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of the examination the following should be read to candidates. 1. Go to the Question Paper. (Pause) 2. Turn to page 15 of the Question Paper. (Pause) 3. Go to the second line of text below gure 5.2. (Pause) 4. The sentence reads The corresponding tensions in the strings . . .. (Pause) 5. This should read The corresponding tensions in the wires . . .. (Pause)

Repeat 1. Go to the Question Paper. (Pause) 2. Turn to page 15 of the Question Paper. (Pause) 3. Go to the second line of text below gure 5.2. (Pause) 4. The sentence reads The corresponding tensions in the strings . . .. (Pause) 5. This should read The corresponding tensions in the wires . . .. (Pause) Please make this change in your question paper now. This is the end of the announcement.

Physics

H7651

H7651

TUESDAY 24 JUNE, AFTERNOON

TIME

3 hours.

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

In the boxes on the answer booklet, write your centre number, candidate number and subject title. Answer all seven questions.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES

The total mark for this paper is 100. The mark for each part of a question is shown in brackets and the total mark is given at the end of the question. The values of physical constants and relationships you may require are given on a separate information leaflet which is an insert to the paper. Any additional data are given in the appropriate question. The approximate time which you should spend on any one question is given at the start of the question. You are reminded of the need to organise and present your answers clearly and logically and to use specialist vocabulary where appropriate. Materials required for examination Answer booklet, Graph paper, Calculator Items included with the question paper Information Leaflet (insert)

ADVICE TO CANDIDATES

In calculations you are advised to show all the steps in your working, giving your answers at each stage. Give final answers to a justifiable number of significant figures.

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(You are advised to spend about 30 minutes on this question.) Read the passage and then answer the questions which follow. Fermats principle of least time (Adapted from The Feynman Lectures, by R B Feynman, R P Leighton and M Sands, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.) The first way of thinking that clarified the law about the behaviour of light was 1 discovered by Fermat in about 1650, and it is called the principle of least time, or Fermats principle. His idea is this: that out of all possible paths that it might take from one point to another, light takes the path which requires the shortest time. Originally, the statement that light travels along the path of shortest possible distance was made by Hero of Alexandria. This can be seen to hold true for understanding, for example, the manner in which light is reflected off the surface of a mirror. It was this that inspired Fermat to suggest to himself that perhaps refraction operated on a similar basis. But in the case of refraction, light obviously does not use the path of shortest distance, so Fermat tried the idea that it takes the shortest time. In Fig. 1.1, our problem is to go from A to B in the shortest time. 5

10

beach water X

E F

B

Fig. 1.1

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To illustrate that the best thing to do is not just go in a straight line, let us imagine that someone has fallen out of a boat, and is screaming in the water at point B. We are at point A on land, and we see the accident, and can run and can also swim. But we can run faster than we can swim. What do we do? Do we go in a straight 15 line? By using a little more intelligence we would realise that it would be advantageous to travel a little greater distance on land in order to decrease the distance in the water, because we go much slower in the water. Let us try to show that the final solution is the path ACB, and that this path takes the shortest time. If this is the path of least time, then if we take any other, it will take longer. However, another path very close to 20 ACB will take almost the same time. So we consider a nearby point X on the shoreline, and we calculate how long it would take to go from A to B by the two paths AXB and ACB, and compare the new time with the old time. We want the difference, of course, to be nearly zero if the distance XC is short. First look at the path AXB on land. If we draw a perpendicular XE, we see that the path AX is shorter than the path AC by an amount approximately equal to EC. Let us say we gain by not having to go that extra 25 distance. On the other hand, in the water, by drawing a corresponding perpendicular CF, we see that we have to go an extra distance approximately equal to XF, and that is what we lose. Or, in time, we gain the time it would have taken to go the distance EC, but we lose the time it would have taken to go the distance XF. These times must be equal since, in the first approximation, there is to be no change in time. 30 Of course we must realise that this is an illustration, not a proof, of Fermats principle. For one thing it deals with someone running and swimming, not with light passing from one medium to another. But, if we accept the principle and apply it to light, we shall find it a useful method of arriving at the laws of reflection and refraction, and a means of explaining other optical phenomena. 35

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(a) The passage states that the law of reflection relating the angles of incidence and reflection at a plane mirror is consistent with both Heros principle of least distance (lines 57) and Fermats principle of least time (lines 34). Consider Fig. 1.2. B A

C D Q

Fig. 1.2

A ray of light is to go from A to B by a path involving reflection at the plane mirror PQ. ACB is a hypothetical path; ADB is the observed path. AO is the perpendicular from A to the mirror. AO is extended to A so that AO = OA. The straight line from A to B meets the mirror at D. Assume Heros principle and show that light follows the path ADB. Hence show that the law of reflection follows. Explain why Fermats principle gives the same result as Heros. [5]

(b) Explain the statement But in the case of refraction, light obviously does not use the path of shortest distance (line 9). Illustrate your answer with a diagram. [2]

(c) Suppose that the speed at which the rescuer can swim is 1/n times the speed at which he can run. Consider the logic described in lines 1830 of the extract, and refer to Fig. 1.1. ACB is to be the route of shortest time. Hence explain why XC sin EXC = n XC sin XCF Use this relation to show that the path of minimum time to get from A to B is consistent with Snells law of refraction.

