Well Control Methods

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Driller’s Method. Wait and Weight Method. Volumetric Methods. Lubricate and Bleed Method.

. Describe the importance of bottom hole pressure constant while controlling a well.Well Control Methods At the end of this section you should be able to: n n Describe the different well control methods and its applications.

e. n The Volumetric followed by the Lubricate and Bleed (required in special situations). three conventional well control methods are available to circulate out a kick and restore well control: n The Driller's. Therefore. the bit is off bottom any significant distance) or completely out of the hole and a kick is experienced. The drillstring on or near bottom is the most desirable position for well control operations because the well can then be most effectively killed using either the Driller’s or the Wait and Weight methods.Well Control Methods Once the well has been shut in and pressures have been observed to stabilize. every effort should be made to safely return the drill string to bottom or as close to bottom as possible while at the same time maintaining well control. by the adequate use of the surface choke to impose additional back pressure on the wellbore. All these methods are intended to keep the bottom hole pressure slightly higher than the formation pressure. when the drill string is partially (i. . n The Wait and Weight.

Driller’s Method The Driller’s method involves two full circulations to kill the well. kill mud is pumped to the bit while following the drill pipe pressure schedule established in the kill sheet. the drill pipe circulating pressure is maintained constant until the kill mud reaches surface. . the drill pipe pressure is maintained at a constant value until the influx is circulated from the wellbore using original mud weight. the casing pressure should remain constant until the kill mud reaches the bit. If all the kick fluid was successfully circulated from the well in the first circulation. When the kill mud enters the annulus. n n During the first circulation. During the second circulation.

and the SIDPP (shut in drill pipe pressure) and SICP should be the same and equal to the original SIDPP if the influx has been fully circulated out of the annulus.052 ÷ TVD (ft) + OMW (ppg) . 4. Bring the pump to kill rate speed. 3. Kill rate speed established. During the first circulation. 2. holding the casing pressure constant at SICP (shut in casing pressure) value. 5. holding bottom hole pressure constant using Original Mud Weight (OMW). 1. mud is weighted up from the OMW to the Kill Mud Weight (KMW): KMW (ppg) = SIDPP (psi) ÷ 0. Turn the pump off maintaining the casing pressure constant.Driller’s Method First circulation: circulate gas out of the hole. hold drill pipe gauge pressure constant until the influx is removed from the wellbore. At this stage the well is not killed.

Driller’s Method Second circulation: circulate kill mud in the hole holding bottom hole pressure constant. 1. Plot Nsteps = number of steps selected to bring the drill pipe pressure from ICP to FCP. pressure: FCP = SCRP x (KMW ÷ OMW) Surface–to–bit strokes: Strokes = drill string volume ÷ pump output Time to pump surface – bit: total strokes ÷ Strokes per minute Pressure drop per increment = (ICP – FCP) ÷ Nsteps Time = Example of Driller’s method – Second Circ. Prepare a pumping schedule as a function of slow circulating rate pressure (SCRP): n n n n n Initial circ. pressure: ICP = SCRP + SIDPP Final circ. .

7. Record the actual circulating drill pipe pressure. continue pumping and adjust the stand pipe pressure according to the pumping schedule. etc. (Note: To help in identifying the cause of potential problems.Driller’s Method Continue Second circulation: 2. 8. If equal to calculated ICP. Once the kill mud enters the annulus. If no pressure is measured. hold drill pipe pressure constant until the kill mud returns to surface. volumes. 4. pressures. it is important to maintain a good systematic record of time. Once kill circulation is complete.) . 3. Bring the pump to kill rate while holding casing pressure constant. If the actual circulating drill pipe pressure is significantly different from the calculated ICP. Open the choke manifold valve upstream of the choke. 5. shut the well in and investigate the reason. the well will be flow checked through the choke before opening the BOPs. the well will be shut in to observe the DP and casing pressures. 6.

the well is shut in. switch to the drill pipe gauge and follow the pumping schedule until kill mud reaches the bit. The procedure for the Wait and Weight method is as follows: n n n Prepare kill mud. the entire surface system is weighted up to the required kill weight mud. Bring the pumps to kill rate pumping kill mud while holding the casing pressure constant (less choke line friction for floating units). Once the kill mud enters the annulus. At this point hold the drill pipe pressure constant until the kill mud reaches surface. Kill weight mud is then pumped from surface to bit while following a pumping schedule. When the kill rate is established.Wait and Weight Method The Wait and Weight method involves one circulation to kill the well. . a constant drill pipe pressure is maintained until the kill mud returns to surface. Once an influx is identified.

increasing the risk of an underground blowout. the bottom hole pressure is maintained slightly in excess of the formation pressure following predetermined steps while the gas is allowed to expand as it migrates to surface. To avoid this. it is necessary to allow the influx to expand with time in a controlled fashion in order to reduce the pressures in the wellbore.Volumetric Method If a gas kick cannot be circulated from the wellbore. . This may result in excessive surface. The volumetric method only brings the gas to surface. To remove this gas. the gas bubble will migrate up the hole without expansion (well shut in). casing shoe and bottom hole pressures. thereby causing an increase of all pressures in the wellbore. the Lubricate and bleed method must be implemented. With the volumetric method.

n n . Repeat until all the gas has been bled off from the wellbore. If mud starts coming back. by bleeding gas from the annulus. If mud has been bled off together with the gas. mud needs to be lubricated in the annulus as follows: n Allow time for the mud to fall through the gas by gravity.Lubricate and Bleed Method With gas at surface after the use of the volumetric method. shut the choke and wait for the gas to work up to the surface before continuing to bleed. Reduce casing pressure by 100 psi (as an example). The casing pressure may increase slightly due to the gas being compressed by the mud being pumped in. this volume of mud must be additionally re-lubricated together with the selected volume of mud per each lubrication.

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