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MACHINING

Machining Aluminum
t Generally highest cutting speed allowable
t Excellent machined surface finish
t Low cutting force
t Good dimensional control
t Outstanding tool life
Machining Aluminum
Machinability ratings are based on chipping characteristics:
"t A-Rated:
"t B-Rated:
"t C-Rated:
"t D-Rated:
Very small chips, excellent surface finish
Alloys 2011, 6020
Curled or easily broken chips,
Good to excellent finish
Alloys 2024,2017,6262,6013,4032,7075
Continuous chips, good surface finish
Alloys 6061,6005
Continuous chips, satisfactory finish
Alloys 6063, 5056
Note: tooling can range from high speed steel to carbide inserts and even
coated carbide, depending on the alloy being machined. Diamond tooling is
used for best suifacejinish.
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Aluminum Alloy Selection
2011 Alloy -T3, -T451, -T8 Tempers
--Free machining (Pb + Bi addition)
--Readily available
--Poor anodizing response
--Poor corrosion resistance
--Cold finished only
6262 Alloy -T6, -T651, -T6511, -T8, -T9 Tempers
--Intermediate machinability (Pb + Bi addition)
--Better corrosion resistance and anodizing response
than 2011/2024 alloys
--Available in cold-finished and extruded product
Aluminum Alloy Selection
2024 Alloy -T351, -T4, -T6, -T851 Tempers
--Excellent deep drilling characteristics
--Improved SCC resistance in T8ff851 tempers
--Available in cold-finished and extruded
7075 Alloy -T6, -T6511, -T73, -T7351 Tempers
--High strength alloy
--Chipping not as good as 2024 and 6262
--Corrosion resistance/anodizing response not as good as 6262
6061/6082 Alloy -T6, -T6511 Tempers
--Moderate machinability
--Chipping not as good as 6262 Alloy
--Most recognized alloy by designers
--Good corrosion/anodizing response
MACHINING
MACHINING
Machining Aluminum
Tooling Recommendations
"t Tools and tool holders must be rigid.
"t Tools should have a finely ground edge to minimize buildup.
"t Cutting edges should be kept sharp at all times.
"t Chips must be directed away from the work piece or broken up
by a chip breaker to prevent part damage.
"t Increase productivity by increasing speeds while maintaining feed
rates and using moderate depth of cuts.
"t A void using excessive cutting pressures unless the workplace is
adequately supported. ·
"t Use lower feed rates on thin walled parts.
"t Use recommended rake angles to reduce cutting forces -
this produces thinner chips and reduces metal buildup.
"t Use coolant feed drills, high pressure coolant feed systems.
Deburring Methodsffechnigues
• Thermal Deburring - Thermal Energy Method (TEM)
Vaporizes internal external burrs with intense heat
• Vibratory I Tumble Deburring
Abrasive media used to knock off burrs
• High Pressure Deburring
Cutting oil, water, abrasive medium used to erode protruding
burrs
• Mechanical Deburring
- Manual tools to physically cut, grind, sand burrs
- Automated methods to remove burrs as part of machining
process or secondary operation.
• Chemical Deburring to dissolve material
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Machining Aluminum
Drilling Suggestions
Helix Angle
- High Helix angle - 40 to so• - deep hole drilling
- General purpose drills - 25 to 300
Flutes
- Highly polished to minimize chip packing & buildup
-Parabolic
- Symmetrical flutes to minimize chip packing
Point Angle
- 118 degrees OK for shallow holes
-Deep hole drilling- 130 to 140•- narrower chip readily
clears the hole
Feed Rates
- Alloy dependent
- See following table.
Machining Aluminum
Turning Tool Suggestions
Top Rake Angle
Less positive for free cutting alloys
0 to 5 degrees for 2011, 6020, and 6262
More positive forB and C-Rated materials
5 to 10 degrees for 2024, 7075, 6061, 6082
Tool wear can increase with more positive angle.
Feed Rates
Alloy dependent
See following table.
MACHINING
MACHINING
FORM TOOLS
Wldlh of Tool, ln.
