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Energy Efficiency in the Meat Processing Industry
Opportunities for Process Integration


Department of Energy and Environment Heat and Power Technology CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden, 2005 Work performed at SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology

Energy Efficiency in the Meat Processing Industry Opportunities for Process Integration ANNA FRITZSON

 Anna Fritzson, 2005

Department of Energy and Environment Heat and Power Technology ISRN CTH-VOM-PB-09/05-SE ISSN: 1404-7098 Chalmers University of Technology SE-412 96 Göteborg Sweden Telephone Chalmers +46 (31) 772 10 00 Telephone SIK +46 (31) 335 56 00

Printed by Chalmers Reproservice Göteborg, Sweden 2005

Energy Efficiency in the Meat Processing Industry – Opportunities for Process Integration ANNA FRITZSON SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology and Department of Energy and Environment, Heat and Power Technology Chalmers University of Technology

There are a number of trends in the food industry that will make energy-related issues more important in food processing plants in the future. For example, the energy use in the plants is increasing due to a growing consumption of industrially processed food and a growing demand for a greater range of different products. These changes in customer behavior, together with raised energy prices, policy instruments and harder price competition, enhance the interest in saving energy in the food industry. In the first part of this thesis the potential to reduce energy-related costs and CO2 emissions in two existing modern slaughter and meat (SMP) plants was investigated using process integration methods. In the case studies the opportunities for extended heat-exchanging and heat pumping were examined. A potential to reduce external heating and cooling demands by using heat pumps was found using heat pinch analysis. In one of the studied plants installation of an additional heat pump was shown to reduce the external heat demand, excluding process steam, to almost zero. The use of a shaftwork targeting method in one of the studied plants shows a potential for reducing the electricity demand in the refrigeration systems of the plant by 10%. In the second part of the work the economic and technical potentials for reducing CO2 emissions and fuel-related costs in plants of different size and level of heat recovery were studied for different possible future energy markets. Different energy efficiency measures, such as extended heat integration, switching fuels in boilers, integration of heat pumps or a CHP plant, and an integrated energy utility system in an ecocyclic industrial park were examined in four fictitious plants. It was found that all measures are more or less advantageous in different future energy markets. However, heat integration and heat pumps are robust solutions that are profitable in all studied energy markets. The integration of a CHP plant was shown to be a profitable option for an SMP plant when the energy market develops towards a more sustainable state, especially when the plant is part of an ecocyclic industrial park. It was also concluded that the options studied in the second part of the thesis can save large amounts of CO2 emissions from the plants. The cheapest investment per kg CO2 reduction was shown to be a switch from fuel oil to natural gas in the boilers in the plants. Other efficient ways of reducing CO2 emissions is using wood chips instead of oil in boilers, extended heat recovery, and installation of heat pumps. Keywords: Process integration, heat pinch analysis, food processing, slaughter and meat processing, shaftwork, heat recovery, heat pump, combined heat and power


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T.. Anna Fritzson is the main author of the three appended papers. in press. T. T. Journal of Food Engineering. A. Energy efficiency in the slaughter and meat processing industry – opportunities for improvements in future energy markets. Montpellier. II. To be published in Proceedings of ICEF9 International Congress on Engineering and Food. and Berntsson. Thore Berntsson supervised the work with all three papers. Fritzson. Efficient energy use in a slaughter and meat processing plant – opportunities for process integration. I.. referred to in the text by their Roman numerals. 2004. 2005. 2005. v . and Vamling. Lennart Vamling supervised and contributed to the study presented in Paper I with some calculations. Berntsson. III. France.LIST OF PUBLICATIONS This thesis is based on the following papers.. L. Accepted for publication in Journal of Food Engineering. Energy conservation in the food industry using process integration – methodologies and case study. Fritzson. Fritzson. and Berntsson. A.. A.

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....................................................... 18 4................................................................. 9 ENERGY CONSERVATION SYSTEMS.................... 7 STEAM .....................3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP)..........6.........................2....................................................6 5............................................................................................................................................................1 Fuel ................... 33 vii ............ 19 HEAT PINCH ANALYSIS ........................................... 32 5.......1 3.....................2 ENERGY USE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY .....2 3...........................................3 4........................................ 16 4...4 3......2 Heat Pumps ................................ 1 1.................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................ 21 BATCH PINCH ANALYSIS ................................6............3 3....................................2 Manufacturing Food Industry ............................................. 11 4 PREVIOUS WORK ............................................ 27 SIMULATION AND THE USE OF HYSYS ........................6 INTRODUCTION .......4 5............................................................... 3 2 3 THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ............................. 29 ENERGY SCENARIOS .... 30 5 METHODOLOGY – TOOLS ........................1 Heat Integration.......................................................... 15 ENERGY EFFICIENCY STUDIES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY .................................6.............. 21 5................................................................................ 9 REFRIGERATION SYSTEM ...............................................................................1 4..............................................................................................................................................3 FOOD AND ENERGY .................... 2 OUTLINE OF THE THESIS........... 8 WATER.................................................................................................................2 Electricity ................. 5 ENERGY UTILITY SYSTEMS IN SLAUGHTER AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS ......1 5.......6..1 1........................................................................ 15 4.......................................3 5...................................................................... 10 3................................2 1........ 19 COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANTS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY .............................................................................................. 10 3.......................5 3.........................2 5..................................................................... 7 3............ 8 ELECTRICITY.......................................................6........................................................................................................................................................1 Continuous Food Processes ...................................................................................... 17 4.........................5 5....................4 HEAT PUMPS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS ............................................................................................................ 11 3.............................2.................................................................. 1 THE INDUSTRIAL BACKGROUND .......................................................... 25 SHAFTWORK TARGETING ..................................... 23 PROCESS INTEGRATION OF HEAT PUMPS AND CHP PLANTS..........................

..... 65 12 REFERENCES .............................................................6 RESULTS ...........................................................................................................................2 FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVING IN SMP PLANTS – PAPER III ..........................................1 Introduction .......................1..2.............2............ 67 viii ................................ 53 6................................ 38 6.................. 46 Introduction .............................2 6............... 59 10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................2................................................ 55 CONCLUSIONS ...............................................................2 Reduction in External Heat Demand in SMP Plants – Papers I and II ................. 37 6..................2.......................................................................................................................3 Reduction of Shaftwork Need in an SMP Plant – Paper II............................................ 61 11 NOMENCLATURE AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................6 7 8 9 DISCUSSION ................... 37 6....... 51 Summary ...................2.......... 47 Ecocyclic Industrial Park ............................................1...1........................................................4 6. 57 FUTURE OUTLOOK ........................................................ 50 CO2 Emissions .......................................1 PROCESS INTEGRATION CASE STUDIES IN SMP PLANTS ........5 6..........................................1 6....2............................................................................................................................................... 37 6.3 6....................................................................................... 43 6...................................... 46 Non-Integrated Plants ........................................................................................... 49 Integrated Plants ......................................................

20% of the total energy use in society can be attributed to the food system (SEPA. The production of packaging material. Decreasing the 1 . 1997). In an American study (Heller and Keoleian. especially as energy prices probably will increase in the future. Processing of food uses 17-20%. and distribution and retail 20-29% of the energy consumption in the Swedish food system. is the largest user of energy in the Swedish food chain. In fact. increased energy efficiency or alternative ways of producing heat in a plant can be important for the profitability of a plant. The energy use arises in all parts of the life cycle of food products. processing 16% and transport 14%. restaurants and the catering trade. Even though the industrial energy use is not the largest part of the energy consumption in the food chain. The consumption sector. 1997).1 FOOD AND ENERGY The food system accounts for a significant share of the total energy use in society. including households.INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. the commercial food service and food retail are also part of the food system. 2000). agricultural production 21%. 3845% (Uhlin. agriculture 15-19%. home refrigeration and preparation were shown to consume 31% of the energy use in the United States food system.

In addition to an increasing production of industrially processed food. through increased warm water usage due to increased cleaning.CHAPTER 1 energy use in food plants has previously not been highly prioritized in Swedish food industry. These changes in customer behavior. 2002) out of the approximately 160 TWh used by all industry in 2000 (EUROSTAT. this does not seem to be the case 2 . The sugar industry and drink production plants are particularly fuel-demanding. together with raised energy prices. the dairy and cheese and the slaughtering and meat processing industries are particularly electricity-demanding. The consumption of industrially processed food is increasing in Sweden – see Eidstedt. increases energy use in the plants e. 1.75 TWh fuel and electricity (Statistics Sweden. which creates economic incentives for industry to reduce fossil fuel use and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. the food processing plants used approximately 5. as the plants have concentrated on their core business of making food. Additionally. for example. This leads to a larger energy use in the food processing plants. For individual plants. not including fuel for transports (SEPA. In practice. 2005). Currently. The overall energy use in Swedish food processing plants consists on average of 45% electricity and 55% purchased fuels. however. 1997). there is an increased focus on reducing greenhouse gases and saving fossil fuels in society through different policy instruments. Svensson and Wikberger (2004) – as well as in other countries: see for example Olsson (2003). There are also a number of trends in the food industry that will make energyrelated issues more important in food processing plants in the future. Nybrant and Ohlsson. policy instruments and harder price competition from a more global market enhance the interest in saving energy in the food industry. Consumers want a greater range of different products. As the demand grows for products that can be prepared quickly and simply. In Sweden. in turn. the food processing industry carries out a higher level of processing and packaging combined with cooling and freezing. the larger units might be expected to result in lower energy consumption per unit of produced meat product at the plant. This.g. and electricity prices have historically been low in the Swedish industry. 2005). there is also a trend in the European countries towards fewer and larger slaughter and meat processing (SMP) plants. Mattsson. Within the food industry. while the energy usage in households is changed and to some degree transferred to the industry (Sonesson. such as CO2 permit trading. there is a growing demand for greater flexibility in the food processing plants.2 THE INDUSTRIAL BACKGROUND The food industry consumes large amounts of energy both because of its size and because of the amount of energy-demanding processes that are normally used.

1. A presentation of previous energy studies in different branches of the food processing industry is made in Chapter 4 and a description of the methodologies used.INTRODUCTION (European Commission. such as energy. Other general trends which may influence the future consumption of resources in the slaughtering industry include increasing demand for better food safety. The need to improve the working environment affects the energy use in slaughtering plants through. as plant sizes increase there is an increased potential for saving energy. for example. have been studied. Still.3 OUTLINE OF THE THESIS Chapter 1 gives a background to trends and energy use in the Swedish food industry. increased automation of processes in the plant (European Commission. The results from the papers included in the thesis are presented in Chapter 6. such as water use. 2003b). In Chapters 7 and 8 the results in and the conditions for this work are 3 . raw materials and process equipment. and thereby decreasing the CO2 emissions associated with energy use in the plants – by means of. process integration methods are used to find the potential to save on energy-related costs and CO2 emissions in modern existing SMP plants. for example. Implementation of process integration methods in different sectors of industry has shown a large potential for fuel savings. or a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. In Chapter 2. The profitability and CO2 reduction potential for energy efficiency measures that can be made in an SMP plant are also studied and compared for different possible energy markets. extended internal heat exchange. The growing requirement of good eating quality can lead to increased need for cooling. but recently other parameters. the objectives and system boundaries of this work are presented and in Chapter 3 the energy utility systems in SMP plants are described. In this thesis. is made in Chapter 5. 2003b). which leads to a higher intensity of cleaning and disinfection operations. as the control of chilling processes can improve tenderness. installation of a heat pump. 2002). Process integration methods can be used when designing and retrofitting industrial processes to obtain a complete plant with optimal use of resources. as well as a literature review of the methods. ranging from individual processes of total sites. None of these trends are discussed further in this thesis. Process integration is defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as “Systematic and general methods for designing integrated production systems. The focus of the methods has traditionally been on efficient energy use (heat pinch analysis). with special emphasis on the efficient use of energy and reducing environmental effects” (Gundersen.

