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1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………3 2. Aims and Objectives…………………………………………………...…...4 3. Literature Review………………………………………………………..…5 4. Methodology……………………………………………………………......8 5. Discussion and Findings …………………………………………………..12 6. Profile of Tourists…………………………………………………………13 7. Tourist Preferences………………………………………………………..16 8. Marketing Mix……………………………………………………………19 9. Food in Destination Marketing……………………………………………22 10.Recommendations and Conclusion…………………………………….…..22 11.References…………………………………………………………….……23
Marketing Research 1
We, Malehka, Anja and Josian would like to thank the lecturer, Mrs.P. Naidoo for giving us the opportunity to undertake a Marketing research assignment. This has enabled us to emphasize on team spirit and have better coordination in the delegation of work and above all, this study has enhanced our knowledge.
A special thanks to all friends who helped and allowed us to carry our survey in different regions of Mauritius.
We equally like to thank our respective work place for having given us the necessary releases to carry out the surveys.
Marketing Research 2
With the economic turndown since 2007, Mauritius as a 3`S (Sun, Sand and Sea) destination have been using different strategies to sustain tourism growth. With fierce competition among the 3`S destinations, Mauritius can use Culinary Tourism to add as a new niche market segment to improve tourism arrivals and revenues. It is high time for all Tourism stake holders to look into other types of tourism besides their search for new market segment. Increased tourism demand and competition between destinations have been attributed to the effects of globalisation. Destinations are competing in increasingly contested markets with little to distinguish them from each other (Kotler, Haider and Rein, 1993). This has caused destinations to focus on distinctiveness of place by using local attributes in the launching of innovative, new products and brands, which can help establish a more unique selling proposition. With the new Branding strategy launched by the MTPA Mauritius “C`est un plaisir” in October 2009, a new marketing mix can be then associated by this core identity. Keller (2008) stated that Branding can be to identify and distinguish products and services, therefore the 4`Ps of marketing mix being Product, Price, Promotion and Place can be used to attract, retain customers. In recent years, food has gained recognition by governments, business, and academics as an integral part of the tourism product, and as a means of differentiation for destinations. There are many benefits to be had in linking food and tourism for all stakeholders concerned. Local food is a vital element that can help create a sense of „place‟ and heighten destination appeal. Local produce adds authenticity to the tourist experience and provides motivation for visitors to come to a location (Sims, 2009). Tourists may even be tempted to stay longer in one place because of the availability of food products and related activities (Hall and Mitchell, 2006). Tourism provides an additional sales outlet for food producers and tourism-related spending on locally produced food products helps to stimulate and revitalise local economies (Boyne, Hall and Williams, 2003)
Marketing Research 3
it highlights the problem statement. food tourism and gastronomy tourism and their link to Tourism Chapter 3: Relates to the methodology. on how to carry out the survey. Chapter 5: Consists with the conclusion and the recommendation referring to the study. the aim and objectives of the study and also a brief overview of each of the main chapters that will be outlined. Chapter 4: Consists of the results and discussions of the scores and analysis of the questionnaire. Marketing Research 4 .1. 1. the method used to collect the data. also an evaluation of the status of culinary experience as a choice in the selection of a tourism holiday destination.3 Objectives of the study: To outline profile of customer looking for culinary experience during their holidays or trip To assess the importance of culinary experience as a choice in the selection of a destination To examine the perception of tourist in terms of appreciation of local food 1.4 Outline of the Study: The study consists of 5 chapters. the sampling techniques used and the data analysis. we examine the perception of tourist in their appreciation of local food. Chapter 2: Consists of the literature review on Culinary Tourism.1 Aim and Objectives So the purpose of our study is to assess if Mauritius could be promoted as a Culinary Destination. At last. Some of the chapters are described below: Chapter 1: Refers to the introduction of the research. Through this study an analysis of customer profile that are looking for culinary experience was made.
Lucy Long(1998) first used the term culinary tourism in 1998 expressing the notion of how we experience cultures through food (Wolf. 2004). exploring and discovering culture and history through food and food related activities in the creation of memorable experiences” (Long. 2005). Dr. more closely identifying just what culinary tourism includes: “Culinary tourism refers to the search for prepared food or drink while in a travel context. Another meaning is provided by the International Culinary Tourism Association. 2005). Recent investigation has shown that holidaymakers spend almost 40% of their budget on food when indulging in tourism (Boyne. a new field of tourism is emerging in the form of culinary tourism. This definition further stretches the field of culinary tourism to be inclusive of agri-tourism activities and may stem from urban or rural activities. The 2004 Restaurant & Foodservice Market Research Handbook states that 50% of restaurants‟ revenue was generated by travellers (Graziani. More importantly. breweries.2. LITERATURE REVIEW Growth in the tourism industry has been fast and furious in recent years. Williams. Some studies have stressed on food as a tourism attraction or tourist experience (Hjalager and Richards. She stated that “culinary tourism is about food. Due to the recent development of culinary tourism. not only in numbers of tourists and the growing number of competitors courting the tourists‟ time and money. As eco-tourism has evolved to increasing distinction on sustainability. Others authors have mentioned the potential of culinary as a marketing tool for particular destinations (Kivela & Crotts. 2002 & Quan and Wang. 2002). 2003). It shows that there is a reciprocal association between food and the tourism industry.” (ICTA 2006. 2003 & Wade and Martin. restaurants. little research in the area exists. food has been acknowledged as an effective promotional and positioning tool of a destination (Hjalager & Richards. 2003) and some have looked at the profile of culinary tourists (Hall et al. or even roadside stands. wineries. with increasing Marketing Research 5 . & Hall. but also in the fields of tourism. 2002). 2002). 2006) and considered the economic impact of this new type of tourism (Deneault. Similarly. 2002).