[5]

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(d) Fig. 1.3 shows the path that light sometimes takes in hot countries between an object (here, a palm tree) and the eye of an observer a long way away.

light path

Although the real path of the light is curved, our brains interpret light as having travelled in a straight line from the source. (i) Explain with the aid of a ray diagram how this mental interpretation may be responsible for the observation of a mirage, suggesting the presence of a pool of water at the tree. [2]

(ii) Suggest circumstances under which the path of light from the top of the tree might follow such a curved path. Explain why the path is curved and why such a path is consistent with Fermats principle. [4]

[Total 18 marks]

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(You are advised to spend about 25 minutes on this question.) In a simple kinetic model of an ideal gas, the molecules are assumed to move in random directions, all with the same speed. However, in a more advanced model, the molecules are thought of as moving with a spread of speeds. Fig. 2.1 shows part of this distribution of speeds c for the molecules, each of mass m, in a sample of an ideal gas at a kelvin temperature T. (A complete graph would require an extension of the c-axis towards infinity.)

n 3.0

2.0

1.0

The values of n on the vertical axis are proportional to the number of molecules moving at a given speed c. The speeds c are shown on the horizontal axis.

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(a) (i) Copy Table 2.1. Read off from the graph in Fig. 2.1 the values of n corresponding to the stated values of c, and enter them in your table. [2] Table 2.1 c/102 m s1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 n 0

(ii) Calculate the arithmetical mean speed of these molecules. Show your working clearly, using the right-hand column for any processed data.

[4]

(iii) Your answer to (a)(ii) is a good approximation to the arithmetical mean speed c (or <c>) of all the molecules in the distribution. Suggest how an even better approximation could be obtained. [1]

(iv) The root-mean-square speed crms of the molecules is given by the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of their speeds. For this distribution, the value of crms is 2130 m s1. Find the ratio of your answer in (a)(ii) to this value of crms. [1] (v) Deduce from Fig. 2.1 the value of cp, the most probable speed of the molecules in the distribution. [1]

(vi) The median speed cm is the speed at which half of all the molecules have speeds below cm, and half of them above. Describe how you would obtain an approximate value for cm from Fig. 2.1. [1] (vii) For the distribution in Fig. 2.1 the values of <c>, crms, cp and cm are all different. This is because the distribution is asymmetrical. For a set of readings of the count rate of a long-lived radioactive sample, the shape of the distribution is symmetrical. For such a distribution, comment on the relative values of the mean count rate, the root-mean-square count rate, the most probable count rate and the median count rate. [2]

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(b) The values of c corresponding to maximum and minimum values of n in the distribution of Fig. 2.1 are given by the solutions of the equation mc 2 e mc2 / 2 kT = 0 c 1 2 kT In Equation 2.1, k is the Boltzmann constant. Use Equation 2.1 or Fig. 2.1 to determine the value of c corresponding to a minimum value of n in the distribution, together with the corresponding value of n. Use a solution to Equation 2.1 to find also an expression for the value of c corresponding to the maximum value of n in the distribution. [3]

Equation 2.1

[Total 15 marks]

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(You are advised to spend about 25 minutes on this question.) (a) This part of the question is about two quantities, conductivity and current density, used in current electricity. The conductivity of a conductor is the reciprocal of the resistivity. The current density J in a conductor is the current per unit cross-sectional area of the conductor. A potential difference V is applied between the ends of a metal rod of length L and cross-sectional area A, so as to produce a uniform electric field E between the ends of the rod. The resistivity of the material of the rod is . The current in the rod is I. Starting with expressions for the resistance of the rod, the current density and the electric field between the ends of the rod, use the defining equation for resistivity to obtain an expression for the electrical conductivity of the metal in terms of the uniform applied electric field E and the current density J. [3]

(b) In one model of electrical conduction in a metal, the free electrons in it are supposed to move like the molecules of a kinetic-theory gas. Each electron is accelerated by the applied electric field E until it collides with a lattice ion. In the collision the electrons velocity is reduced to zero, and the process of acceleration and collision is repeated. The free electrons thus acquire an average drift velocity v towards the positive end of the metal rod.