Paper III describes four different fictitious SMP plants with different production sizes and different external heating and cooling demands. In Paper II the potential for decreasing external heating and cooling demands at another SMP plant is examined. where further research and work are suggested. changing fuel in the boiler. In Paper I process integration methods are described and the potential for decreasing external heating and cooling demand by increased heat integration or heat pumping is examined at an SMP plant. 4 . The thesis is based on three papers describing energy efficiency measures in the SMP industry. A future outlook is given in Chapter 9. The economic profitability and the CO2 emission reduction potential are studied and compared for different energy investment projects: increased heat integration. and a combined heat and power plant. The papers are included in the thesis. The potential for reducing the electricity demands in the refrigeration systems in the plant is also studied in Paper II. The comparison is made for four different future energy market parameter sets.CHAPTER 1 discussed and conclusions are drawn. heat pumping.

which means changes in transportation of both animals for slaughter and finished products. ♦ A further objective has been to study and compare the profitability and CO2 reduction potential for energy efficiency measures that can be made in an SMP plant for different possible energy markets.THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 2 THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY In slaughter and meat processing (SMP) plants. For example. The primary aim was to use existing Swedish SMP plants as case studies to examine the energy utility systems in such plants. However. without changing the food process or decreasing the quality of the food product. and for reducing CO2 emissions. Some of the changes discussed in this thesis have an impact on the energy use in other parts of the life cycle of a food product than industry. the aim has been to use process integration methods to study the potential for reducing 5 . only the energy use in industry is considered here. one trend described is increased size of plants. animals are slaughtered and the meat is butchered and packaged or processed in the meat processing part of the plant. and thereby energy-related costs. In the case studies. ♦ The main objective of the thesis was to study the SMP industry to find and quantify the potential for saving external energy.

using a shaftwork targeting method. Another aim was to examine systematically. and switching to fuels with lower CO2 emissions. The intention was also to study the economic and technical potential for reducing CO2 emissions and fuel-related costs in plants of different size and level of energy savings for different possible future energy markets. 6 . and an integrated energy utility system together with an adjacent food plant in an ecocyclic industrial park. increased component energy efficiency. increased heat recovery. There are several ways to reduce CO2 emissions in a plant e.g. using heat pinch analysis.e. An additional the aim has been to acquire a broader view of energy utility systems in SMP plants.CHAPTER 2 external heating and cooling demands by increasing heat integration or installing heat pumps in a systematic way. i. heat pumping of waste heat. The purpose in this thesis was to consider all of these options except for increased component energy efficiency. the potential for reducing shaftwork and thereby electricity demand in refrigeration systems in existing SMP plants. integration of combined heat and power (CHP). currently and in an economy more conscious of climate change.

The warm water is used primarily for cleaning purposes. rapid chilling of the slaughtered animal. In the meat processing part of the plant the process differs greatly depending on which kinds of products are produced. melting of fat. Common steps for all kinds of slaughter are dressing. Common important processing steps are 7 . and (when slaughtering pigs) the singeing oven. Electricity use is largest in the cooling and freezing compressors and other engines. In the slaughterhouse a large part of the energy from fuel is used to heat water.1 INTRODUCTION Most of the larger Swedish slaughterhouses have some kind of meat processing part including production of meat (e.g. The slaughter and meat processing parts have fairly different characteristics from both a process and an energy standpoint. curing and smoking) and production of meat products (e. Other areas that consume fair amounts of fuel are heating of buildings. freezing. formed meats and meat-based ready meals). the energy use in a slaughterhouse is different for different types of animals. In addition. and cold storage. sausages.g. preservation of meat (e.ENERGY UTILITY SYSTEMS IN SLAUGHTER AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS 3 ENERGY UTILITY SYSTEMS IN SLAUGHTER AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS 3. cutting and deboning and fat removal).g.

such as boiling equipment or frying equipment. A normal example is recovery of heat from the refrigeration system both directly and by means of heat pumps. approximately 10°C.2 STEAM The steam in a slaughter and meat processing (SMP) plant is used to increase the temperature of water and. while 17% of the total heat demand was acquired through heat recovery (European Commission. warm water. Since the use of heated water varies. 3. Heating of water. is mainly used for disinfection of equipment. during running of tap water and washing of equipment. water at approximately 60°C is needed for scalding. Hot water. Such “iced water” has a temperature of approximately 1°C and is used as cooling medium in some of the processes. other water temperatures can be needed in the plant. In many cases. In a studied Danish cattle slaughterhouse. it is difficult to keep 8 .3 WATER The largest heat demand in an SMP plant is the need for heated water. where the heating needs to be done with steam. The steam is also used for process needs. There is also cold water which is used without changing its temperature.CHAPTER 3 those in boiling vessels. roasting ovens and cooling and freezing of meat and meat products. 54% of the energy consumed for heating was used to produce warm water. Additionally. In the SMP plants in this thesis all fresh water that is to be used for hot and warm water is preheated by heat recovery. during the colder part of the year. e. five temperature levels of water are used. when slaughtering pigs. approximately 55°C. electricity or LPG. 2003b). Some kind of direct and indirect heat recovery is common at least in Swedish slaughterhouses. heating of buildings and cooling and freezing compressors are the largest energy users. smoking cabinets. 2002b). Warm water is also used for comfort heating of offices etc. in plants with heat recovery. 3. is primarily used for cleaning and tap water. the specific energy use is lower for slaughter than for meat processing (Nyström and Franck. Generally. to heat the water that has been preheated by heat recovery to its final temperature. The temperature of the steam in the plants is approximately 180°C. The steam in the SMP plants studied in this thesis is produced in boilers operating on fuel oil. Some of the water brought into the plant is chilled by the refrigeration system. For example.g. approximately 85°C. approximately 40°C is mainly used for hygienic purposes such as for sinks where employees wash their hands.

3.4 ELECTRICITY In most SMP plants. brine or glycol heat exchangers are used. The largest consumers of electricity in the plant are usually the compressors in the refrigeration plants. several tanks for heated water are needed at the plants. This means that the steam production has to match temperature and heat quantity demands when large volumes of heated water are needed but little or no recovered heat is available. The SMP plants studied in this thesis both have two multi-stage ammonia refrigeration plants to meet the cooling demands.5 REFRIGERATION SYSTEM In an SMP plant there are many different cooling needs. electricity is bought from the national grid and used for equipment such as compressors in the refrigeration systems.g. The outline of a two-stage refrigeration plant is shown in Figure 1. heat pumps. storage areas need refrigeration. 2003b). cleaning at night when there is no production. and there is a need for cold storage of frozen products. Background information from one of the plants studied in this thesis shows that more than 35% of the electricity used in the plant is used in the refrigeration plant (excluding electricity needs for the heat pumps). As most of the heated water is needed when there is little recovery heat available. on-site transport and lighting. 3. need cooling for hygienic reasons. In the areas of the plant where ammonia is not permitted. e. 9 . such as butchering areas. compressed-air compressors and other engines.ENERGY UTILITY SYSTEMS IN SLAUGHTER AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS an even temperature of the water. Numerous areas. warm products from the meat processing plant and slaughtered animals need to be cooled fast. Data from a Danish cattle slaughterhouse show that approximately 45% of its electricity consumption was in the refrigeration plant (European Commission.

monitoring of the plants. good housekeeping. This can mean.CHAPTER 3 CONDENSER SUPERHEATER FLASH CHAMBER REFRIGERATORS -10°C FLASH CHAMBER REFRIGERATORS -40°C Figure 1 – A two stage refrigeration plant.6 ENERGY CONSERVATION SYSTEMS There are several ways of reducing the external heat and cooling demand in SMP plants. 3. a defroston-demand system that initiates defrosting in the freezing rooms when needed. In the SMP plants studied in this thesis. For more information about other ways to reduce heat and cooling demands. 3. curtains at regularly used doors. The 10 .6. Heat integration and heat pumps to reduce fuel and cooling needs are used in the Swedish plants studied in this thesis. for example. streams that need to be cooled can be used to warm streams that need to be heated – so-called heat integration. and good maintenance and control (European Commission. see for example Smith (2005). and instead of using cold utility to meet all the cooling demands in the plants. several streams are integrated and a rather small part of the heat demand is met by steam. 2003b). These ways of reducing energy consumption are not included in this thesis.1 Heat Integration Instead of using steam to meet all the heat demands. lights and motors in refrigerated areas. It is reported that most refrigeration plants in the European Union can be improved to save up to 20% of their energy consumption by surveying the plants. and avoidance of heat sources such as personnel.

The condensed ammonia is brought back to the refrigeration systems where the pressure is lowered and the liquid is distributed to the freezing and cooling rooms in the refrigeration plant where it is evaporated and compressed. 3. 3. In this thesis. natural gas and two types of biofuels are considered in the studies. The ammonia is condensed in superheaters and condensers.6. Heavy fuel oil. Another CHP option that may be interesting for the food industry. The SMP plants studied in this thesis both have two heat pumps.6. two CHP alternatives for an SMP plant are investigated: a steam turbine operated together with a boiler.ENERGY UTILITY SYSTEMS IN SLAUGHTER AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS integrations currently made in the plants are heat recovery from cooling of compressed-air compressors and refrigeration compressors.2 Heat Pumps In SMP plants the condenser heat from the refrigeration plants is considerable. In 11 .3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) A combined heat and power (CHP) plant can be designed in many ways. SUPERHEATER COMPRESSOR CONDENSER FLASH CHAMBER COMPRESSORS REFRIGERATION AND COOLING ROOMS Figure 2 – An outline of one of the heat pumps in the studied SMP plants. heating water for cleaning and comfort heating. Therefore. The heat excess in the refrigeration systems in an SMP plant is usually large enough for installing several heat pumps to cover a part of the heat demand of the plant. a gas engine. and. installation of heat pumps using this heat as a heat source. and a gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). is not considered. is an interesting option for most plants. The heat pumps all use compressed ammonia from the refrigeration systems and compress it to higher pressures. heating water. The heat recovered is used to warm water for use in the plant or as heating of buildings. heat recovery from the refrigeration plants in condensers and superheaters. A steam turbine can be operated with various types of boilers and fuels. see Figure 2. finally. heat recovery from the singeing flue gases.

Expanded steam from the turbine heats water in a condenser and the produced electricity is either used in the plant or sold to the electricity grid. but is not considered in this thesis since it entails a more complicated technical solution and therefore a larger investment cost. The HRSG can be supplementary-fired with natural gas to be able to meet all the heat demand at the plant. STACK STEAM TO PLANT FUEL BOILER STEAM TO TURBINE ELECTRICITY CONDENSATE WARM WATER TO PLANT Figure 3 – An outline of a steam turbine used in the thesis. A steam turbine with steam extraction is technically possible. see Figure 4. see Figure 3. there is no need for an additional boiler to produce steam. The exhaust gas from the turbine is cooled down to 130°C in the HRSG. The gas turbine unit considered is a natural gas-driven gas turbine with an HRSG that produces steam by using the heat in the exhaust gases from the turbine. In this way. 12 .CHAPTER 3 the steam turbine design considered in this thesis the steam produced in the boiler either goes through the turbine or is reduced to the pressure needed for process steam. STACK NATURAL GAS WATER HRSG STEAM GT ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY AIR EXHAUST NATURAL GAS Figure 4 – An outline of a gas turbine with an HRSG.