more destinations are focusing on food as their core tourism product. Even though it is becoming a vital segment of the tourism industry. Italian cuisine and wine has boosted the Italian tourism industry (Hjalager & Corigliano. France. food consumption can be used in the development of a destination image (Quan & Wang. It is important for marketers of a culinary destination to know the image currently held by its targeted customers and how to affect their intention to visit through effective marketing strategies. In instance. the destination will use food as the main attraction and will develop marketing approaches that will focus on the food. Further. the association of national cuisine and tourism depends on the role of the cuisine in the social culture that creates the national uniqueness. 2000). culinary tourism is an area that has not been studied by many researchers (Hjalager & Corigliano. Hobsbawn & Ranger (1983) discussed that cuisines that are highly well-known for their taste and quality can be developed into tourist products. For example. 2000). In addition. Using Getz and Brown‟s (2006) application and definition of wine tourism. Long (2004) emphasized that enjoying the food of others is the way which one can really experience and accept different culture without reluctance. we can say that culinary tourism can be associated with travellers‟ interest in the food of a destination. Authentic local food can attract visitors to a destination. a destination can use its cuisine as a marketing strategy. 2002).interest in local cuisine. Given that food can be used to project the distinctiveness and culture of a destination. and Vietnam have been known for their cuisine. and provides tourists with a local experience. Each destination has different levels of pull factors that can draw tourists from different countries (Au & Law. On the other hand. Italy. The importance of the link between food and tourism cannot be disregarded. Hong Marketing Research 6 . Thus. food consumption also contributes to the economy of a destination. but also a cultural component that can definitely present a destination. 2004). According to Riley (2000). Jones and Jenkins (2002) mentioned that food is not only a basic need for tourists.
behaviours and even destination selection are influenced by an interest in food.Kong tourist arrivals were growing because of the increasing number of restaurants that offer a large range of cuisines (Au & Law. Heath & Alberts. Based on these perspectives. Core Product refers to the problem-solving services or core benefits that customers are getting when they buy some product or consume food in a restaurant. Food can bring economic income benefits to government and hospitality business. Hall and Sharples (2003) differentiated food tourists as ―those who consume food as a part of travel experience and those whose activities. Heath & Alberts. The four P‟s of marketing mix enables the destination marketer‟s to control this environment. 2003). it can be claimed that local and regional food is a feature that can add value to a destination (Telfer & Wall. Marketing Research 7 . Kotler et al (1999) suggests that a marketer should build an actual product around the core product and then build augmented product around core and actual product. the marketing mix will then be adapted to the Branding strategy Mauritius “C`est un Plaisir”. 2002). 2003). It is important to consider the way in which food can add to successful marketing of a destination (du Rand. 1996. du Rand. Concerning the strategies to attract or retain the customer in the field of Culinary Tourism.
3. and was designed to explore the respondents` answers Veal (1997) list the advantages of the Likert method as the fact that the method is based entirely on empirical data regarding subjects' responses rather than the subjective opinions of judges and the fact that this method produces more homogeneous scales and increases the probability of a unitary attitude being measured: as a result. identifies the analytical tool and also highlight the problems encountered during the survey. Research by survey usually involves the gathering of primary data by questioning respondents about their choice. interview and questionnaire. and the target group. Marketing Research 8 . It elaborates upon the research instruments. quantitative data was chosen as it is much easier to analyse numerical data as they do not require any conversion so as to be input in the system. opinion and attitude in a particular field. the importance of culinary experience as a choice in the selection of a destination and the perception of tourist in terms of appreciation of local food. the questionnaire design. 3. and lastly there is greater ease of preparation. Methodology 3. used to obtain the necessary data was the questionnaire. precise and unbiased information. the research instrument.3. validity (construct and concurrent) and reliability are reasonably high.1 Introduction This chapter provides the methodology of the survey on profile of customer looking for culinary experience during their holidays. A Likert Scale questionnaire survey was the main instrument providing quantitative data.3 Research instrument There are many research instruments that researchers use to carry out the surveys e. As mentioned above. For this particular study.2 Collection of Primary Data The research method adopted for the project was surveyed through questionnaire since it was identified as best means for collecting relevant.g.
