Overview of Disaster Management

Importance of Training for Disaster Management
Disasters are a growing problem. problem. Development projects are set back or suffer delays as a country recovers from the consequences of disasters. Disasters are non-routine events that nonrequire non-routine responses. There nonis a need to learn & practice special skills & attitudes.

Learning Objectives
To create interest in disaster management To relate the learning about disaster management to your work, values & attitudes

Specific Objectives
Describe the relationship among hazard, vulnerability & disasters Describe the basic concepts, aims, & elements of disaster & emergency management Describe the range of available preparedeness/mitigation measures, preparedeness/mitigation consider their appropriateness, opportunities, limitations and modalities of implementation

Disasters cause loss of development gains and wealth in both developed and developing countires.

Natural disasters are a growing problem.

Annual losses of infrastructure during the 1990’s in Asia alone were about US$12B – about 2/3 total annual lending of the World Bank

Recent Natural Disasters in Asia Asia is disproportionately affected with approximately 43 percent of all natural disasters in the last decade. During the same period, Asia accounted for almost 70 percent of all lives lost due to natural hazards.

2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami

Remains of a building after the TsunamiPhuket, Thailand
Photo by Pennung Warnitchai

Recent Natural Disasters in Asia

Recent Natural Disasters in Asia 2006 February 17 Guinsaugon Landslide – St. Bernard, Southern Leyte, Philippines Leyte,

South Asia Quake Oct. 8, 2005
The 7.6 magnitude earthquake at Kashmir, Pakistan shook buildings reaching as far as Kabul (Afghanistan), New Delhi (India) and Dhaka (Bangladesh).

281 houses and elementary school buildings buried. Estimated damage: damage: Php 92.2 million (US $1.78 million) in infrastructure damage and Php 22.6 million (US $436,000.00) in agricultural damage.

Recent Natural Disasters in Asia

Recent Natural Disasters in Asia 2006 December: Typhoon Durian - “Reming” Reming” Philippines

2006 September Typhoon Xangsane - Philippines

Damage to agriculture (crops, livestocks and fisheries) is about P3.9 B, while damage to infrastructures (roads and bridges) is P1.9 B and P555M for school buildings.

1 M affected population, 450 dead, 599 missing 66,000 totally damaged houses, 135,000 partially damaged houses, 23 M pesos cost of damage to infrastructures

Definition of Hazard
A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human-made environment that humanadversely affects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster. disaster.
Examples: – Earthquakes, Volcanic eruptions, Floods, Drought, Tsunamis, Industrial accidents

Definition of Disaster
A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses due to natural or man-made manhazards.

Definition of Natural Phenomena
Natural phenomena are extreme climatological, climatological, hydrological or geological processes that do not pose any threat to persons or property. Example: A massive earthquake in a unpopulated area is a natural phenomenon, not a hazard.

Disaster & Emergency
A disaster is a particular type or subset of an emergency. A emergency. disaster suggests an intense time period & level of urgency. urgency. An emergency can encompass a more general period.

The Disaster Problem
Disasters & emergencies are fundamental reflections of normal life. They are consequences of the ways societies structure themselves, economically & socially; the ways that societies & states interact; and the ways that relationships between the decision makers are sustained.

Hazards & Disasters
A hazard causes a disaster because of the society’s vulnerability. society’
Disaster = Vulnerability + Hazard

Vulnerability is defined as the degree of loss to people, property or any element at risk resulting from a given hazard at given severity level.

Hazards & Disasters: an example

Vulnerability
Vulnerability = F(physical, economic, social, F(physical, political,…) political,… Physical: location, dwelling type, construction type, char. Of economic activity, population density Economic: income level, type of occupation, level of skills, employment Social: social position, social group Environmental: fragile ecosystems, deforestation, erosion Population dynamics: migration, settlement patterns Political: Government system, decision makers

A disaster due to landslides or slope failure occurs because people settle in unsafe areas making them vulnerable to the hazards. Disasters can be prevented!

Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability
Risk is the expected losses (lives lost, persons injured, damage to property & disruption of economic activity) due to a particular hazard over a specified period of time (e.g. 25,000 lives lost over a 30-yr period) 30Vulnerability is the degree of loss resulting from a potentially damaging phenomenon (usually expressed in %; e.g., 5% killed and 20% injured in an earthquake of intensity VIII) .

Causal Factors of Disasters
The magnitude in deaths, damage, or costs depends on several factors:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Poverty Population growth Rapid urbanization Transitions in cultural practices Environmental degradation Lack of awareness & information War & civil strife

Poverty
Poverty generally makes people vulnerable to the impacts of hazards Studies show that the wealthiest of the population either survive the disaster unaffected or are able to recover quickly Poverty explains why people in urban areas are forced to live on hills that are prone to landslides or settle near rivers Urban migration is also associated to poverty or lack of opportunities in rural areas

Population Growth
If there are more people & structures where a disaster strikes, the greater the impact. Population growth leads to – More people forced to live in unsafe areas – More competition for a limited amount of resources (e.g. services, employment, land) which can lead to conflict and crisiscrisisinduced migration (urban & foreign)

Rapid Urbanization

Transition in Cultural Practices
Societies are constantly changing. Transitions are often extremely disruptive & uneven, leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms & technology. Changes from rural to urban changes, nonnonindustrial to industrial, traditional to new technology (e.g. a new building material used incorrectly may lead to unsafe houses) houses)

Rapid population growth & migration are related to rapid urbanization especially in developing countries. Rapid & unchecked urbanization leads to settlements in unsafe areas, construction of dangerous structures… structures…

Transition in the use of technology may lead to improper design & construction

Environmental Degradation
Deforestation leads to rapid rain run off, which contributes to flooding Improper management of household & industrial waste leads to pollution, flooding etc.

Lack of Awareness & Information
Disasters happen because people vulnerable to them: Lack of awareness
– what measures can be taken to build safe structures on safe locations – safe evacuation routes & procedures

War & Strife
War & civil strife result in mass displacement of people, competition for scarce resources leading to conflicts, political crisis, etc

Lack of information
– Where to turn to for assistance

Sudden Onset Hazards

Natural & Human-Made Hazards

Geological hazards – Earthquakes – Tsunamis – Landslides – Volcanic Eruptions Climatic Hazards – Tropical cyclones – Floods

Slow Onset Hazards
Drought Famine Environmental Degradation Desertification Deforestation Pest Infestation

Other Hazards
Industrial accidents Epidemics War and Strife Terrorism

Earthquakes

Factors contributing to vulnerability to earthquakes
Location of settlements in seismic areas (near fault zones) Improperly designed & constructed structures Dense collections of buildings with high occupancy Lack of awareness & information

Shaking of the ground due to a release in energy caused by movement of tectonic plates.

Landslides & Debris Flow
Landslides & debris flows can be a threat to life and property and could totally block the lifelines and commerce in the Area. Kennon and Marcos Highway are often affected by landslides.

Factors contributing to vulnerability to landslides
Settlements built on steep slopes, soft soils Settlements built at he base of steep slopes Roads & communication lines in mountain areas Buildings with weak foundations Lack of understanding about landslide hazards

Volcanic Eruptions
A huge cloud of volcanic ash and gas rises above Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, on June 12, 1991. Three days later, the volcano exploded in the second-largest volcanic eruption on Earth in this century. Timely forecasts of this eruption enabled people living near the volcano to evacuate to safer distances, saving at least 5,000 lives.

Factors contributing to vulnerability to volcanoes
Settlements on the flanks of volcanoes, in the paths of mud or lava flows Structures with roofs not designed to carry ash accumulation Presence of combustible materials Lack of evacuation plans or warning systems

Tsunamis

Tropical Cyclones
When the cyclone strikes land, high winds, exceptional rainfall and storm surges cause damage with secondary flooding and landslides.

