2 views

Uploaded by Lester Ingber

- Fractal Traffic Models for Internet Simulation
- First Course in Stochastic Processes
- Nouveau Document Texte
- DIET Lecture Study Material.pdf
- Lecture Notes
- Syllabus MTech New JNU
- Hamiltonian Process
- A Short History of Mathematical Population Dynamics
- chap1(2)
- Non-Dissipative Effects in Nonequilibrium Systems.pdf
- MTech-CIVIL-2013.pdf
- Nice Compound Poisson Process Ladder Diagram Illustration
- Diploma Thesis
- Lect Chapter1 Part1
- Brownian Motion and Stochastic Calculus
- Low Temperature Physics
- UT Dallas Syllabus for acn6347.501.09f taught by Richard Golden (golden)
- B.Sc.(Hons) Mathmetics LAPLACE TRNSFORMS.pdf
- Spherical
- Backward Nonlinear

You are on page 1of 20

LESTER INGBER

Physical Studies Institute, Drawer W, Solana Beach, CA 92075 and Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093

Communicated by X. J. R. Avula

AbstractAn approach to understanding the nature of markets is modelled using methods of modern nonlinear nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. This permits examination of the premise that markets can be described by nonlinear nonequilibrium Markovian distributions. Corrections to previous nonlinear continuous time models are explicitly presented. A quite general microscopic model is presented of individual agents operating on a market, and explicit relationships are derived between variables describing these agents and the macroscopic market.

-2-

1. INTRODUCTION

Several studies imply that changing prices of many markets do not follow a random walk, that they may have long-term dependences in price correlations, and that they may not be efcient in quickly arbitraging new information [1-5]. However, these and other studies have at least several shortcomings, some of which are pointed out by their authors: (A) A random walk for returns, rate of change of prices over prices, is described by a Langevin equation with simple additive noise , typically representing the continual random inux of information into the market. = 1 + 2 , = d/dt , < (t) > = 0 , < (t), (t) > = (t t) , where 1 and 2 are constants, and is the logarithm of (scaled) price. From this equation, other models may be derived, such as the times-series model and the Kalman lter method of control theory [6]. However, in the process of this transformation, the Markovian description typically is lost by projection onto a smaller state space [7]. In this context, price, although the most dramatic observable, may not be the only appropriate dependent variable or order parameter for the system of markets [8]. This possibility has also been called the semistrong form of the efcient market hypothesis [3]. This paper only considers Gaussian noise, white or colored (e.g., 2 not constant, also called multiplicative noise). These methods are not conveniently used for other sources of noise also currently considered by economists, e.g., Poisson processes [9] or Bernoulli processes [10,11]. It remains to be seen if colored noise can emulate these processes in the empirical ranges of interest, in some reasonable limits [12]. For example, within limited ranges, lognormal distributions can approximate 1/ f distributions, and Pareto-Levy tails may be modelled as subordinated log-normal distribtutions with amplication mechanisms [13]. (B) It is also necessary to explore the possibilities that a given market evolves in nonequilibrium, e.g., evolving irreversibly, as well as nonlinearly, e.g., 1,2 may be functions of . Irreversibility, e.g., causality [14] and nonlinearity [15], have been suggested as processes necessary to take into account in order to understand markets, but modern methods of statistical mechanics now provide a more explicit paradigm to consistently include these processes in bona de probability distributions. Reservations have been expressed about these earlier models at the time of their presentation [16]. It should also be noted that considerations of general Martingale processes, which conclude that markets behave nonrandomly, typically have been restricted to additive random processes [4]. (C) Besides assuming a rather specialized form for a Markovian process, Eq. (1) also assumes that real time is the proper independent variable. This is true for physical and most biophysical processes that have relatively continuous interactions [17-20], but for social and economic systems, some other density of relevant events might better describe the temporal evolution of the system. For example, typically, t is measured by a small time unit t that averages over a chosen number of ticks/trades and t is a macroscopic epoch. Reasonable values of t and t are on the order of minutes and days, respectively. A mesoscopic time scale , t > > t , and a smoothness parameter , a fraction of (t), are chosen to search and t (t) to local minima and maxima. Thus a sequence of trades is taken to measure the independent temporal parameter of market T , and is mapped onto the variable , dened by integers : = + 0 . Another reasonable scaling of t onto a mesoscopic would be to scale t inversely to volume V being traded, and to perform trades over a uniform mesh of . This would be one way of (1)

-3-

simulating an average trader. (D) Price correlation studies imply that day trading as a speculative strategy is doomed to failure [3,21]. Some trends in markets no doubt exist, if only as partially self-fullling prophecies of regularly published forecast trends, albeit their net effect may also be to randomize the system away from these deterministic trends [22]. However, new unpredictable events and reactions to them, of course characteristic of the future, cause uctuations to the extent that, in the absence of privileged information, losses and commissions usually take their nal toll. The compelling conclusion is that, even with some trends present in markets, reactions to random events typically wipe out any correlations that might be used for successful day trading speculation. Therefore, perhaps if a sufcient set of variables directly related to variables actually used by traders are chosen to model these markets, then an underlying Markovian process, albeit highly nonlinear and nonequilibrium, would become apparent. (E) Several pricing models have examined effects of nonlinear means and nonconstant variances, and have also attempted to understand how macroscopic markets interact with their microscopic agents [23,24]. However, after formulating their systems via continuous time generalizations to Eq. (1), errors are made in subsequent development of these equations to FokkerPlanck or Lagrangian formulations, especially in developing variational principles. An important issue concerns how or when to transform between the Ito and the Stratonovich representations of stochastic equations [25]. One main purpose of this paper is to point out the correct development, aided with the hindsight of similar developments in statistical mechanics within the past several years. A true Lagrangian is derived that replaces the derived utility of wealth function [24]. (F) Quite recent developments in nonlinear nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and their application to a variety of testable physical phenomena illustrate the importance of properly treating nonlinearities and nonequilibrium in systems where simpler analyses prototypical of linear equilibrium Brownian motion do not sufce [17-20]. It seems appropriate to at least give a fair test of these modern methods to the study of markets to address the previous features (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E). Section 2 develops the formalism satisfying the requirements of feature (F). Section 3 develops a specic microscopic model of individual agents operating on a market. This example serves to explicitly demonstrate how the path integral formalism developed in Section 2 and in the Appendix can be identied with its underlying microscopic dynamics, especially in the thermodynamic limit. This formalism has not been previously used in the nancial and economics literature, and only recently has it been applied to specic physical systems [18-20,26,27]. 2. STATISTICAL DEVELOPMENT When other order parameters in addition to price are included to study markets, Eq. (1) is accordingly generalized to a set of Stratonovich Langevin equations. G j M = f G + gG j , (G = 1, . . . , ) , ( j = 1, . . . , N ) , G M = dM G /d , < j () > = 0 , < j (), j () > = jj ( ) , where f G and gG are generally nonlinear functions of mesoscopic order parameters M G , j is a j microscopic index indicating the source of uctuations, and N . [See the Appendix for further (2)