In this. gender and nature of job.5 Questionnaire design The questionnaire used for the survey comprises of 3 distinct sections. The respondents were asked to rank each question on a five point scale ranging from one to five: one being the lowest score and five the highest. conference proceedings. government publications. Part two and three of the questionnaire consisted of the questions that could help identifying their view about Mauritian cuisine and so on. newspaper and magazine articles. 1997. For convenience of respondents. (In Appendix A) Marketing Research 9 . 2 and 3.3.6 Questionnaire development The questionnaire consists of three parts. 2001). Secondary research methods in the current study included. each of which contains specific questions on tourist appreciation of local cuisine with emphasis on local ingredients at the destination. feedback comments. Part one comprises the personal profile of respondents such as their educational qualifications. academic journals.4 Secondary research methods for data collection Secondary research is research based on secondary resources that already exist (Veal. 3.1 Covering letter The main purpose of the covering letter attached to the questionnaire is to give the respondents an insight of the nature of the study. 1. books. every respondent is assigned options to choose as per his/her or closeness to any one of the five alternatives. Jennings. 3. 3. income level.6. statistics and the World-Wide Web (Internet). the scale of the questionnaire is developed on Likert scale that is well tested in this type of studies. reports. tourist preferences in their country and in the host community and finally the respondents‟ general information respectively.
Marketing Research 10 .2. A copy of the questionnaire is found in Appendix A 3.3. The aim of the study seeks to assess if Mauritius can be promoted as a Culinary Tourism Destination.7. 126.96.36.199 Question 188.8.131.52.6. 2001). therefore. 1. 2. 2.6. namely Grand Bay.5.1. Each section.1.1.8 The Target Sample The main purpose of sampling is to achieve representativeness.7 Importance question and Likert scale Question 3. 184.108.40.206.2. contains one or more headings that will guide respondents in filling the questionnaire.4.5. 2. 2.4.9 Likert scale 3. 1.1. at the main beaches of Mauritius. 200 questionnaires were administered among tourist.6.2 The Question Format The nature of such study involves the use of technical jargons.8. more reliable and less time consuming as compared to quota sampling. The advantages of using random sampling are that it is easier to organize.2. being measured General Information of Tourist Importance of Culinary Experience in their country and at destination Customer perception in terms of appreciation of local food Question type Question 1.3 .1.2.5. Flic en Flac.3.3. the sample should be assembled in such a way as to be representative of the population from which it is taken (Jennings.1.7. Belle Mare and Mahebourg and also to cover the four cardinal points of Mauritius and most tourist visiting beaches.3.7 Content of questionnaire The questionnaire has been divided into three sections which are illustrated in the table 1 below:Table 1: The content of the questionnaire Sections Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Dimensions.3.4.
These followed the editing of data and provide guidelines for handling illegible. inconsistent. Likewise.5% was registered. To maintain the highest level of ethics in data processing. a sample of 20 to 50 elements is necessary. According to Sudman (1976) suggests that a minimum of 100 elements is needed for each major group or subgroup in the sample and for each minor subgroup. a pilot test was conducted with 10 people.1 Response Rate 200 questionnaires were initially distributed.9 Pilot Survey The main purpose of pilot testing is to catch potential problems before they become costly mistakes. research sites places were selected in Mauritius.8 Sample size While selecting the sample certain conditions were decided upon keeping in view the time and resource constraint. The 200 questionnaires were distributed only after receipt of all the 10 duly filled in questionnaires. 4. 3.0 Data Preparation Data preparation began with checking the questionnaires for their completeness. response rate of 87. However. we put emphasis on discarding unsatisfactory responses. for this study. the remaining 25 questionnaires had to be discarded since these were either partly filled in or simply not returned.3. incomplete. ambiguous or otherwise unsatisfactory responses. yet only 175 were deemed as most convenient for analysis. Marketing Research 11 . In order to maintain relatively close personal contact with tourist. Hence.369 a percentage of 1. with no need to further adjustments. Similarly. Kish (1965) says that 30 to 200 elements are sufficient when the attribute is present 20 to 80 percent of the time. 4. Since arrival of tourist in September when doing the survey was according the Central Statistical Office 66.33% representing 200 Tourists was taken in order to be cost effective.
86% .57% Australia 12.15% 40.86% Tertiary 55.900 56.57% America 7.57% <10.71% Question 7 Level of Education Completed Question 8 Actual Occupation Primary Female 54.86% Business Hotel 4.900 5.000-2.000-39.14% Retired 12.71% 20.57% 2.43% 10.900 28.57% 500-900 26.86% >75 2.900 8.14% Africa 33.000-3.86% 65-74 6.000 5.900 8% 3-4 Star Resorts 14.Table 1: Profile of Customers Question 1 Gender Question 2 Age Question 3 Continent Question 4 Household Income Question 5 Expenses per day (Rs) Male 46% 18-24 24.71% <500 0 Question 6 Type of Residence Bungalow/Apartment 29.71% 4-5 Star Resorts 4% 4.14% Marketing Research 12 Employed Part time 1.57% Employed Full time 57.000 .57% Unemployed 0 Other 0 45-54 12% Europe 29.57 Secondary 44.86% 1.000 or more 14.43% Self-Employed 21.29% 3.14% 60.000 or more 2.1.000-19.43% Student 7.72% 35-44 17.000 .57% 1-2 Star Resorts 46.28% 25-34 28.900 42.59.86% 55-64 8% Asia 17.
