You are on page 1of 7

Contribution of LCA approach to the choice of rotating electrical machines for environmental impact minimization

W. Boughanmi, J.P. Manata, D. Roger


Abstract From usual point of view, electrical machine is designed and chosen in order to minimum initial investment for given characteristics. Eco-design is a new approach for motors design, it introduces additional environmental dimension to traditional choices method. It uses a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools. This work highlights the LCA approach applied to AC machines. Then the global environmental costs of the machine are evaluated considering its total life cycle and according to normalised impact criteria. Finally, the implication of LCA approach to the choice of a standard electrical machine is realised in order to minimise the global environmental costs. Index terms Induction motors, time factors, energy efficiency, environmental factors, Life Cycle Analysis

environmental dimension to traditional design and choices method using a LCA tool. This paper present firstly the LCA tool applied for electric motor and the generated environmental impacts according normalised criteria. Secondly the eco-balance of 11 kW reference machine is realized versus its operating time during the use phase. Finally, the LCA tool is involved for electric motors choice to contribute in global environmental impact minimisation. II. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS EVALUATION OF
ELECTRICAL MACHINE

I.

INTRODUCTION

LL current observers now agree to assign to mass consumption products a major responsibility for environmental degradation and at all stages of life cycle: raw material extraction, production, distribution, use, recovery and Elimination [1]. Rotating electrical machines have an important part of this responsibility considering the 300 million motors which are in use in industry, infrastructure and large buildings and the 30 million new electric motors are sold each year for industrial and domestic purposes [2]. In France, their power consumption represents 70 % of the total electrical energy consumption in industry [3]. Many studies have been done for many years to improve motor efficiency by acting on their design; this topic is still studied by research teams [4-7]. Nevertheless, they focus only on the use phase of the motor, not on its global environment impact defined by the general rules of ecodesign implemented for several years by ISO14001 Environmental Management Standard. Few studies have been conducted on the eco-design of electromagnetic converters, which mainly focuses on the optimization of wide spread single-phase transformer [8] and single-phase induction motor [9], with respect to two environmental criteria: gross energy requirement and the greenhouse gas emissions responsible of global warming.1 The aim of this work is to introduce an additional
1 This work was supported by the MEDEE (the French national technological research cluster on electrical machine efficiency increase). This program, including EDF (Electricity of France) and ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), is sponsored by the region Nord Pas-de-Calais (France), the French ministry and the European funds (FEDER). W. Boughanmi, J.P. Manata and D. Roger are with : Univ. Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, France UArtois, LSEE, F-62400 Bethune, France (e-mail: mwalid.boughanmi@gmail.com, daniel-roger@univ-artois.fr)

This section presents briefly the requirements for LCA analysis applied to AC machines. Resulting from this LCA study, the eco-balance of induction machine with 11 kW of output power that can be considered representative of the average power range will be presented and two load factors of 10 % and 100 % will be considered. A. Description of LCA tool The product life cycle is considered from cradle to grave that is to say, from the extraction of raw material to end-of-life recycling, through all the manufacturing phases, the distribution, the actual use time and the recovery at the end-of-life. Each phase of the life cycle has an impact on the environment. The origins of these impacts are the quantities of resources (ores, fossil fuels, natural resources ) consumed directly or indirectly (on infrastructure, transport, etc.) and all the produced wastes and emissions (in air, water or ground). Regarding more specifically the construction phase, the substances to identify as input, include all raw materials and resources consumed to achieve the construction of the considered product. This includes the direct consumption (raw materials, gas, oil ...) used in the transformation process but also the indirect consumption (infrastructure, transport ...). At the output, the product construction implies mainly the pollution emissions in air, water and soils generated by all industrial processes that create the product. Various databases have quantified the flow of elementary substances for the most industrial materials and for conventional processes. For this study, the ECOINVENT database which has several thousand is retained. In a second step, the Life Cycle Analysis study is as objective to assess the environmental impacts of considered product. An environmental impact is usually expressed by an equivalent quantity of substance emitted or consumed by the product on its life cycle. Thus the impact "global warming" is expressed in quantity of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2) produced. Each environmental impact is accompanied by an aggregation methodology that will