-4-

specication of Eq. (2).] The Einstein convention of summing over repeated indices is used. Vertical bars on an index, e.g., |j|, imply no sum is to be taken on repeated indices. For example, consider mesoscopic market variable M 1 to be the published price at any time, and g1j| | j| to be the | stochastic driving inuence on M 1 from a given trader j; this is derived from Eq. (1) by the simple 1 change of variables = log(M 1 /M ). Alternately, one could consider that M 1 represents the attempted behavior/goal of agent j to follow the market price in the presence of all agents j = 1, . . . , N . Via a somewhat lengthy, albeit instructive calculation, outlined in the Appendix, involving an intermediate derivation of a corresponding Fokker-Planck or Schr dinger-type equation for the o conditional probability distribution P[M()|M(0 )], the Langevin rate Eq. (2) is developed into the more useful probability distribution for M G at long-time macroscopic time event = (u + 1) + 0 , in terms of a Stratonovich path-integral over mesoscopic Gaussian conditional probabilities [28-32]. Here, macroscopic variables are dened as the long-time limit of the evolving mesoscopic system. The corresponding Schr dinger-type equation is [30,31] o P/ =

1 2

(3)

j k gGG = k T jk gG gG , gG = f G + jk gG gG , j k,G

2 1

[. . .],G = [. . .]/M G . This is properly referred to as a Fokker-Planck equation when V 0. Note that although the partial differential Eq. (3) contains equivalent information regarding M G as in the stochastic differential Eq. (2), all references to j have been properly averaged over. I.e., gG in Eq. (2) is an entity j with parameters in both microscopic and mesoscopic spaces, but M is a purely mesoscopic variable, and this is more clearly reected in Eq. (3). In the context of option pricing, several approaches [11,24,33,34] have derived a univariate Schr dinger-type equation with form similar to Eq. (3): Formally take M 1 = price, P = the o rational call price, g11 = ( M 1 )2 , g1 = (2 2 r)M 1 , V = ( 2 2r), where and r are empirical 1 constants related to the variance of M /M 1 and the short-term interest rate (equivalent to the risk in an efcient market). The path integral representation is given in terms of the Lagrangian L. P[M |M 0 ]dM() =

0 0

(4)

S=

1 kT

min

dL ,

DM = lim

g1/2 (2 )1/2 dM G , u =1 G

u+1

L( M , M G , ) = hG = gG

1 2

1 2

( M hG )gGG ( M

hG ) +

1 2

hG ;G + R/6 V ,

F hG ;G = hG + GF hG = g1/2 (g1/2 hG ),G , ,G

1 2

M N M N (g FK ,JL g JK ,FL g FL,JK + g JL,FK ) + g MN (FK JL FL JK ) .

Mesoscopic variables have been dened as M G in the Langevin and Fokker-Planck representations, in terms of their development from the microscopic system labeled by j. The Riemannian curvature term R arises from nonlinear gGG , which is a bona de metric of this parameter G space [30]. Even if a stationary solution, i.e., M = 0, is ultimately sought, a necessarily prior G stochastic treatment of M terms gives rise to these Riemannian corrections. Even for a conG stant metric, the term h ;G contributes to L for a nonlinear mean hG . V may include terms such as JT G M G , where the Lagrange multipliers JT G are constraints on M G , e.g., from other markets T , which are advantageously modelled as extrinsic sources in this representation; they too may be time-dependent. Using the variational principle below, J TG may also be used to constrain M G to regions where they are empirically bound. More complicated constraints may be afxed to L using methods of optimal control theory [35]. With respect to a steady state P, when it exists, the information gain in state P is dened by [P] =

T

. . . DM P ln (P/P) ,

(5)

DM = DM/dM u+1 . In the economics literature, there appears to be sentiment to dene Eq. (2) by the Ito, rather than the Stratonovich prescription. It should be noted that virtually all investigations of other physical systems, which are also continuous time models of discrete processes, conclude that the Stratonovich interpretation coincides with reality, when multiplicative noise with zero correlation time, modelled in terms of white noise j , is properly considered as the limit of real noise with nite correlation time [36]. The path integral succinctly demonstrates the difference between the two: The Ito prescription corresponds to the prepoint discretization of L, wherein M() M +1 M and M() M . The Stratonovich prescription corresponds to the mid1 point discretization of L, wherein M() M +1 M and M() (M +1 + M ). In terms of the functions appearing in the Fokker-Planck Eq. (3), the Ito prescription of the prepoint discretized Lagrangian, L I , is relatively simple, albeit deceptively so because of its nonstandard calculus. L I ( M , M G , ) =

G

1 2

( M gG )gGG ( M

gG ) V .

(6)

In the absence of a nonphenomenological microscopic theory, if the Ito prescription is proposed rather than the Stratonovich prescription, then this choice must be justied by numerical ts to data for each case considered. Differences between L and L I have been found to be important in at least two physical systems investigated with these methods [18-20,26,27,37,38]. There are several other advantages to Eq. (4) over Eq. (2). Extrema and most probable states of M G , << M G >>, are simply derived by a variational principle, similar to conditions sought

-6-

in previous studies [24]. In the Stratonovich prescription, necessary, albeit not sufcient, conditions are given by

G L = L ,G L ,G: = 0 ,

(7)

G

L ,G: = L ,GG M

+ L ,G G M

.

