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Mathematics Worksheet

Algebra: Factorising and Long Division

This is one of a series of worksheets designed to help you increase your confidence in handling Mathematics. This worksheet contains both theory and exercises which cover: 1. Revision of multiplying brackets 2. Factorisation 3. Long Division in Algebra There are often different ways of doing things in Mathematics and the methods suggested in the worksheets may not be the ones you were taught. !f you are successful and happy with the methods you use it may not be necessary for you to change them. !f you have problems or need help in any part of the work then there are a number of ways you can get help. "or students at the #niversity of $ull Ask your lecturers %ontact the Study Advice Service in the &rynmor 'ones (ibrary where you can access the Mathematics Tutor) or contact us by email. %ome to a *rop !n session organised for your department (ook at one of the many textbooks in the library.

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ackground This Worksheet assumes that you know how to 7multiply brackets out8. There are a number of different ways) some of which are given below. The final method given is used to help with factorisation and long division later in the worksheet. See also Algebra 4. 1. !ultiplying brackets Multiplying + x + y , and + a + b , together can be done in a number of ways +a, The 9eye brows method
%ollecting the terms gives (x + y) (a + b)

+ x + y ,+ a + b , = xa + ya + xb + yb

+b, Taking a) b) x and y as lengths we have a rectangle + x + y , by + a + b , x y a b xa xb ya yb "rom the diagram we see that the total area is given by + x + y ,+ a + b , This is e:uivalent to adding all the bits together giving + x + y ,+ a + b, = xa + ya + xb + yb

+c, #se a table x y a xa ya


b

+ x + y ,+ a + b , = xa + ya + xb + yb

xb yb this method is especially useful when some of the terms are negative or the brackets contain more than 4 terms) see example +c, below) and also for factorisation and long division. Examples .xpand and simplify the following ( x 3)(2 x + 5) "a# x
4x

;
5 x

<

4x4 <x

1<

%ollecting terms gives

( x 3)(2 x +5) = 2 x 2 x 15

"b#

( x 2 2 xy )( x +2 y )

x4 x 4y
= x 3 4 xy 2

4 xy 4 x 4 y 2 xy 4
( x 2 2 xy )( x +2 y )

x; 4x4 y

%ollecting terms gives

"c#

( 2 x 4 y + 3)( 3 x 2 y 5)
4x
;x
6x 2

2 y 14 xy
8y
2

;
6x

4 y <

2 xy 10 x

5 y 1<
6 x 2 +8 y 2 16 xy x +14 y 15

40 y

$ence ( 2 x 4 y + 3)( 3 x 2 y 5) =

( x 2)( 2 x + 3) + 5 "d# This could be set out as: x 4


4x

4x4 ;x

2 x

><

5
= 2 x 2 x 6 + 5 = 2 x 2 x 1

$ence ( x 2 )( 2 x + 3) + 5 "e#

(x 2 3x +5)(3x 4) + x 4
x4 ;x 2 ; x; 2 x 4
; x

>< 1< x 40 +x 2

6 x 4 14 x

$ence x 3 3 x + 5 ( 3 x 4 ) + x 4 = 3 x 3 13x 2 + 27 x 20 + x 4 = 3 x 3 13x 2 + 28 x 24

2 Factorisation We can also use the table method to help us factorise :uadratic expressions +see also Algebra 4,: Examples "a# "actorise
x 2 + 4x +3

Ax Cx D This leads to: x x


4

B To get the x 4 term A and C must be 1 "rom the signs both B and D are positive? hence to get >;) B=1 @ D=; or vice versa

x2 3

This gives x and ; x in the other two boxes x a total x term of x + ; x = 2 x as re:uired. ; 3x ; Solution "actors of x 2 + 4 x + 3 are + x + 1,+ x + ;, "b# "actorise
2 x 2 7 x +3

1 x

Ax Cx D This leads to $%&'$R


4x

B 3 To get the 4 x 4 term take A = 1) C = 4 "rom the signs both B and D are negative) hence to get the > ;) B = 1) D = ; or vice versa

2x

x 4x
4

1 2 x ; ; ) x ;

; (R 4x 1

3 x x 4x4 x

This gives 4 x and ; x in the other two boxes) a total of 4 x ; x = < x which is not correct

This gives x and 5 x in the other two boxes) a total of 5 x x = A x as re:uired are + x ;,+4 x 1, .