This assumption can further be reinforced with the fact a lot of young people aged between 18 and 24 years of age also came to the island. Africa and Europe are the two major places from which tourist come as they are two places where Mauritius is heavily advertised and have direct flights to and from regularly. ranging from lower middle class (Rs 10. However.71% for Marketing Research 13 . For the first point.Discussions and Findings Section 1 .000 and they are willing to have daily expenses from Rs 1. Youth also have the benefit of not having permanent constraints such as marital life or family responsibilities. 000) to above classes (Rs 20. whether African or European. 000 to 39.9) who came to Mauritius. As such. 000).1) than females (655.86% for 1-2 start resorts and 29. 900) shows that they are not frivolous or may be pursuing a strict budget for their travelling.000 to 1. 000 to Rs 1. it can account for the interest of young people to travel the world as it satisfies such a need in them. this can also be decisive as it will allow them more freedom to travel abroad. their prudent expenditure of money (Rs 1. The range of income is perhaps an indicator as to the fact that tourists who come to Mauritius are quite well off in their own countries. The notion of sun. sea and beach is quite compelling with regards to European countries and weather. Such an age can be associated to two major criteria: youth and not necessarily having engagements which engender major constraints. for both categories of tourists.900. as per Central Statistics of Mauritius. As such. Mauritius is not unknown and it is a throughout thought decision to come to the island. This is also reflected in the choice of accommodation of the tourists who prefers relatively cheap places to stay in: 46. most tourists were between the age 25 and 34 and were mostly from the African Continent.000 to 39. Even so. 000 to Rs 19. Rodrigues or even South Africa where a large number of people come from each year. The heavy advertisement and good relations which Mauritius enjoys with European countries can be the major reasons explaining the heavy income of tourists to the island. the current financial crisis can account for such a factor as the current financial situation is quite poor for many people across the globe. Madagascar. A majority of tourists has an income ranging from Rs 20. their choice of Mauritius is both a choice of proximity and knowledge. for Europeans. Comoro Island. Perhaps.Profile of Tourists More females (95) than males (80) participated in the survey. With respect to age. Mauritius is also a known choice in the sense that they have heard it from friends or relatives or have some knowledge of the island through the advertisement or leaflets or via the internet. we can note that for the year 2011 there were more tourist male (703. it can be assumed that youth as an age is a potential factor which can encourage tourism. However. The taste of adventure and discovery being strong at this stage of human life. Africa also here includes regions such as the y Seychelles. Thus.
Moreover. In such a case. To conclude. mostly Africans or Europeans. The level of education may only enlighten us as to the positions held by the respective tourist having completed the questionnaire and the different post which they may be holding. they are ready to make different compromise. which allows the tourist to travel safely. even if most of them enjoy good working conditions. which will allow them to travel at lower costs. some of them may have the advantage of Passage Benefits. All tourists had a level of education and were employed with 100 working full time. from the above. Both categories indicate job security. who are relatively young and who are cautious in the way they spend their money. They are eligible to have vacations or can take holidays on their own if they are self-employed. it can be deduced that the tourists coming to Mauritius are relatively budget oriented in their choice of accommodation and their daily expenditures though they do satisfy their desire to travel to other countries.14% is indicative. Furthermore. The fact that the tourists coming to our island work full time 57. it can be assumed that the tourists coming to our island are from the middle class and above. Marketing Research 14 .apartments and bungalows.14% or are self-employed 21. such as the quality of accommodation. to enjoy their stay and satisfy their hunger for new adventures and discoveries.
4 Yes 80% 2-3 times 11% 4-6 times 9% more than 7 times 64% eat in franchised or Local restaurant 46% eat in fast food 50.2% Chinese 17.6% No 43.8% French 16% Indian 11% Creole 9% others 79% Yes 21% No Do you eat in Fast food or Franchised or local Restaurant Most appreciated cuisine in Mauritius Do you check local restaurant reviews or rating in Mauritius before eating Marketing Research 15 .5 Important 80% Not important 20% Important 87% No 13% yes Availability of different types of cuisine is important when choosing a destination Intentionally check local restaurant reviews or rating before travelling Does local cuisine influence decision before travelling Is Mauritius food experience the prime reason for holidays Section 2 B – Importance of culinary experience in Mauritius Is it you first visit to Mauritius How many visit you have undertaken before 56.5% not important 11.Section 2 A – Importance of culinary experience in the selection of a destination Cuisine like the most 57 % Chinese 12 % Indian 11% French and creole 14% others 91% not important 9& important 88.
