L37_ch09-The Americas: A Separate World- Early Civilizations of the Andes Timeline: 1000 BCE - 700 CE FS: Foundational Civilizations

of the Andean Region. Main Idea: While civilizations were emerging in Mesoamerica, advanced societies were independently developing in South America. The early cultures of South America arose in a difficult environment, the rugged terrain of the Andes Mountains. In the Andes Mountains, various groups created flourishing civilizations. PO: SWBAT... ● Describe the environments that nurtured South America’s early civilizations. ● Compare/ Contrast the Moche and the Olmec. ● Evaluate the statement: The Andean region may have had several “mother” cultures that contributed to the development of later Andean civilizations. Do Now: TBA I. Societies Arise in the Andes The Andes Mountains stretch about 4,500 miles down the western edge of South America, from Colombia in the north to Chile in the south. South America’s first civilizations emerged in the northern Andes region, in Peru. A. Settlements on the Coastal Plain In Peru, between the mountains and the Pacific Ocean, lies a narrow coastal plain. Most of this plain is harsh desert where rain seldom falls. In some places, however, rivers cross the desert on their path from the mountains to the sea. It was in these river valleys that the first settlements occurred. 1. 3600 - 2500 BCE: people begin establishing villages along the Pacific coast. 2. ~3000 BCE: people begin farming. 3. 1800 BCE: thriving communities exist along the coast. B. The Chavín Period The first influential civilization in South America arose not on the coast, however, but in the mountains. This culture, known as the Chavín, flourished from around 900 B.C. to 200 B.C. Archaeologists named the culture after a major ruin, Chavín de Huántar, in the northern highlands of Peru. Interestingly, archaeologists have found no evidence of political or economic organization within the culture. They conclude that the Chavín were primarily a religious civilization that established certain patterns that helped unify Andean culture and lay the foundation for later civilizations. 1. Chavin site contained pyramids, plazas, and massive earthen mounds. 2. Culture spread quickly across northern and central Peru. II. Other Andean Civilizations Flourish Around the time Chavín culture declined, other civilizations were emerging in Peru. First the Nazca and then the Moche built societies that flourished in the Andes. A. Nazca Achievements The Nazca culture flourished along the arid southern coast of Peru from around 200 BCE to 600 CE. 1. Developed extensive irrigation systems, including underground canals. 2. Beautiful textiles and pottery featuring images of animals and mythological beings. 3. Extraordinary, but puzzling, set of creations known as the Nazca Lines. B. Moche Culture On the northern coast of Peru, the Moche civilization was reaching great heights from about 100 to 700. They took advantage of the rivers that flowed from the Andes Mountains. 1. Built impressive irrigation systems to water their wide range of crops- corn, beans, potatoes, squash, and peanuts.

2. Moche tombs uncovered in the recent past have revealed a civilization with enormous wealth. 3. They never developed a written language. However, their pottery provides a wealth of detail about Moche life. They were brilliant ceramic artists. 4. Experts still do not fully understand Moche religious beliefs. Nor do they know why the Moche fell. III. Summary Activity- Why it Matters Now. Like the early Andean civilizations, people today must adapt to their environment in order to survive.
Curriculum Link (Update Required) Materials/Sources: Refer to the course calendar for additional materials, assignments and pertinent due dates. ● World History: Patterns of Interaction ● Slide Presentation

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