Solution "actors of "c# "actorise


Cx

2 x 2 7 x +3

2 x 2 5 x 3

Ax

B *3 To get 4 x 4 take A = 1 @ C = 4 To get the B;) B = 1 @ D = ; or vice versa or B = 1 @ D = ; or vice versa

2 x2

D
This gives 4 possibilities

4x4 3 x ; ; + x term total 4 x ; x = x , 4x x ; )x

4x

1 2x

4x

x 4x4 x

; ) x

1 ; + x term total 5 x + x = < x , 4x x 1 2 x

4 x4 x 1 ; x + term total 5 x x = < x ,

4x4 3x ; ; x + term total 4 x + ; x = x ,

"rom factors of 2 x 2 5 x 3 are + x ;,+4 x + 1, !n practice there is no need to work out and once youCve found that gives the correct result) except as a check. "d# "actorise 12 x 2 2 x 24 "irst we notice the common factor of 4 giving 12 x 2 2 x 24 = 2 6 x 2 x 12 We now need to factorise 6 x 2 x 12 Ax B 2 To get the 5 x 4 term take A =1 @ C =5 or A =4 @ C =; Cx ) x

*12

To get the B14) B =1 @ D = 14 or B =4 @ D = 5 or B =; @ D = 2 or vice versa with both number and signsD

There are a lot of possibilities here but as the expression 6 x 2 x 12 has no common factor then the brackets cannot have a common factor) ie we cannot have a factor 6 x 3 which has a common factor of ; +see Algebra 4 for more details., Trial and error or sheer persistence gives the solution as 12 x 2 2 x 24 = 2(3 x + 4 )( 2 x 3) $+ercise 1 "actorise the following
1. x 2 +3 x +2 4. x 7. x
2 2

2. 9 x 2 1 5. 6 x 8. x
2 2

3. x 2 6 x +9 6. 9 x 2 6 x +1 9. 2d 2 +3d +1 12. 2 x 2 3 x +1

4 x + 4 +2 x 8
2 2

+ x 2 16a

6 x 16
2

10. 4 x 13. 6 x

16 y

11. 4a 14. x
2

+5 x 6

2 x 3

3. Division = 4 rem 1 or 4 1 . We know that 2 4 + 1 = 6 ) from this we can see that 9 2 2 2 !n example +d, on page 4 we showed that ( x 2)(2 x +3) +5 = 2 x x 1 !n the same way) from this) we have:

2x 2 x 1 = ( 2 x + 3) rem < x 2 or

As

(x2 + 2 x 2)(x2 + x 1) + 2 x +1 = x4 + 3x3 x2 2 x + 3

2x 2 x 1 5 = ( 2 x + 3) + x 2 x 2

!n the same way

x 2 + ; x; x 4 4 x + ; = x 4 + 4 x 4 rem 2 x + 1 4 x + x 1 2 x + ; x; x 4 4 x + ; 4x + 1 or = x4 + 4x 4 + 4 4 x + x 1 x + x 1

( (

) )

We can use the matrix method to help with algebraic division. !t seems very cumbersome when written out in the amount of detail shown. !n practice you should be able to cut down on a lot of the steps. Eote) if there is a remainder when dividing by) say) + x 4, you can only get a number in the remainder) when dividing by) say) + x 4 + 4 x ;, you can only get) at most) an expression of the form Ax + B in the remainder) !n general the maximum power in the remainder will be one less than in the dividend +the term you are dividing by,. Examples "a# Simplify (et
2 x 2 x 1 . x 2
2 x 2 x 1 = ( x 2)( Ax + B ) + S

4 x4 x 1 = Ax + B remainder S then x4

This will come from a matrix such as: Ax B x Px >S The x ) 4 and 4 x 4 can be put in 2 x2 giving A = 4 and) hence) Q = 2 Qx *2 R
2x

x 4

4x4 , x
4x

B Px R 3 3x *)

>S

The x term is x so 2 x + Px = x P=; hence B = ;? R = 5

x 4

4x4 2 x

>S

The constant term is 1 so S 5 = 1 S = <

so we get

2 x 2 x 1 5 . = ( 2 x + 3) + x 2 x 2

"b# Simplify

2x 3 7 x 2 + 7 x + 2 2 x 1

(et

2x3 7 x 2 + 7 x + 2 = Ax 2 + Bx + C remainder D 2x 1

then

2 x3 7 x 2 + 7 x + 2 = ( 2 x 1) Ax 2 + Bx + C + D

This comes from the following matrix Bx C Ax 4 2x *1 2 x3 Rx 4 x2


4x

Px 4 Sx Bx Px 4 Sx
3 x

Qx T C Qx T C Qx T 2
,x

>D

The 4 x ) 1 and 4 x 4 can be put in giving A = 1 and) hence) R = 1

4 x; x2 x4

>D

x 4 term: x 4 + Px 4 = A x 4 P = 5 hence B = ;? S = ;

4x 1

4 x; x4 x4

) x 2 3x ; x 5 x 4 ;x

>D

x term: ; x + Qx = A x Q = 2) hence C = 4) T = 4

4x

4 x; x4

>*

constant term: 4 > * = 4 * = 2

*2

Solution or

2x3 7x 2 + 7x + 2 = x 2 3 x + 2, Femainder 2 2x 1 2x 3 7x 2 + 7x + 2 4 = x 2 3x + 2 + 2 x 1 2 x 1