978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE

120

convert the quantities of elementary substances associated to the product life cycle in a quantity equivalent to the single substance selected for this criterion. There are many environmental criteria and an environmental study must be multi-criteria for taking into account different point of view. In fact, for a considered product, all impact criteria are not necessarily correlated, some may even be contradictory. This study retained ten different criteria usually used in the LCA studies (see appendix) and it is based on SIMAPRO software that includes the necessary aggregation methods (including the CML method [10]). The impact criteria include the cumulative energy demand and the carbon footprint, which are particularly important for global warming potential, but also others indicators such as the depletion of the ozone layer, human toxicity, water pollution, etc. It should now be emphasized that the numerical values obtained following a LCA study are necessarily unreliable in terms of absolute value. First performed modelling overestimates or underestimates certainly many material flows without any possibility of knowing a priori how these inaccuracies are negligible or not. Secondly the aggregation methodologies used to quantify in a single unit the relative impacts of various substances, reflect the state of environmental knowledge at a given time. Databases and methodologies for calculating the impacts are also regularly updated. These remarks are valid for all LCA studies and are not specific to the modelling of electrical motors. Environmental studies of LCA type are firstly comparison tools designed to compare different products between them, different versions and / or use of motors in this paper. The assumption is generally accepted in these studies because the LCA numerical inaccuracies are attenuated by the relative use of this approach. B. Method and model The environmental study of electric motor starts by modelling the construction phase. The motor is assembled from a set of materials developed (steel, copper, aluminium, plastic and insulation). These materials undergo various processes of design (rolling, injection, casting, wire drawing, annealing...). The ECOINVENT database offers generic data for the most of conventional materials and processes. For the specific materials, the available data were adapted. The specific processes, for instance the enamelling of copper wire and the construction of the electrical sheet, were developed using data of the expertises of our industry partners. Through the aggregation methodologies of environmental criteria, each secondary material used and every identified process is associated to a value of an environmental impact per unit of mass and for each one of the ten retained criteria. The values are extracted from SIMAPRO that includes the ECOINVENT and the aggregation methodologies of environmental criteria. The machine is decomposed in two parts; the active one, which takes part to the energy conversion (magnetic core, winding and squirrel cage), and the inactive one, which is necessary for other functions (frame, end plates, shaft, bearing, and fan). This stage of LCA study requires a geometric modelling of electric motor for determining all the masse of each component of motor. All geometric

dimensions of motor are deduced from the two main parameters D (the air-gap diameter) and L (the active length of magnetic core) using real data from the manufacturer and magnetic characteristics of the stator sheets [11]. From the geometric dimensions of the machine, the masses of the various parts are deducted. The second step of environmental study is to assess the impacts of the motor use phase, which are related to the operating energy losses. These losses are tightly connected with the cumulative operating time, the actual working conditions and total lifetime of motors. Induction motor is considered to be an energy converter and not an end use device; therefore, only losses are consumed inside the induction motor, with the remaining energy being transmitted as mechanical power. When the machine works in steady state, its operating losses and efficiency can be accurately determined from the single-phase equivalent circuit, shown in Fig. 1. There are several methods to determine the parameters of the equivalent circuit of electrical machine. The IEC 34-2-1 standard provides the methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests of rotating electrical machines.
I1 r1 V1 x1 X R x2 I2 r2/s

Fig. 1. Single-phase equivalent circuit of induction motor

The third step concerns the end-of-life. For the moment, electric motor materials end up in waste that has an environmental impact. Waste management scenarios used for this study are conformed to data provided by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) established for the period 1998-2007. Finally, the life cycle assessment of motors can be summarized in three main steps, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Life cycle of an electric motor and global environmental impacts

C.

