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Spanish occupation (1565-1898) The first recorded arrival of Europeans in the archipelago in 1521 was a Spanish expedition

led by Portuguese-born Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan which fir st sighted the mountains of Samar at dawn on 16 March 1521 (Spanish calendar). M agellan had abandoned his Portuguese citizenship and became a Spanish subject pr ior to his contract with Spain. On Easter Sunday, 31 March 1521 (Spanish calenda r), at Masao, Butuan, (now in Agusan Del Norte), he solemnly planted a cross on the summit of a hill overlooking the sea and claimed possession of the islands f or Spain, naming them Archipelago of Saint Lazarus. The first Holy Mass was celebrated on Easter Sunday, 31 March 1521 (Spanish cale ndar). The site was located by eyewitnesses at three different latitudes, Antoni o Pigafetta said it was at 9° 40' North, Francisco Albo at 9° 20' North, and The Gen oese Pilot at 9° North. Another eyewitness, Ginés de Mafra located the isle at 15 le guas (45 nautical miles using the Spanish scale of 1:3) south of or below Butuan . The reference point of de Mafra was the tip of today's Surigao del Norte, at e ither Bilaa Pt. or Madilao Pt. There are no islands the naked eye can see at the latitudes given by Pigafetta, Albo and the Genoese Pilot, whose latitude is whe re de Mafra locates Mazaua. But in 2001 a group of earth scientists, composed of a geomorphologist, geologists and archaeologists discovered an isle at 9° N exact ly where de Mafra suggested. The isle has yet to be proven to be Mazaua through concrete, material objects that can be directly linked to Magellan and other Eur opeans who visited Mazaua. This can only be done through comprehensive archaeolo gical excavations in the isle. Modern scientists are often unaware of how inaccu rate latitude readings and especially longitude readings were at that time. Reli able chronometers did not exist then and longitude was very much a hit and miss affair with European sailors often hitting coasts and reefs at night because of poor longitudinal information. The readings of Magellan and his companions could not be accurate, and any attempt to rely on them as accurate is most likely to fail. Magellan sought friendship among the natives beginning with Humabon, the chiefta in of Sugbu (now Cebu), and took special pride in converting them to Catholicism . Magellan got involved with political rivalries among the native tribes and too k part in a battle against Lapu-Lapu, Chieftain of Mactan Island and a mortal en emy of Humabon. At dawn on 27 April 1521, Magellan invaded Mactan Island with 48 armed men (less than half his crew) and 1,000 Cebuano warriors, but had great d ifficulty landing his men on the rocky shore. Lapu-Lapu had an army of 1,500 war riors on land. Magellan waded ashore with his Spanish soldiers and attacked the Mactan defenders ordering Datu Humabon and his Cebuano warriors to remain aboard the ships and watch. Magellan seriously underestimated the fighting ability and courage of Datu Lapu-Lapu and his men, and grossly outnumbered, Magellan and 14 of his soldiers were killed. The rest managed to reboard the Spanish ships. After the battle, the Spanish were too few to man three ships so they abandoned the "Concepcion". The remaining ships - "Trinidad" and "Victoria" - sailed to th e Spice Islands in present-day Indonesia. From there, the expedition split into two groups. The Trinidad, commanded by Gonzalo Gómez de Espinoza tried to sail eas tward across the Pacific Ocean to the Isthmus of Panama. Disease and shipwreck d isrupted Espinoza's voyage and most of the crew died. Survivors of the Trinidad returned to the Spice Islands, where the Portuguese imprisoned them. The Victori a continued sailing westward, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano, and managed to r eturn to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain in 1522. In 1529, Charles I of Spain relinqu ished all claims to the Spice Islands to Portugal in the treaty of Zaragoza. How ever, the treaty did not stop the colonization of the Philippine archipelago fro m New Spain. After Magellan's voyage, subsequent expeditions were dispatched to the islands. Four expeditions were authorized: that of Loaisa (1525), Cabot (1526), Saavedra (1527), Villalobos (1542), and Legaspi (1564).