(i) By first considering the acceleration of a free electron by the electric field, obtain an expression for the drift velocity v in terms of E, e, me and t, where t is the mean time between electron-ion collisions and e and me are the electron charge and mass respectively. [3]

(ii) Another expression for the drift velocity is J v = ne where J is the current density in the metal rod, n is the number of free electrons in the metal per unit volume of the metal and e is the electron charge. Use this expression, and your answers to (a) and (b)(i), to find an expression for the mean time t between collisions of the electrons with the ions in terms of e, me, and n. [3]

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(iii) Besides attaining their drift velocity, the free electrons in this model also move with random thermal motion, just like the molecules of an ideal gas. State an expression for the root-mean-square speed of the electrons at temperature T in terms of the Boltzmann constant k and the electron mass me. Hence show that the mean distance travelled by the electrons between collisions with lattice ions is given by

2 3me kT . ne 2 [3]

(iv) Copper contains 8.3 1028 free electrons per cubic metre. At room temperature, the electrical conductivity of copper is 5.6 107 1 m1. Use the relation in (b)(iii) to deduce the mean distance travelled by the free electrons in copper between collisions with lattice ions. State a typical value for the interionic distance in a metal lattice. Compare your answer with this value, and discuss whether, on the basis of the comparison, the model is credible. [4] [Total 16 marks]

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(You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question.) A student is investigating the conservation of energy applied to radioactive decay. (a) The student starts with alpha decay. He knows that alpha particles are helium nuclei, each consisting of two protons and two neutrons. He wonders why these nucleons are always emitted as a single alpha particle, rather than as four separate particles. Explain why this is the case. Illustrate your answer with reference to the alpha decay of 232U to 228Th. Make use of the following data. [6]

Masses of neutral atoms Mass of alpha particle Proton mass Neutron mass

232U 228Th

(b) The student then reads about beta+ decay. Beta+ decay is decay by the emission of a positron, a particle with mass me and charge +e. The student looks up data for the beta+ decay of Nitrogen-13 to Carbon-13. He uses the following values from a textbook. Masses of neutral atoms Electron or positron mass

13N 7 13C 6

me

He calculates the difference m in mass between the nitrogen atom and the carbon atom and a positron. Using E = mc2, he calculates the total energy released in the beta+ decay of one Nitrogen-13 nucleus as 2.74 1013 J. He is surprised to find that the textbook gives a different value for the energy released. Explain the physics error the student has made. Calculate the textbook value. [6]

[Total 12 marks]

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(You are advised to spend about 25 minutes on this question.) Imagine that the first international space station, with artificially engineered gravity, has been built. It is in the shape of a hollow cylinder of diameter 30 m. The floors of the astronauts bedrooms are just inside the outer surface of the cylinder. The artificial gravity has been produced by spinning the entire space station about its cylindrical axis, so that an acceleration of 9.81 m s2 is produced at the floor of an astronauts room. The arrangement is sketched in Fig. 5.1.

axis

30 m

Fig. 5.1

(a) (i) Calculate the angular velocity of rotation of the space station.

[2]

(ii) Obtain a general expression, in terms of the radius R of the space station and its angular velocity of rotation , for the acceleration a due to the artificial gravity at a height h above the floor of an astronauts room. [1] (b) An astronaut wakes up in his bedroom in a panic. He cannot remember whether he is on the space station, or whether he is in the exact replica of a bedroom that was set up in a simulator on Earth. He is desperate to know where he is, but it is the middle of the night, there are no windows and the door is locked. On his bedside table is a slinky (a long metal spring of very low spring constant but of finite mass), and a ruler. He decides that by hanging the spring from his outstretched arm, and looking at the manner in which the tension of the spring varies with distance from his hand, he will be able to tell where he is. Model the suspended spring as a series of five thin discs, each of mass m, connected together by five identical massless, inextensible wires, each of length l, as shown in Fig. 5.2.

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5l h 4l 4 3l 3 2l 2 l 1 0 Fig. 5.2 5

T5 T5 T4 T4 T3 T3 T2 T2 T1 T1

floor

The wires are numbered from the one at the top (the one hanging from the astronauts hand) as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. The corresponding tensions in the strings are T5, T4, , T1. The wires are held so that the disc at the bottom is just above the floor of the room. (i) Suppose that the astronaut is in the room in the simulator on Earth. Deduce, in terms of the acceleration of free fall on Earth g and the mass m of each disc, the tensions T1, T2 T5 in each of the five wires. On graph paper, draw a graph of the tension T as a function of height h above the floor. Your h-axis should extend from h = 0 to h = 5l. Add suitable graduations and values to the T-axis. Label your graph E. [3] (ii) Now suppose that the astronaut is on the space station rather than on Earth. Deduce, in terms of l, m, R and , expressions for each of the tensions T1, T2, T5 in the wires. Remembering that the station has been designed to produce an artificial gravity with the acceleration of free fall at the floor of a room equal to g, indicate on your graph in (b)(i) how, if at all, the tensions will be different from the case on Earth. Label your new graph S. [5] (iii) Having carried out this modelling exercise, the astronaut holds the real spring from his hand. (1) Sketch the general appearance of the coils of the spring. (2) Suggest how the astronaut might obtain an indication of how the tension in the spring varies. (3) From his observations, how could he tell where he was? [1]