Floods

Factors contributing to vulnerability to floods
Settlements on floodplains Lack of awareness of flood hazard Reduction of absorptive capacity of land (erosion) Deforestation Improper disposal of waste High risk infrastructural elements

Tsunamis
The south Asia tsunami – one of the world's worst natural disasters – struck on the morning of Dec. 26, 2004. At 7:59 a.m. local time, about 150 kms off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, two tectonic plates heaved under the sea along a 1,000 km-long fault line. The result: a magnitude 9 earthquake – the most powerful the world had seen in 40 years.

Factors contributing to vulnerability to tsunamis
Settlements in low lying coastal regions Lack of tsunami resistant buildings (?) Lack of timely warning systems & evacuation plans Lack of awareness

Drought

Epidemics

Drought is a normal, recurrent feature of climate. In the most general sense, drought originates from a deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time, resulting in a water shortage for some activity, group, or environmental sector.

Industrial Accidents

Terrorism
9/11 Rescue effort begins
Rescue workers remove a man from the World Trade Center tower in New York City early September 11, 2001. Both towers were hit by planes crashing into the building. Victims of the attack — many suffering from extensive burns — began arriving at hospitals in New York City about an hour after two planes slammed into the twin towers.

Industrial accident at Mihama in Japan
Eleven persons who were in the turbine hall at that moment were seriously burned (scalded). Four of them died the very day of the accident. At least two of the other seven are in a critical state and their prognosis is not favorable.

Human-Made Disasters
Human-made disasters Humanare caused by identifiable human actions, deliberate or otherwise (e.g. terrorism) A broader definition of human-made disaster humanacknowledges that all disasters are caused by humans because they have chosen, for whatever reason, to be where natural phenomena that result in adverse impacts on people.

Compound & Complex Disasters
Compound disasters occur when one type of hazard can trigger a disaster which in turn triggers another hazard & subsequent disaster. Complex disaster is a form of a human-made humanemergency in which the cause of the emergency as well as the assistance to the afflicted are bound by intense levels of political considerations (e.g., in a civil conflict)

DNA Model of Complexity in Disaster Causation
For DNA, two strands of DNA are joined and intertwined. In the disaster model, one strand (social system) and the other strand (natural system) are twisted together and are inherently interwoven and Disasters arise not from one strand or the other, but from the complex interactions between them. them.

Linking Disasters & Development
Development Realm (+)

Natural System

-+

Development can increase vulnerability

Development can reduce vulnerability

++

Social System

Disasters can set back development

+
-Disasters can provide development opportunities

+-

Disaster Realm (-)

Disasters can set back development
Disasters can seriously disrupt development initiatives in several ways
– Loss of resources, income, employment – Destruction of infrastructures – Interruption of development programs – Diversion of resources for postpostdisaster activities – Negative impact on investments especially for repeated occurrence – Political destabilization (e.g., due to discontent due disaster mismanagement)

Development can increase vulnerability
Development projects implemented without considering the impact to the environment increases vulnerability. Development leads to population growth (e.g., urban settlement in unsafe areas) Development uses more resources which may affect the environment (e.g., the need for lumber leads to deforestation) Construction of industrial plants may lead to accidents & pollution Rapid urbanization may lead to improper design of infrastructures leading to negative consequences (e.g., floods, traffic, construction on fault line, concentration of tourist in coastlines, improper waste disposal)

Development can reduce vulnerability
Development projects can be designed to decrease the susceptibility to disasters & their negative consequences.
– Development of mitigation projects (e.g., flood control, retrofitting of structures) – Development of updated building codes – Use of new technology & materials – Construction of structures using updated building codes

Disasters can provide development opportunities
Disasters create a political & economic atmosphere wherein extensive changes can be done more rapidly than under normal circumstances Disasters serve as a catalyst for introducing mitigation projects
– Decision-makers & the public Decisionrealizing the vulnerability to disasters will be motivated to participate in mitigation activities – Disaster prevention facilities can now be developed
Retrofitting of City, Nueva Ecija General Luna Bridge, Cabanatuan Bridge
Installation of steel bearing and bearing pads at Pier 11

Funding from donors can be generated to apply long-term longdevelopment needs Revision of building codes

Disaster Management
Disaster management is the body of policy and administrative decisions & operational activities which pertain to the various stages of a disaster at all levels.