culinary experimentation might not necessarily be the primary objective of tourists (as shown by table of question 2). more particularly on Creole and Indian food because of the cultural diaspora of Mauritius. local cuisine and culinary establishments are now recognized as important for marketing and branding a destination. but it shows that while they are present in Mauritius. Moreover. for such persons. H. they are tempted by new culinary experimentation. it also points out to the fact that to some extent. some tourists experimented on the local food in Mauritius.Section 2. The reason behind such a choice would be that Chinese cuisine is readily available around the world and that it is quite affordable to many tourists. The Globalization of Chinese Food) However. because of the trips offered by hotels and other agencies. “Chinese restaurants can be found in almost any city around the world” (David Y. Furthermore as an integral part of destination offerings. they prefer to venture on a choice which is both secure and one which they know of. Indian (22). It must be noted here that the history of the island and its attachment to China has resulted in predominance of Chinese food in most restaurants and hotels. In this sense. representing the number of tourists coming from Asian and African countries where such kind of foods are also present. Another reason undermining such a choice would be that the tourists themselves are more prone to Chinese food in their homelands and as such. The fact that a high number of tourists are in Mauritius for more than one time suggest that they already know the island and some places. Creole (20) and French (20) food are practically on the same scale. tourist would prefer to take fast food rather than eat in franchised restaurants so as to Marketing Research 16 . Wu. As such. we can conclude that to some extent. Tourists Preferences It seems that the majority of tourists prefer the Chinese cuisine (99). Consequently the Destination Marketing Organisation such as the Mauritius Tourism Promotion Authority can used food and drink in branding and promotion as suggest by Bell (2007). The same is applicable in Mauritius where mostly Chinese cuisine has been more appreciated by the tourists. culinary related issues will not be a problem since they will be experience used to it. . reviewing Mauritius gastronomical aspects would not matter much.
especially those such as KFC and McDonalds are known worldwide and tourist will tend to eat there as it is cheap and offer trustworthy sources of food with a homely feeling. this is the case because of the essence of tourism where we somehow try to make foreigners feel at home in a new place. This may be attributed to several reasons: fragile stomachs of tourists or even distaste of spicy or rich food or perhaps these tourists are coming to Mauritius for the first time and as such they wish to be familiar with the local dishes or other dishes available. there is present in the data a certain number of people who would check the reviews before coming to our island. The feeble number of tourists interested in the culinary specificities of a touristic destination is quite low as the culinary world is appreciated by very few people who travel for such an aim. In the survey. While it seems that most tourist do not check reviews intentionally. The fast food in Mauritius. it would be quite useless to check reviews before going abroad. Mauritian food might not necessarily be a primary objective. For such a category of tourist.grab quick bites in-between activities. Marketing Research 17 . Mauritian hotels and restaurants offer a wide variety of food on their menu. it can be assumed that relatively young aged tourists would more indulge in other activities related to the tourism industry rather than culinary ones such as mountaineering. it should be noted that those travelling ranges from 25 to 34 years of age. In a sense. there is present the eating of local dishes. In such a global context. Para-sailing and other sports. However. a tourist is bound to be able to get food which he/she normally eats at home. it can also be interpreted as leaving room for on-the-spot tasting or eating of local dishes. ranging from American to Chinese food via Europe and India more particularly. The reason behind the poor number of people intentionally checking kitchen reviews may be attributed to the fact that with the new trends of society and business. Nevertheless. The question as to whether tourists intentionally check-up reviews before taking their trips can be interpreted two ways according to the data collected. The importance of available cuisine further expand on the above analysis since the knowledge that many places around the world can offer a wide variety of food is sufficient to tourist not to bother about checking culinary specificities of a touristic destination. For example.
Section 3 .8 disagree Marketing Research 18 .2% disagree 9.2% agree 13.Customer Preferences in terms of appreciation of local food I tend to search for information related to culinary experience I believe that local food can contribute to the attraction of Mauritius as a culinary destination I purposely seek for experience involving local dishes and ingredients during holidays Mu dining experience in Mauritius contribute to the overall satisfaction of my trip Local restaurant offer reasonable prices in their menu Local restaurants offer a variety of food with local ingredients Local restaurants provide friendly atmosphere Local restaurants offer good quality of food Mauritius is a safe food destination and will therefore recommend to friends and relatives 89% agree 11 disagree 56% disagree 44% agree 84% disagree 16% agree 92 strongly agree 8 agree 90.8 agree 94% agree 6% disagree 98% agree 2% disagree 73% agree 17% disagree 86.