Larger turbines generally have higher isentropic efficiency. Increased heat integration or heat pumping in a plant decreases the heat demand in the plant and therefore also the possibility to install a CHP plant economically. 13 . A higher admission pressure to a steam turbine also gives a larger isentropic efficiency. only rather simple steam or gas turbines with relatively low efficiencies are available.ENERGY UTILITY SYSTEMS IN SLAUGHTER AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS With such relatively small heat demands as in the studied SMP plants.

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Rao. bakery. The use of some 15 . natural gas and LPG. In a study of energy use in the Swedish food industry. Different energy-demanding operations are used for different food products and include disinfection. smoking. 1998). For example. beverage and sugar industries are large users of energy. Drescher. Rode and Kozak.PREVIOUS WORK 4 PREVIOUS WORK 4. dairy. According to Drescher et al (1997) the meat industry is the third most energy-demanding sector of the food industry in the United States. energy usage for heating accounts for almost 30% while cooling and freezing use approximately 15% of the total energy input in the American food industry (Okos. It was also shown that the energy use per kg slaughtered animal in the SMP industry in 2002 was only 60% of what it was in 1980. They found that the slaughter and meat processing (SMP). frying. followed by fuel oil. cooling/freezing. boiling and baking. Almost 60% of the energy demand in SMP plants is met with electricity.1 ENERGY USE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY The food industry is dependent on energy in the form of electricity and heat for different types of unit operations. Nyström and Franck (2002b) identified the most energy-intensive segments of the food industry.

the industrial energy use in the life cycle of the semi-prepared and ready-made meals represented a larger part of the total energy use than was the case for the home-made meal. energy efficiency in industry and households. the dominating energy consumer in the life cycle of the product was agriculture. The discussion concentrated on new processing techniques but also energy accounting methods. However. the energy use in industry was 26% of the life cycle energy use of the product. The raw material has caused a substantial environmental impact on its way to industry. semi-prepared and ready-made) was quantified with life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. For the semi-prepared meal consisting chiefly of chicken and potatoes. energy-saving techniques in the food industry became an interesting topic. Nybrant and Ohlsson (2005) the environmental impact of three meatball meals prepared differently (homemade. In her studies. Heller and Keoleian (2000) estimated that 26% of edible food in the US is wasted along the life cycle of the food products. there is a lot of energy that can be saved in agriculture. for example. packaging and residue treatment. Thus. Berlin (2002. every piece of lost food has caused an environmental impact that must be carried by the remaining food. This also indicates that the raw material efficiency in the rest of the food chain (industry. Mattsson. see 16 . For the semi-prepared meatball meal. Industry (26%). important factors for the energy consumption were raw material utilization. while agriculture accounted for only 18%. The differences between the total emissions and between the energy uses for the preparation of the meals were shown to be small. In a study by Sonesson. making each kg of food consumed environmentally “more expensive”. In a similar study. consumers’ home transports (16%) and packaging (11%) were also found to contribute significantly. accounting for 33% of the energy use. retail and household. 4. retail and households) is important. 2005) conclude that identifying and minimizing the losses of raw material in the process decrease the economic and environmental cost without affecting the final product.CHAPTER 4 heat integration and heat pumps is common in the SMP plants communicated within the study.2 ENERGY EFFICIENCY STUDIES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY In the 1970s when the cost of oil increased. The difference in energy use between the chicken meal and the meatball meal is due to the larger energy demand for raising cattle. When agriculture uses the most energy in the life cycle of a meat product. For both the meatball and the chicken meals. Sonesson and Davies (2005) compared the environmental impact of different meals consisting of chicken.

different options for energy cost reduction were evaluated. dairies and breweries that are similar to the continuous chemical process industry where the pinch technology was developed. The payback periods for heat recovery. Relatively few studies have been published in the part of the food industry where the production is mainly batchwise and related to the manufacturing industry. 1998). cogeneration and heat pumping in the plant were compared and it was found that extended heat recovery was the most profitable measure and that it had a payback period of less than one year. In a heat pinch analysis study of an American wet corn milling plant producing high-fructose corn syrup. 1997). A heat pinch analysis of parts of a US cheese plant is described in a paper by Zehr. a heat exchange system in a drying part of the plant is shown to produce significant savings in energy costs. A heat pinch analysis in a Swedish dairy showed several opportunities for reducing the external heat demand in the 17 . Additionally. Most of them. Ravgnani. A few examples of process integration studies performed in continuous food process plants as well as in food processing plants with production similar to that in the manufacturing industry are presented below. After the introduction of heat pinch analysis. The use of heat pinch analysis throughout the whole design phase when building a new edible-oil processing factory in the UK reduced the energy use by 35% and a payback period of less than three years was obtained (Van den Bergh Oils Ltd. 1991).5-3 years) were also shown (Nagevicius and Mikaliunas. several scientific papers describing case studies using this method in the food industry have been published. Shah and Eastwood (1987) showed how heat pinch analysis can find a potential to reduce the process heating bill by 24% at a brewery through better integration of process heat sources and heat sinks. a large reduction potential for cooling (97% reduction potential) and heating demand (48% reduction potential) is found.1 Continuous Food Processes Using heat pinch analysis in a Brazilian soybean extraction plant. see Chapter 5. Cardoso and da Silva found a large potential to save energy (2001). 4. describe industries such as sugar refineries. Mitchell.2. however. In a study in a Lithuanian dairy. Through composite curves of an evaporation system. Reinemann et al (1997). To read more about heat pinch analysis. process modification. some savings with short payback periods (1. It was also found that by studying the whole plant. an existing heat pump could have been installed in a more profitable way (McMullan. Spriggs.PREVIOUS WORK Singh (1978). rather than the processing industry represented by the SMP industry in this thesis. The analysis for the process shows the possibility of integrating a CHP plant based on a natural gas engine with an estimated payback period of three years.

Process-integration thinking in a chocolate factory in Lithuania (Akelaitis. A larger energysaving potential is also found if some of the process temperatures are changed to some extent. in addition to an enhanced CHP scheme. 2004). In 1995. Chadderton (1995) showed that heat pinch analysis can be a useful design tool for meat plants. 1992) as well as a 9% energy reduction potential in an Indian sugar factory (Ram and Banerjee.2. During weekends this can save around half of the electricity use in the plant. Three plants of typical international production sizes are considered and it is found that in the largest plant the payback period of a heat pump is less than two years. 2003).CHAPTER 4 plant. 2002a). a heat pinch analysis study in a Swedish sugar mill is shown to find energy efficiency measures saving approximately 10% of the current energy demand at the plant. Chmiel and Clemens (1997) show in their study of the German meat industry that money can be saved by trying to operate during off-hours when energy costs are low. Similarly. however. Most of these savings. Several heat pinch analysis studies have found energysaving potential in the sugar industry. Bowater (1990) analyzes whether there is an economic advantage to use the waste heat from a refrigeration plant in a meat processing plant. In a report edited by Wamsler (2001). The study resulted in a biogas plant using waste products from the dairy and reducing the fuel oil demand by 2000 m³ per year as well as the load on the municipal sewage treatment plant (Nyström and Franck. A few examples of energy savings in the meat industry can also be presented.2 Manufacturing Food Industry An energy investigation at a relatively large ready-made meal producer in Sweden has shown ways to conserve energy such as recovering heat from compressed-air compressors (Gierow. in a sugar refinery in the UK (Sinclair. all with an estimated payback period of less than one year. Energy-saving options were found. The possibility of 18 . 1998) lead to considerable economic savings. Significant savings in utilities were found in hypothetical beef and sheep meat plants in New Zealand. steam and power costs are major cost elements and CHP plants are common. In the sugar industry. 4. come from improvement of the use of utilities such as repair of cooling towers and insulation of pipes. Herbert. such as extended internal heat recovery and installation of a heat pump. It is shown that it is profitable to invest in insulation of freezing and refrigeration rooms and by installing double doors preventing warm air from entering the refrigerated rooms. Anderson and Buhot et al (1984) describe how electricity can be saved in an Australian slaughterhouse by operating the refrigeration plant intermittently instead of continuously.

4 COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANTS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY In the Swedish food industry. a few examples of papers describing this are presented.8 years respectively. 2002). Similarly. 4. 4. depending largely on the operating time of the installation. 2004). The payback periods calculated in these studies cannot be directly correlated with current payback periods since the electricity prices have been considerably increased since then. 1985). Already in 1985 two heat pumps installed in an edible-oils plant and in a dairy production plant. an energy investigation at a Swedish readymade meal producer has shown that it is profitable to install a heat pump also using heat excess from the refrigeration plants (Gierow. finding that there is a potential of reducing the need for utilities. Petersen and Qvale. 2002) and presents a case study using this method from a Danish chicken processing plant (Dalsgård. A potential for a heat recovery system in the chicken processing plant producing hot water is found with an estimated payback period of 2. The payback periods for these installations were found to be 2. Dalsgård proposes a simplified heat pinch analysis for medium-sized plants (Dalsgård. In the rest of Europe. but to design a simple network rather quickly without losing too much opportunity for energy savings.36 years respectively) for heat pumps using condenser heat from the refrigeration systems as a heat source. Munkøe and Qvale. Rowles (1986) described the installation of a heat pump in a Canadian poultry processing plant with a payback of 1. were described (Wright and Steward. It also requires the person carrying out the study to have experience with similar studies. Both cases show an acceptable payback period (1. Streams that are considered unimportant are discarded and the objective of the studies is not to reach the best economic solution. both in Canada.7 years. Dalsgård suggests that the process should be divided into sub-problems that are optimized separately.3 HEAT PUMPS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS The use of heat pumps in the food processing industry is quite common.PREVIOUS WORK introducing heat pumps is also investigated in the sheep plant.2 years. a poultry slaughterhouse and in an ice cream factory.25 and 3. Below. CHP plants exist almost solely in the sugar industry. CHP plants are commonly applied in the sugar 19 . Korfitsen and Kristensen (1998) show the potential for installing ammonia heat pumps in two Danish plants.3 and 4. With this method important matches may be lost and sub-optimization can be made since integration is only made in subsystems.

The electricity demand of the CHP plant is the limiting factor for the size of the turbine and the payback period is calculated to be about 5 years. Calderan. 20 . In addition. a fruit processing plant and a large cheese plant. according to Colonna and Gabrielli (2003).CHAPTER 4 industry (European Commission. In the US. CHP plants are “rather common” in the rest of the European food industry. 2003). some installations of trigeneration plants that use steam for cooling as well as for power production have been introduced in plants in Europe (Colonna and Gabrielli. gas turbine plants in the food industry are reported by Axford and Bailey (1992) for large cold warehouses. This difference compared to Sweden is probably due to generally larger plant sizes and historically higher electricity prices in the rest of Europe. Spiga and Vestrucci (1992) describe a model of a CHP plant including a gas turbine with a waste heat recovery unit to be installed in an Italian poultry plant. 2003a) and.