G G

For stationary states, M = 0, and L/M = 0 denes << M >>, where the bars identify stationary variables; in this case, the macroscopic variables are equal to their mesoscopic counterparts. [Note that L is not the stationary solution of the system, e.g., to Eq. (3) with P/ = 0. However, in some cases [37], L is a denite aid to nding such stationary states.] Typically, in other nancial studies, only properties of stationary states are examined, but here a temporal dependence is G included. E.g., the M terms in L permit steady states and their uctuations to be investigated in a nonequilibrium context. Note that Eq. (7) must be derived from the path integral, Eq. (4), which is at least one reason to justify its development. In the language of nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics [39], the thermodynamic G forces are G = S ,G , where S is the entropy, and the thermodynamic uxes are M = gGG G . Although the uxes are dened to be linearly related to the forces, gGG may be highly nonlinear in the state-variables M G . The short-time Feynman Lagrangian L can be expressed as the sum of the 1 1 G G G dissipation function (M G , M ) = gGG M M , the force function (M G , G ) = gGG G G , G the potential term V , and the (negative) rate of change of entropy S(M G ) = G M : Then V is the nonlinear nonequilibrium generalization of the Onsager-Machlup L = +S Lagrangian [40]. The variational equations insure that the equilibrium entropy is maximal, not necessarily a static equilibrium. Fluctuations over short time periods are introduced via variables G G G G = L/ M canonical to M G , G = gGG ( M gG ) gGG M G , interpreted as resulting from the nonequilibrium competition between the thermodynamic forces and uxes. In the context of multiplicative Gaussian noise, the conditional probability of making the state-transition G G G G from M = M G () to M + = M G ( + ) is then hypothesized to be P[M + |M ] + 1 dL)d . This machinery sufces to determine the macroscopic probability exp( 2k T distribution [39]. For nonconstant gGG when R 0, it should be noted that the Lagrangian corresponding to the most-probable path is not derived from the variational principle, but is directly related to L [41]. To begin introducing economic theory, variables such as (logarithm) price can be postulated to be the basic state-variables. However, it is not clear how to precisely relate L to classical economic equilibrium utility functions. It seems more reasonable to take economic microscopic models, usually formulated by differential equations of the state-variables, nd regions of M G wherein multiplicative Gaussian noise modelling is appropriate, directly calculate L as outlined in the Appendix, and then to make the identication with thermodynamic forces, uxes and entropy, if this is desired. It is argued here that, although the thermodynamic interpretation perhaps has aesthetic value, the prime utility of the statistical mechanical formulation of probability densities in terms of generalized Lagrangians is that detailed calculations can be performed of macroscopic evolutions of microscopic and mesoscopic mechanisms, even in highly nonlinear and nonequilibrium contexts. The next Section 3 presents a microscopic model formulated such that the Lagrangian can be calculated directly from microscopic transition probabilities. In spite of the difculties just previously discussed, in relating L to classical economic equilibrium functions, it is appealing to consider that L represents relative gains in assets due to trading on the empirical data, similar to arguments invoked to establish the derived utility of wealth function [24]. E.g., the minima of L could be considered to correspond to maxima of demand functions (in terms of observable goods, prices and wealth) derived from utility functions (preference orderings) of individuals: Over short intervals of time, efcient adjustments between buyers and sellers should give rise to maximally rational actions of traders which should be reected in most probable market variables. Then, the t to empirical data could be achieved by

2 2

-7-

G G hG = X G + X G M G + X GG M G M G + . . . ,

(8)

gGG = Y GG + Y GGG M G + Y GGGG M G M G + . . . , M G = M G << M G >> . All contributions to L in Eq. (4) are expressed in terms of hG , gGG and M G , and their derivatives. Determination of extrema that are minima or maxima are most conveniently ascertained numerically during the tting process. Higher order terms in the series in Eq. (8) must be examined to determine their regions of convergence relative to the region of convergence of L as a series in M G . However, since the Lagrangian now appears as a Pade rational function, its region of convergence is expected to be at least as large as the regions of convergence of the means and variances. Admittedly, the argument relating L to changes in assets is weak, here as well as in other studies without a rigorous development of a variational principle. I.e., the scale of derivation of utility functions and the scale of equilibrium description of means and variances of market variables are, respectively, comparable to thermodynamically comparing average molecular kinetic energies of a microscopic ensemble and the macroscopic temperature (times Boltzmanns constant) of a large sample. In nonequilibrium nonlinear dynamical systems, a mesoscopic level of description is necessary to accurately describe more realistic complex behavior, the subject of nonequilibrium nonlinear statistical mechanics. A direct method of tting parameters in L is to extract cumulative moments of the empirical data and to t these to the (rst several) cumulative moments of M G , using Monte Carlo calculations [19] of the path integral. A simpler, cruder t also could be done by tting the most probable path to the stochastic data, i.e., minimizing the Lagrangian, evaluated at the empirical data, as a function of the expansion coefcients of Eq. (8). In addition to tting the multivariate means, this method could still determine the multivariate covariances up to a constant factor. At least, this approach more accurately describes the empirical data, thereby establishing realistic functions for future theoretic models to derive. If V 0, then the corresponding Langevin Eq. (2) can be used to t the parameters of Eq. (8), calculating ensemble averages of sets of stochastic trajectories for M G . As real systems are typically nonlinear, this procedure most likely yields sets of extrema G { << M >> }, i.e., L is at least quadratic in some of its variables. This must be viewed as a practiG cal optimistic rst step in mapping out the more general functional behavior of L( M , M G , ). Changing constraints J T G in V can drive a market T to different local minima, and competition and uctuation between minima having varying degrees of local stability can give rise to phenomena typically found in other nonlinear nonequilibrium systems, e.g. bifurcation, hysteresis, etc. [17-20,37]. This process, of essentially tting empirical data to the specic functional form of L, insures the conceptual Markov interpretation most popularly understood via Eq. (2). Another interesting aspect of Eq. (4) applied to sets of markets, is that some sets may exhibit similar functional dependencies in hG and gGG . Then, their relative scalings, {k T }, give a measure of their relative volatilities. 3. MICROSCOPIC MODEL Because P represents a bona de conditional probability distribution, the path integral representation suggests an approach to a microscopic theory of market behavior. This also permits acquisition of the functions f G and gG in Eq. (2), or of gG and gGG in Eqs. (3) and (4). j Consider the conditional probability distribution, p j , of an agent j operating on a given market. For simplicity, assume that at time t + , j must decide whether to buy or sell a standard increment of the market, based only on the information of the total number of buyers, M B , and sellers, M S , at time t. For example, take