Eco-balance of reference machine Let us consider, as a reference, a 3-phase, 4-pole, and squirrel cage machine supplied by a balanced 3-phase voltage grid; the rated values are 11 kW 380 V 50Hz 21.5 A 1445 rpm cos = 0.89. The air-gap diameter and

121

Life cycle impact (%)

the active length of magnetic core are equal respectively to 136.5 mm and 210 mm. Table I summarizes the results obtained using geometric modelling of the reference machine. Two classical tests have been done: at no load and rotor locked. From these tests and using a standard method described in IEC 34-2-1, the parameters of single phase equivalent circuit of the reference machine is calculated. The Table II displays these parameters. The motor efficiency calculated from the single-phase equivalent circuit is equal to 87.7 % at rated slip.
TABLE I VARIOUS MATERIALS OF 11 KW REFERENCE MACHINE

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Impact indicator (see appendix) 10 construction end-of-life use

Material Electric steel Other steel Aluminium Copper Insulation Impregnation Resin Plastic

Weight (kg) 45 14 9.4 4.3 0.6 1.1 0.6

Fig. 3. Eco-balance of reference machine for 20000 hours of operating time

140 120 Life cycle impact (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Impact indicator (see appendix) 10 construction end-of-life use

TABLE II THE PARAMETERS OF THE SINGLE-PHASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF 11KW


REFERENCE MOTOR

Parameter Values ()

r1 0.42

x1 0.85

X 26.1

R 448

r2 0.47

x2 0.91

Two scenarios are retained for the presentation of the LCA results applied on the 11kW reference machine. The first scenario seen in Fig. 3 supposes a cumulative operating time of 20000 hours in continuous duty (i.e. to 8 hours each working day during 10 years). The second scenario illustrated in Fig. 4 considers an intermittent duty with a load factor of 10 %; this implies a cumulative operating time of 2000 hours. The lifetime is still 10 years, in practice; the environmental impacts related to the use phase are reduced by 90 % while the impacts of construction and end-of-life remain constant. For the two cases, the electricity consumed by the machine during the use phase is from European grid (mix production between different origins). The results illustrated by the Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are given as relative values in percent and according to the ten considered criteria. The numerical absolute values of different environmental impacts depending on their international units are displayed in Table III for the first scenario (20000 hours of operating time).

Fig. 4. Eco-balance of reference machine for 2000 hours of operating time

The previous results show that the use phase has a considerable importance in the motor life cycle. The accumulation of electrical losses and the upstream energy dissipation losses that they assume is, for the operation of 20000 hours (Fig. 3), the main contributor for nine impact criteria among ten. The construction phase of the machine is not negligible on all indicators, when the use time decreases (Fig. 4). It becomes even dominant for four criteria (2, 4, 5 and 8).

TABLE III GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS PER MOTOR OF 11 KW FOR 20 000 HOURS OPERATING TIME

Indicator number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Impact indicator Abiotic depletion Acidification Eutrophication Ozone layer depletion Human toxicity Fresh water aquatic Terrestrial ecotoxicity Photochemical oxidation IPCC Cumulative energy demand

Unit kg Sb eq kg SO2 eq kg PO4 eq kg FC11eq kg 1.4 DB eq kg 1.4 DB eq kg 1.4 DB eq kg C2H4 T CO2 eq MJ