most tourists think that the price of food is very high in Mauritius. As such. Such a state of affaire result perhaps from various sources: suggestions of tourist guides. We can deduce that while most kinds of dishes are available at practically many places in Mauritius. they sought to return several times over. while the prices may be high. Moreover. it can be seen that tourists are both satisfied with the atmosphere of eating places and that the quality of food is quite good as well. As mentioned in the previous section. exploring the cultural diversity of Mauritius and cultural events or even when tourist travel on their own or encouragement of local people to taste different food. the tourists do agree that most restaurants in Mauritius or other eating places offer a wide variety of food to both the locals and the tourists themselves and that there is a warm and friendly atmosphere in most places where they would go to eat. As such. Mauritians tend to sell things at higher prices to tourists because it is a common belief that tourists are well off and they do not face money issues. In the survey. On the other hand. This is exemplified by table 4 in this section where is shows that the majority of the tourist do count on culinary satisfaction as a criterion to judge their stay in Mauritius. since the experience was quite good to many. the price of food in other countries is cheaper than that of Mauritius and the difficult economic conditions makes the locals sell food at high prices. the eating or dining experience of a tourist will ultimately contribute largely to his/her satisfaction of his/her stay on our island as food satisfaction is one of the basic details in tourism. However. tourists do sometimes take risk in tasting local dishes. Customer Preferences in terms of local food. comparatively speaking.Section 3. In fact. This is due to two main reasons. most of them would be willing to recommend Mauritius to their friends as a destination to go to. since eating contributes greatly to their general opinion of the destination. Section 3 gives a more positive aspect to this research as it highlights the satisfaction and appreciation of tourists. many tourists will use the opportunity while on holidays in Mauritius to taste local food even if the latter was not a priority on their list. The fact that other dishes are available just as in their home country gives a certain assurance in the Marketing Research 19 .
The product component may also be manipulated to be tailored towards some of today's biggest spenders: consumers under the age of eighteen. One way to incorporate more multicultural foods is to enhance new flavours to sauces or seasoning packs. After the analysis of the findings. faratas. For example. This offers an inexpensive way to test market different flavour mixes without an overhaul of the menu. should stimulate more business from younger consumers. whole entrees can be based around the flavour mixes while still incorporating classical tropical or Mauritian ingredients and larger portions. The four parts are product. and incentives such as toys included in the meal. place. fun. vegan. not fried and alternative choices such as vegetarian. we can now use the marketing mix to achieve desired results through skilful combination of four P`s. promotion. The satisfaction derived from culinary issues impacts positively upon their opinion and this can in a way ensure that tourist will continue to come to Mauritius as satisfied tourists would recommend Mauritius to their friends or may be renew the experience of coming to our island. dholl puris. Also.fact that they can live in Mauritius without much trouble for them. many menus have undergone revisions within the last few years. and gluten-free. many Mauritian menus now include breads. 1997). Product Because of the increasing variety sought by consumers. brightly coloured meals. This section will discuss the four parts of the marketing mix and how each can be adapted for today's changing marketplace and thereon will meet customer demand and satisfaction. Marketing Research 20 . By changing product lines to include healthy choices such as baked. As new flavours become popular. which are hand-held and can be consumed on-the-go (Hedden. Offering kid-friendly portions. restaurants can target consumers with special diet restrictions or preferences. fun new ways of eating foods are emerging to provide more variety and convenience as well. and price.
the place-andprice of meals does not need to be adjusted if the product (menu) has already been modified. Current statistics show that restaurateurs are spending more each year on interiors of their restaurants. especially in cases of sitdown restaurants or “table d`hotes” with very long wait times. value meals are an integral part of the fast food marketing mix. However. many fast food restaurant chains have felt compelled to offer special pricing based on bundling meal solutions together. owners are using atmosphere as an extra bargaining chip. Place-and-price may also vary according to the physical environment of a restaurant. Promoting options that add convenience for the customer may gain new customers or repeat business. Instead. Today. Alternative menu choices or expanded menus for restricted diets need proper advertising. but the largest increase has been in themed restaurants or restaurants known for their atmospheres or food. it may also be increasing future in-house sales. Marketing Research 21 . Place-and-Price Place-and-price in the marketing mix is affected to a minor degree by changes in eating habits. Advertisements showcasing these options can mean bigger profits and happier customers. restaurant reviews in newspapers and magazines can provide publicity for expanded menus. great food may not be enough to set one apart from the next. Although consumers crave things such as convenience or kid-appropriate meals.Promotion The marketing mix can be updated through promoting and advertising products. Offering services such as full-menu take-out from sit-down restaurants or re-sealable packages for easy clean-up from quick-service establishments may be just enough to persuade a new customer to try a restaurant. Also. Because of the increasing variety of restaurants from which to choose. Most improvements fit under general interior design. Restaurant owners who rely heavily on themes in their marketing mix face a real challenge in deciding what theme to pursue and how to keep this theme relevant to the fickle restaurant-going public. Although a restaurant may be gaining business in take-out or drivethrough marketing.
Given that eating is thought to be one of the most pleasurable activities during a holiday. however. yet not offer any threat.6. (2007) stated that an understanding of tourists‟ own culture is important to well-produced materials so that images congruent to their culture and its prejudices and taboos can present the destination‟s food appropriately. Well-produced promotion materials can positively influence tourists‟ decision making. Food is seen as one of the key tangible and intangible goods and services within a destination‟s portfolio (Okumus et al. Both food and tourism imagery in the form of photographs in promotional materials are fundamental to „selling the dream‟ and attracting tourists to a destination. It is better to do nothing than to do something in an amateurish way. To attract tourists the destination has to be exotic. ill-produced materials. can have a derogatory effect and cause them not to choose a destination (Okumus et al.. it needs an image of „safe exoticism‟ (Okumus et al.. The high importance placed upon food‟s role in the attractiveness of any destination can be linked to the fondness of source market populations for out-of-the-ordinary food experiences. often sought at folkloric restaurants. 2007).. Marketing Research 22 .. Okumus et al. Destination marketing presents the marketer with the challenge of increasing visitor numbers. This familiarity with the food is thought by some to develop consumers‟ tastes and commend destination cuisines to them (Okumus et al. 2007). 2007) and can be a primary motivation to travel (Quan and Wang. good food adds value to a destination‟s image (Okumus et al. 2007). 2004)..0 Food in Destination Marketing Good destination marketing is important because it is a tool by which the tourists‟ expectations can be managed (Quan and Wang. 2007). If expectations are unrealistically high then the tourist will inevitably be disappointed with the reality. while ensuring sustainability. 2004).