1

p j =

(9)

[1 erf( j F j /2)] ,

2

j =

+1 1

p+ + p = 1 , F j = F j (M G ) , G = {B, S} . F j may be any reasonably well-behaved function of M B and M S , different for buyers, F j B F B , or sellers, F j S F S . For simplicity, no other j dependence is considered in this model, and F j is considered to represent a decision factor representing a typical rational agent in the market. Note that the probability distribution selected for p j closely approximates the cumulative distribution of a normal random variable, i.e., the erf function [18]. A mathematically (only) similar model has been developed for a different physical problem, which also demonstrates how to develop a eld theory if M G is homogeneously distributed in other variables [18-20]. A simple example of F j for agents following market trends is obtained from

G F ex1 = aG M /N ,

(10)

M = M B MS , where aG are constants, a B < 0 and a S > 0, for agents following the trends of the market. I.e., agent j acts according to a sigmoid distribution with respect to market trends: p j is concave with respect to gains, and convex with respect to losses [42], but note that this simplied assumption of decision under risk is undergoing revision [43]. For convenience, assume that the total numbers of potential buyers and sellers are each constants, j S = 1, . . . , N S , j B = 1, . . . , N B , N = NB + NS . At any given time, any agent may belong to either pool of S or B. Alternatively, permitting long and short trading, each agent could always be both a potential seller and a potential buyer, albeit with different decision factors F G consistent with a desired net expected gain; then N S = N B = N /2. If each agent is considering one unit of a markets assets, then the following development becomes a microscopic model of the dynamics of the markets volume. Note that ideal equilibrium, presumably xed by arbitrage in an efcient market, is determined by N S /N B such that the total value of assets sold equals the total value of assets bought. I.e., this simple illustrative model is one in which price arbitrage interactions are emulated by quantity or supply interactions. However, in nonequilibrium, the appropriate order parameters are M S and M B , and a multistable or metastable market may prevail. This model may also be construed as the construction of microscopic probability distributions for agents, whose means represent individual utility functions, modelled in terms of microscopic variables , which subsequently are statistically aggregated into a mesoscopic Lagrangian L expressed in terms of (11)

-9mesoscopic variables, simple sums of j . This is accomplished in this simple model without having to resort to the thermodynamic (static and equilibrium) limit, as discussed previously after Eq. (7). The joint probability distribution P, joint with respect to pools of all S and B agents, but conditional with respect to time evolution, is P[M(t + )|M(t)] = P G [M G (t + )|M G (t)]

G B,S

(12)

N

( j j N S ) ( j j N B ) p j B S =1

j

= (2 )1

G

dQ

exp[iM G (t + )QG ]

NG

j G

= (1 + E G )N

G

N G G (E ) , G

E G = exp(2F G ) ,

G = [[ (M G (t + ) + N G )]] ,

2 1

M = {M G } , where M G (t) represents contributions from both G = S and G = B at time t, and G is dened as the greatest integer in the double brackets. For convenience only, j F j was dened so that M G = 0 is arbitrarily selected as a midpoint between agents acting and not acting on the market: M G = N G signies all agents not acting, M G = N G signies all agents acting. The mean and variance of this binomial distribution yields < M G (t + ) >= N G tanh F G , < M G (t + )M G (t + ) > < M G (t + ) >< M G (t + ) >=

G G G

(13)

1 4

G N G sech2 F G .

For large N and large N F , this binomial distribution is asymptotically Gaussian. With equal liklihood throughout time , any of the N uncorrelated agents j (t) can contribute to change the mesoscopic means and uctuations of uncorrelated agents j (t + ). Therefore, for , at least to resolution /N and to order / , it is reasonable to assume a change in means G of M = M G (t + ) M G (t) gG with variance gGG . Dening P = P[M G (t + )|M G (t)] as a Gaussian distribution similar to P = P[M G (t + )|M G (t)], P satises the Markovian ChapmanKolmogorov equation P + = evolving from P . It is conjectured here that requiring M G to be continuous, albeit not necessarily differentiable, and pre-point discretized P to be Markovian, sufce to reasonably dene P at the mesoscopic scale for . E.g., the same result should be obtained if mesoscopic distributions P of variables M G were extracted after considering microscopic j contributions to p to have a temporal distribution within , e.g., Poisson. Folding P for many time increments of into a macroscopic long-time distribution, the prepoint discretized L I of Eq. (6) is naturally and directly

P P

-10-

G gGG = G 1 N G sech2 F G .

(14)

It should be noted that any number of classes of agents may be specied in Eq. (9), e.g., to emulate coalitions of agents, as long as the number in each class is sufcient to permit the central limit theorem to be applied to obtain the Gaussian statistics dening L. For example, G might represent two classes of agents with different decision functions F G , and j might represent selling ( j = +1) or buying ( j = 1). Other or additional options could be specied for G, F G and j . Even for |F G (z)| << 1, for large N G , N G F G will be large enough in some neighborhood of z to permit this statistical development. Examining this derivation of gGG , and the derivation of the path integral from the corresponding Langevin equations, it is seen that in Eq. (2) a reasonable choice for gG is j G gGG /(N G ) , gG = G j 0, j G j G G , (15)