Values 121,7 97,3 10,1 0,0008 5204,9 1110,8 279,9 3,94 16548,5 348140,9

The end of motors life is a priori little impactful

compared to the others motor phases except on the indicator

122

6 related to the water pollution. This considerable impact according the criterion 6 is directly influenced by the landfill of the non-recycled part of metals (mainly the copper). In this study, it is considered that aluminium, copper and steel are recycled respectively to 70 %, 70 % and 45 %. The remaining waste is incinerated and buried with a rate respectively equal to 53 % and 47 %. Interpretation of the first results The environmental impacts generated during the total life cycle of electrical machine which works in continuous duty with 20000 hours of cumulative operating time, as shown in previously study, are mainly due to the energy losses dissipated during the use phase at 98 % for criterion 1, 3, 7, 9 and 10 and at 78 % for the criterion 2, 4, 5 and 8 and at 10 % for the criterion 6. In this case, the improvement of global eco-balance must be realized by the increase of the energy efficiency of the electric motor. However, there are industry or domestic applications where the electric motors are used just for a little time. During the intermittent or temporal duty, the impacts generated by the machine in the use phase decrease then considerably compared to the previous case. From the Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the generated impacts related to the use phase decrease, in case of operation of 2000 hours, average by 20 % for criterion 1, 3, 7, 9 and 10 and average by 62 % for criterion 2, 4, 5 and 8 and average by 80 % for the criterion 6. Progressively the contribution of the construction phase of machine becomes comparable to that of the use phase. To generalize the previous results, Fig. 5 illustrates the relative contribution of the use phase to life cycle impacts, according to each criterion (the closed curves are represented just by a single curve to simplify figure), versus the operating time of machine. The end-of-life is not taken into account in this figure.
100

D.

impacts of each phase are close appears. Some indicators as abiotic depletion (1), eutrophication (3), terrestrial ecotoxicity (7), greenhouse gas emissions (9) and cumulative energy demand (10), are overly influenced by the motor losses during the operating time. For these impact criteria, the construction phase is important only at low operating time (for instance, under 1000 hours for criterion 10, 9, 7, 3 and 1). The others indicators (2, 4, 5, 6 and 8) are more connected to the motor mass and the construction phase, they are still preponderant for higher operating time (6000 hours for criterion 4; 8000 hours for criterion 8, 4, 2 and 28000 hours for criterion 6). III. ECO-CHOICE OF ELECTRICAL MACHINE USING LCA
TOOL

In this stage, the study shows what LCA can mean for the choice of standard electric motor in order to minimise the global environmental impact. LCA purpose is to compare various motors between them and to help for making the best choices considering the environmental point of view and of course the operation specifications. A. Operating in continuous service From the IEC 34-1 standard, in the continuous service the motor works at a constant load for enough time to reach temperature equilibrium. In this paper, the operating time of motor is fixed to 8 hours each working day during 10 years for this service type. The environmental impacts evaluation of 11 kW reference machine demonstrated that the use phase is the most impactful in continuous service. In order to improve the eco-balance of reference machine which operates a long time, the increase of energy efficiency is the essential solution. Most electric motors are designed to run between 50 % and 100 % of the rated load. Maximum efficiency is usually near 75 % of rated load. A motors efficiency tends to decrease greatly below 50 % of load [12]. Thus for our application of constant load of 11 kW, a 15 kW motor has an acceptable load range of 7.5 kW to 11 kW; peak efficiency is at 11 kW. Nevertheless, the choice of a motor slightly oversized has an impact on the construction phase. A comparative LCA study of 11 kW and 15 kW motors derived from the same manufacturer LEROY SOMER and the same efficiency class IE1, was realized in order to make a good choice for environmental point of view between one of the two considered motors. The necessary inputs for the LCA study are summarised in Table IV and Table V. The results of the comparative LCA are illustrated in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. The Fig. 6 represents the difference in percent between the environmental impacts generated by the two motors 11 kW and 15 kW on each of construction and use phase. The endof-life, as it is negligible, is not considered to clarify the figure. Fig. 7 shows the difference in percent between the global eco-balance on life cycle of the two motors (the endof-life is included this time). This figure is presented as the radar form that provides an overview for the 10 criteria 10 lines. With this representation, each gain brings the point to the middle of graph. For the two figures, the motor of 11 kW is considered as a reference.