just forty days after the publication of the de cree. claimed control of the Philippines and for a time the Spanish paid tribute to secure their trading rout es and protect Jesuit missionaries in Japan. In reality its task was t o conquer the Philippines for Spain. Shortly after his return to Spain. On February 8. K ing Philip died on 13 September. They depended on the Galleon Trade for a living. During Spain’s 333 year rule in the Philippines. Ruy López de Villalobos named the islands of Leyte and Samar Las Islas Fi lipinas after Philip II of Spain. Juan de Salcedo. the first permanent Spanish settlement of San Miguel was founded in Cebu." The decree was published in Manila on August 5. under Hideyoshi. agriculture was finally opened to the Europea n population. Mexico. The Cedula also dec reed an undertaking by which the natives (referred to as Indians}. the Japanese. Spanish rule . 1565. the colony was governed directly from Spain. issued a Royal Cedula instructing to Francisco de Tello de Guzmán. most trade betw een Spain and the Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to Mexico (Manila to Aca pulco).. Tupas was defeated and made to sign an agreement afte r his defeat and effectively placing the Philippines under Spain. Moros from western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago constantly raid ed the coastal Christian areas of Luzon and the Visayas and occasionally brought home loot and fair women.In 1543. but his death was not known in the Philippines until middle of 1599. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until 1559 becau se of european politics and wars in northern Europe. ". 1598. On that same d ay. Cebu then receded into the background as power shifted north to Luzon with the fertile lands of it s central plains.. The archipelago was made Spain's outpost in the orient as the Spanish East Indies. stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands to the west". The colony was administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain (now Mexico) until 1821 when Mexican patriots seceded from the Spanish Emp ire. In 1570. 1556. and indigenous attacks with limited resources. Dutch forces. After 1821. In the later years of th e 18th century. then Governor-General o f the Philippines in severe terms to fulfill the laws of tributes and to provide for restitution of ill-gotten taxes imposed on the natives. On April 27. This action pleased the King of Spain and he appointed Legaspi as the colony's first governor-general. Governor-General Basco introduced economic reforms that gave the colony its first real income from the production of tobacco and other agricultu ral exports. by wh ich time a referrendum by which the natives would acknowledge Spanish rule was u nderway. which before was reserved only for the natives. in the service of Legaspi. conquered the Kingdom of Mayn ila (now Manila). Early colonial economy depended on the Galleon Trade which was inaugurated in 15 65 between Manila and Acapulco. With the completion of the Philippine referendum of 1599. The European population steadily grew although natives remained the maj ority. Philip II became King of Spain on January 16. near the end of his 42 year reign. the colonists had to fight off th e Chinese pirates (who lay siege to Manila. In the late 16th century. Spain could b e said to have established legitimate sovereignty over the Philippines. King Philip II. when his father. freely r ender to me submission. They often sold their captives as slaves. The name didn't stick and the hispanized name of Manil a (from Maynila) survived to this day. Legaspi then made Maynila the capital of the Philippines and r enamed it Nueva Castilla. Portuguese forces. Philip ordered an expedition mounted to the Spice Islands. Charles I of Spain. abdicated the Spanish throne. 1597. To avoid hostile powers. son of Humabon. the most famous of which was Limahon g in 1574). In this later period. and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain (Veracruz to Cádiz). Spanish conquistadores numbering a mere 500 attacked the defi ant Tupas.