This mesoscopic model is derived from a sigmoid distribution for an individual agent. However, some new structure typically appears as a result of the collective pool of agents: E.g., for G G example 1, it is clear that a stationary state, M = 0, is near M = 0. However, for F G more nonG G linear, there may be additional roots to N = tanh F , the Riemannian corrections may add signicant structure, and competition between B and S may produce additional structure. All these effects are most succinctly understood by examining the Lagrangian. This directly illustrates the intuitive and analytic utility of the path integral. The existence and location of local extrema are not as easily found from the corresponding Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. G Figure 1 presents 3-dimensional and contour plots over M -space for L ex1 , where L ex1 represents the stationary Lagrangian of Eq. (4) for the microscopic model in Eq. (10). Arbitrarily, take N G = 100, J G = 0, a B = 2 and a S = 1. For comparison, and to see the size of the approximation made in using the Ito prescription, Fig. 2 gives the corresponding plots as in Fig. 1, but analyses L I ex1 instead of L ex1 . There is barely a measurable difference, e.g., within 1%, for this simple example, but the multiple stationary minima are lost at this scale for the Ito prescription. In general, it may be expected that the more realistically nonlinear is F G , the larger this difference will be. As another example, consider in Eq. (9),

G F ex2 =

aG M /N + bG , 1 + cG [(M B )2 + (M S )2 ]/N 2

(16)

which represents a modication to the sigmoid distribution of example 1. Arbitrarily, bG = 0 and G cG = 1. In Fig. 3, multiple stationary minima are still seen in the region of M -space of concern to this model. Figure 4 gives plots similar to Fig. 3, but using L I ex2 instead of L ex2 to calculate the behavior induced by the microscopic system of Eq. (16). The structure in Fig. 3 is clearly changed. More complex decision factors F G must be expected to produce even more structure in the stationary and dynamic behaviors of the market. Note that J T G constraints, e.g., inuences from other markets, advantageously model restrictions to neighborhoods of particular extrema, thereby stressing possibilities of interaction between nearby multiple minima. One approach to bridge microscopic and macroscopic theory is to select a microscopic function F j , enabling extrema << M G >> to be solved for as solutions of the variational Eq. (7), developed from the path integral representation. Then the response of an agent in a neighborhood of << M G >> can be further explored using p j in Eq. (9), even to determine a more suitable starting function F j .

-11-

Alternatively, in an opposite approach, mesoscopic extrema << M G >> can be found from empirical ts to the data, as described by Eq. (8). In the neighborhood of << M G >>, the average agents contribution to the Langevin representation can be calculated by Eq. (15). Furthermore, Eq. (14) may be solved to nd F G , thereby determining F j in this neighborhood. This method acts to determine the microscopic distribution from the macroscopic one. 4. DISCUSSION A nonlinear nonequilibrium statistical mechanics description of markets is presented in a form immediately operational and calculable. Given are the primary equations necessary to establish the theoretical context and to perform explicit ts on empirical data. This approach puts the statistical analysis of markets into a current paradigm being applied to other nonlinear nonequilibrium systems. The Lagrangian derived is a concise fundamental description of empirical data, superior to mere curve tting to lay a foundation upon which to further investigate economic mechanisms responsible for dynamical functional relationships among market variables. The Lagrangian is a priori constrained to consistently include effects of nonlinearity and nonequilibrium in probability distributions of several or many variables. A simple model is presented, by which the derivation of a bona de probability distribution further enables the development of specic microscopic economic models, themselves described by probability distributions of operations of individual agents. Although this microscopic model directly leads to the path integral, it has also been demonstrated how these results are directly translated into Fokker-Planck and Langevin languages typically used by other investigators. This model shows how a bridge might be made from microscopic to macroscopic theory, especially in the thermodynamic (static and equilibrium) limit. However, the formalism presented here is more directly and generally applicable to a realizable mesoscopic dynamical statistical analysis of macroscopic markets, given the realistic constraints of the probable existence of rather complex microscopic behavior. The variational principle possessed by the Lagrangian is an important tool to further study this interaction. An explicit algorithm is thereby developed to study the interactions between macroscopic markets and individual agents, but at a mesoscopic scale between the two. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Plots and calculations were facilitated with the PDP-10 MACSYMA Consortium algebraic manipulator at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supported in part by USERDA E(11-1)-3070 and NASA NSG 1323. Text preparation was facilitated with the CATT UNIX system at UC San Diego. I thank Jim Wood for several interesting discussions. This project has been supported entirely by personal contributions to Physical Studies Institute and to the University of California at San Diego Physical Studies Institute agency account through the Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences. APPENDIX This Appendix outlines the derivation of the path integral representation of the nonlinear Langevin equations, via the Fokker-Planck representation. This serves to point out the importance of properly treating nonlinearities, and to emphasize the deceptive simplicity of the Langevin and Fokker-Planck representations of stochastic systems. There are a few derivations in the literature, but the following blend seems to be the most concise. All details may be found in the references given in this paper [28,31,32,41]. The Stratonovich Langevin equations given in Eq. (2) can be analyzed in terms of the Wiener process dW i , which can be rewritten in terms of Gaussian noise i = dW i /dt if care is taken in the limit [41]. dM G = f G [t, M(t)]dt + gG [t, M(t)]dW i , i (A1)

-12-

= { i ; i = 1, . . . , N } . i represents Gaussian white noise, and moments of an arbitrary function F( ) over this stochastic space are dened by a path-type integral over i ,

< F( ) > = N

D F( ) exp( 2 dt ) ,

i i t0

(A2)

N=

D exp(

1 2

t0

dt ) ,

i i

D = lim

v+1 N

t = t 0 + ,

1 2

dt

i i

1 2

i i (W W 1 )2 , i

< i > = 0 , < i (t) j (t) > = ij (t t) , where t in the text. Non-Markovian sources, , and their inuence throughout this development, can be formally treated by expansions about the Markovian process by dening < F( ) > = N

1

D F exp[ 2 dtdt(t)

(t t) (t)] ,

(A3)

dt

(t t) (t t) = (t t) ,

with dened as an interval centered about the argument of . Letting 0 is an unambiguous procedure to dene the Stratonovich prescription used below. G In terms of a specic stochastic path , a solution to Eq. (A1), M (t; M 0 , t 0 ) with G M (t 0 ; M 0 , t 0 ) M 0 , the initial conditions on the probability distribution of M is P [M, t|M 0 , t 0 ] = [M M (t; M 0 , t 0 )] . Using the conservation of probability condition, G P ,t + ( M P ),G = 0 , [. . .],G = [. . .]/M G , (A5) (A4)

-13[. . .],t = [. . .]/t , the evolution of P is written as P ,t [M, t|M 0 , t 0 ] = {[ f G (t, M) g(t, M) i ]P },G . (A6)

To perform the stochastic average of Eq. (A6), the functional integration by parts lemma [44] is used on an arbitrary function Z( ) [31],

Z( ) i

=0.

