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Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Office of Juvenile Justice
and Delinquency Prevention
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) was established by the President and Con-
gress through the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974, Public Law 93–415, as
amended. Located within the Office of Justice Programs of the U.S. Department of Justice, OJJDP’s goal is to
provide national leadership in addressing the issues of juvenile delinquency and improving juvenile justice.

OJJDP sponsors a broad array of research, program, and training initiatives to improve the juvenile justice
system as a whole, as well as to benefit individual youth-serving agencies. These initiatives are carried out by
seven components within OJJDP, described below.

Research and Program Development Division Information Dissemination Unit informs individuals
develops knowledge on national trends in juvenile and organizations of OJJDP initiatives; disseminates
delinquency; supports a program for data collection information on juvenile justice, delinquency preven-
and information sharing that incorporates elements tion, and missing children; and coordinates program
of statistical and systems development; identifies planning efforts within OJJDP. The unit’s activities
how delinquency develops and the best methods include publishing research and statistical reports,
for its prevention, intervention, and treatment; and bulletins, and other documents, as well as overseeing
analyzes practices and trends in the juvenile justice the operations of the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse.
Concentration of Federal Efforts Program pro-
Training and Technical Assistance Division pro- motes interagency cooperation and coordination
vides juvenile justice training and technical assist- among Federal agencies with responsibilities in the
ance to Federal, State, and local governments; law area of juvenile justice. The program primarily carries
enforcement, judiciary, and corrections personnel; out this responsibility through the Coordinating Coun-
and private agencies, educational institutions, and cil on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, an
community organizations. independent body within the executive branch that
was established by Congress through the JJDP Act.
Special Emphasis Division provides discretionary
funds to public and private agencies, organizations, Missing and Exploited Children’s Program seeks to
and individuals to replicate tested approaches to promote effective policies and procedures for address-
delinquency prevention, treatment, and control in ing the problem of missing and exploited children.
such pertinent areas as chronic juvenile offenders, Established by the Missing Children’s Assistance Act
community-based sanctions, and the disproportionate of 1984, the program provides funds for a variety of
representation of minorities in the juvenile justice activities to support and coordinate a network of re-
system. sources such as the National Center for Missing and
Exploited Children; training and technical assistance
State Relations and Assistance Division supports to a network of 47 State clearinghouses, nonprofit
collaborative efforts by States to carry out the man- organizations, law enforcement personnel, and attor-
dates of the JJDP Act by providing formula grant neys; and research and demonstration programs.
funds to States; furnishing technical assistance to
States, local governments, and private agencies;
and monitoring State compliance with the JJDP Act.

The mission of OJJDP is to provide national leadership, coordination, and resources to prevent juvenile victimization
and respond appropriately to juvenile delinquency. This is accomplished through developing and implementing pre-
vention programs and a juvenile justice system that protects the public safety, holds juvenile offenders accountable,
and provides treatment and rehabilitative services based on the needs of each individual juvenile.
Guide for Implementing
the Balanced and Restorative
Justice Model


Shay Bilchik, Administrator

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

December 1998

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
810 Seventh Street NW.
Washington, DC 20531

Janet Reno
Attorney General

Raymond C. Fisher
Associate Attorney General

Laurie Robinson
Assistant Attorney General

Shay Bilchik
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

The Balanced and Restorative Justice Project is supported by a grant from the Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to Florida Atlantic University and is a joint project of the Center for Restor-
ative Justice & Mediation at the University of Minnesota School of Social Work and Florida Atlantic Univer-
sity. This document was prepared under grant number 95–JN–FX–0024.

Points of view or opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily
represent the official position or policies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department of Justice.

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is a component of the Office of Justice
Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the
National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.


America has made great strides in developing an effective youth policy—thanks, in large measure, to juvenile
justice and other youth service professionals who are using what works, developing new approaches, and ap-
plying research and evaluation information to control juvenile crime and improve our juvenile justice system.
OJJDP’s Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders provides an
overarching approach to addressing juvenile crime and victimization. The Strategy emphasizes prevention and
early intervention and the development of a system of graduated sanctions that holds youth accountable and
protects communities.
The Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) Model is an effective tool for achieving youth accountability
and enhancing community safety. BARJ can be used to combat delinquency in your State, county, or city. The
three priorities of BARJ—public safety, accountability, and competency development—recognize both victim
and offender restoration as critical goals of community justice. Achieving these goals leads to improved quality
of life and increased safety for individuals and communities alike.
The Guide for Implementing the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model is the result of years of collaborative efforts
by OJJDP’s BARJ Project and juvenile justice professionals across the Nation, and will serve as a valuable
resource for those seeking to carry out this constructive approach.