118-1/4
318-112
518·314
BOX TOOLS
Flnl8hed Depth of
OIL. ln. Cui, ln.
1/32
1/4 1/16
and 1/8
over 3/16
1/32
1/Sto 1116
114 1/8
t/16to 1/32
1/8 t/16
Machining Feeds & Speeds
Suggested Practices for Turning Aluminum
on General-Purpose Equipment<al
Variable Condition
Top rake
Side rake ... Machinability rating A
Machinability rating II
Machinability rating C
Machinability rating 0, E
Front clearance ................ High speed steel tool
Carbide tool
Side clearance ................ High speed steel tool
Carbide tool
End cutting-edge angle ... .
Side cutting-edge angle ... .
Nose radius ...................... Rough cutting
Finish cutting
Depth of cut .................. Small work
Large work
Feed ................................ Rough cutting
Finish cutting
Speed .............................. High speed steel tool
Carbide tool
Suggested practice
0 Ia 20°
0 to 20•
20°
20 to 30°
40°
8 to 15•
6 to 8°
8to 15•
6 Ia a•
5o
5 to 15°
0.031 to 0.12.5 in.
0.010 to 0.030 in.
0.016to 0.2.50 in.
0.500 to 1.500 in.
0.006 to 0.080 ipr
0.002 to 0.006 ipr
Up to 1000 fpm
Up to 15,000 lpm
(a) The suggested practices ore those commonly used, but higher
leeds and depths of cut may be employed in many applications
(depending on the nature of the port, machine tool, tool design, lubrica-
tion and other cutting conditions) to increase production rates.
Ref: Aluminum Association
Machining Feeds & Speeds
SPEED
SPEED
FEED,IPR
S.F.M.
FEED,IPR
S.F.M.
(j)
(j)
ALLOY ALLOYS 2017, ALLOY ALLOYS 2017,
2011 2024, 6061,6212 DRILLS 2011 2024,110111, 6212
Atone• Comblnect' Atone, Comblned2 Size, ln.
.0025 100 1/16 .0036 .003
.005 .0035 3/32 .0084 .007
.0015 1/8 .012 .010
to
5132 .0132 .011
.0025
3/16 .0144 .012 100
.004
.0012
.004 .002 .. 003
7/32 .0156 .013
114 .0166 .014
1000
9/32 .018 .015 to
.0035
.002 .0035 .0015 .. 002
5116 .0192 .016
.001 .003 .001 •. 0015
3/8 .0204 .017
7116 .0204 .017 1000
.003 .0015 .0025 .0008 - .0012 1/2 .0204 .017
9116 .0204 .017
NOTE: Feecta .,. cho .. n to m•nleln tolerances
518 .0204 .017
on turned dlfirneter no1 closer thlln:
3/4 .0204 .017
m.m. uncs.r 311r ·····························-····---:!:0.0006
EE:
REAMERS
100
.015 .012 100
Straight
.0125 .010
Less than 118"' .007·.010 .007-.010
.010 .008
11a· and over .010· .020 .010·.020 lo
.009 .007 lo
Taper
.012 .010 1000
All sizes .002· .005 .002·.005 1000
.010 .009
Feede-Dependent Upon
.009 .007 RECESS TOOLS
Wldlh of Cut
100
to
.008 .007 Radial Cut .0005 to .002
.007 .006 Boring Cut .001 to.OOS 1000
1. Refers to form tooling performed with no additional simultaneous operations. \D When limited by bar diameter, tooling. or machine,
300 S.F.M. Is suggested minimum. 2. Refers to form tooling performed with other operations simultaneously.
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Machining Feeds & SJ!eeds
CUT-OFF TOOLS FEED,IPR KNURLS Feed On FHdOH
800
ALLOY ALLOYS 2017.
Straddle Knurl from end .020
Wklth,ln.