1 2

(A7)

Applied to Z = Z exp(

t0

dM P F(M),

dM

P i

F(M) =

F[M ] G M

1 2

G M i

G ij j P ),G

(A9)

dM F(M)(g

where designates functional differentiation. The last equation has used the Stratonovich prescription,

G G M (t) = M 0 +

dt H(t t) H(t t )( f

0

+ gG i ) , i

(A10)

tt0

lim

G M (t) i (t)

1 2

gG [t, M (t)] ij , j

1, z 0 H(z) = 0, z < 0 . Taking the averages < P ,t > and < i P > , the Fokker-Planck is obtained from Eq. (A9). If some boundary conditions are added as Lagrange multipliers, these enter as a potential V , creating the Schr dinger-type equation given in Eq. (3) in the text, with t here. o P ,t =

1 2

(A11)

P =< P > , gG = f G +

1 2

gG gG , i i,G

gGG = gG gG . i i Note that gG replaces f G in Eq. (A1) if the Ito calculus is used to dene that equation. G To derive the path integral representation of Eq. (A11), dene operators M , pG and H,

G G G G [ M , pG ] M pG pG M = i G ,

(A12)

-14-

[ M , M ] = 0 = [ pG , pG ] , P ,t = i H P , i H = pG pG gGG + pG gG + iV , 2 and dene the evolution operator U(t, t) in terms of bra and ket probability states of M, G M |M G >= M G |M G > , pG |M G >= i/M G |M G > , < M|M >= (M M) , < M| p >= (2 )1 exp(ip M) , P[M, t|M 0 , t 0 ] =< M|U(t, t 0 )|M 0 > , H(t)U(t, t) = iU(t, t),t , U(t, t) = 1 , U(t , t 1 )1 i H(t 1 ) , where indexes units of measuring the time evolution. This is formally integrated to give the path integral in the phase space ( p, M),

M(t)=M t

(A13)

P[M t |M 0 ] =

M(t 0 )=M 0 u

DM Dp exp[

t0

dt(ip

GM

1 2

pG pG gGG ipG gG + V ) ] ,

DM = lim

dM G , u G =1

(A14)

Dp = lim

(2 )1 d pG , u G =1

u+1

t = t 0 + . The integral over each d pG is a Gaussian and simply calculated. This gives the path integral in coordinate space M, in terms of the prepoint discretized Lagrangian, also dened by Eq. (6), P[M t |M 0 ] =

=0

(A15)

2

[G / gG (M , t )] + V (M , t )} ,

-15g = det(gGG ) , gGG = (gGG )1 , G = M G+1 M G . This can be transformed to the Stratonovich representation, in terms of the Feynman Lagrangian L possessing a variational principle, P[M t |M 0 ] =

DM (2 )

=0

/2

g(M + , t + /2)1/2

t +

(A16)

exp { min

dtL[M(t), M(t), t] } ,

where min species that Eq. (A11) is obtained by constraining L to be expanded about that M(t) which makes the action S = way of proceeding is to expand Eq. (A15) and compare to Eq. (A16), but it is somewhat easier to expand Eq. (A16) and compare to Eq. (A15) [32]. It can be shown that expansions to order sufce, and that 2 = O( ). (For convenience, the constant k T appearing in Eq. (4) is set equal to 1/2 i unity until the end of the derivation. This would appear as a k T factor of gG in Eqs. (A1) and GG (A11), also yielding a k T factor of g in Eq. (A11), thereby scaling the Lagrangian of the path 1 integral by k T .) Write L in the general form L=

1 2

G G G gGG M M hG M + b

(A17)

= L 0 + L , L0 =

1 2

G G gGG [M(t), t] M M ,

gGG [M(t), t] = gGG [M(t), t] + gGG,t [M(t), t](t t) + O[(t t)2 ] , where hG and b must be determined by comparing expansions of Eqs. (A15) and (A16). Only the L 0 term is dependent on the actual M(t) trajectory, and so

t +

dt L = ( gGG,t G G hG G

4

1 2

hG,G G G + b)|(M,t) ,

(A18)

where |(M,t) implies evaluation at (M, t). The determinant g is expanded as g(M + , t + /2)1/2 g1/2 (M, t) exp[

4g +

g,t +

1 G g,G 2g

(A19)

The remaining integral over L 0 must be performed. This is accomplished using the variational principle applied to

[28],

-16-

gGH M

(A20)

1 G H ( gGH M M ),t = 0 , 2

t+

L 0 dt

G H gGH M M |(M,t+ ) .

...

Differentiating the second equation in Eq. (A20) to obtain M, and expanding M(t + ) to third order in , 1 1 G K L 1 A M(t + ) = [ G + (G + G KL )G L N ]|(M,t) . AN 2 KL 6 KL,N Now Eq. (A16) can be expanded as P[M t |M 0 ]dM(t) =

u+1 u

(A21)

DM exp[ 2 g

=0

G G GG (M, t)

+ B] ,

(A22)

DM = g1/2 (2 )1/2 dM G .

=1

Expanding exp B to O( ) requires keeping terms of order , 2 , 3 / , 4 / , and 6 / 2 . Under the path integral, evaluated at (M, t), and using = to designate the order of terms obtained from 1 2 n d exp( ), 2

G H = gGH , G H K = (G g HK + H gGH + K gGH ) , G H A B = 2 (gGH g AB + gGA g HB + gGB g HA ) , A B C D E F = 3 (g AB gCD g EF + 14 permutations) . This expansion of exp B is to be compared to Eq. (A15), expanded as P[M t |M 0 ]dM(t)

(A23)

DM exp( 2 g

=0

G G GG )

(A24)

1 2 1 2

(A25)

hG hG +

1 2

hG ;G + R/6 V ,

R = g JL R JL = g JL g FK R FJKL .