Disaster Management Cycle
Disaster

Preparedness

Response

Mitigation

Recovery

Response
Response phase is the period immediately following the occurrence of a disaster when exceptional measures have to be taken. Post-Disaster activities Post– Search and find the survivors – Medical Assistance – Relief operations – Evacuation – Damage & safety assessment of structures

Recovery = Rehabilitation & Reconstruction
Rehabilitation includes all operations & decisions taken after a disaster with a view of restoring a stricken community to its former living conditions, while encouraging and facilitating the necessary adjustments to the changes caused by the disaster. Reconstruction involves actions take to reestablish a community after a period of rehabilitation. Actions include construction of permanent housing, full restoration of services & complete restoration of prepredisaster phase.
Reconstruction -> Long Term

Rehabilitation -> Short Term

Disaster Preparedness
Disaster preparedness recognizes the fact that a group of people & property are vulnerable to a hazard. The aims of disaster preparedness are to minimize the adverse effects of a hazard through effective precautionary actions, and to ensure timely, appropriate & efficient organization & delivery of emergency response following the impact of a disaster.

Disaster Mitigation
Mitigation encompasses all actions taken prior to the occurrence of a disaster (including long-term risk longreduction & preparedness measures) -> pre-disaster activities preMitigation aims to reduce both human suffering & property loss Mitigation is risk reduction ! Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability - Mitigation

Resilience
“The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner” -United Nations International Strategy for Disaster manner” Reduction “The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self-organisation, and selfthe capacity to adapt to stress and change” change” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change “The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change” -The Resilience change” Alliance

Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model
A disaster can occur only when a number of different circumstances arise simultaneously. Each of these circumstances is represented by a hole in the cheese. Holes are weaknesses in each line of defense. If even one hole is out of line, then the defense works and the accident is averted. A disaster or accident occurs if the holes are aligned.

Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability/Resilience
Typhoon Disaster

CIV575M Assignment No. 1 Anatomy of a Disaster
Written report (minimum of two pages + one page for images if any, maximum of four pages only).
1. Recall a recent disaster that occurred in a province, city or town in your country due to a geological or climatic hazards and discuss the following: 2. Basic information about the location (e.g.: land area, population, industry, income level, socio-economic profile, etc.) 3. Description of the natural hazard and the disaster (impact on the community, statistics of losses and damages). 4. Factors that contributed to the vulnerability of the community to the hazard. 5. Identify any development project, important facility, event and/or investment that were affected by the disaster. 6. List some lessons from the disaster and recommend action plans to reduce vulnerability and mitigate the impact of a similar natural hazard.

Reflection
Recall a recent disaster and based on that experience:
1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

Identify a facility critical to the local economy that was knocked out of service Name one development project that was interrupted Identify one case of investment that was withdrawn or reduced because of the disaster Identify a case of a non-formal nonsector employment that was lost because disaster relief displaced the need for it Describe an example of how gov’t gov’ may have been destabilized by the disaster

Luzon Earthquake 1990

Mt. Pinatubo Eruption 1991

Flashfloods & Landslides Infanta, Quezon 2004 Infanta,
MANILA, December 1, 2004 (STAR) At least 306 people have died in three towns in Quezon devastated by landslides and flashfloods following heavy rains dumped by Typhoon "Winnie." About 150 people were missing in the town of Real, where 114 were confirmed dead. Also 192 people had died in the nearby towns of Infanta and General Nakar. The worst-hit was Real, a tiny town of just over 30,000 people, where 112 people were believed buried alive by landslides,

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