The concept was developed into an industrial technology by Bodo Linnhoff and his group at UMIST in Manchester in the 1980s. To read more about the basic aspects of process integration methods as well as some of the recent and advanced elements of these methods. it is possible to identify appropriate changes in the core process conditions that can have an impact on energy savings. the so-called energy targets.1 HEAT PINCH ANALYSIS Heat pinch analysis is the single most important process integration concept and the one that originally gave birth to the field.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS 5 METHODOLOGY – TOOLS The focus of process integration methods has traditionally been on efficient energy use. see Gundersen (2002). Some questions that can be answered by pinch analysis are: What are the minimal external heating. 5. Using heat pinch analysis. The methodology is based on thermodynamic principles.and cooling demands. for a particular process? What is the maximal heat recovery through internal heat exchangers? How should a heat exchanger network be constructed so that internal heat-exchanging is optimized? 21 . and this is also the case in the present thesis.

e. These intervals are plotted consecutively with temperature on the y-axis and load on the x-axis. In Figure 5 a simple GCC is shown. It is also important to find the limitations that exist in the energy flows in the system. Some examples of these graphs are Composite Curves (CC) and the Grand Composite Curve (GCC). temperature intervals with negative or positive loads are created. Streams that need to be heated (cold streams) or cooled (hot streams) are identified and. see Figure 5. any heat pinch analysis should separate the temperature demands that are crucial for the process. the minimal external heating and cooling demands. with these in mind. The load for hot streams is added as a negative number. For example. When constructing a GCC. the temperature of the water being used for hygienic reasons. The aim of study should be well defined so that a method which is appropriate for that aim can be chosen and an appropriate level of detail is chosen for the study. the loads from the streams in the interval are added together. the amount of heat that can be exchanged internally. In each interval. t (°C) 200 Minimal external heating demand 150 Heat available 100 Heat needed Pinch 50 temperature Minimal external cooling demand 0 0 20 40 60 80 Load (kW) 100 Figure 5 – A GCC for a process. The pinch temperature is seen where the curve touches the y-axis. the hot and cold streams from the process are divided into temperature intervals. In this way. In this way targets for energy saving can be set prior to the design of the heat exchanger network for the process. and the pinch temperature. The heat pinch analysis starts with the heat and material balance for the process. 22 . graphical representations of the energy flows of a process can be produced.g. The GCC shows the size of the demands at the different temperatures of the process.CHAPTER 5 Before performing a heat pinch analysis it is important to define the studied system. from those that can be allowed to vary.

This makes batch processes more difficult to heat-integrate than continuous processes. there is a net heat deficit and external heating is needed. Additionally. There are a number of different methods for identifying the energy target for a batch process. As a consequence. the difference between them is the potential saving. which creates difficulties in data gathering. no external cooling above the pinch temperature where there is a net heat deficit. using heat pinch analysis.2 BATCH PINCH ANALYSIS Heat pinch analysis was developed as a method for continuous processes. This potential saving exists because streams in the plant are heated or cooled against the three “pinch rules”: no external heating below the pinch temperature where there is a net heat surplus.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS The pinch divides the process into two separate parts. Contrary to the heat sources. i. The existing steam consumption is compared with the minimal steam consumption for that process. the demands in the plants vary. warm water for cleaning. In the food industry.e. energy is only a small part of the total cost of production and is not considered a core business. but also with the production mix. In the part below the pinch temperature there is a net surplus of heat that needs to be removed by cooling the streams. The area of heat recovery in batch production is more complicated since the process parameters for batch processes are time-dependent. and no heating across the pinch temperature. one above and one below the pinch temperature. There are both methods that use temperature as the major constraint. many food processing plants do not submeter their energy bills. It can be difficult to use all available heat sources for heat recovery as they are usually not continuous and are only available during production times. In other words. Since energy savings in one part of a plant are counterproductive if they lead to an equal or larger energy increase in another part of the plant. not only with the seasons and during the day. In the part above the pinch temperature. the Time Average Model.g. the Time Slice Model and Cascade Analysis. and methods that use time as the major 23 . Batchwise production is another characteristic feature of food production which complicates energy recovery. in a food processing plant there are several difficulties that need to be overcome. the heat sinks at the site usually occur when there is little or no production. e. 5. the transfer of heat from a hot batch stream to a cold one is constrained not only by temperature (the hot stream must have a higher temperature than the cold stream it is supposed to heat) but also by time (the hot and cold streams must coincide). e. it is important to include the whole site in a process integration study. When performing process integration studies. and therefore limited data on energy are available.g.

or to a later time interval via indirect heat exchange using storage. since heating and cooling duties are “time-averaged” over a convenient period. This is done for all the temperature intervals in the process. the TAM gives energy targets that might not be achievable. e. i.CHAPTER 5 constraint. The heat recovery is considered separately in each time interval. Therefore. The Time Average Model (TAM) described by Linnhoff. Composite curves and a grand composite curve are drawn showing when indirect heat recovery is needed and indicating the total heat recovery for the process. The target obtained can be used as an absolute lowest level and can point to the potential for improving energy efficiency. the Time Average Model is used. the batch cycle is divided into time intervals where each interval is limited by the time at which a batch operation starts or finishes. Assuming that the scheduling of the operations of the process is defined. Ashton and Obeng (1987) is analogous to pinch analysis for continuous processes. The targets obtained from these methods will all be different. graphical diagrams have been developed similar to the GCC. The target cannot be used to distinguish between direct measures. 1989). The reasons for this are both the lack of time data in the studies and the irregularity of some of the streams that are studied. for larger problems. which is important information when estimating total cost. A more systematic way to consider the time aspect is to use a two-dimensional heat Cascade Analysis (CA) producing a three-dimensional cascade plot (Kemp and Deakin. but can be used to study 24 . As already mentioned. the external energy target is less equal to the target obtained with TAM. This means that the analysis is made with an average heat duty for a time period resulting in the minimum energy consumption for a batch process assuming cyclic batches and unlimited ideal heat storage for that period. In the cascade analysis. targeting the amount of heat recovery that is feasible without heat storage. thus using temperature as a secondary constraint. and the described methods can be used for different purposes. As the number of intervals increases. Another graphical method that has been developed for use with batch processes is the Time Pinch Analysis (Wang and Smith. heat can be transferred to a lower temperature by direct heat exchange in the same time interval. through heat exchangers and indirect measures through heat storage and heat transfer. it is difficult to model with any of the methods described above. In the Time Slice Model (TSM).g.e. 1995). In Papers I and II in this thesis. Different strategies can be used in the CA and. Time Pinch Analysis. this method uses the time as a primary constraint for identifying the time pinch of the processes. described by Ashton (1993). the use of tap water.

5. see Mikkelsen (1998). and so that the heat deficit above the pinch temperature is covered by the excess heat in the condenser. Therefore. If there is a large enough potential found in the TAM study. If this overestimation does not indicate any potential for energy saving. there is no reason to spend time finding more data or making a more thorough analysis of the plant. A heat pump raises heat from a low temperature level (heat source) to a higher temperature level (heat sink) by means of primary energy. since the heat sources and sinks are seemingly present at the same time. There are also methods for process integration using energy storage in batchwise production. an analysis of how to satisfy the heating and cooling demands can be carried out using these curves. The TAM analysis will overestimate the potential for saving external heat and cooling demand. 25 . see Figure 6. For a review of some of these methods and techniques.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS the gross potential for saving energy in the plant and to find the absolute minimum external heat demand for a batch process. The need for external heat and its temperature level are shown above the pinch temperature in the GCC. A heat pump should be integrated with the process so that the net surplus of heat below the pinch temperature is used in the evaporator in the heat pump.3 PROCESS INTEGRATION OF HEAT PUMPS AND CHP PLANTS The GCC constructed in a heat pinch analysis can be used to study how a heat pump or a combined heat and power plant should be integrated with the rest of the process to reduce the total external energy demand. In other words the heat pump is integrated across the pinch temperature. Correspondingly the need for cooling and its temperature level are shown below the pinch. there is an incentive to make a more detailed study with more extensive data. including detailed information about when different heat demands and sources occur.

Integration of a steam turbine in a process can be visualized as in Figure 7. the steam that has been expanded in the turbine is used to heat water in a condenser. The water can be used directly in the plant or as a heating medium in heat exchangers in the plant. In a plant with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant with a steam turbine like the one studied in this thesis. the heat is transferred from the CHP plant to the process indirectly by making steam in an HRSG. The slope of the exhaust gas line is inversely 26 .CHAPTER 5 t (°C) Condenser Evaporator Load (kW) Figure 6 – Integration of a heat pump with a process. In a plant with a gas turbine. t (°C) Steam condenser Load (kW) Figure 7 – Integration of a simple steam turbine with a process. the exhaust gases from the turbine are used for heating in the process. Usually. In Figure 8 it is shown how the exhaust gases from a gas turbine are cooled producing steam in an HRSG.

Linnhoff and Dhole (1992) described a way to visualize the shaftwork of a refrigeration plant with curves analogous to the heat pinch analysis curves. an EGCC is constructed for the freezers and refrigeration rooms in the studied plant. By doing this. Using traditional heat pinch analysis. replacing the temperature on the y-axis with the Carnot factor. The required temperatures in these rooms are reduced by half of the smallest temperature difference (∆Tmin) that can be accepted between the refrigeration medium and the required temperature of the air in the freezers and refrigeration rooms. 5. Franck et al (1992).METHODOLOGY – TOOLS proportional to exhaust mass flow and specific heat capacity. targets for the minimal amount of shaftwork needed for a certain refrigeration plant can be identified from basic process data. versus heat load for the temperature levels 27 . t (°C) Exhaust gases Steam level Load (kW) Figure 8 – Integration of a gas turbine with a process. additional temperature difference is added to allow for intermediate heat exchange such as a brine heat exchanger. The Carnot factors are calculated for the air temperatures and plotted against the cooling loads.4 SHAFTWORK TARGETING The largest energy demand in an SMP plant is usually electricity due to the refrigeration needs in the plant. see section 4.1. An Exergy Grand Composite Curve (EGCC) is constructed. The size of a certain type of gas turbine is proportional to its exhaust mass flow. A utility curve (UC) describing the Carnot factors. where Ta is the ambient temperature. Strömberg. For more information about how to integrate heat pumps and CHP plants in a process. see Wallin. electricity demand is not included in the scope of the analysis. When using the targeting procedure. increased by half of ∆Tmin. In rooms where the refrigeration medium used is not permitted. ηC=1-Ta/T.

the area between the curves can be changed by modifying the cooling load at existing temperature levels in the refrigeration system. Assuming no changes in the refrigeration demands in the food processing plant.3 -0. This represents a case where the cooling demands are achieved with a decreased temperature difference.2 -0. however. This means that a decrease in the area between the curves generates a decrease in the shaftwork requirement for the refrigeration plant. This. Another way of decreasing the area between the EGCC of the process and the UC is to increase the temperature of one or more of the temperature levels in the refrigeration plant to fit the process needs more closely.4 -0. usually leads to a refrigeration plant with too many refrigeration levels and therefore a system which is too complex in reality.1 EGCC UC -0. 0 ηC -0.6 0 50 Load [kW] 100 Figure 9 – An example of a Utility Curve and an Exergy Grand Composite Curve. the least possible shaftwork for the refrigeration can be achieved when the EGCC and the UC are perfectly aligned.5 -0.CHAPTER 5 that are used in the refrigeration system is also constructed. however. In an existing refrigeration system this leads to an increased capital cost through increased heat exchanger areas and costs for changes in compressors etc. to enable the change in temperature. results in a decrease in driving force in the coolers. 28 . This. see Figure 9. In other words. The area between the UC and the EGCC represents an exergy loss and it is directly proportional to the excess shaftwork required in the refrigeration plant due to excessively large temperature differences in heat exchangers in the freezers and refrigeration rooms. and therefore larger heat exchanger areas are needed. For an example of a UC and an EGCC.