Contribution of the use phase (%)

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator 2.5 x 10 10 7 3 9 1 8 5 2 6 4 3
4

Total work time (hr)

Fig. 5. Contribution of the use phase to global environmental impact versus the cumulative operating time

When a curve crosses the 50 % point, it means construction and use phase have the same importance. For each criterion there is a moment, at low operating time, where the impacts of construction phase are dominant (i.e. use phase is less impactful). From Fig. 5, the value of operating time where the

123

TABLE IV PART-LOAD EFFICIENCY AND FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY FOR INDUCTION MOTOR - LEROY SOMER 4-POLES

Data Load Efficiency (%) 4/4

LS 11 kW 3/4 88.4 2/4 87.5 4/4 87.7

LS 15 kW 3/4 89.3 2/4 88.3 88.7

TABLE V VARIOUS MATERIALS OF THE TWO CONSIDERED MOTORS

Materials Electrical steel Others steel Aluminium copper Plastic Insulation Impregnation resin

LS 11 kW 74 kg 45 14 9.4 4.3 0.6 0.6 1.1

LS 15 kW 86 kg 54.1 16 10.6 5.1 0.65 0.7 1.5

From the figures below, the motor of 11 kW is less impactful average by 11 % than the oversized motor of 15 kW on the construction phase while the result is reserved on the use phase. This last represents a minimum 80 % of the total impacts of motor according to the most of criteria (see Fig. 3), thus the 11 % of benefits on use phase of 15 kW motor brings a global improvements clearly visible on eco-balance.
15

motor. Improving this criterion requires an increase in recycling rates. In this study copper, aluminium and steel are recycled respectively at 70 %, 70 % and 45 %. It is theoretically possible to considerably reduce this criterion by total recycling the metals of industrial machines. In continuous service with a long operating time, this study shows that for nine among ten criteria a slightly oversized motor that works near 75 % of its rated load has a better eco-balance than a motor which works at its rated load. In addition, the energetic gain during the use phase (~10600kWh) compensates the additional initial cost. This result is still right while efficiency of the chosen oversized motor is clearly advanced. In fact, a motor is considered under-loaded when it is in the range where efficiency drops significantly with decreasing load. For instance, a motor that works at 35 % of rated load is less efficient than a smaller motor whose it was applied an identical load. In addition, the electric motors those operate at low level of their rated power have a low power factor; it implies additional loss in lines and therefore additional impacts [13-14]. B. Operating in intermittent service The conclusions deduced from the previous example are available for a long operating time in continuous duty (2000 hours/year during 10 years). Is this true for the case of intermittent operation where the machine works a short time during its lifetime? For instance, let us consider the scenario 2 with an operation at intermittent load of 11 kW and at 10 % of service factor. In this case, the machine works just 2000 hours during 10 years. The obtained results for this case are more contrasted (see Fig. 8). These results lead to suggest another possible choice. For the operating in intermittent service as S2, S3 and S6 (see IEC 34-1 standard) with a low load factor, electrical machines can be undersized or overloaded [15] considering that in these duty types the machine is not being operated continuously at full load, but only in blocks, it can cool down again during the stop time, and therefore it can overloaded mechanically and thermally during the load period. There is an appropriate method that indicates how much a motor can be overloaded under ideal ambient conditions. For these duty types, the motor power is determined from the root mean square or RMS value power [16]. This power is the square root of the sum of powers squared, multiplied by the corresponding time interval and divided by the sum of time intervals. However, the setting in motion of the load usually involves a minimum torque which prohibits the use of machines too small even if the thermal aspect permits. These remarks lead to consider using a 9 kW machine in our study to provide in intermittent load of 11 kW desired (slight under-sizing plausible). Like the previous example in III. A, an electrical and geometric modelling is needed to determine the different masses of each material and energy efficiency as a function of operating regime. Table VI summarizes the data that were used to perform LCA in intermittent service. The result of the comparative LCA is shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 in the form of radar that compares the environmental impacts of motors taking the 11 kW as a reference.