2011 2024, 6061, 6262
Sideworktng Straddle Knurl .004 .040
to
Sideworking Single Knurl .006
Sideworking Double Knurl 006
3/64 ·1/16 .0035 003
3/32" t/8 .004 0035 SKIVE TOOLS
5132-3/16 .0045 .004 1000
3/16-1/4 .005 0045 Rallo of Uuupported Ratio of Unaupporte d Depth
Length to Stock Dlam- Length to Smallest of hedt
KNEE TOOLS
e t ~ r before Skiving Turned Olameler Cut
6 24 0.150 0.002
Depth or Cut, ln. 600
6 12 0.125 0.004
4 10 0.062 0.008
0.36' 0.68 0.250 0.010
1132 .020 .017 to 3.1 3.2 0.005 0.012
1/16 .017 .0145
1/8 .014 .012 THREADING TOOLS Speed, S.F.M.
3/16 .011 .0105 1000
1/4
.. 008
.0075
External Threading
9 pitch and coarser 200
9 to 14 pitch 250
FACING TOOLS 600 14 to 18 pitch 3.?5
to 18 pitch and finer 475
Wlde Cuta .001 to .003 .001 to .003 1000
Internal Thr .. dlng
24 pitch and liner 200
1 B to 24 pitch 150
SHAVE TOOLS 800
12 to 18 pitch 125
8 to 12 pitch 100
Depth of Cut, ln.
Thre•d Rolling (Side Working Tool•) Rev. of Spindle
to
9 pitch and coarser
.005 .0015 .0015 9 to 14 pitch
.010 .001 .oot 1000 14 to 18 pitch
.015 .0005 .0005 18 pitch and finer
·Note: No support used. tfeeds are based on a 35°approach angle.
<D When limited by bar diameter, tooling, or machine,
300 S.F.M. is suggested minimum.
Machining Feeds & SJ!eeds
, ...
,.,. fool•
1Nfool1
I-'M ...d)
Wi.tth or Depth
of Cut, In
l/6.ol-t/16
1/32-1/8
.5/32-3116
3/16-1/.ol
1/8-l/-4
318-1/2
518-3/-4
1.000
1132(b)
l/32(c)
l/32(d)
lll6(b)
l/16(c)
1116(d)
1/l(c)
1/l(d)
3116(d)
Wid• c .....
Hole
Diameter, I"
11l6
3/32
1/8
5132
3116
7/32
11•
9132
51l6
...... , 5116
l/8 ond len
..... , J/8
ollli1n
Alloy 2011
0.003.5
o.oo ...
O.OO.ol.5
0.005
O.OOU-0.003.5
0.0012-0.0025
0.001.0.002
0.001-0.002
0.008
0.012
0.01.5
0.007
0.010
0.012
0.009
0.010
0.009
0.001-0.003
0.0036
0.008-4
0.012
0.013
0.01-4
0.016
0.017
0.018
0.019
0.020
0.007-0.010
0.010-0.020
0.002-0.00.5
(o) for &o.g rUAI use corbido t-1• ol th• moximum lpHdl ponible with th• cutting equipm•nt.
(b) for ltni.hod dioMoten 1/16--1/8 indt..
(c) Few finished diotn•n 111-1/-4 inch.
(d) For linilhecl dto ...... n .,.., 1/-4 inch.
20-31
13-24
11-22
10--19
'••d, ipr
Alloy1 2017,2024
6061.6262
0.003
0.0035
0.004
O.Od
0.002-0.003
0.001.0.002
0.0008..0.0012
0.007
0.0)0
0.012
0.006
0.009
0.010
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.001-0.003
0.003
0.007
0.010
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.01 ..
0.015
0.0.16
O.Ol7
0.007-0.010
0.010..0.020
0.002-0.005
Ref: Aluminum Association
800
to
lOot
800
to
1000
MACHINING
MACHINING
Milling Aluminum
• Milling is very suitable for aluminum alloys using a rotating tool that
continuously brings fresh edges into action. Each tooth produces a short chip
to improve effectiveness of the cutting fluid.
• Aluminum can be easily milled at high speeds.
• Machine rigidity is important to prevent chatter.
• Milling is often performed as climb cutting (both work & cutter teeth move in
the same direction).
• The cutter must be highly polished cutters with coarse-pitch teeth and large
flutes are recommended. ·
• Machinery available include: horizontal milling, vertical milling, universal
milling and routing.
