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[Pick the date] Hasham

Choose any two theories(agenda setting theory, cultivation theory) in the reference of war on terror in a global view against Muslims in western world.

Studying and analyzing the theories of mass media can provide a framework for the understanding of the role and effects as well as the influence of mass media since theories are formulated according to its applied settings. Moreover, mass media theories also provide critical factors and perspectives underlying mass media. Agenda Setting, Priming, Framing, Cultivation Theory, Dependency Theory, Hypodermic Needle, Knowledge Gap, Media Richness, Medium Theory, Spiral of Silence, Two Step Flow and Uses and Gratifications Approach are the mass media theories.

Agenda setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media. It describes the very powerful influence of media in telling the audience of what issues are important. It depicts the power of media in presenting images to the public. In agenda setting, the press and media do not really reflect the reality since they filter and shape it. Public perceived certain issues as more important than the other issues because media concentrate only on a few subjects and leads. Political communication systems and presidential campaigns are appropriate examples where agenda setting theory is applied.

Cultivation theory suggests that television is responsible for shaping and cultivating viewers’ conception of social reality. However, the degree of shaping and cultivation of such conception differs between the two groups of television viewers-the heavy viewers and the light viewers.

Heavy viewers or people who watch a lot of television are likely to be more influenced by the ways in which the worlds is framed by television programs than the light viewers or the individuals who watch less. On one hand, light viewers may have more sources of information than heavy viewers.

As we saw two theories agenda setting theory and cultivation theory agenda setting theory shows that powerful influence of media on public, linking it with the war on terror in global perspective, as we al know that over seas Pakistanis are some what away from the culture tradition norms and news of Pakistan, after 9/11 incident, even some of our Pakistanis are against there own brothers and citizens, the reason behind this that media has dramatically shown that all this is done by Al Qaida and other Muslim terrorists and media has highlighted the war on terror too much, secondly the media has shape and changed the things how they show it, they filter and shape the news before they show it to general public. Some channels specially Al Jazeera channels are showing significantly war on terror globally and declining the image of Muslims. Cultivation theory suggests that television is responsible for the shaping and cultivaters views conception of social reality. The more media shows the negative image of Muslims in Ref to war on terror the more people watch it on television and more they will be shaped and directed towards it. The cultivation theory further classify it heavy and light viewers, according to one research the light viewers have more information then the heavy viewers because they have experienced it practically and faced it. So the western is showing it too much on televisioin and it is one of the reason the war on terror is not yet coming to an end and west is trying to dominate the muslims and muslim world through the new weapon that is called MEDIA.

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