. the Lines of Latitude are NOT equally spaced. the distance increases between the Lines of Latitude. From the drop down menu Projection. The two themes show the same features (i. What does the changing scale indicate? NOTES: VIEW – As noted. The Themes at the top of the box are drawn on top of the Themes listed below. the order of the Themes is very important. In the View Properties dialog box. The default settings are Standard. but it may create other distortions from reality. The PROJECTION PROPERTIES dialog box opens. explore. and countries. we have examined the Projected Population in 2000 theme and the Life Expectancy theme. Change Standard to CUSTOM. A layer of information is called a THEME. your map should be one blue ocean. Distance Units and Projection. Projections of the World and Geographic. the scale ratio will decrease. As you move north or south from the Equator. Step 9 – The PROJECTION of the map can also be changed. When you are satisfied…and you know the steps inside-and-out. . In our work with the World View. it is a Mercator projection. the map is flat while the Earth is reality is a sphere.e. click OK. NOTES: In the Legend box. Step 10 – Select PROPERTIES. A map is a twodimensional representation of a three-dimensional object. a view is an interactive map that lets you display. world countries) but they display different information about the features. respectively. In this projection. Rather. In View / increase the magnification of your view. If the Oceans Theme is checked.. In this case. Any portrayal of the Earth on a flat surface creates distortions. Miles and Robinson. select the dropdown menu VIEW. Your map changes to a different projection. On the Menu bar. check out other projections such as Orthographic. To see this. query and analyze data. return to the default settings. Themes forming the background of your map are listed at the bottom of the Legend box. Earth is not a sphere. In this case. The default for this map is Meters. The VIEW PROPERTIES dialog box opens. change Robinson to MERCATOR and click OK. A view is made up of layers of geographically located information such as rivers. click all Themes but Oceans off. This projection may be more realistic of the distances in the north and south. cities. There is a name (World) and other information such as Map Units.

Move the cursor (hand) to a spot on the map near a corner of Africa. note the scale. place a check mark beside Life Expectancy. The CLASSIFICATION dialog box opens. While holding down the left mouse button. If activated properly. From . You will see that the theme is Life Expectancy and the symbol / colour and the value for each category of Life Expectancy. This may not provide enough information to make an effective decision about aid allocation. and then. If you make a mistake. With Life Expectancy highlighted (raised box). That action makes the Life Expectancy theme active. You can now add information to the features in this Theme. Increase the NUMBER OF CLASSES from five to ten and click OK. Step 14 – It seems all central Africa has the same life expectancy. drag the mouse until a box is formed that covers the area you want to enlarge. Step 15 – Click on the CLASSIFY button. while the north and south of Africa appear to have similar long life expectancies. The map should be green highlighting this information. Now that you have zoomed in. Remove the check mark from Projected Population in 2000 and. Step 16 – The colour may also have changed. release the mouse button to finish.MAKING A MAP OF AFRICA Step 12 – Zooming In Use the ZOOM IN tool on the Menu Bar to enlarge Africa. This button will take you back to where you were before you zoomed in. Also. left double click on Life Expectancy to open the LEGEND EDITOR dialog box. click on the ZOOM TO PREVIOUS EXTENT button. You will observe that the number of Life Expectancy categories has increased to ten. you can see clearly that some African countries have very low life expectancy compared to other countries in the world. Step 13 – MORE DETAILED DATA In the legend box. click on the words Life Expectancy. if it is not on. the theme will appear highlighted (raised up). You can pick the colour scheme you desire by clicking on the COLOR RAMPS drop down menu. You want to discover more about life expectancy.