The fir st task was the reduction. All known executive power of the local gov ernment stemmed from him and as vice-regal patron. In the 1800 s. or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza. Novales Revolt and mutin y of the Cavite fort under La Madrid. The unpacified military zones (corregidor). The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza. and was the economic planner of the country. Alcalde mayors and corregid ores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge. which resembled the political system known as Feudalism in Medieval E urope. a market area and other infrastructures were located. for the defense of the colony from inva ders such as the Dutch. Among the issues that resulted to the P hilippine revolution of 1898 that ended Spanish rule was the abuse of power by t he religious orders. friars and native nobles were granted estates. justice and governance. the first task of colonization was the reduct ion. and was given the privilege to collect tri bute from its inhabitants. During the conquista. the King of Spain. were headed by the corregidores. through his Council of the Indies (Con sejo de Indias). The encomienda system was abu sed by encomenderos and was replaced by a more advanced system of governance of the times. tribute collector. In return. Provincial Government On the provincial level. As in Europe. The earliest political system used during the conquista period was the encomien da system. a central area for t own activities such as the fiesta. or relocation of native inhabitants into settlements.000. Residential areas lay aroun d the plaza. he had the right to supervise mission work and oversee ecclesiastical appointments. City governments (a yuntamientos). the church always had control over the state affairs of the colony . in particular. National Government On the national level.Political System The Spanish quickly organized their new colony according to their model. the Peninsulares began to displace the Insulares which resulted in the politi cal unrests of 1872. Manila. governed through his sole representative in the Philippines: th e Governor-General (Gobernador y Capitán General). in exc hange for their services to the King. communal public work and militar . the encomendero was duty bound to provi de soldiers for the King. were also headed by an alcalde mayor. heading the pacified provinces (alcaldia). But this can be augmented through the special privilege of "indult o de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. With the seat of power in Intra muros. His yearly salary was P40 . The friars controlled the sentiments of the native population and was more pow erful than the governor-general himself. inspector of encomiendas. notably the execution of GOMBURZA. Municipal Government The pueblo or town is headed by the gobernadorcillo or little governor. suc h as Mariveles and Mindoro. For obvious reasons. The conquistadores. recru itment and distribution of men for draft labor. His annual salary ranged from P300 to P2000 before 1847 and P1500 to P1 600 after it. British and Chinese. chief o f police. and where government buildings. was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants. The alcald e mayor was usually an Insulares (Spaniard born in the Philippines). the Governor-General was given several duties: he headed the Supr eme Court (Real Audiencia). the church. the Governor-General was usually a Peninsular (Spania rd born in Spain) to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown. known a s an encomendero. capitan-general of the province and even vice-regal patron. In times of war. the person granted the encomienda. The encomienda was entrusted to the encomendero by the King for only two generations. was Commander-in-chief of the army and navy. Among hi s administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list (padron). was the prov incial governor (alcalde mayor).

In add ition. justice. the building and operation of galleons put too much burden on the colonis ts' annual polo y servicio. This way. 25 years old. 1893. The Galleon trade brought silver from New Spain and silk from China by way of Manila. Panganiban and Agbayani to name a few. useful ideas. He was responsible for peace and order and recruited men for co mmunal public works. formally established the Real Sociedad Eco nomica de Amigos del Pais. first ca me from. Royal Society of Friends of the Country Jose de Basco y Vargas. "Mi Barrio". Pangilinan. without any previous notice. His annual salary.that is. they bought silk from China for resale to New Spain and then bought American silver for resale to China. and ceased in 1821 with the secession of American colonies from Spain. this is where the sentiment heard as. Don Anton io Maura. the law reorganized town governments in the Philippines with the aim of making them more effective and a utonomous. Gatmaitan. industry and pro . finance and the municipal police. In addition. Maura Law The legal foundation for municipal governments in the country was laid with the promulgation of the Maura Law on May 19. Early officials of th e pueblo were taken from the Maharlika class or nobles of rep-Colonial society. however. The trade lasted for over tw o hundred years. Any native or Chinese mestizo. Howe ver. following a royal order to form a society of intellectua ls who can produce new. the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time. Their names are survived by prominent families in contemporary Philippine societ y such as Tupas. Barrio Government Barrio government (village or district) rested on the barrio administrator (cabe za de barangay). postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. Named after its author. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor. literate in o ral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gob ernadorcillo. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted.y conscription (quinto). and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that s ucceeded Spanish rule. r evised. two ancient castilian institutio ns were brought to the Philippines. it resulted in cultural and commercial exch anges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops an d animals to the Philippines notably tobacco that gave the colony its first real income which benefit extended to the common Indio. a Chinese Mestizo and w ho was the gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). Visitas may be specific or general . However. Liwanag. He interve ned in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral c haracter and property. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the ea rly 19th century. Composed of leading men in business. initially it neglected the development of the colony's local industries whi ch affected the Indios since agriculture was their main source of income. dating back to the fifth cen tury and the Visita differed from the residencia in that it was conducted clande stinely by a visitador-general sent from Spain and might occur anytime within th e official’s term. Economy Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony d uring its early years. The trade was very prosperous. the Philippines earned its income through buy and sell . was only P24 but he was ex empted from taxation. The Residencia and The Visita To check the abuse of power of royal officials. The Residencia. Among those prominent is Emilio Aguinaldo.