Difference of motors impacts %

10

-5

-10

-15

Construction 11 kW-15 kW //

Use 11 kW-15 kW

Fig. 6. Difference in percent between environmental impacts of the two motors (11 kW as a reference)
Abiotic depletion (1) 110 Cumulative energy demand (10) 100 90 Ipcc on 100 years (9) 80 70 Eutrophication (3) Acidification (2)

Photochemical oxidation (8)

Ozone layer depletion (4)

Terrestrial ecotoxicity (7) Fresh water ecotox. (6)

Human toxicity (5)

LS - 11 kW

LS - 15kW

Fig. 7. Comparison in percent between the global eco-balance of the two motors for European electricity use

The except is just according to the criterion 6 in which the 11 kW motor is less impactful because this impact criterion is directly related to the quantity of metals constituting the motor and is always in favour of smaller

124

TABLE VI INPUTS DATA FOR LCA STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS - LEROY SOMER

Data Load Efficiency (%) Weight (kg)

LS 9kW 5/4 86 60
Abiotic depletion (1)

LS 11kW 4/4 87,7 74

LS 15 kW 3/4 89,3 86

impose. During intermittent use at low hours of operation, the good design choice is therefore to reduce the dimensions of the machine. IV. CONCLUSIONS The application of the LCA approach to the electrical machine is used to evaluate the environmental impacts generated throughout its life cycle according to its type of service. The assessment is based on a multi-criteria method that avoids the transfer of pollution from one criterion to another. Each phase of life cycle of the machine has its own contribution to the environmental impact. Phase of construction and use represent the most impactful phases in the life cycle of the machine. The impact of end-ofmachines life appears on a single criterion (water pollution) that is related to the part of non-recycled metals in the machine. The solution to reduce this impact is simple (while difficult to implement), the recycling of metals used in motors must be at 100 %. The relative contributions of the phases of construction and use of the machine to the environmental impacts are related to cumulative operating time during its lifetime. For each criterion there is a first zone, corresponding to the low use time, where the construction phase is dominant and, therefore, where the reduction of the environmental impact passes only through the optimization of the mass of the machine. Similarly there is a second zone, with high operating time, where the use phase is dominant and, therefore, where the increase energy efficiency of the machine is essential solution. Between these two zones there is a time through which the contributions of each phase are close and environmental improvement requires an optimization on the total life cycle. The criteria have different time scales. Beyond 20000 hours of use or under 1000 hours of use, all the criteria are respectively in zone 2 or zone 1. Between these two times, construction and use will always closed contributions for some criteria and then choice of the "best" motor becomes more difficult because it will certainly weigh the relative importance of each environmental criterion. The comparative LCA conducted on several AC machines has confirmed that in continuous service (zone 2: 20000 hours or more) energy efficiency is the key factor for the environmental point of view. It is therefore advisable to oversize slightly electrical machines in order to operate at optimum efficiency. In the same technological range, larger machines have generally a better efficiency and it is still slightly higher for a load of 75 % - 80 %. Motor over sizing more than 40 % will be unnecessary and brings an additional initial cost because of declining efficiency. When the cumulative operating time decreases, it becomes progressively less interesting to take an oversized motor. For an application in intermittent load and with short operating time (zone 1: 1000 hours or less) the chosen motor should preferably have less power than the required output power (within the constraints related to the thermal temperature insulation and the setting in motion). Between these two extremes, the choice is more difficult because the environmental criteria are opposed. Except to give preference to some criteria, the most sensible solution may be to take the motor as accurately dimensioned.