• Milling is generally performed on CNC machining centers using a cutting
fluid.
Drilling Aluminum
• Drills for machining aluminum typically have large helix angles
& large, polished flutes for rapid chip removal & to prevent
build-up.
• Standard drills, (for drilling steel), can be used effectively to
drill shallow holes. Special drills are available specifically for
aluminum.
• Drilling operations are generally performed with a cutting fluid.
• Holes drilled in aluminum may become oversized. In soft alloys
the diameter may be slightly larger than the drill. If close
diameter tolerances are required, it is recommended to use a
smaller drill then reamed to the desired size.
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Feed Rates for Drilling Aluminum
Feed, IPR
Hole
Alloys
Alloys
Size
Alloys
6262,6020,
6061,7075,
2011
2024 C06N (I)
6082
1/8 in.
.012 .010
.005
114 in.
.0168 .014 .007
3/8 in.
.0204 .017 .009
112 in.
.0204 .017 .010
9/16 in.
.0204 .017 .011
5/8 in.
.0204 .017 .012
3/4 in.
.0204 .017 .012
(1) C06N is an Alcoa designation for a low lead 6xxx alloy to comply with RoHS
Turning Aluminum
• Turning aluminum alloys should be carried out at high speeds
and with cutting fluids to cool the work piece and prevent
build up on the tooling.
• Work piece must be properly clamped to avoid surface
damage.
• Multiple jaw chucks, ex) 3, 4, 6, are available for good
clamping with low pressure.
• Thermal expansion of aluminum may occur which needs to be
considered when fixturing. Hollow parts held by outward
pressure may loosen due to thermal expansion.
MACHINING
MACHINING
Feed Rates for Machining Aluminum Using Form Tools
Feed Rates, IPR
Alloys Alloys
Alloys 6262,2024 7075,6061
Width of tool* 2011, 6020 C06N Ol 6082
1/8 -1/4 in. .005 .004 .0025
.0035 .003 .002
3/8- 1/2 in. .004 .004 .002
.003 .0025 .0015
5/8-3/4 in. .0035 .003 .0012
.0025 .0015 .0010
1 in. .003 .0025 .0005-.0010
.0015 .0008-.0012
*Top value refers to fonn tooling perfonned with no additional simultaneous operations
Bottom value refers to form tooling perfonned with other operations simultaneously
E(l) C06N is an Alcoa designation for a low lead 6xxx alloy to comply with RoHS & ELV.
Reaming Aluminum
• Standard reamers and special reamers with large highly
polished flutes can be used on aluminum.
• Spiral flutes cause less chatter and improved surface finish
vs. straight flutes. Hand-fed reamers should use a negative
spiral to minimize self-feeding of the tool into the hole.
Counterboring Aluminum
• Counterboring aluminum can be performed with standard
tools (three or more teeth according to diameter).
• Counterboring (countersinking) is often used to deburr
drilled holes or form seats for 0-ring seals.
• Generally necessary to use a cutting fluid.
Cutting fluids should be used for reaming and counter boring.
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Threading, Tapping, Thread Rolling
• Threading
• Special dies are used with proper rake and chamfer angles for cutting external
threads.
• Cutting fluids recommended with threading
• Tapping
• When tapping higher strength alloys, standard taps (used for steel or brass) are
acceptable but special taps designed for aluminum provide improved results.
• Taps for aluminum should have deep, wide well polished flutes.
• Spiral-fluted taps are often used for blind holes.
• Straight flutes are often used for through-holes.
• Cutting fluids are recommended for tapping.
• Thread rolling (roll forming material to create threads)
• Faster method of creating threads than tapping and threading.
• Rolled threads are stronger & have improved fatigue resistance than cut
threads.
• Improved resistance to abrasion and binding in service.
• The equipment methods used for thread rolling aluminum are similar to those
used for steel or brass. Special tooling design for aluminum may need to be
considered.
Machining Lubricants
Mineral Oils
- Fatty additive type preferred for aluminum
Emulsions
- 3 to 5% soluble oil in coater, for aluminum
- Multipurpose, chlorinated extreme-pressure oil
with anti-stick slip additives
Aqueous Chemical Solutions
Tables on Lubricants
MACHINING
MACHINING
Cutting fluids
• Cutting fluids are used for both cooling and lubrication.