HYSYS has a feature which calculates the flow rate of refrigerant in an exchanger if the duty is specified together with the inlet and outlet temperature. and the temperature of the refrigerant is the cooling temperature defined for the refrigeration system. including the refrigeration demands and the efficiencies for the equipment. compressors etc. In a HYSYS model. the compressors. This is convenient when simulating a refrigeration system where the duty is the refrigeration needed. One part of a refrigeration plant in an SMP simulated in HYSYS can be seen in Figure 10. Thus. the time needed to find solutions to decrease the shaftwork usage in a refrigeration plant is significantly reduced. can be used to simulate refrigeration plants. a graphic-oriented simulator developed by Hyprotech Limited. 29 . for example in refrigeration rooms. condensers and flash drums in the refrigeration plant can be designed. This means that only real equipment is included in the model and the only data that need to be entered are the specifications of the refrigerant exchangers. It also gives an overview of the whole refrigeration system so that changes in shaftwork for the whole system can be seen when temperatures or cooling loads are changed. The simulator used in this thesis is HYSYS version 3. the conditions at the outlet of the exchanger can be specified as saturated vapor of the refrigerant.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS The shaftwork targeting method helps to identify changes in the refrigeration system that are interesting to study more closely without having to model every possible design. 5.1. Process simulators can be used to simulate the refrigeration systems to determine required refrigerant flow rates and the resulting compressors’ capacities and shaftwork needs.5 SIMULATION AND THE USE OF HYSYS Once the duties of the heat exchangers and the temperatures of the refrigerant are specified by the shaftwork targeting method described above. blocks representing heat exchangers. and the possibility to find a design of the whole refrigeration system with low shaftwork is increased.

In order to gain a better understanding of the long-term economic and environmental consequences and to enable analysis and evaluation of different energy efficiency projects. Ådahl and Harvey (2004) developed four possible energy market parameter sets. the long-term outcome of energy-saving projects when it comes to economy and CO2 emissions is hard to forecast. 5. The assumed key parameters for the blocks are: Fuel prices and availability (including both fossil and biomass fuels) Base electric power prices 30 . These “blocks” are based on the Nordic energy market and reflect different climate policies. Analysis of energy projects must therefore not be limited to technical studies in the plant but also include likely future development of the energy market. Extended heat integration and other energy-saving measures would reduce the fuel and electricity needs in this type of industry.6 ENERGY SCENARIOS SMP plants consume both heat and electricity in their different processes.CHAPTER 5 Figure 10 – Part of a refrigeration plant simulated in HYSYS. Further uncertainty arises when cost resulting from energy policy instruments aiming at reducing greenhouse gas emissions must be taken into account. Assessing the development of the energy market is usually difficult given the fluctuations of fuel and electricity prices. However. as the plants are connected to a changing energy market.

If energy policy instruments are harmonized within the EU in the future. i. such as sulphur taxes. generation costs and associated CO2 emissions Economic value of CO2 emissions reduction These parameters are not independent of each other. political target levels for reduction of CO2 emissions. Ådahl and Harvey identify such links and consistent sets of parameters that can be used for conducting “packaged” sensitivity analyses for energy-related investment projects. The results. A low cost for CO2 emissions associated with electric power generation is also included. It should also be noted that the proposed prices do not include environmental policy instruments. Different combinations of blocks and their periods of validity can be said to represent scenarios of energy market development paths or energy market scenarios. availability of new technology in the energy sector. even though an indicative time period is presented. i. The parameter sets build upon different assumptions regarding evolution over time of energy demand in the stationary sector. However. focus on high economic growth with corresponding high energy usage. The evolution of the parameters is strongly influenced by changes in energy demand. 2005. The models have been developed primarily for evaluating energy utility system investment options in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. many parameters are closely linked. such scenarios are not essential in this thesis. that are not related to CO2 emissions. reflecting the EU-wide CO2 emission rights trading system that started on January 1st. 31 - . Block II corresponds to a “business as usual” evolution of society. Costs associated with CO2 emissions are assumed to be low and harmonized between sectors.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS Marginal power production technology. and availability of new technology in the energy sector. since the evaluation of the energy efficiency projects is a ranking between alternatives under different possible future conditions. however. The assumptions are presented briefly below.e. This block uses energy prices from 2003 to a large extent and includes current Swedish taxation rules for industry. it is reasonable to assume that the proposed values can also be used for evaluating investment options in other EU countries as well. Block I corresponds to the Swedish energy market in the near future.e. and availability of renewable energy resources and technology. The four blocks of parameters identified by Ådahl and Harvey are presented below and the values of their parameters are shown in Table 1. The intention is that the blocks can be used to assess the economic and climate-change impact of industrial energy system investment projects carried out in different energy markets. No attempt is made to speculate as to when in the future the different sets of parameters could be valid. target levels for the reduction of CO2 emissions. can be used in other industries if the blocks are adapted accordingly.

The price does not include transmission costs which may be substantial for countries such as Sweden. The oil prices in the blocks reflect price levels as available in oil price statistics for 2003 (Block I). energy efficiency projects studied can be evaluated for different sets of energy prices and emission levels. 20102030) if society has ambitious long-term targets for CO2 emission reduction.6. Block III corresponds to a “moderate change” evolution of society. natural gas. reduced energy usage.e. CO2 emissions are reduced to levels estimated to be sustainable. CO2-neutral fuel it is clearly influenced by energy policy instruments. As a renewable. Block IV corresponds to a “sustainable” evolution of society. but when compared to Block I it can show the effect of switching from current Swedish taxation rules for industry to minimum levels in the EU-wide CO2 emission rights trading system. and biofuels in the form of wood chips and pellets. i.e. and reduction of CO2 emissions. i.e. a balance between economic growth. 5. The natural gas prices are assumed to follow the oil prices and are assumed to be 80% of oil prices. Biofuel prices and associated CO2 emission consequences are assumed to be defined by the marginal technology.1 Fuel The fuels considered in this thesis are heavy fuel oil. Given current trends in Swedish energy and environmental policy. be noted that current oil prices are substantially higher than the values proposed by Ådahl and Harvey. Block II is improbable. however. The maximum price an electricity producer is willing to pay for 32 . biofuel pricing is assumed to be related to the electricity price. i. The price for biofuel is the most difficult to forecast since the international biofuel market is currently rather undeveloped. Conditions for this case are likely to occur in the more distant future provided that ambitious emissions reduction targets are set up and fulfilled by society. and it can be seen which energy efficiency projects are favored in different blocks. By using the four blocks.e. the last application demanding biofuels. Block III conditions may occur in the medium-term future (i. or in the more distant future (2030-2050) if society has reduction targets that are less far-reaching. rather than to the fossil fuel price as has been assumed previously. Biofuel is also a regional fuel for which the market price is very dependent on local supply and demand. In this way.CHAPTER 5 The indicative time period for this set of parameters is 2010-2030. This value was assumed to be valid also for medium-term cases (Blocks II and III) whereas an increase was assumed for the long-term case (Block IV). It should. It is also assumed that natural gas is an available fuel for all studied plants.

Thus. The base electricity price in Block I is based on marginal production costs in existing coal-fired power plants. the efficiency of the marginal technology. efficiencies and assumed fuel costs for the marginal generation technology. For the long-term blocks. There are no net CO2 emissions from combustion of biofuel since the amount of CO2 emitted when burning biofuel is the same as the CO2 absorbed by the biofuel when growing. This provides an extra income for electricity production based on biofuel. Fossil fuels emit CO2 when refined. and whether the emitted CO2 is separated and stored or not. electricity prices are assumed to be equal to generation costs estimated on the basis of available estimations of investment costs. The CO2 emissions associated with electricity generation are also based on the marginal power production technology. and coal power plants with CO2 separation and storage (Block IV). The build margin cases considered are: advanced coal power plants built with current best available technology (BAT) (Block II). The current operating marginal generation technology in the Nordic area has been identified as coal-fired power plant technology (Block I). which is a possible scenario since co-firing is already common in power plants. There are evidential data in several energy market studies which show that the electricity/biofuel price ratio can be assumed approximately constant. there are CO2 emissions during production and distribution of the biofuel.6. Grid transmission cost for the purchased power is not included. and an extra charge for purchased electricity since the electricity certificates must be paid for by all electricity 33 . Almemark. transported and combusted. The difference in CO2 emissions in the blocks is due to the fuel. natural gas combined cycle built with current BAT (Block III).2 Electricity The electricity prices in the blocks are based on marginal production costs. For Block I. based on the Swedish Renewable Electricity Certification system. In certain blocks (Blocks I and III) a premium value for electric power generation from renewable energy sources is assumed.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS biofuel is given by the short-run marginal benefits from electricity income. 5. The CO2 emission amounts used in the thesis are presented in Table 1. see Uppenberg. Brandel et al (2001). The build margin approach is used and makes a best guess as to what type of electricity generation facility would have been built (or built sooner) if the energy efficiency project had not been implemented. current biofuel prices in Sweden were assumed. biofuel prices are linked to electricity prices in the future blocks. operation and maintenance costs. However. For the other blocks it was assumed that biofuel will be primarily used in the electrical power generation sector in the future.

the electricity price is a sum of the base electricity costs in the blocks and several other costs. is thereby avoided. When studying the SMP plants in this thesis. when electricity production is based on biofuel it is advantageous to sell the electricity to the grid. 34 . For more information about the conditions and prices used to calculate the energy prices and emissions in the blocks.CHAPTER 5 consumers. see Ådahl and Harvey (2004). The value in Block III is lower. such as grid transmission costs. Ådahl and Berntsson (2004). reflecting the higher assumed value for CO2-permits in this block. Therefore. Included in the price are grid transmission costs and part of the price of renewable electricity certificates. The total electricity price for Block I has been checked against the price of electricity in Swedish SMP plants to make sure that it is reasonable for the industry. The value for the certificates in Block I corresponds to the average value since the system was initiated. Harvey. The grid transmission costs are assumed constant. Harvey and Ådahl (2004) and Paper III. In Blocks II and IV it is more profitable to use the electricity in the plant than to sell it to the grid since a large part of the electricity cost.

2001.1 18.4 38.3 97 35 . Uppenberg et al.6 33.4 4. CO2 cost (€/MWhfuel) Total CO2 emissions for heavy fuel oil (kg CO2/MWhfuel) Price natural gas (€/MWhfuel) Price natural gas incl.5 21. CO2 cost (€/MWhfuel) Total CO2 emissions for natural gas (kg CO2/MWhfuel) Biofuels Price wood-fuels (€/MWhfuel) Total CO2 emissions for wood-fuels (kg CO2/MWhfuel) Price refined biofuels.0 297 13.3 31.5 16.7 215 17.9 26.0 215 24.8 21.4 18.METHODOLOGY – TOOLS Table 1 – Prices and CO2 emission for fuels and electricity in the blocks (Ådahl and Harvey.1 14.4 33.3 5. Original prices and costs have been converted: 9. 2003).8 54.8 18.5 16.0 38.8 62.9 7.3 4.4 27.3 10.3 215 13.5 11.9 50. 2005). Harvey and Berntsson. 2004.8 25.7 10.6 297 14.3 62.3 42.4 16.8 32.4 24. 1990) CO2 value in heating sector (€/t) CO2 value in electricity sector (€/t) Fossil fuels Price heavy fuel oil (€/MWhfuel) Price heavy fuel oil.0 5.0 778 III -25 27. CO2 (€/MWhel) Net income from sales of renewable electricity to grid (€/MWhel) Marginal (baseline) electricity CO2 emissions incl.0 67.8 4. Marbe.3 5.9 374 IV -50 54.0 297 13.8 21.g.3 53.2 215 14.13 SEK = €1 (European Central Bank.7 5.8 53.1 17.3 33. 7% grid losses (kg/MWhel) -5 20. I CO2 Indicative CO2 emission target (% rel. incl.5 0.0 4.1 10.6 834 II -5 5.4 22.0 16.0 0.5 0.5 5. pellets (€/MWhfuel) Total CO2 emissions for pellets (kg CO2/MWhfuel) Electricity El marginal prod cost incl.6 10. CO2 (€/MWhel) Grid transmission costs (€/MWhel) Price renewable electricity certificate (€/MWhel) Required market share for renewable electricity [%] Total electricity cost incl.0 0.0 297 13.9 5. e.