Cumulative energy demand (10)

110 100

Acidification (2)

Ipcc on 100 years (9)

90 80

Eutrophication (3)

Photochemical oxidation (8)

Ozone layer depletion (4)

Terrestrial ecotoxicity (7) Fresh water ecotox. (6)

Human toxicity (5)

LS - 11 KW

LS - 15 KW

Fig. 8. Comparison in percent of eco-balance of electric motors for European electricity use
Abiotic depletion (1) Cumulative energy demand (10) 110 100 Ipcc on 100 years (9) 90 80 Photochemical oxidation (8) Eutrophication (3) Acidification (2)

Ozone layer depletion (4)

Terrestrial ecotoxicity (7) Fresh water ecotox. (6)

Human toxicity (5)

LS - 11 KW

LS - 9 KW

Fig. 9. Comparison in percent of eco-balance of electric motors for European electricity use

This study shows that there is a symmetry of the criteria, the eco-balance of the big motor (15 kW) is best according to five criteria (resource depletion, eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, emissions of greenhouse gases and cumulative energy demand) and the small motor (9 kW) has a better environmental performances according to the others five criteria. With a total use time of 2000 hours, Fig. 4 shows that the relative importance of the use phase falls below 50 % on the five considered criteria. The bigger motor with better efficiency retains its use phase less impact but this is not enough to offset its overconsumption of raw materials and energy during construction phase. The reasoning is opposite for the case of small motor that is overloaded and lose slightly its efficiency. Which motor to choose in this case? This raises the delicate question of the relative importance of criteria. If all criteria are considered equally important the "best" compromise is to use the motor of 11kW. In all cases Fig. 5 shows that below about 2000 hours, the importance of the use phase also starts to fall for criterion 1, 3, 7, 9 and 10. So in the case of use less than 2000 hours, choosing the smaller motor will gradually

125

V.

APPENDIX

The CML method used for the LCA study is based on 10 standard impact indicators listed in table VII, they are determined for general-purpose analysis [17]. The standardization process was made in order to reduce the number of independent indicator. Each indicator is expressed directly in SI unit when it is possible otherwise in the mass on an equivalent pollutant considered as a reference.
TABLE VII LIST OF IMPACT INDICATORS USING FOR LCA STUDY Indicator number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Impact indicator Abiotic depletion Acidification Eutrophication Ozone layer depletion Human toxicity Fresh water aquatic Terrestrial ecotoxicity Photochemical oxidation IPCC Cumulative energy demand Unit kg Sb eq kg SO2 eq kg PO4 eq kg FC11eq kg 1.4 DB eq kg 1.4 DB eq kg 1.4 DB eq kg C2H4 T CO2 eq MJ Comment This indicator is determined for each extraction of minerals and fossil fuels, it corresponds to non renewable ressources expressed with a reference to a standardized rare material the antimony (Sb). The unit is the equivalent mass of Sb. This indicator corresponds to the acidification of soil, water and air, it is expressed considering the equivalent mass of Sulphur dioxide. This indicator is related to concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates, of an aquatic environment, which disturbes the natural growth of plants. it is expressed considering the equivalent mass of phosphate. This indicator defines ozone depletion potential of different gasses, it is expressed considering the equivalent mass of Trichlorofluoromethane. This indicator expresses as Human Toxicity Potentials (HTP), for each toxic substance It is also expressed considering the mass of an equivalent toxic product. This indicator is similar to the previous one but it concerns only fresh water. This indicator is similar to the previous one but it concerns the pollution of soils. This indicator is related to a reference substance which has a detrimental action on photochemical oxidation. This indicator concerns the global warming potential for a time horizon 100 years (GWP100), in tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent/kg emission. This indicator computes the total energy used for building an equipment, it is expressed in Megajoule. [13] Aware, M. V., Tarnekar, S. G., and Kothari, A. G.: Unity power factor and efficiency control of a voltage source inverter-fed variable-speed induction motor drive, Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings -, 2000, 147, (5), pp. 422-430 [14] Huber, L. and Borojevic, D.: Space vector modulated three-phase to three-phase matrix converter with input power factor correction, Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, 1995, 31, (6), pp. 1234-1246 [15] IEC 600341:Rotating electrical machines. Part 1- Rating and performance, 2004 [16] Rockwell Automation Sprecher und Schuh AG (Aarau), Sprecher und Schuh Holding (Aarau): Application basics of operation of three-phase induction motors (design - duty - types Selection dimensioning). Motor Management, 1996 [17] Jolliet, O., Margni, M., Charles, R., Humbert, S., Payet, J. , Rebitzer, G., and Rosenbaum, R.: IMPACT 2002+: A new life cycle impact assessment methodology, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2003, 8, (6), pp. 324-330