Taxation To support the colony. cotton.e. i. Today. which could be paid in cash or kind (tobacco. Note: The following are information from Wikipedia. Also collected was the bandalâ (from the Tagalog word mandalâ. and three reales for church support.fession. a daily fine of one and a half real. Likewise. soldiers and missionaries brought with them aspec ts of European life. vanished temporarily on 1787-1819. The colonists used the Gregorian calendar. depending on the region of the country). the La tin script and used theocentric art. chickens. you may visit their website at http . the Spanish menu. It was stiffly objected by the Dutch and English who saw it as a direc t attack on their trade of Asian goods. m anner of clothing and fashion. literature. c oconut vinegar. By 1884. Culture By the 1800s. It offered local ad foreign scholarships and training grants in agricultur e and established an academy of design. meaning "a bsence"). One could be exe mpted from polo by paying the falla (corruption of the Spanish Falta. Chinese and Indian goods and shipping them directly to Spain via the Cape of G ood Hope. Filipino culture is a blend of ma ny different cultures. the formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the constr uction of the first papermill in the Philippines in 1825. a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed). "islanders"). The b uwis (tribute). music. coconut oil and ginger. Everyone over the age of 18 was obliged to pay. wa s initially was fixed at 8 reales (one real being 12. The society led to the creation of Plan General Economico of Basco which i mplemented the monopolies on the areca nut. apportioned as follows: ten reales buwis.5 centavos) and later incre ased to 15 reales.. In 1884. the tribut e was replaced by the Cedula personal. Charles III created the Royal Philippine Company with a 25 ye ar charter. the European s ettlers and their descendants. Forced Labor (Polo y servicio) The system of forced labor otherwise known as polo y servicio evolved within the framework of the encomienda system. known as Insulares (lit. rice. tobacco. The Free Encyclopedia. also adapt ed to oriental culture learning to eat rice as their staple and use soy sauce. produce. introduced into the South American colonies by the Conquistadores and Catholic priests who accompanied them. This gradually resulted in to the death of both institutions: The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815. selection fo r forced labor. labor was reduced to 15 days. gold. The early smal l number of European settlers. one real to the town community chest. 1785. The polo system was patterned after the Mexican repartimento. Philippines . an annual enforced sale and requisitioning of goods suc h as rice. the society was tasked to explore and exploit the island's natural boun ties. It was also vehemently opposed by the tr aders of the Galleon trade who saw it as competition. Polo y servici o is the forced labor for 40 days of men ranging from 16 to 60 years of age who were obligated to give personal services to community projects. Custom duties and income tax were also collected. It was also credited to the carabao ban of 1782. Royal Company of the Philippines On March 10. several forms of taxes and monopolies were imposed. religious festivals. etc. blankets. wherein colonists were required to pay fo r personal identification. the Philippines had become an important possession. It was granted exclusive monopoly of bringing to Manila. spirited liquors and explos ives. 1820-1822 and 1875-1822 and ceased to ex ist in the middle of the 1890s. one real diezmos pr ediales (tithes). one real sanctorum tax. stone houses. For sources and more accurate and detailed information. It was introduced on 1 780.

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