1 This result gives Eq. (4) in the text, with t and scaling L with k T .

P[M t |M 0 ]dM(t) =

t

. . . DM exp(S) ,

(A26)

S=

1 kT

min

t0

dtL ,

1 2

G L( M , M G , t) =

G G ( M hG )gGG ( M hG ) +

1 2

hG ;G + R/6 V .

-18-

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. T. F. Cargill and G. C. Rausser, Temporal price behavior in commodity futures markets, J. Finance 30, 1043-1053 (1975). M. T. Greene and B. D. Fielitz, Long-term dependence in common stock returns, J. Fin. Econ. 4, 339-349 (1977). M. C. Jensen, Some anomalous evidence regarding market efciency, an editorial introduction, J. Fin. Econ. 6, 95-101 (1978). B. B. Mandelbrot, When can price be arbitraged efciently? A limit to the validity of the random walk and martingale models, Rev. Econ. Statist. 53, 225-236 (1971). S. J. Taylor, Tests of the random walk hypothesis against a price-trend hypothesis, J. Fin. Quant. Analysis 17, 37-61 (1982). E. Burmeister and K. D. Wall, Kalman ltering estimation of unobserved rational expectation with an application to the German hyperination, J. Econ. 20, 255-284 (1982). K. Kishida, Physical Langevin model and the time-series model in systems far from equilibrium, Phys. Rev. A 25, 496-507 (1982). P. Brown, A. W. Kleidon, and T. A. Marsh, New evidence on the nature of size-related anomalies in stock prices, J. Fin. Econ. 12, 33-56 (1983). R. C. Merton, Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous, J. Fin. Econ. 3, 125-144 (1976). C. A. Ball and W. N. Torous, A simplied jump process for common stock returns, J. Fin. Quant. Analysis 18, 53-65 (1983). J. C. Cox, S. A. Ross, and M. Rubenstein, Option pricing: A simplied approach, J. Fin. Econ. 7, 229-263 (1979). C. van der Broeck, On the relation between white shot noise, Gaussian white noise, and the dichotomic Markov process, J. Stat. Phys. 31, 467-483 (1983). E. W. Montroll and M. F. Shlesinger, Maximum entropy formalism, fractals, scaling phenomena, and 1/f noise: A tale of tails, J. Stat. Phys. 32, 209-230 (1983). C. W. J. Granger, Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods, Econometrica 37, 424-438 (1969). P. K. Clark, A subordinated stochastic process model with nite variance for speculative prices, Econometrica 41, 135-155 (1973). B. B. Mandelbrot, Comments on: A subordinated stochastic process model with nite variance for speculative prices, by Peter K. Clark, Econometrica 41, 157-159 (1973). H. Haken, Synergetics, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin, (1978). L. Ingber, Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions. I. Basic formulation, Physica 5D, 83-107 (1982). L. Ingber, Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions. Dynamics of synaptic modication, Phys. Rev. A 28, 395-416 (1983). L. Ingber, Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions. Derivation of short-term-memory capacity, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3346-3358 (1984). M. H. van Landingham, The day trader: Some additional evidence, J. Fin. Quant. Analysis 15, 341-355 (1980). C. Azariadis, Self-fullling prophecies, J. Econ. Theory 25, 380-396 (1981). R. C. Merton, Optimum consumption and portfolio rules in a continuous time model, J. Econ. Theory 3, 373-413 (1971). R. C. Merton, An intertemporal capital asset pricing model, Econometrica 41, 867-887 (1973). A. G. Mallairis, Itos calculus in nancial decision making, SIAM Review 25, 481-496 (1983). L. Ingber, Riemannian corrections to velocity-dependent nuclear forces, Phys. Rev. C 28, 2536-2539 (1983). L. Ingber, Path-integral Riemannian contributions to nuclear Schr dinger equation, Phys. Rev. D 29, 1171-1174 o (1984). K. S. Cheng, Quantization of a general dynamical system by Feynmans path integral formulation, J. Math. Phys. 13, 1723-1726 (1972). H. Dekker, Functional integration and the Onsager-Machlup Lagrangian for continuous Markov processes in Riemannian geometries, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2102-2111 (1979). R. Graham, Path-integral methods in nonequilibrium thermodynamics and statistics, in Stochastic Processes in Nonequilibrium Systems, (Edited by L. Garrido, P. Seglar and P.J. Shepherd), pp. 82-138, Springer, Berlin, (1978). F. Langouche, D. Roekaerts, and E. Tirapegui, Functional integral methods for stochastic elds, Physica A 95, 252-274 (1979). F. Langouche, D. Roekaerts, and E. Tirapegui, Short derivation of Feynman Lagrangian for general diffusion processes, J. Phys. A 13, 449-452 (1980). F. Black and M. Scholes, The pricing of options and corporate liabilities, J. Polit. Economy 81, 637-659 (1973). R. C. Merton, On the pricing of contingent claims and the Modigliani-Miller theorem, J. Fin. Econ. 5, 241-249 (1977). P. Hagedorn, Non-Linear Oscillations, Oxford Univ., New York, NY, (1981). C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Methods, Springer, Berlin, (1983). L. Ingber, Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions. Stability and duration of 72 rule of short-term-memory capacity, Phys. Rev. A (in press). L. Ingber, Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions. EEG dispersion relations, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (in press). H. Grabert and M. S. Green, Fluctuations and nonlinear irreversible processes, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1747-1756 (1979). L. Onsager and S. Machlup, Fluctuations and irreversible processes, Phys. Rev. 91, 1505-1512 (1953). F. Langouche, D. Roekaerts, and E. Tirapegui, Functional Integration and Semiclassical Expansions, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, (1982). D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, The psychology of preferences, Sci. Am. 248, 160-173 (1982). D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47, 263-291 (1979).

-19-

44.

L. S. Schulman, Techniques and Applications of Path Integrals, Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, (1981).

