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Crack Propagation is simulated using Monte-Carlo Simulation

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continuum rigid-body spring deformation expressed in terms of field variables assembly of rigid-bodies connected by spring

simple treatment of failure: breakage of spring non-rigorous determination of spring constants

breakage of spring

deformable body

particle modeling

DEM analysis

MATHEMATICAL INTERPLETATION OF MATHEMATICAL INTERPLETATION OF RIGID-BODY SPRING MODEL RIGID-BODY SPRING MODEL

Non-Overlapping Functions for Discretization

ordinary FEM u1 DEM u1 u2

u2

PARTICLE DISCRETIZATION FOR PARTICLE DISCRETIZATION FOR FUNCTION AND DERIVATIVE FUNCTION AND DERIVATIVE

Discretization of Function f(x) in terms of { (x)}

f d ( x ) = f ( x )

different from {}

form of discretization

g id ( x ) = g i ( x )

form of discretization

E f ({f }) = (f ( x ) f d ( x )) 2 ds

V

minimize Ef

f =

1 V ds V

f ds

g i =

1 V ds

( ds )f

V ,i

f d ( x ) = f ( x )

xn

mother points

xn+1

df ( x ) = g( x ) = g ( x ) dx

y n-1 yn y n+1

middle point of neighboring mother points average slope of interval for is coefficient of characteristic function

dual domain decomposition Voronoi blocks for function Delaunay triangles for derivative

function and derivative are discretized in terms of sets of non-overlapping characteristic functions, such that function and derivative are uniform in Voronoi blocks and Delaunay triangles,

COMPARISON OF PARTICLE DISCRETIZATION COMPARISON OF PARTICLE DISCRETIZATION WITH ORDINARY DISCRETIZATION WITH ORDINARY DISCRETIZATION

f1 f2 f3

f1

x1 f2

f1 f2 f3

+

particle discretization

=

x2

f3 x3

derivative of particle discretization coincides with slope of plane which is formed by linearly connecting Voronoi mother points

PARTICLE DISCRETIZATION TO PARTICLE DISCRETIZATION TO CONTINUUM MECHANICS PROBLEM CONTINUUM MECHANICS PROBLEM

Conjugate Functional

J (u , ) = ij ij 1 ijcijkl kl ds 2

V

ij = ij

u i = u i

hypo-Voronoi for displacement Delaunay for stress: coefficients are analytically obtained by stationarizing J

stiffness matrix of FEM- coincides with stiffness matrix of FEM with uniform triangular element including rigid-body-rotation, FEM- gives accurate and efficient computation for field with singularity

stiffness matrix of FEM-

strain energy due to relative deformation of 1 and 2 through movement of 3 for indirect interaction for direct interaction

x1

([k

[k12 ] = [k

direct 12

]T = [k ij ] ji

indirect 12

)

2 x2 3 x3

] + [k

cut two springs of direct and indirect interaction together or separately, according to certain failure criterion of continuum

0.000520

0.000510

J-integral

0.000500

3 A 1 Q B

Number of Elements

Simulation of Crack Growth Check of Convergence

displacement strain/strain energy

can small difference in initial configuration cause large difference in crack growth?

uniform tension

0.006

0.006

0.004

0.004

0.002

d

0.002

0.000 2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

0.000 5 10

104

103

102

NDF

displacement norm:

d =

|| u u || dv || u || dv

2 B 2 B

simulation of crack growth: crack stems from holes

case b

DIFFERENCE IN CRACK GROWTH: DIFFERENCE IN CRACK GROWTH: DISTRIBUTION OF NORMAL STRAIN DISTRIBUTION OF NORMAL STRAIN

case a

case b

Brazilian test

SIMULATION OF FOUR POINT BENDING TEST SIMULATION OF FOUR POINT BENDING TEST

four point bending test

FOUR POINT BENDING WITH FOUR POINT BENDING WITH IDEARLY HOMOGENEOUS MATERIALS IDEARLY HOMOGENEOUS MATERIALS

FEM- puts two source of local heterogeneity, 1) mesh quality for particle discretization and 2) crack path along Voronoi boundary. An ideally homogeneous material which is modeled with best mesh quality sometimes fail to simulate crack propagation.

Particle Discretization

discretization scheme using set of non-overlapping characteristic functions

essentially same accuracy as FEM with uniform strain applicable to non-linear plasticity

Failure Analysis

simple but robust treatment of failure Monte-Carlo simulation for studying local heterogeneity effects on failure - candidates of failure patterns are pre-determined by spatial discretization

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