CHAPTER 5 36 .

see Papers I and II.1 Introduction In Papers I and II. There is limited energy-data availability in both plants and for the heat pinch analysis the TAM model is used.1.1 PROCESS INTEGRATION CASE STUDIES IN SMP PLANTS 6. There are two main purposes of the studies: to identify the potential of saving external heat demand at the plants through heat pinch analysis (Papers I and II) and to find the potential to reduce the electricity use in the refrigeration plants (Paper II). Therefore the studies can only point to the potentials to save external heat demand in the plants. and further studies are needed to confirm the obtained results. case studies have been made in two relatively modern Swedish slaughter and meat processing (SMP) plants with relatively extensive heat integration. 37 . For more details on the studies. see Paper III. In Paper I the time average over a production period of one day is used. For some economic calculations related to these studies. while in Paper II a whole production year is evaluated.RESULTS 6 RESULTS 6.

a production period where the production mix and volume are fairly representative is chosen as the basis of the pinch analysis. Such an analysis can show whether the heat excess from the condensers in the refrigeration systems may be used in a heat pump.g. from those that can be allowed to vary. Instead the refrigeration demands are included at the actual temperature levels in the GCC. the period only includes the part of the day that involves normal production which means that the study does not show warm water demands for the non-productive hours of the day. 38 . sausages and tinned products from the meat processing plant is studied.1.CHAPTER 6 It is important in any energy analysis to separate temperature demands that are crucial for the process. A large amount of the heat excess can be used. The GCC of the plant in Paper I is shown in Figure 11. The heat excess from the refrigeration systems is not included in the energy balance. Due to low data availability. if the temperature in the condensers is elevated 28°C by a heat pump. excluding process steam. From this figure it can be seen that only 450 kW of the available 2. The main heat demands found in the plants were those of hot water. an SMP plant producing meat from the slaughterhouse and cured meats. tap water. is obtained through heat recovery by the heat pump and internal heat-exchanging. the temperature of water being used for hygiene reasons. There are two heat pumps used for recovering excess heat from the refrigeration systems and in the plant and approximately 60% of the external heat demand.2 Reduction in External Heat Demand in SMP Plants – Papers I and II In Paper I. In Paper I. e. Main cooling demands included the heat excesses found in the refrigeration systems. however. If such a heat pump is installed it is possible to use all of the available excess heat from this refrigeration system and to cover more than 60% of the heat demands in the plant excluding process steam. scalding water. Heat excesses that can be used in the plant include heat from heat pumps and singeing flue gases.100 kW from the heat excess of the refrigeration system can be utilized if no heat pumps are available. The temperature level of the excess heat from the condensers in one of the two refrigeration systems in the plant is shown in Figure 11. 6. heating of buildings and processing steam.

RESULTS 400 External heat demand if the heat excess from condensers is used at the current temperature 300 External heat demand if the heat excess from condensers is used at elevated temperature t (°C) 200 Heat excess from condensers at elevated temperature 100 Heat excess from condensers at current temperature 0 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 Q (kW) Figure 11 – The GCC of the SMP plant studied in Paper I. can decrease the external heat demand to the same level as do the two heat pumps that are already installed. In order to obtain an external heat demand similar to an optimum case. The temperature levels of the condensers in one of the refrigeration plants are included as horizontal dashed lines. Additionally. it has to be available at relatively high temperatures. In the heat pinch analysis. as can be seen in Figure 12. Since the cleaning periods are not included in the analysis. Generally it can be seen in the study that. it was shown that one heat pump. to recover larger amounts of excess heat. the existing heat pump has a higher temperature lift than the suggested pumps leading to an approximately 25% lower electricity demand for the suggested heat pump in the plant. Various measures already taken in the SMP plant in Paper I have saved rather large amounts of energy. 39 . a smaller heat demand than is really the case is shown in the GCC. heat storage is needed. The refrigeration needs are included at their different temperature levels. elevating the excess heat from one of the refrigeration plants to the right condenser temperature. This illustrates the benefit of using heat pinch analysis for studying a process before investing in energy efficiency measures since one heat pump has a lower investment cost than two.

Average data from the control system of the plant and manual measurements. All the data included in the analysis are checked in a model of the utility system in the plant. excluding excess heat from the heat pumps but including excess heat from the condensers in the refrigeration plants. There is a potential for saving approximately 70 kW in the SMP plant if the 40 . A GCC is constructed for the SMP plant. As in the plant studied in Paper I. If countercurrent liquid/liquid heat exchangers are used. an SMP plant with products such as meat from pork. this is achieved when ∆Tmin is approximately 7°C. In Paper II. all streams above ambient temperatures are included in the analysis of the possibilities for extended internal heat-exchanging. The large excess heat that can be seen below the pinch is the heat from the condensers in the refrigeration plants. The rather low ∆Tmin indicates that there is not a very large potential for saving external heat and cooling demands by increasing internal heat recovery in the plant.CHAPTER 6 400 300 External heat demand with existing heat pumps t (°C) 200 Heat excess from existing heat pumps 100 0 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 Q (kW) Figure 12 – The GCC of the SMP plant studied in Paper I. are used in the analysis of the plant. as well as some calculated data. a good industrial practice is to set the temperature difference in the heat exchangers no lower than 5°C. The GCC is constructed so that the external heat and cooling demands in the GCC are the same as in the real plant (see Figure 13). in such a way that the data are realistic for an average 24-hour period with production in the plant. this plant has two installed heat pumps using excess heat from the refrigeration system. The gray curve describes the heat excess from the existing heat pumps In Paper II. ready-made meals and semi-manufactured products is studied. beef and lamb.

After constructing the GCC. as suggested above. In the SMP plant studied in Paper II. The exact size of the heat pump needs to be evaluated in greater detail in order to deliver the load needed during peak hours if there is no possibility of thermal storage. can be supplied by internal heat-exchanging and heat pumps. and there is therefore no reason to make a more detailed study of the plant. almost 30% of the heat demand is covered by the internal heat-exchanging already installed. approximately 1 MW. almost all of the heat demand. The dashed line shows the opportunity to install an extra heat pump using the excess heat from the condensers in the refrigeration plant. and thereby reducing external heating and cooling demands. 200 t(°C) 150 100 50 0 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 4 000 4 500 Q (kW) 5 000 Figure 13 – The GCC for the SMP studied in Paper II. less than 65% of the heat demand excluding process steam is currently covered by steam from the boilers. but the new suggested heat pump can be expected to be no less profitable than the two that are already installed in the plant. it is possible to study the potential for an additional heat pump in the plant. This probably also holds true if more exact data are used in the analysis. Including the installed heat pumps. There is a rather large part of the heat demand that can be covered by installing a new heat pump. The grey curve shows the temperature versus heat load for the heat pumps that are already installed in the plant.RESULTS internal heat-exchanging is increased so that ∆Tmin is reduced from 7°C to 5°C. The studies show that the excess heat from the refrigeration plant is large enough to be used in the suggested heat pump. to motivate further studies. More exact data are needed to make a good economic evaluation of the results in these studies. excluding process steam. The suggested condenser temperature of this new heat pump is 62°C. There is also a large enough potential for using the energy from a new heat pump. If another heat pump is installed in the plant. This potential would be rather expensive to achieve in the plant. 41 . since several more heat exchanger units are needed to improve the heat recovery.

thus better satisfying the heat needs in the process. In that case. 200 t(°C) 150 100 50 0 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 4 000 4 500 Q (kW) 5 000 Figure 14 – The results for the SMP plant studied in Paper II show that two heat pumps can be integrated with the existing SMP plant or a plant with a similar GCC. Hereby. the measures already taken in the studied SMP plants are good first steps in reducing external energy demands. If a new plant were to be built with a GCC similar to the SMP plant described in Paper II. In Paper I the heat excess from the condensers in the refrigeration plants is not included in the GCC while in Paper II the heat excess is included. This shows how including or excluding different streams in the GCC can highlight different potentials for energy savings in a plant. the use of heat pumps reduces the fuel demand in the plant. see Figure 14. Another difference between the heat pinch analyses in Papers I and II is the time period over which the analysis is made. and steam is only needed for covering peaks in heat demand and for the production of processing steam. In a plant similar to the SMP plants studied in Papers I and II. one “time slice”. there is of course a greater potential for reducing external heat and cooling demands.CHAPTER 6 In modern plants with extensive existing heat recovery. perhaps even without a heat pump. it might be justified to install two heat pumps with larger heat loads than the existing ones. together with heat integration. By including the heat from the condensers. The heat pinch analyses in Papers I and II are done in somewhat different ways. For the results for the plant in Paper II. as seen in the studies presented in Paper II. it is accepted that the temperature of the heat excess from the refrigeration plants is fixed and cannot be changed. it is possible to study whether a small change in temperature can reduce the external heat demand. By not including the heat excess from the condensers. but with limited heat recovery. there is a low potential for extended heat recovery by internal heat-exchanging. is chosen in Paper I while in 42 . the productive period of the day. Due to lower data availability.

After these changes. Some of this potential can be fulfilled by using the temperature levels in the refrigeration plant in a more energy-efficient way. This means that the potential found in Paper I is applicable during the studied time frame. while there is no information about the other possible time periods in the production year. Using the shaftwork targeting method (see Chapter 5) to analyze the SMP plant in Paper II it is found that there is a potential for reducing shaftwork in the refrigeration systems. -12. In this way. -25 and -40°C). the resulting potential is an average for the whole year and a more detailed analysis is needed to show the economic potential of the suggested changes. Modeling such changes in HYSYS shows a potential for a shaftwork saving of approximately 5%.1. and shaftwork is saved in the refrigeration plant. the shaftwork need is reduced to a level exceeding the lowest possible shaftwork by 10%.RESULTS Paper II a “time average” is made over a whole production year. brine heat exchangers are used. The current shaftwork need is 15% larger than the lowest possible shaftwork realized with a refrigeration system designed for the smallest possible temperature difference in all refrigeration and freezing rooms. This can be done by adjusting the cooling loads of the temperature levels. This reduction can be accomplished in the plant by increasing the areas of some heat exchangers in the freezers and refrigeration rooms. 43 . as large a part of the total load as possible is on a high temperature level.3 Reduction of Shaftwork Need in an SMP Plant – Paper II The SMP plant studied in Paper II has two two-stage ammonia refrigeration plants with four refrigeration levels (-10. on the other hand. so that they better fit the EGCC. see Figure 15. from the highest to the lowest. In the areas of the plant where ammonia is not permitted. It should be noted that the air temperature in the freezing and cooling rooms is not changed by these changes. 6. In Paper II.

This reduction in shaftwork can be accomplished by necessary changes in compressors and other equipment to enable the change in temperature level. see Figure 16. A test of several different temperatures for the highest temperature level shows that if the highest temperature is set to -3°C and the loads of the temperature levels are adjusted. is achieved. the smallest area.3 Figure 15 – The EGCC for the refrigeration system needs in the SMP plant in Paper II (shown in grey) and the utility curve describing the current temperatures and loads used in the refrigeration plant. Modeling this case in HYSYS shows a potential for a shaftwork saving of more than 10% compared to the current refrigeration plant.2 -0.25 -0.05 EGCC Utility curve -0. and therefore shaftwork.15 -0. the temperature of one of the temperature levels in the refrigeration plant must be changed in order to make the UC better fit the EGCC.CHAPTER 6 Q (kW) 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 4 000 4 500 ηc 0 -0. 44 . and by increasing heat exchanger areas in refrigeration rooms.1 -0. After these changes the shaftwork need is reduced to only 3% larger than the lowest possible shaftwork. In order to decrease additional shaftwork. although not cumulative with the 5% saving mentioned above. A large area can be seen between these curves indicating a potential to save shaftwork in the refrigeration plant.

