Assoc Prof Hj Thanthawi Jauhari Hj Ahmad Assoc.Prof Hjh.Zaiton Ahmad

•Examine elements & issues related to guidance and counseling • Understand the relationship between different terms that is related to helping profession.

• Learn about the broader counseling profession.

• What do you think advice is?

• What do you think guidance is?
• What do you think counseling is? • What do you think psychotherapy is? • What are the differences between advice, guidance, counseling and psychotherapy ?

Classroom activity: i. Break-up in group of 3-4. in 15 minutes, discuss on the distinction and similarities between the following terms; a. Advice b. Guidance c. Counseling d. Psychotherapy ii. Choose one spoke person and share with the rest of your friends.

• An opinion or recommendation offered by an individual as guide to action or conduct and worth following. • Advice can be given by anyone, at any time (do not required specific session) and at any place i.e unstructured setting. • Advice is given once (to a person, group, etc.) and the result is not to be reviewed. Advice is often unsolicited. • It is a practical recommendation from advice provider’s point of view. Containing information and normally based on their ability, potential, understanding, experiences and knowledge they possessed. • Advice is just ideas that you could follow to do something and it is not mandatory. • The recommended ideas/opinion may not be suitable or practical enough to others.

• • Guidance is given to a person or groups of individual and helps them along. It is an act of assisting a person, nurturing someone to do good sort of things or mentoring someone that wants direction. It also refers to the process of helping people make important choices that affects their lives. eg. choosing a preferred career or life style. Focuses on helping people/individuals choose what they value most and lead a person to the right path, provide the information and show them something new.


• Guidance usually involves providing actionable solutions to more general, immediate issues. • In the process of guidance, the client’s problems are listened carefully and ready made solutions are provided by the service provider.

Much of early work of guidance occurs in schools such as; i. Adult (teacher) help student make decisions. - eg. deciding on a vocation / course of study. ii. Unequal relationship between teacher and student. It was beneficial in helping the less experienced person find direction in life. - eg. Children have long receive “guidance” from parents, teachers, leaders, coaches etc.

In the process (guidance), these individuals have gained an understanding of themselves and their world (Shertzer & Stone, 1981).
Guidance is about being there for someone and having support and it is only one part of overall helping service provided by professional person. The New York State Teachers Association published a report in 1935, defined guidance as; “...... the process of assisting individuals in making life adjustment. It is needed in the home, school, community & in all other phases of the individual’s environment”.

Have you heard some of these statements?
“I’m feeling lonely and depressed”. “I wish I were better at controlling myself”. “I find it difficult to say ‘No’ to people”. “My life seems meaningless”. “Our marriage seems to be heading towards the rocks”. “ I get very tense over exams and under-perform”.

What do you think of it? How are you going to relate it to counseling profession?

COUNSELING …. Perception of normal people.
• They use ‘counseling’ to mean any kind of helping activity (
Pete Sanders,1996)

• In educational settings: ‘Counseling’ is used alongside the term guidance, often to mean helping people with their personal concerned or find the right course or the right job. • In certain agencies; The term ‘counseling’ is being used to describe information giving, advice giving and help client on a particular areas such as healthcare issues perhaps on family planning, or in financial institutions such as financial counselor etc.


• Counseling is not giving opinion, instructions or advice, it is using facilitative listening and questioning to allow the client to choose the best solution for a problem. • Counseling focuses on in-dept discussion of problems and sharing information that aids understanding and future decision making. • Counselors are concerned about client’s environment with a more global view than other professionals as well as concern that goes beyond treating dysfunction or phathology and dealing with the clients’ self-awareness, personal growth and wellness.


• In the process of counseling, the client’s problems are discussed and relevant information are provided inbetween. • In the end of counselling process, the client himself/herself have an insight to the problem and he/she becomes empowered to take own decision.
(Hershenson and Strein (1991); and Palmo, Shosh and Weikel (2001))

What are the differences between guidance and counseling?

• Both guidance and counseling are process use to solve problems of life. The basic difference is in the approach. • Guidance is when a person guides you through problems and counseling is when someone helps you cope with your problem. • Guidance is more like just talking to you about what your problems are and helping you choose the solution and which path to take while counseling is basically getting straight-forward help. Counselor help you with what you need with answering your question, fixing problems etc.

1. INFORMAL HELPERS & INFORMAL COUNSELORS.  All of us have the opportunity to assists others.  Be it in the role of partner, parent, relative, friend or work colleague etc.

2. THOSE USING COUNSELING SKILLS AS PART OF THEIR JOBS. Main focus : eg. Nursing, teaching, preaching, supervising, managing etc.Service providers: eg. Law, finance, recreation, trade union work & so on...These jobs required people to use helping skills or counseling skills.
3. VOLUNTARY COUNSELORS AND HELPERS.  People trained in counseling and helping skills.  They work on a voluntary basis in settings such as youth counseling service, single parent Association, NGO’s etc. 4. COUNSELING AND HELPING PROFESSIONALS.  People / persons specializing in helping others with their problems and paid to do so. Such people include; Counselors,psychologist, social work and psychiatrist.