Therefore Culinary Tourism can be part of the promotion mix and could contribute positively to the Brand Image of Mauritius. Considered by some as one of the key elements of the tourist experience. local cuisine can be perceived as a „„pull factor. pride generation. and an emblem of a specific region. locally grown produce. it is revealed in section 3 of the survey most of tourist would like to discover local food when travelling to Mauritius. 2003). Consistent with this understanding of food. the tourist would like to indulge in culinary experience while on holidays. Kivela and Johns 2003). restaurants can contribute to the development of local cuisine to become popular attractions. with renowned chefs. empowerment. Heath and Alberts 2003. Frochot (2003) stressed that local cuisine and culinary establishments can be used to fortify the uniqueness of a destination in order to distinguish it from others on the global competitive marketplaces. both food and wine have received growing attention in the literature (Hall & Sharples. a sign of unity. With this study. attraction enhancement.0 Recommendations and conclusion Mauritius has come to a point where the Destination Marketing organisation must develop strategies to attract tourist and also to have a competitive advantage. Du Rand et al (2003) suggested that food can contribute to the economic growth and competitiveness of a destination through agricultural activity. and identity of a place. a wide range of luxurious resorts with an interesting blend of world cuisine in our small island. As part of our unique blend culture. Frochot 2003. a class marker. Bessière (1998) stated that food can be an emblem. Cohen and Avieli 2004. authentic exploitation. Boyne Hall and Williams 2003. many people are encouraged to embrace consumption of high-quality. In the Marketing Research 23 . food can be a pull factor as we have beautiful beaches. we can determine that even culinary tourism is not the prime reason for tourist to come to Mauritius. Du Rand.‟‟ It can be used in the promotion and branding a specific destination. These representative characteristics are composed of the nature.7. culture. Cohen and Avieli (2004) claimed that resorts. hotels. With the emergent success of television cooking shows. and branding identity. In line of this view.
helping to convey a unique sense of place (Fox.last statements of our questionnaire most of the tourist indicated that they food was of good quality and the restaurant provide with a friendly environment. in turn. where food can be one of the features on our cultural heritage. A clearly defined gastronomic identity and heritage can be exploited in crucial processes of differentiation and rejuvenation. Culinary tourism is acknowledged as a way to perform local culinary culture. therefore it will be beneficial for all of us to share this food culture. entertainment and serves as a social purpose. as is a critical tourism resource. 2007). in regards to benefit food offer pleasure. Culinary tourism could part of this destination branding. the uniqueness of this cuisine is that it is a world mix cuisine. Food can thus be central to destination development and a niche market. Neild et al (2000) suggested that gastronomic experience plays an important role in determining perceptions of and satisfaction with the overall travel experience. As eating is an integral part of tourism. Culinary tradition is deeply rooted in our culture. where food could be associated with “Plaisir”. which. Food could be both tangible and intangible product. Therefore Culinary Tourism is a possible competitive advantage and it can be a core element in the branding of a country or destination by marketers. all Mauritian family is proud of this cultural heritage. with these testimonials it can be concluded that the returning tourist will used word of mouth to promote the destination. and boost destination competitiveness. Together with the new branding strategy launched in November 2009 “Mauritius C`est un Plaisir”. all tourist must eat and drink during their stay in Mauritius. motivate tourism demand. also that they will recommend friends and relatives to experience Mauritian Cuisine. Another aspect that can be used to promote Mauritius as a Culinary Destination is to link cultural heritage with Mauritian cuisine. Marketing Research 24 . Furthermore we can conclude that food and tourism can be dissociated. with this concern food can plays a role in cultural exchange to welcome visitors and provide an authentic experience for tourists. can be coupled to overall economic advancement.