"c# Simplify

6 x5 + 7 x 4 4 x 2 + 7 x + 4 3 x 2 + 2 x 1

*ividing 6 x 5 +7 x 4 4 x 2 +7 x +4 by 3 x 2 +2 x 1 will give terms starting with 4 x ; and leave a possible remainder having an x term and a number. (et
6x5 + 7x 4 4x 2 + 7x + 4 3x + 2 x 1
2

= 2 x 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D remainder Ex + F

Then

6 x 5 + 7 x 4 4 x 2 + 7 x + 4 = 3 x 2 + 2 x 1 2 x 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D + Ex + F

)(

2 x3 3 x2 2x *1 ) x, x, 2 x 3 4 x; ; x4 4x 1 5 x< 2 x2 4 x ; 4 x; ; x4 4x 1 5 x< 2 x2 4 x ; 4 x; ; x4 4x 1 Solution 5 x< 2 x2 4 x ;

Bx 4 Px 2 Tx; Xx 4 x2 3 x, 2 x3 x2 x4 ; x2 4 x; x4 x4 ; x2 4 x; x4

Cx

* Rx 4 Vx G * Rx 4 Vx G * + Ex +F
; ; ; x; term gives Qx + 4 x 4 x = 0 J = 0 hence % = 0? # = 0? K = 0

Qx; Ux 4 Yx
Cx

+ Ex +F

The ; x 4 ) 4 x ) 1 @ 4 x ; can be put in) hence the other terms in column 1. consider x 2 term Px 2 + 2 x 2 = A x 2 H= ;) hence & = 1? T = 4 ? I = 1

Qx; Ux 4 Yx . . . . 0 0 0 0

Rx 4 Vx G *1

+ Ex >"

x 4 term gives Rx 4 x 4 = 2 x 4 F = ; hence * = 1? L = 4? G = 1

3 x 2 2 x 1

+ Ex +F

x term gives Ex 4 x = A x . = 6 constant term " > 1 = 2 " = ;

5 x< + A x 2 2 x 4 + A x + 2 6x + ; = 4 x; + x 4 1 + 4 4 ; x + 4x 1 ;x + 4x 1

An alternative way of tackling the last example is: let


6x5 + 7 x 4 4x 2 + 7 x + 4 3x + 2 x 1
2

= 2 x 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D +

Ex + F 3x + 2 x 1
2

Then

and you can e:uate the coefficients of x to find the values of B, C, D, E and F. When you write the expansion this way it is not so 9easyC to see the coefficients but is good practice) especially for those going on to use Hartial "ractions etc. The work is virtually the same as in the first method.
8

6 x 5 + 7 x 4 4 x 2 + 7 x + 4 = 3 x 2 + 2 x 1 2 x 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D + Ex + F

)(

Exercise 2 "ind the :uotients and remainders in the following


1. 3. 5. 7. 9. x 2 3x + 7 x2 4x 2 + 4x 9 2x + 5 6 x 3 13x 2 + 16 x + 6 2x 3 3x 4 9 x 3 + x 2 8 x + 13 x3 6x + 6x x 6x 6x 2 2x 2 + 2x 1
5 4 3 2

2. 4. 6. 8.

3x 2 + 4 x 3 3x + 1 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 10 x x+4 10 x 4 + x 3 7 x 2 + 11x 8 x2 + 1 x 4 x 3 + 5x + 3 x 2 2x + 3

Ans/ers $+ercise 1
1.

( x + 2 )( x +1) 4. ( x 2 ) 2 7. ( x + 4 )( x 2 ) 10. 4( x 2 y )( x + 2 y ) 13. ( 3 x 2 )( 2 x + 3)

2. 5. 8. 11. 14.

(3 x 1)(3x +1) (3 x +2 )( 2 x 1) ( x 8)( x +2 ) 4a ( a 4 ) ( x +1)( x 3)

3. 6. 9. 12.

(x 3)2 (3 x 1)2 (2d + 1)(d + 1) (2 x 1)( x 1)

$+ercise 2
1. 2. x 1 Fem 5 x +1 Fem - 4 x 2 +3 x 2 Fem 8

6. 10 x 2 +x 17 Fem 10 x +9 7. 3 x 2 +x 5 Fem 2 8. x 2 +x 1 Fem 6 9. 3 x 3 +x 4 Fem 3 x 6

3. 2 x 3 Fem 6 4. 5. 3 x 2 2 x +5 Fem 21

We would appreciate your comments on this worksheet) especially if youCve found any errors) so that we can improve it for future use. Hlease contact the Maths tutor by email at studyadvice/hull.ac.uk
Updated 24th November 2004

The information in this leaflet can be made available in an alternative format on re:uest. Telephone 01234 255166 M 4006

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