[1] [1]

[Total 14 marks]

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(You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question.) A metal rod rests on a pair of long, horizontal, parallel metal rails along which it can slide without friction. The whole arrangement is in a region of uniform vertical magnetic field perpendicular to, and into, the plane of the page. The rails are connected through a switch to a fixed resistor and a cell of constant e.m.f. and negligible internal resistance. The resistances of the rod and of the rails are negligible. The circuit is shown in Fig. 6.1.

rod long rails

(a) Describe and explain what happens after the switch is connected, and during the subsequent motion of the rod. (b) The following is a list of the values of relevant quantities in this arrangement. Mass of rod = 25 g Separation of rails = 45 cm Flux density of magnetic field = 0.82 T, vertically downwards E.m.f. of cell = 1.5 V Resistance of fixed resistor = 2.2 Use these data to calculate the values of any quantities referred to in (a).

[8]

[4]

[Total 12 marks]

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(You are advised to spend about 25 minutes on this question.) The year is 2028, and society has changed. The economy of the United Kingdom is now based almost entirely on tourism and the production of television programmes, in particular game shows and virtual reality series. Consequently, the Secondary school curriculum concentrates on Hospitality Studies and Media Studies. You are now in your late 30s, and are a successful member of the management team of a large hotel group. Although you studied Physics up to AEA standard at school back in 2008 and followed this with a First Class Honours degree in Physics, you were among the last to follow such a course. Science has not been taught beyond Primary school level for a decade. Only a few universities have Science Faculties, and these are very small. Physics is treated as being irrelevant, as are the great pioneers such as Newton and Einstein. You are very disturbed at the way things are going. Your daughter is about to go to Secondary school. Write a letter to the Board of Governors of your daughters prospective school emphasising the importance of continuing the study of Physics, at least in the early years of Secondary school. Illustrate your letter by outlining Newtons laws of motion and pointing out practical applications of the laws which your daughter may have experienced at her Primary school, perhaps without realising how they related to the laws. Remember that it is likely that no member of the Board has your own background in Physics; most will have stopped studying Science at the end of their Primary school careers. In addition to the content of your answer, you will be assessed on the quality of your written communication. [Total 13 marks]

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530-092-1

PHYSICS Information Leaflet

The following may be of use in answering some of the questions. Values of constants speed of light in free space permeability of free space permittivity of free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

0 = 4 10 7 H m1 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1

(

elementary charge the Planck constant unified atomic mass unit electron mass proton mass neutron mass molar gas constant the Avogadro constant the Boltzmann constant gravitational constant acceleration of free fall on the Earths surface normal atmospheric pressure electron volt

1 = 9 109 F1 m 40

e = 1.60 1019 C h = 6.63 1034 J s 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg me = 9.11 1031 kg mp = 1.673 1027 kg mn = 1.675 1027 kg R = 8.31 J K1 mol1 NA = 6.02 1023 mol1 k = 1.38 1023 J K1 G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 g = 9.81 m s2 patm = 1.01 105 Pa 1 eV = 1.60 1019 J

H7651

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Formulae The following equations may be useful in answering some of the questions in the examination: Mechanics equations for uniformly accelerated motion v = u + at

s = 1(u + v)t 2 s = ut + 1 at2 2

v2 = u2 + 2as

Kinetic Theory kinetic theory of gases average kinetic energy of a molecule pV = 1 Nmc2 3

1 mc2 2

3RT = 3 kT = 2 2NA

Q = Q0et/RC

= RC

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E = hf h = p

= ay/d or = xs/D

a = (2f)2x x = A cos 2ft x = A sin 2ft

Magnetic effect of currents force on a current-carrying conductor force on a moving charge magnetic flux induced e.m.f. F = BIl F = Bqv

= BA

d(N) = dt

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Mathematical equations areas and volumes area of circle = r2 surface area of cylinder = 2rh + 2r2 volume of cylinder = r2h surface area of sphere = 4r2

volume of sphere = 4 r3 3

radians

logarithms

ln(xn) = n ln x ln(ekx) = kx

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