L. Tourism and Food Production in the Caribbean. N. Annals of Tourism Research. Adema. 38(1). 497-513. Cohen. (2000). 10.. T. Myliene.E. CABI. 14(3). H. & Alberts. & Martin. H. E. Heath.org/faq/php].References Acott. 2012. 113-123.34. 21. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 31(4). [available at http://www. Annals of Tourism Research. 238-252. Fox. 657-681. Vol..gov. Frochot. (1998). Bessiere. accessed August 31. 755–778. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Local development and heritage: Traditional food and cuisine as tourist attractions. Factors Influencing Destination Image. 6(3). (2004). R. J. “Reinventing the gastronomic identity of Croatian tourist destinations”. A. (2007). G.pdf. G. 77-96.. Food in tourism: Attraction and impediment.pdf (accessed on 19th October 2012) Deneault. (2003). Central Statistic Office Mauritius.culinarytourism. 97-112. 26. An evolution of deep ecotourism and shallow ecotourism. ed. The role of local and regional food in destination marketing: A South African situation analysis. [Accessed 29 September 2012] Dimitrios Buhalis. I. (2006).com/ctxUploads/en_publications/cuisinebooklet. television and the ambiguity of modernity. (1998). P. 31(3). Wallingford International Culinary Tourism Association. Carlos Costa. “Acquiring a Taste of Cuisine Tourism: A Product Development Strategy – 2002” //ftp.canadatourism. 23(3).) Cultural Tourism in Europe. Marketing Research 25 . Greg Richards (1996. The European Society for Rural Sociology. J. 546-59. Elsevier ltd du Rand. Vicarious consumption: Food.. N. S. (2003). & Howard.(2006) Tourism Management Dynamics. Journal of American & Comparative Culture. An analysis of regional positioning and its associated food images in French tourism regional brochures. http://www. 14(3). Annals of Tourism Research. (2004). F. E. Hospitality Management. & Avieli. L. Beerli.. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Trobe. (1983).mu/portal/goc/cso/file/touSep12. Belisle. pp. 2012.
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therefore. All responses will be treated in strict confidentiality and will be used for academic research purposes only. This survey would help us to provide you. Should have any queries please feel free to seek any clarification and ask any question regarding this project from the investigator. thereby making your visit a memorable one. with better products and services in Mauritius. Please note that there is no right or wrong answers. During your stay in Mauritius. if possible. you had volunteered to take part in this study. a quick response is generally the most useful. Your participation in this survey is voluntary. Your individual opinion is highly valued. 29 . the visitor. do not confer with others during the completion of the questionnaire. but very important. Answering this questionnaire presents no risk whatsoever. Your answers are completely confidential and will be released only as summaries in which no individual’s answers can be identified.Annexed A CULINARY EXPERIENCE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Sir/Madam This survey questionnaire is for a research project being conducted by students in Bsc (Hons) Tourism and Hospitality Management at the University of Technology Mauritius. Thank you in advance for your valuable feedback.
2 To which one of the following age groups do you belong? 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 .3 From which continent do you come from? North America South America East Europe West Europe Asia Africa Others 30 .54 55 – 64 65 1.1 Gender: Male Female 1.44 45 .Please respond to the questions by indicating on a scale from 1 – 5 where your experience lies or by ticking in the boxes provided for each statement. PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS SECTION 1 1.
000 or more ( Euro 1250/USD1700) 31 .6 What is your approximate household income Under Rs.5 Would you be interested in Mauritian food experience as a prime reason for holidays? Yes No 1.900 ( Euro 500/USD 650 to Euro 750 /USD 1000) Rs 40.4 Which of the following cuisine did you like the most? Chinese Indian Creole French Others 1.900 ( Euro 750/USD 1000 to Euro 1000/USD1300) Rs 60.000 to 59.1.900 ( Euro 250 /USD 325 to Euro 500/USD 650) Rs 20.000 to 39. 10.000 ( Euro 250/USD 325) Rs10.000 to 19.
1000 – 1900 Rs.7 Where are you staying? Bungalow and apartment Business Hotel 1– 2 Star Resorts 3– 4 Star Resorts 5 Star Resorts 32 .2000 – 2900 Rs.6 How much do you spent for dinner on average? Rs.3000 – 3900 Rs 4000 – or more 1.1.500 – 900 Rs.
1.9 Your actual occupation? Employed full time Employed part time Student Unemployed Self Employed Retired Others please state: 33 .8 What is the highest level of education you have completed so far? Primary Secondary Tertiary 1.
4 = fairly important.3 Do you intentionally check local restaurant reviews or rating on food magazines /guides/ website before travelling 1 2 3 4 5 2.SECTION 2 Scale: 1 = very important.1 The availability of different types of cuisine at travel as ‘culinary destination’. 2 = quite important. 1 2 3 4 5 2.4 Does local cuisine for your selected holiday destination have influence your decision. 5 = not important at all 2. 1 2 3 4 5 2. 3 = important. 1 2 3 4 5 34 .1 The availability of different types of cuisine at travel destinations is important to me when choosing a destination.
3. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Thank You very much for your participation and for completing the ‘ culinary experience ‘ questionnaire. 3.5 Did you purposefully seek out a culinary experience involving local dishes and ingredients on your most recent visit? 3.2 I believe that local food and food-related experiences are an important part of a destination.SECTION 3 3.4 Experiencing food and beverages at a travel destination helps create a lasting impression of a destination. 3. 35 . Your participation and time are greatly appreciated.3 I usually dine at restaurants offering local / regional foods.6 My dining experiences are important to the overall satisfaction of my trip. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3.1 I tend to search for information related to culinary experiences while on holidays.
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