1. PERSONAL SUPPORT: To indicate personal concern, care
and support by the counselors.

2. DEVELOPMENTAL SUPPORT: Offered information Commonly seen as helpful to the client. Provide encouragement of skills development.

3.PROBLEM SOLVING. Develop suitable skills and
knowledge base. This will provide a platform for helpful encounter. Helper act as enabling individuals. Individual go through the process of supported analysis of problem issues. Individual come to a more satisfactory way of leading their lives of their own choice and creation.


Address a deeper needs of the individual. Not only provide support, information or skill to enable the resolution of identifiable problems....... but goes further in empowerment and enabling the individual to grow through deeper hurts towards a broader maturity, creativity, selfactualization that can encompassed in the idea of solving the problem. This include spiritual a part from psychological dimention of ourselves.


Numerous definitions of counseling by American Counseling Association (ACA) & Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) of American Psychological Association (APA) based on a number of common points;

1. Counseling is a profession
• - Practitioner should complete a prescribe course of study leading eventually to a master’s or doctorate degree. - They must become members of organizations with; (a) Sets of professional & ethical standards. (b) Licensing & certification by national Association. - This will assure the public that the counselors meets minimal educational and professionaL standards. Counselors should possess personal qualities of maturity, empathy and warmth.


Counseling deals with personal, social, vocational, empowerment & educational

- Counselors work only in areas they have expertise. These areas may include; Intrapersonal & interpersonal concerns related to: - School, college adjustment, mental health, aging, marriage or family issues, organizational / employment agency, rehabilitation etc.

3. Counseling is conducted with persons who are considered to function within “normal range”.
• • • • - Client have adjustment, developmental and situational concerns. - Their problems required short term intervention. - Client are not considered “sick” but “stuck”. - Sometimes client just need information / a way to clarify and use the information they already possess.

4. Counseling is a theory-based and takes place in a structured setting. •

- Counselors will have to be familiar with the
theoretical orientation and normally they work based from certain theoretical perspectives. - Counselors work in a structured environment. Eg. office setting with - individuals, groups, family etc.

5. Counseling is a process in which clients learn how to make decisions and formulate new ways of behaving, feeling and thinking.

- Normally counselor explores their present level of functioning. - Counselor focuses on the goal their client wish to achieve. - Counselor & client look through changes that must be made to achieve clients’ personal goals / objectives.

6. Counseling encompasses various subspecialities;
- eg: - School and college counseling. - Marriage and family Counseling. - Mental Health Counseling. - Gerantological Counseling, Rehabilitation, Addiction, Career, organizational or workplace counseling.

- Each has specific educational and experiential requirements for practitioners.

• Krumboltz (1965) states that; “Counseling consists of whatever ethical activities a counselor undertakes in an effort to help the client engage in those types of behavior which will lead to a resolution of the client’s problems” (p. 384 - Personal and Guidance Journal, 44)

• American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA), (1980) define counseling as; “....the application of counseling procedures and other related areas of the behavioral sciences to help in learning how to solve problems or makes decision related to careers, personal growth, marriage, family, or other interpersonal concerns”. (p. 23 - Licensure Committee Action Pocket)

• Burks and Stefflre (1979); “Counseling denotes a professional relationship between a trained counselor and a client. This relationship is usually person-to-person, although it may sometimes more than two people. It is design to help clients to understand and clarify their views of their life-space, and to learn to reach their selfdetermined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices and through resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature” (p. 14 - Theories of Counseling, 3rd. Ed.)

• Laws Of Malaysia, • Counselors Act 1998 (Act 580) Part I, Preliminary: Sec. 2 (interpretation). “Counseling means a systematic process of helping relationship based on psychological principles performed by a registered counselor in accordance with the counseling code of ethics to achieve a voluntary favorable holistic change, development and adjustment of the client such that the change, development and adjustment will continue throughout the lifespan of the client”.

• Laws Of Malaysia, • Counselors Act 1998 (Act 580) Part I, Preliminary: Sec. 2 (interpretation). “Kaunseling” ertinya suatu proses sistematik untuk membantu perhubungan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip psikologi yang dilaksanakan oleh kaunselor berdaftar mengikut kod etika kaunseling untuk mencapai suatu perubahan, kemajuan dan penyesuaian yang holistik, baik dan sukarela pada diri klien supaya perubahan, kemajuan dan penyesuaian itu akan berterusan sepanjang hayat klien”.

COUNSELING…….. (Boundaries, Qualities and Aims/Functions).
• The essential BOUNDARIES of counseling are;
– – – That it is practised by someone designated as a counselor. That the counselor be approprietly trained to be able to practise to an acceptable standard. That the counselor abides by a code of ethics and practice. That the client knows that the service being offered by the counselor is counseling.