Make sure the desired THEME is activated and highlighted. It is the table of data for this country. the codes are: . use the IDENTIFY tool on the Menu Bar. In this case. When you do this. You can now drag the label to any desired location on the map OR resize the label by selecting one of the corners and dragging the label larger. Step 21 – Looking at Features with your map To examine information about a Feature on your map. You want to identify at least two countries with Life Expectancy between 39 and 51 years. click on a country to view its database for the Life Expectancy Feature. To identify a country. and it is usually on the left side of the Menu. ArcView does this very effectively…because all the data and information are stored in the background. Move the cursor back to the label and click on the label once. The map and the associated Menu bar are now active. select the colour scheme you think works best for you. The IDENTIFY RESULTS dialog box will appear with the information linked in the GIS to that country. click on the POINTER tool on the Menu Bar. The Identify tool is the “I” in a circle. You can also close the Legend dialog box. click on the NAME of the Feature so it is activated and highlighted. you want Life Expectancy to the highlighted and active. The codes may be a little difficult to understand.your choices. First. In this case. Click on the Identify tool on the Menu Bar. Step 19 – Move the country label so it is easier to see and read. It is on the second row of the Menu Bar. The Pointer tool is a black arrow pointing in towards the top left corner of the computer. you must have your map the active page. Step 20 – To turn off the Pointer tool. Click on the country and the name of the country will appear inside a box framed by four handles. Click on WORLD so the bar is dark blue. When you are finished. The desired THEME should appear raised in the Legend box. Step 18 – Move the cursor to a country on the map you want to identify with a name. To move the label. move the cursor to any part of the map WITHOUT a label and click. On the map. If it is not raised. Your map changes. This tool looks like a price tag. click on APPLY. keep it simple and logical. you now realize you want the codes to mean something to all readers…so. What changes do you observe? Step 17 – You need to identify some countries with very low Life Expectancy. click on the LABEL tool along the Menu bar.

Try changing the Title so it describes the map information. Position the title by dragging it to a desired location. To change the font. a title.. A map is created in a box called LAYOUT 1 with your map. the adult working population) Life_exp is Life Expectancy Life_exp_f is Life Expectancy for females Repeat the step for other countries. Click on the POINTER TOOL on the Menu Bar. It is the T. Step 22 – PRINTING A MAP Close the IDENTIFY RESULTS dialog box and reactive the WORLD map. for the Title. Edit the Title by changing World to Life Expectancy in Africa and click OK. Click on a corner handle and drag it larger or smaller. you can resize. go to the WINDOW drop down menu on the Menu Bar and select SHOW SYMBOL WINDOW. Now. reformat or move the NORTH ARROW. A TEXT PROPERTIES dialog box appears. Select LAYOUT From the View drop down menu. To change the style. To resize the Legend. More on that in the next lesson. and then. you can enter more data…manually and electronically. As well. Click on the POINTER TOOL and click on the NORTH ARROW to move or resize. You can add your name. scale and North arrow. Likewise. Choose the ABC PALETTE BOX and select a new Title font. Click on the TEXT icon in the Menu Bar. The box with four handles appears. click anywhere on your map to make the TEXT .Pr_pop2000 is Projected Population in the Year 2000 P_0_14_89 is the Population between ages 0 and 14 in 1989 P_15_64_89 is the Population between ages 15 and 64 in 1989 (i. click on the POINTER TOOL and click on the Legend.e. double left click and select the desired arrow. click on the LAYOUT drop down menu and click on HIDE GRID. If you do not like the Grid Lines. The data changes to show the information the countries you select. a legend. The TEMPLATE Select LANDSCAPE and Press OK. double-click on your title (…in this case “World”) to select it. MANAGER dialog box appears. All the data are available to be loaded into the map as new Themes.

you have already come a long way. Hand in your work and your map with your name attached. Select PRINT SETUP and make sure the printing orientation is Landscape. yet. the action is to enlarge the map of Canada using the magnifying process. you can make a map in GIS. You may wish to resize or move it with the POINTER TOOL. You have made an ArcView map. Type in your name and click OK. select PRINT from the File menu and select OK. At Step 8. To print your map. . Your name will appear on your map. You have just begun to scratch the surface. CONGRATULATIONS. This is a very complicated and sophisticated geographic tool. select FILE on the Menu Bar.PROPERTIES dialog box appear. Next. Good luck If you complete this. As your last step OR you want more practice – Repeat the process to make a map of Canada.