-20-

FIGURE CAPTIONS

G Fig. 1. Example F ex1 of Section 3 is analyzed by examining the stationary Lagrangian L ex1 as a function of its variables G G |M | N G . (a) is a 3-dimensional plot of the surface of L ex1 over M . The perspective is determined by smallest and B S B S largest values of L, L min and L max , respectively, at points min = (M min , M min , L min ) and max = (M max , M max , L max ). The plots are projected onto a plane perpendicular to the line running between a point on the line of sight, chosen here to be S (max + min)/2, and the point from which the projection is made, chosen here to be max +3(max min). The horizontal M B B axis increases to the right, and the sloping M axis increases towards the left. (b) is a contour plot of (a). M on the horiS zontal axis increases to the right, and M is on the vertical axis increasing upwards. There exists an outermost completely closed contour at 0.04. L min 2. 5 103 near the zero contours.

Fig. 2. Plots (a) and (b) are similar to Fig. 1, except that L I ex1 is analyzed instead of L ex1 . In (b), the outermost completely closed contour is also at 0.04. L min 2. 5 103 near the zero contours. Fig. 3. Plots (a) and (b) correspond to those in Fig. 1, except that L ex2 for example 2 is analyzed. In (b), the outermost completely closed contour is at 0.06. Fig. 4. Plots (a) and (b) correspond to those in Fig. 3, except that L I ex2 is analyzed instead of L ex2 . In (b), the outermost completely closed contour is also at 0.06.

- Fractal Traffic Models for Internet SimulationUploaded byoveiskntu
- First Course in Stochastic ProcessesUploaded byPablo Xavier
- Nouveau Document TexteUploaded byAmar Kossovi
- DIET Lecture Study Material.pdfUploaded byJagan Eashwar
- Lecture NotesUploaded byFatih Bozkurt
- Syllabus MTech New JNUUploaded bySapna Yadav
- Hamiltonian ProcessUploaded byLe Tung
- A Short History of Mathematical Population DynamicsUploaded bybobthebored88
- chap1(2)Uploaded byMichał Gromisz
- Non-Dissipative Effects in Nonequilibrium Systems.pdfUploaded byRakuna Matata
- MTech-CIVIL-2013.pdfUploaded byPrasannaVenkatesan
- Nice Compound Poisson Process Ladder Diagram IllustrationUploaded byastroathena219
- Diploma ThesisUploaded bynavalntua
- Lect Chapter1 Part1Uploaded byUpul Jayasinghe
- Brownian Motion and Stochastic CalculusUploaded bybianchao
- Low Temperature PhysicsUploaded byxanabras
- UT Dallas Syllabus for acn6347.501.09f taught by Richard Golden (golden)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- B.Sc.(Hons) Mathmetics LAPLACE TRNSFORMS.pdfUploaded byanjali sharma
- SphericalUploaded bydomenico123
- Backward NonlinearUploaded byLaur Công Võ
- 1307.2968Uploaded bywbvxloshark
- Conceptual Steps toward Exploring the Fundamental Nature of SunUploaded byAmanda Car
- Class NaotesUploaded byloliama
- creditUploaded byanon-550336
- An algorithmic introduction numerical simulation of stochastic differential equationsUploaded byjustinlfang
- Ma the 131998Uploaded byNeil John Apps
- 0906.3062v3Uploaded bythyagosmesme
- Support Class 2Uploaded byPrince Israel Eboigbe
- A Formulation of General Shell Elements%96%96The Use of Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial ComponentsUploaded bylufias2009
- A a a a 1Uploaded byAbed Alhaleem Altell

- smni09_columnar_eeg.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni95_stm.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- path95_nonl.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni94_stm.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni97_cmi.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni01_lecture.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni96_eeg.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni81_unified.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni98_cmi_test.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- path01_lecture.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- path01_lecture.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni95_scales.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni96_nonlinear.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni97_lecture.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- markets98_lecture.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni83_dynamics.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni82_basic.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni81_attention.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni12_eeg_ca.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni95_images.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni13_eeg_ca.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni12_vectpot_comm.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni92_mnn.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni85_eeg.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni95_stm40hz.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni84_stm.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni85_stm.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni99_g_factor.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni91_eeg.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber
- smni10_multiple_scales.pdfUploaded byLester Ingber

- Business Tool for Decision MakingUploaded byrvs2012hari
- Finite AutomataUploaded byJaney24
- ch02Uploaded byBayley_Navarro
- Trigonometry Lecture Notes_part2Uploaded byY D Amon Ganzon
- Maths Concept Map 7CBSEUploaded byNilesh Gupta
- FS GM Lesson PlanUploaded bycrisna
- MR 2 2013 SolutionsUploaded bywebbos
- siop lesson planUploaded byapi-369991360
- Linear-Strength Vortex MethodUploaded byAshlin Augusty
- Lewis White Beck - Kant's StrategyUploaded byterrence
- Parameters Identification of non linear DC motorUploaded bynaveed161
- International Jurnal of Strategic ManagementUploaded byChristian Natanael
- z d 31245250Uploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Maths Calculus WorkBookUploaded bySiti Afriana
- Artificial Neural Networks for RF and Microwave Design From Theory to P.pdfUploaded byNom Mon
- Form Additive SubtractiveUploaded byMarvin Tenedero
- Question mte 3104Uploaded byencikseni
- alg1_ch07_extrapracticeUploaded bywenatchee25
- appl-physUploaded byvaniaboas
- ISPH.pdfUploaded byjahid
- Archaeology 20120708Uploaded byARCHEOMACEDONIA
- Matlab SymbolicUploaded bylinam_lamejor
- Sekar 2009Uploaded byAsti Yulia Sari
- Se130b Lecture 1Uploaded byYannis Koutromanos
- Chap1- Time Value of Money (Ridha)[1]Uploaded bySiwar Hakim
- Cellular AutomatonUploaded bygerte_yuew
- Formula BookletUploaded byManjari Gupta
- MathUploaded bycris lu salem
- Theory IntroUploaded byapi-26825468
- Data Structure and Algorithm.Uploaded byPardeep Vats