COUNSELING…….. (Boundaries, Qualities and Aims/Functions)…..

– That the counselor shows deep respect for the client. – The counselor and the client will agree on what the relationship will sent out to achieve and how it will seek to achieve it. (Inform consent) – That the client will feel safe enough to be challenged. – That the client will feel valued as a person. – The counselor does not judge the client.

COUNSELING…….. (Boundaries, Qualities and Aims/Functions)…..

The AIMS or FUNCTIONS of counseling


– That the client will feel empowered (i.e. have a greater sense of personal autonomy). – The client has a greater sense of self-understanding. – To enable the client to live in a more “satisfying and resourceful way” (Russel-1992). – That the client has a greater sense of well-being. – That the above “gains” should be enduring/lasting.

(George & Cristiani, (1995) Counseling Theory and Practise, Prentice Hall : New Jersey, p.5-8).


FACILITATING BEHAVIOR CHANGE -Bring about change in behavior - enable client live more productive, satisfying life within society’s limitations. IMPROVING THE CLIENT’S ABILITY TO ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN RELATIONSHIP. (Improving relationship). -Counselors help clients to improve the quality of relationships with others. Becoming more effective in their interpersonal relationship.


(George & Cristiani, (1995) Counseling Theory and Practise, Prentice Hall : New Jersey, p.5-8). Continue…………..


- Helping individuals learn to cope with new situations new demands is an important goal of counseling. and




- Helps individuals obtain information, clarify and sort personal characteristics & emotional concerns that may interfere related decisions. - These will enable individuals acquire understanding not only of their abilities, interests and opportunities but also emotion and attitudes that can influence their choices and decisions.

(George & Cristiani, (1995) Counseling Theory and Practise, Prentice Hall : New Jersey, p.5-8). Continue…….


– By giving the individuals the opportunity to learn ways to use their abilities and interests to the maximum. This will improve personal effectiveness. – Counselor can help people with their interpersonal problems, with emotional problems and with development of learning ang decision-making skills.
(Krumboltz & Thoresen, 1976).

1. Traditionally focuses on serious problems associated with Intra-psychic, internal & personal issues and conflicts. 2. Characteristically it emphasizes the following issues;
a. The past more than the present.
b. Insight more than change. c. The detachment (disconnection) of the therapist. d. The therapist’s role as an expert.

3. The term psychotherapist is generally used by Psychiatrist and clinical psychologist.

4. There are also similarities in counseling & psychotherapy processes or Stages:
Develop rapport. Exploration of self, perceptual field, and behaviors. Problem solving. Decision making. Plan of Action. Follow-up and possible development of additional strategies. Possible assessment and acquisition of environmental input, such as information assimilation. viii. Problem identification /Initial structure established ix. Termination The work of counselors and psychotherapists have similar processes.
Source: Pietrofesa,J.J., Hoffman, A., & Splete, H.H. (1984). Counseling:An Introduction, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.


Generally there are two criteria to be considered when making distinction between psychotherapy and counseling. Counseling
1. Tend to be a short term relationship (8-12 sessions spreads over a period of less than six months) and focuses on the resolution of developmental and situational problems. 2. Counseling is usually provided in outpatient settings (non-residential buildings such as schools, community agencies).

1. Involves long-term relationship (20-40 sessions over a period of six months to two years ) that focuses on reconstructive change. 2. Therapy is provided in both outpatient and inpatient settings (residential treatment facilities such as mental hospitals).

COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY • Differences in goals: Goals in counseling is to help individuals deal with the developmental task appropriate to their age. Goals of psychotherapy are more likely to involve a quite complete change of basic character structure. • Differences in Clients and Setting: Counselor deals with normal persons and are more apt to work in educational setting. Psychotherapist deals with neurotic or psychotic persons and are more apt to work in hospital setting or in private practice.
Ref: George R.L. & Cristiani T.S. Counseling Theory and Practice (3rd. Ed.) Prentice Hall, N.Jersey.

6. Blocher (1966) list 5 basic assumptions about clients and counselors which he believe further differentiate counseling from psychotherapy;
i. Counseling clients are not considered to be “mentally ill”, but are viewed as being capable of choosing goals, making decisions, and generally assuming responsibility for their own behavior and future development. ii. iii. Counseling is focused on the present and the future. client

The client is a client, not a patient. The counselor is not an authority figure but is essentially a teacher and partner of the as they move toward mutually defined goals.

iv. The counselor is not morally neutral or amoral but has values, feelings and standards of his/her own. Although counselor does not necessarily impose these on clients, he or she does not attempt to hide them.


The counselor focuses on changing behavior, not just creating


Generally based on academic degree & length of training involved. Psychiatrist Clinical Psychologist Counseling Psychologist Counselors Social Workers Para Professionals (minimum training)