VI. REFERENCES
[1] Rousseaux, P. (2005, 10 octobre) Life Cycle Analysis, LCA. Technical engineering, reference G 5500. [2] Leonardo Energy, the global community for sustainable energy professionals. http://www.leonardoenergy.org, accessed October 2009 [3] Almeida, A. T., Ferreira, F. , Fong, J. , and Brunner, C.: Electric motor standards, ecodesign and global market transformation, in Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, ICPS IEEE, May 2008, pp. 1-9 [4] Boglietti, A., Cavagnino, A., Ferraris, L., and Luparia, L. G.: Induction motor efficiency improvements with low additional production costs, in Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, 2004. (PEMD 2004). Second International Conference on (Conf. Publ. No. 498), 31 March-2 April 2004, pp. 775-780 Vol.2 [5] Stockman, K., Dereyne, S., Vanhooydonck, D., Symens, W., Lemmens, J., and Deprez, W.: Iso efficiency contour measurement results for variable speed drives, in Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2010 XIX International Conference on, 6-8 Sept. 2010, pp. 1-6 [6] Turcanu, O. A., Tudorache, T., and Fireteanu, V.: Influence of squirrel-cage bar cross-section geometry on induction motor performances, in Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, SPEEDAM International Symposium on, May 2006, pp. 1438-1443 [7] Holmquist, J. R., Rooks, J. A., and Richter, M. E.: Practical approach for determining motor efficiency in the field using calculated and measured values, Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, 2004, 40, (1), pp. 242-248 [8] Debusschere, V., Ben Ahmed, H., and Multon, B.: Eco-design of Electromagnetic Energy Converters: The case of the electrical transformer, in Electric Machines & Drives Conference, IEMDC IEEE International, May 2007, pp. 1599-1604 [9] Debusschere, V., Multon, B., Ben Ahmed, H., and Cavarec, P. E.: Life cycle design of a single-phase induction motor, IET Electric Power Applications, 2010, 4, (5), pp. 348-356 [10] CML method. http://cml.leiden.edu/software/data-cmlia.html, accessed April 2010 [11] Alger, L. P.: Induction machines, their behavior and uses, 1970 [12] Benhaddadi, M., Olivier, G., Labrosse, D., and Tetrault, P.: Premium efficiency motors and energy saving potential, in Electric Machines and Drives Conference, 2009. IEMDC '09. IEEE International, 3-6 May 2009 2009, pp. 1463-1468

VII. BIOGRAPHIES
Walid Boughanmi was born in Tunis (Tunisia), in 1984. He received in 2008 the electrical engineering degree from the National Engineering School of Monastir, (ENIM - Tunisia) and the master of research degree in 2009 from the University of Artois (France). He is now Ph.D. student at the University of Artois (LSEE). His research interest is the eco-design of induction motor: Life Cycle Assessment and increase energetic ecoefficiency. Jean-Paul Manata was born in Mira (Portugal), in 1969. He received his Ph.D in control systems in 1996 from the University of Nancy (France). He is currently associate professor at University of Artois (France). His domains of interests are the Induction Machines, Wind Turbines, Life Cycle Assessment and Programmable Logic Controllers. Daniel Roger was born in Bouvines (France), in 1955. After a 2-year industrial experience in electronics, he was engaged as a teacher in a technical school. He obtained the French Aggregation in 1989, the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Lille in 1993 and a D.Sc. degree in 2003 from the University of Artois. He is now a Professor in electrical engineering at the University of Artois where he teaches electromagnetism and power electronics. His research interests, within the LSEE Laboratoire Systmes Electrotechniques et Environnement, are diagnostic and design of electrical machines.

126
Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)