• Different machining methods can require different types of cutting fluids.
• Cutting fluid types:
• 1. Aqueous emulsion of mineral oil
• 2. Oil. Mineral, lard or essential oil.
• 3. Compound oil - mineral oil and lard or essential oil.
• 4. Aqueous chemical solutions. . - - . , . . . . - ~ ~ - - - , . . . . , . - - - . , - - - - - . ; . . . _ - - - - - 1
• 5. Paraffm or alcohol.
• ·6. Wax ora mixture ofwax
& grease (tallow).
Cemented Carbide Grade
Comparison Chart for Aluminum
CODE
Cl
C2
C3
C4
Chip Removal Applications
Roughing cuts
General purpose
Light finishing
Precision boring
Advances in Tool Coatings
AI-Ti-N
- Balnit Futura & Extreme Series
- 2 to 3x increase in tool life for drills
Silver Coatings
- Titankote + C3
- Lower coefficient of friction
- Drills, taps & broaching tools
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CEMENTED CARBIDE GRADE COIVIPARISON CHART FOR ALUMINUM
CODE CHIP REMOVAL APPLICATIO.:-IS CODE WEAR APPLICATIONt:l CODE IMPACT APPLICATI0:-13
C-1 Cull-Aluminum C'...-9 We3r Surface-.:-lo Shock C-12
C-:! GenerJ.I urpose-Aluminu:n C-10 Wear Surface-lLight Shock C-13 Impact-Medium
C-3 Light FinW.ing;-Aluminum C-11 Wear Surface-Heavy Shock C-14 Impact-Heavy
C-4 Preeision Bol-ing-Aluminum
I Vascoloy
coor: No.I TaliJe Acbm.a3 Car met Carboloy Fir Firlhit..e Kenname\.a.l Newcomer Vlllenile RameL Willey
CHIP HEMOYAL APPUCATIONS
C-1 C-89 BB, B CA-3 44A FA-5 HM, H Kl, K6 NC-5, NC-t VC-1 2A3, 2A68 GS E8
C-2 C-91 A CA-4 883, 860 FA-5 HI\, flAX K6 NC-3 VC-2 2A5 GI E6
C-3 C-93 AA CA-7 905 FA-7 NHA, HE K8 NC-2 VC-3 2A7 GA E5
HF-10
C-4 C-95 AAA CA-S 9W FA-8 HF Kll NC-2, NC-1 VC-l 2A7 GF E3
WEAH AJ>I•LJCATIONS
C-9 C-99 A CA-4- 44A, 883 FA-5 HA,IIB K8, K84, KE7 VC-9 2A68, Gl
I
E6
K86, K96 2A5
C-10 C-88 B CA-3 779, HA FA-5 H KB, K82 VC-10 2A3, GS EB,
CA-12 KIO 2A68 E9
C-11 C-80 BB, CA-ll 55-B FA-3 HC Kl, K91 VC-11 2AI, M
I
E18
HD-20 2A3
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IMPACl' APPLICATIONS
'
I
I
I
I
C-12 C-85 BB, 502· CA-10 55A, 120 FB-5, FM4, DC-2, DC-I, Kl. K!H, VC-12 2A 1, 2A3 G:) £13
FM5 H-13 K\l5
C-13 C-80 HD-15 CA-ll 558 FB-4- DCX. K91, KO"l, VC-13 AX I:'>I' E18
HD-20 N D-20 K18
C-11 C-75 H D-25 CA-20
1190
FB3 DC-I, DC-3 K!)(), K25 AY
I
M £25
HD-25T CA-225 N0-25
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The 01hove chart lists the l(radrs of carhiues ancl the rccommentled Rrade for specific application. The chart is not a Rradc cornJ1<1rison chart, nor is it 0111
of any manufacturer's protluct. The information listed herewith is approximate and instructions regarding the ant! application of any competitive
grat.le shouiJ be ol>tained Jire{:t from the manufacturer.
MACHINING
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