1 45 .15 -0. but could be an option when designing a new plant with the same refrigeration needs.RESULTS Q (kW) 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 4 000 4 500 ηc 0 -0. In a less modern plant 16% of the electricity need in the refrigeration systems can be saved. and can be further reduced only by introducing additional temperature levels in the refrigeration plant. the difference between the shaftwork used and the lowest possible shaftwork after changing the temperature of the highest level is small.25 -0.5001 per annum at typical Swedish electricity prices in 2004 (€35 per MWh). 2005).13 SEK. This corresponds to the average exchange rate between March 2002 and March 2005 (European Central Bank.1 -0. see Paper II. As part of a process change or a retrofit project this change is probably cost-effective and as the price of electricity will probably increase in the future. It might be interesting to change more than one temperature level in a refrigeration plant to save additional shaftwork. A 10% saving of shaftwork in the refrigeration system yields a decrease of €40.3 Figure 16 – In order to save shaftwork in the refrigeration plant in Paper II the area between the EGCC and the utility curve is decreased by changing the temperature of the first refrigeration level from -10°C to-3°C and changing the load of all the refrigeration levels to fit the EGCC. This is probably not profitable in the studied plant. an even larger shaftwork saving can be achieved.05 EGCC Utility curve -0. If changes in the room temperatures are possible. In this case. €1 = 9. however. The changes in the refrigeration plant suggested above that enable a 5-10% decrease in shaftwork might not be profitable as a stand-alone measure in an existing plant. the changes will be even more profitable.2 -0.

1 Introduction Three factors are important when studying different energy efficiency measures for a plant: the development of the energy market (e. One plant of each size is set to be nonintegrated. As for oil. Based on the SMP plants studied in Papers I and II. Two of the plants have approximately the same production capacity as the SMP plant studied in Paper II. filling all its heat and cooling demands with external utilities. 46 .2 FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVING IN SMP PLANTS – PAPER III 6. the natural gas price has increased a bit more than forecasted in the blocks. The energy market parameter sets. As the trend in the Swedish SMP industry is towards larger plants. described in the methodology section are used. To be able to study the difference in profitability for different energy efficiency measures when the plant is already integrated. the energy costs and policy instruments) the size of the plant and its energy demands.2. In Paper III. four different fictitious SMP plants are studied. The oil price is currently higher than forecasted in the blocks. and the types of energy efficiency measures that have already been applied. and one plant of each size is set to be integrated to the extent of the SMP plant studied in Paper II. It is also interesting to study a larger plant since energy-saving opportunities are more advantageous when the plant size is larger. two of the fictitious plants have a production capacity. or “blocks”. The four fictitious plants studied are described in Table 2. that are twice as large as in the SMP plant in Paper II. and corresponding cooling and heating demands. the profitability and the changes in CO2 emissions for different opportunities to save external heat and cooling demand in SMP plants in current and future energy markets are compared. The plants are also combined with heat demands from other plants investigating the opportunities for saving energy demand in ecocyclic industrial parks. This means that the profitability when decreasing the heavy fuel oil or switching to another fuel is underestimated in this study. the plants also have different heating and cooling demands.CHAPTER 6 6.g.

The reduction in operational cost is greater with a heat pump than for increased heat-exchanging.2. 6. This has the result that the PBP for installing two heat pumps in a non-integrated plant is about the same as for increased heat exchange.installing a gas turbine using natural gas. d The total steam demand for a plant is the process steam demand + the plant heat demand that is not covered by heat integration or heat excess from heat pumps.0 2.9 5.8 7.9 5.2 64. CO2 emissions etc.3 x corresponds to slaughter of approximately 700 000 animals per year.9 1.8 0.2 26. .8 3.e. Changes are made to save external heat demand in the fictitious plants and to reduce emissions associated with the energy use at the plant. The PBP for increasing the degree of integration in the non-integrated plants to the same level as the integrated plants is interesting in all future energy markets studied.9 3.8 26. IP = Integrated Plant). pay-back periods (PBP).9 1. i.2 Non-Integrated Plants One way of decreasing the external energy demand in the non-integrated plants is by heat recovery through installation of heat exchangers for heat-exchanging between heat excesses and demands.8 0. another way is to install one or more heat pumps.9 2.installing a steam turbine using different types of fuels and .increasing heat integration by an extended heat exchanger network.. but the investment cost for a heat pump is greater than for increased heat-exchanging. b Integration in this context means a reduction of external heat demand by increasing internal heat exchanging in a plant. The changes considered are: . c The steam demand is used for process needs.RESULTS Table 2 – The plants studied in Paper III (NIP = Non-integrated Plant. see Paper III.3 31 62 32. excluding steam demand for heating needs that in reality do not need steam. It has been found that the PBP for replacing the old heavy fuel oil boiler by a new natural gas-fired boiler is short.7 1. a Case SMP production [kg] Plant heat demand [MW] Integrationb [MW] Heat excess from heat pumps [MW] Process steam demand [MW]c Total steam demand [MW]d Fuel demand [GWh/year] Electricity demand [GWh/year] NIP1 NIP2 IP1 IP2 2x x 2x xa 2. .integrating one or more heat pumps. For details of investment costs. . plus processing meat into different meat products.9 0 0 1. the greatest part of which is pigs.9 1.replacing existing heavy fuel oil boiler with boilers using other fuels.1 0 0 0.3 13.7 53. This is because the price of natural gas is 47 .

On the other hand. the PBP for investing in a biofuel boiler is too long to be interesting in any of the future energy markets since the investment cost for a biofuel boiler is quite large and the biofuel price is not low enough. all turbines are more advantageous than the same units for the smaller plant. However. 48 . However.CHAPTER 6 lower than the price of oil in all blocks. As a conclusion. and the investment cost for a natural gas boiler is fairly low. The results for the largest non-integrated plant are shown in Figure 17. it is even more profitable to change fuels to natural gas. it is more profitable to install heat pumps or increase the heat recovery than to install turbines for both non-integrated plants. for both plants. This means that much larger CO2 emission fees on fossil fuels than suggested in the energy market “Blocks” used in this study are needed if biofuel is to be an interesting fuel for the studied industry. invest in a new natural gas boiler. investment in a steam turbine is only interesting with a wood chip boiler in Block I. For the larger non-integrated plant.e. In a plant with external heat demand it is also interesting to study integration of a CHP unit instead of investing in heat pumps or heat integration in the plant. i. the boiler efficiency is higher for a natural gas boiler than for an oil boiler. there is no reasonable PBP for investing in either a steam turbine for any of the studied fuels or a gas turbine with an HRSG. and investment in a gas turbine is only interesting in the future energy market Block IV. For the smaller non-integrated plant.

Nearby residential areas can also be included. Several plants together represent a total heat demand large enough to buy a larger steam or gas turbine with a better efficiency and a lower investment cost per kWh electricity. socalled ecocyclic industrial parks. as the production of district heating can represent an extra profit to the plants. For example. for example a CHP plant.RESULTS 20 Heat recovery Heat pumps Natural gas boiler Wood chip boiler Steam turbine with wood chip boiler Gas turbine 15 PBP [year] 10 5 0 I II Block III IV Figure 17: Payback period for energy efficiency options for the larger non-integrated plant (NIP2). see Figure 18. 49 . the PBP for installing a steam turbine with a heavy oil boiler is very long for a stand-alone plant. The PBP for steam turbines with natural gas or wood chips is also short enough to be interesting in some energy markets. The ratios between the payback periods for these options in the smaller non-integrated plant are similar to the ones in NIP2. so that different companies can “co-own” a utility system. 6. Integration of the energy utility system of several plants in district heating systems can enable investments that would not be profitable for a stand-alone plant. while it is realistic in some future energy markets for an ecocyclic industrial park. the PBP for a CHP unit is short compared to a stand-alone SMP plant.3 Ecocyclic Industrial Park To obtain even larger energy utility systems it can be profitable to locate several different food processing plants or other industrial plants in the same area. If another food processing plant is located so that the energy utility systems of the largest non-integrated plant can be integrated with it. and a gas turbine is also an attractive alternative.2.

ecocyclic park ST with natural gas boiler .NIP2 ST with natural gas boiler .4 Integrated Plants In the integrated plants. a gas turbine may be profitable in the energy market in the most distant future due to high electricity prices.CHAPTER 6 20 15 PBP [year] ST with existing heavy oil boiler .NIP2 ST with wood chip boiler . 6. the PBP is short for investing in a new boiler using natural gas in both of the integrated plants. especially in the larger plant. installation of an additional heat pump is shown to be worthwhile in all future energy markets.ecocyclic park ST with wood chip boiler .2. 50 .ecocyclic park ST with existing heavy oil boiler . GT = gas turbine). heat recovery is large enough to make increased heatexchanging too expensive. see Figure 19. it is not economically advantageous. However. In the smaller integrated plant.NIP2 GT . even if a steam turbine is technically possible in the larger integrated plant.NIP2 10 5 0 I II Block III IV Figure 18: Payback period for installing turbines in an ecocyclic industry park compared to a stand alone plant (NIP2) (ST = steam turbine. As for the non-integrated plants. the external heat demand is not large enough to make CHP a beneficial option and.ecocyclic park GT . However.

the total global CO2 emissions can be reduced by sending slaughter waste from the plant to a waste treatment plant that produces heat and/or power replacing fossil fuels. the best case for a stand-alone plant is a new biofuel boiler. It is found that reductions of between 5 and 35% of the total CO2 emissions in a large non-integrated plant can be made by the studied measures.IP2 Figure 19 – The payback period for installing a new heat pump in IP1 and IP2.IP New heat pump . this is not reasonable from an economic point of view. 6. The products from the plants also cause CO2 emissions from transports and packaging. Changing fuel from heavy fuel oil to natural gas gives the smallest investment per kg CO2 reduction.5 CO2 Emissions The base case for the CO2 emission reduction calculations is the original fuel demand satisfied with heavy fuel oil. All these emissions remain unchanged for a particular studied plant after energy efficiency measures suggested. however. only the emissions associated with the use of electricity and fuels at the plant are included.RESULTS 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 I II Block III IV New heat pump . the investment per kg CO2 reduction for the most economically interesting options studied in the paper is presented. 51 PBP [year] . In the calculation of total CO2 emissions.2. Also changing fuel to wood chips gives a rather small investment cost per kg CO2 reduction per year. Looking at only the reduction in CO2 emissions for the options studied in Paper III. Also. and are therefore not included in the study. In Figure 20.

it is possible to reduce CO2 emissions by saving electricity in the plant. When considering investment per kg CO2 emission reduction.0 Investment/CO2 reduction [€/(kg/year)] 1.5 Natural gas in boiler Wood chips in boiler Increased heat exchanger network Heat pumps Gas turbine 1. In a case with large water 52 . The blocks represent different future possible energy markets with Block IV being the one occurring in the most distant future. In the SMP plants studied in this thesis. but is very costly in the more distant future markets where the CO2 emissions from the electricity in the grid are lower than the CO2 emissions from the turbine. The electricity consumption causes the largest part of the CO2 emissions from the plant. Investment in a gas turbine gives a reasonable cost per reduced CO2 in the energy markets likely to occur in the nearest future. Installing heat pumps in a plant generally reduces the total amount of CO2 emissions per year more than increasing the heat exchanger network in the plant. The cost reduction by doing this is considered negligible compared to the cost of fuel for steam and for electricity. The potential of saving 10% of the electricity use in the refrigeration plants identified in Paper II can be realized by decreasing the temperature difference between refrigeration media and the needed temperatures in the refrigeration and freezing rooms. For example. Therefore.0 I II Block III IV Figure 20 – The investment cost per CO2 emission reduction [€/(kg/year)] for some of the options for NIP2 studied in Paper III.5 0. the heat pumps suggested in the studies use excess heat from the refrigeration systems that would have been cooled in condensers by air and/or water cooling.0 0. refrigeration and equipment.CHAPTER 6 2. reduction of external heating demand means that the external cooling need is also reduced. heat pumps are also generally the least costly.

the savings when reducing external cooling demand can be considerable. For the already integrated plants investing in a new heat pump was found to be economically interesting under conditions corresponding to some of the future energy market parameter sets. 53 . The payback period for a steam or gas turbine installed at an ecocyclic industrial park was found to be short enough to be interesting.6 Summary In the studies of different energy efficiency measures in four fictitious SMP plants evaluated for four future combinations of energy market parameters. Additionally.RESULTS and electricity costs. In the integrated plants. The most cost-effective reduction of CO2 emissions is achieved by switching fuel from heavy fuel oil to natural gas. 6. it was found profitable to invest in an increased heat exchanger network or heat pumps in the non-integrated plants. the payback period for a CHP plant was long. The profitability of investing in a CHP plant was found to be small compared to other energy efficiency or CO2 emission-reducing options. reductions of between 5 and 35% of the total CO2 emissions in a large non-integrated plant can be made by these measures.2.

