Kick Causes

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Definition of Kick. Definition of Blowout. Kick Condition. Kick Causes.
– – – – – – – – No keeping the hole full. Low density drilling fluids. Overpressure. Lost Circulation. Swabbing. ECD. Gas / oil / water cut. Loss of riser.

. Describe various causes of a kick.Kick Causes At the end of this section you should be able to: n n Explain the concepts of: kick and blowout.

Underground Blowout: an uncontrolled flow of formation fluids in the wellbore from a higher pressure zone into a lower pressure zone. generally due to mechanical failure and / or human error. Well Kick Blowout Underground Blowout . oil or water from the wellbore. Blowout: a surface uncontrolled flow of gas.Well Kicks and Blowouts Kick: is an influx of formation fluids into the wellbore.

n Swabbing. n Overpressure.Kick Causes Kick Condition: there is only one condition that allows a kick to occur. n ECD. n Low density drilling fluids. The pressure in the wellbore becomes less than the pressure in the formation Kick Causes: the following are situations which can cause the wellbore pressure to be less than formation pressure. leading to a kick. n . These include: No keeping the hole full. n Lost Circulation. n Loss of riser. n Gas / oil / water cut.

Kick Causes n No keeping the hole full. as the drill string comes out of the well. the hydrostatic pressure on the formation is reduced below formation pressure. . which allows formation fluids to enter the wellbore. During tripping operations. If the fluid level is allowed to drop too far. the level of drilling fluid in the annulus drops by a volume equal to the volume of drill string removed.

Accidental dilution of drilling fluids with make-up water in surface pits. – Faulting. In some cases. – Depth and structure changes within a reservoir. a normally pressured zone is uplifted to a higher depth creating abnormal pressure at that depth. addition of drilled-up low density formation fluids into the mud column or weighting material settling out can cause the density of the drilling fluid to drop below the formation pressure. . – Charged up zone due to channeling along a poorly cemented casing on a near by well. – Permeability barrier or rapid deposition prevents the formation water from escaping causing above normal pressure. abnormal pressure reservoirs are encountered while drilling with low-density drilling fluid.Kick Causes n n Low mud weight. Overpressure.

. – Surge pressures: running in hole too fast with high gel strengths (possibly worse when running casing). natural fractures or cavernous formations. Loss of drilling fluid to the formation can be caused by: – Formation Type: unconsolidated or highly permeable low pressure formations.Kick Causes n Lost Circulation. – High ECD. – High mud weight.

This can lead to an underbalanced condition. Pulling pipe too fast.Kick Causes n Swabbing. allowing formation fluids to enter the wellbore below the drill string. . Poor mud properties or high gel strength. Occurs when the drill string is pulled from the well. Heaving or swelling formations. Large OD tools (small annular clearance). producing a temporary bottomhole pressure reduction. Swabbing mainly caused by: – – – – – Balled-up bottom hole assembly.

oil. – Gas cutting: the presence of large volumes of gas in the returns can cause a drop in the average density and hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid. In some cases the drilling fluid density acting over the borehole in dynamic conditions is enough to contain the formation fluid from enter the wellbore. or water) escape and mix with the drilling fluid. the fluids contained in the formation (gas. however when the ECD is removed the density of the drilling fluid drops below the formation pressure causing a kick. . When the bit penetrates a porous formation.Kick Causes n n ECD. – Oil or saltwater cutting: oil and/or saltwater can also invade the wellbore from cuttings and/or swabbing. Gas / oil / water cut. reduce the average mud column density and cause a drop in mud hydrostatic.

On floating unit operations. – Displacement of the riser with seawater. the loss of the drilling fluid column in the riser results in a reduction of hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore and may cause the loss of primary well control if an adequate riser margin is not maintained. . – Riser damage.Kick Causes n Loss of Riser. This loss of riser hydrostatic column could be due to: – Accidental disconnect.

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