CHAPTER 6 54 .

By means of heat storage and a detailed analysis. The large variation in energy demand in an SMP plant makes heat recovery more difficult than for plants with continuous demands. in addition to submetering of the energy consumption. there is a potential to save external energy also in these types of plants. The payback period for an energy-saving project is also longer since the operating time per year is shorter than for other process industries. makes it possible to decrease the energy use for the entire plant and thereby the energy-related costs and emissions. These system-oriented studies also encourage studying the whole plant instead of concentrating on a certain piece of equipment.DISCUSSION 7 DISCUSSION The majority of slaughter and meat processing (SMP) plants do not have submetering of energy consumption. A good way of increasing such knowledge is to make studies similar to those in the present thesis. 55 . A greater understanding of the energy system. This is also one of the reasons why many companies are not fully aware of the energy utility systems in their plants. Thus it is difficult to find data for a detailed energy analysis of a plant. When studying the economic potential of energy-saving projects it is important to use energy data that are valid not only in the current energy market but also in the future energy markets when the project is installed.

In this thesis it is assumed that natural gas is a readily available fuel for all plants. opportunities for energy savings are found in plants where there seem at a first glance to be none. When undertaking a study like the present one. For these plants the environmental impact of using natural gas is marginally underestimated since LPG will have to be used and there are additional emissions from trucks transporting the fuel. Process integration methods can be a valuable tool in decreasing the fuel demand in the SMP industry. this collaboration makes it possible to use the research experience from the academic world. economic. industrial and energy system experience can be drawn from all sources. it is advantageous to coordinate the work between university. the industrial experience and contacts with industry and academia from the institute. Through these systematic methods. Through this kind of collaboration knowledge about technical. In this thesis. and the application of the research in a real plant from the participation of industry. the methods used in this thesis are of great value. When studying a plant without heat recovery. industry and industrial research institute. 56 . especially as the size of the plants increases. In plants that are not connected to a natural gas pipeline network this is not true. The study of the whole plant also avoids sub-optimization and finds a design of the heat recovery system that saves the most energy for the whole plant.CHAPTER 7 The potential for reduction of energy-related cost and CO2 emissions in the modern SMP plants studied in this thesis is not as large as the potential in less modern plants.

by e. is quantified. Through heat pinch analysis suggestions such as how to place heat pumps in similar plants without heat recovery can also be made. without changing the food process or decreasing the quality of the food product. a decrease in cooling demand can also be achieved. ♦ From the case studies of existing Swedish SMP plants it can be concluded that the energy-saving measures already made in the plants reduce the external heat demand in a satisfactory way. In both case studies. The profitability and CO2 reduction potential for energy efficiency measures that can be made in an SMP plant for different plausible energy markets are also compared. to almost zero. 57 .CONCLUSIONS 8 CONCLUSIONS In this thesis. extended heat pumping. excluding process steam. However. the potential for reducing fuel demand and energy-related CO2 emissions in the slaughter and meat processing (SMP) industry. These changes reduce the external heat demand. g. can be found. by using heat pinch analysis a further potential to save energy.

was explored.CHAPTER 8 The potential for reducing shaftwork. heat integration and heat pumps are robust solutions that are profitable in all studied energy markets. especially as energy prices rise. the profitability of such an investment will increase. 58 . ♦ Additionally. The potential to save external heat demand and electricity in the studied SMP plants does not make a large impact on the total energy use in society. As the investment costs for small CHP plants can be anticipated to decrease as the demand for them increases. The cheapest investment per kg CO2 reduction was shown to be a switch from fuel oil to natural gas in the boilers in the plants. different energy efficiency measures. However. are more or less advantageous in different future energy markets. even for small plants. A potential for reducing the electricity demand in the refrigeration systems of the plant by 10% is demonstrated. increased energy efficiency in a plant is important for the profitability of the plant. It can also be concluded that the studied options can save large amounts of CO2 emissions from the plants. and thereby electricity demand. currently and in an economy more conscious of climate change. switching fuels in boilers. However. such as extended heat integration. The use of a CHP plant can be an economically interesting option for an SMP plant when the energy market develops towards a more sustainable state. a broader outlook on energy utility systems in SMP plants. in refrigeration systems in existing SMP plants was also studied by using a shaftwork targeting method. integration of heat pumps or a CHP plant. and an integrated energy utility system in an ecocyclic industrial park. In the four fictitious plants studied.

additional real plants can be examined in more detail to accomplish energy savings. It is also interesting to use other process integration methods in the meat processing industry and other parts of the food processing industry. such as the bakery industry. However. it is worthwhile to investigate how the energy efficiency measures studied in the thesis can be combined in an economically optimal way. to find ways to reduce the external energy demand. It is also of interest to study other parts of the food processing industry. Designing a whole new plant from an energy-saving perspective and. For 59 . To broaden the results from this study. there is still much to be studied further to decrease energy use in the food industry. Moreover. for example.FUTURE OUTLOOK 9 FUTURE OUTLOOK In this thesis several ways of saving energy-related costs and emissions in one part of the food processing industry are studied. designing refrigeration rooms to decrease cooling need and minimize shaftwork and designing energy utility systems to enable maximum energy recovery can result in a potential for energy savings not found in an existing plant.

for example. Another challenge would be to study the economic and technical potential for installing a gas engine in plants similar to the ones studied in the thesis. one can be even more visionary than in this thesis and try to look farther into the future. how do the emissions from transports change due to consolidation of smaller plants into larger plants and how are the emissions from the global energy system affected when solid slaughter waste is transported to large combined heat and power plants? 60 . In order for the food processing industry to be as energy-efficient as possible. In this way. fossil fuel price and biofuel price would have to be before the payback for a change to a sustainable fuel is beneficial. the consequences for the global energy system of the trends seen in the slaughter and meat processing industry. For instance. water pinch analysis can be used to find the potential to decrease water usage at a plant and thereby. the economic effects of these options can be calculated more exactly. research on how to design energy-effective processing equipment is needed. in some cases. When considering energy prices in the future. and what type of policies can be found to bring this about. also the energy usage. for example. It can also be valuable to study the dynamic behavior of the combined heat and power plants and heat pumps suggested in this thesis in greater detail.CHAPTER 9 example. It is also important to expand the system boundaries in this thesis and study. An additional dynamic affect that is important to study is how to store heat in the best way in order to match the heat excesses and heating needs over a production period. It can be relevant to include new types of policy instruments but also to study what the ratio between.

studies. To my head supervisor Professor Thore Berntsson. Berit Mattsson. helping me to keep everything in perspective and not abandoning me.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to thank all the people who contributed to this thesis and helped make my time as a Ph. Your ability to recognize what is important from all that is not made my work much better. To my co-supervisors: Dr. thank you for giving me the opportunity to work with this project.D. First of all the Swedish Energy Agency is gratefully acknowledged for its financial support without which the work presented in this thesis would not have been possible. thank you for your 61 . M.. Dr. Sc. thank you for introducing me to the field of Ph. student an (almost always) enjoyable one. Per-Åke Franck.D. many thanks to my supervisors who form a team that is hard to beat. thank you for squeezing me into your busy schedule and for our interesting discussions about how to interpret different types of curves. Secondly. Thank you for you supervision and valuable input to my work. Katarina Lorentzon.


encouragement, especially during the past six months, and all the time you spent reading my manuscripts and giving me constructive criticism. Dr. Lilia Ahrné was part of the team during the first part of my studies and introduced me to the wonderful world of food processing. Docent Simon Harvey and Dr. Anders Ådahl, thank you for sharing your thoughts about energy scenarios with me. Professor Lennart Vamling gave me my first experience of process integration in the meat industry and shared interesting discussions with me. Thank you also to Thomas Ohlsson for reviewing and providing valuable comments on the thesis. Many thanks also go to everyone who helped me with information and data for the case studies. I would especially like to thank the staff at the plants used in the studies. Thank you for kindly answering all my “stupid” questions and going out of your way to provide me with the answers. Thank you also for teaching me more than most people want to know about slaughter… I hope you can find something useful in this thesis. Thank you also, Lars-Göran Vinsmo, for helping me with measurements and Helena Röshammar for finding all the articles I needed, fast! Eva, Maria, Lars, Per, Johanna, Fredrike, Norman and the rest of the Ph.D. crew at SIK: thank you for lots of fun and seriousness during coffee breaks, long late nights and weekends, Ph.D. trips and conferences. Thanks also to Ulf, Britta, Thomas A., Anna Fö, Jennifer and all other present and past members of MIL, for letting me take part in your environmental perspective on food. Thanks also to all my other colleagues at SIK, especially POM and the people on “the shelf”. To my colleagues at Chalmers who always made me feel welcome at “fikarum VoM” – Bengt (no, I’m not having meatballs for lunch), Ulrika, Roger, Miriam, Åsa, Marcus O., Erik A., Eva, Marcus E., Erik H., Jörgen, Mathias, Lennart PE., “seniors” and all other old and new Ph.D. students (who are not so new anymore) and who spent time at the department with me – I’ll miss coming to visit you regularly, having Friday “coffee” and discussing ways to save energy (and the world). I would also like to thank Borealis AB for giving me the opportunity to finish this thesis and my new colleagues there for allowing me to be away from work so much. Thank you for your encouraging words and interest in my studies (“aren’t you done with your thesis yet?!”). I look forward to working with you 100%.



My friends, thank you for putting up with my unsocial behavior. I have not been able to give you as much time as I have wanted lately, but I hope to make it up to you! My dear family, what would I do without you? Thank you for loving me and helping me in the ways you can, being a come-to-life dictionary for example. Mathias, without your support this thesis would never have been written. Thank you for not letting me take the easy way out. I love you so much for loving me, even during these past six months. I hope you won’t tire of me now when I’ll actually be able to spend whole weekends away from work! Jesus, you never said it would be easy, you only said that I'd never go alone.





BAT CAHP CC CHP COP EGCC HRSG GCC IP NIP Best available technology Compression/Absorption Heat Pump Composite Curve Combine Heat and Power Coefficient of Performance Exergy Grand Composite Curve Heat Recovery Steam Generator Grand Composite Curve Integrated Plant Non-Integrated Plant


15 K Smallest accepted temperature difference Utility curve Heat/cooling load [kW] α ηT Efficiency for a CHP. It describes the capacity of the turbine to transfer the energy content of the steam to mechanical work [%]. 293. Total electricity production [%] Total heat production The isentropic efficiency of the turbine.CHAPTER 11 PBP Pay-back period = [years] Cost of project (Reduction of operational cost due to project) SMP T t Ta ∆Tmin UC Q Slaughter and Meat Processing Temperature [K] Temperature [°C] Ambient temperature. Total efficiency for a CHP. Total (electricity + heat) production [%] Total fuel consumption ηtot 66 .

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