Shay Bilchik
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention


The Guide for Implementing the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model is the result of 5 years of joint development,
training, and technical assistance efforts by the Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) Project and juvenile
justice professionals throughout the United States. The BARJ Project team has learned much from the many
juvenile justice practitioners who have been willing to take risks, try new approaches, and test the ideas of the
BARJ approach in daily work. The BARJ team members are indebted to those practitioners who have joined
them in walking down the learning path.
Assistance in producing this Guide has been provided by Jane Johncox, Dakota County, MN; Susan Day,
West Palm Beach, FL; and Deborah Brockman Galvin, Deschutes County, OR. Numerous juvenile justice
professionals from BARJ Project demonstration sites and other innovative jurisdictions across the United
States, Canada, and Great Britain provided information about their programs and processes. Juvenile justice
professionals, victim advocates, and policymakers who reviewed the material and made valuable comments
include Sandy Duncan, Stephanie Haider, George Kinder, Bruce Kittle, Anne McDiarmid, Carolyn McLeod,
Jim Moeser, Caroline Nicholl, Brenda Urke, Maddy Wenger, and Earl Wright. Lillian Abelson gathered in-
formation about resources, practices, and program examples, and Robert Schug provided word processing
assistance and supported the preparation of this document.

Balanced and Restorative Justice Project

Principal Investigators
Gordon Bazemore, Community Justice Institute, Florida Atlantic
University, Fort Lauderdale, FL
Mark Umbreit, Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation, University of
Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
Primary Consultants
Mark Carey, Dakota County Community Corrections, Hastings, MN
Andrew Klein, Quincy District Court, Quincy, MA
Dennis Maloney, Deschutes County Department of Community Justice,
Bend, OR
Principal Writer
Kay Pranis, Minnesota Department of Corrections, St. Paul, MN
Rachel Lipkin, Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation, University of
Minnesota, St. Paul, MN

Table of Contents

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. iii

Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................................ v
Tables and Figures ............................................................................................................................................ x
About the Balanced and Restorative Justice Project ....................................................................... xi
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
Purpose of This Document ............................................................................................................................ 1
Overview of the Balanced and Restorative Justice Project ...................................................................... 3
Balanced and Restorative Justice Philosophy ...................................................................................... 5
Principles of Restorative Justice .................................................................................................................. 5
The Restorative Justice Vision ..................................................................................................................... 5
The Balanced Approach Mission .................................................................................................................. 5
Transforming the Current Juvenile Justice System Into a More Restorative Model ........................... 6
Getting Started: Steps in Organizational Change ...................................................................................... 7
Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice: Accountability ............................................................ 9
Characteristics of Restorative Accountability Strategies .......................................................................... 9
Restorative Accountability Practice Definitions ...................................................................................... 10
Promising Programs: Accountability ......................................................................................................... 11
Common Problems in Choosing Accountability Strategies ..................................................................... 15
Recommended Participants for Implementation ...................................................................................... 15
Roles for Juvenile Justice Professionals ................................................................................................... 16
Expected Outcomes ...................................................................................................................................... 16
Benefits to Juvenile Justice Professionals ................................................................................................ 16
Guiding Questions for Juvenile Justice Professionals ............................................................................ 17
Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice: Competency Development ................................. 19
Characteristics of Restorative Competency Development ...................................................................... 19
Restorative Competency Development Practice Definitions ................................................................. 21
Promising Programs: Competency Development ..................................................................................... 22
Common Problems in Competency Development Programming ........................................................... 25

Recommended Participants for Implementation ...................................................................................... 25
Roles for Juvenile Justice Professionals ................................................................................................... 25
Expected Outcomes ...................................................................................................................................... 26
Benefits to Juvenile Justice Professionals ................................................................................................ 26
Guiding Questions for Juvenile Justice Professionals ............................................................................ 26
Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice: Community Safety ................................................... 27
Characteristics of Restorative Community Safety ................................................................................... 27
Restorative Community Safety Practice Definitions ............................................................................... 29
Juvenile Offender-Focused Community Safety Practice:
Graduated Community-Based Surveillance ........................................................................................... 29
Community-Focused Community Safety Practice ................................................................................. 30
Promising Programs: Community Safety .................................................................................................. 31
Common Problems in Choosing Community Safety Strategies ............................................................. 32
Recommended Participants for Implementation ...................................................................................... 33
Roles for Juvenile Justice Professionals ................................................................................................... 33
Expected Outcomes ...................................................................................................................................... 33
Benefits to Juvenile Justice Professionals ................................................................................................ 33
Guiding Questions for Juvenile Justice Professionals ............................................................................ 34
Putting the Pieces Together ....................................................................................................................... 35
Weaving the Strands of Accountability, Competency Development, and Community Safety ........... 35
Balanced and Restorative Justice in Practice ........................................................................................... 35
Role Changes in Balanced and Restorative Justice .......................................................................... 39
New Roles for Victims, Communities, Juvenile Offenders, and Juvenile Justice Professionals ...... 39
Changing Decisionmaking Roles: New Options ....................................................................................... 39
Skills and Knowledge Needed by the Juvenile Justice Professional ..................................................... 40
Juvenile Justice Professional Role-Change Examples ............................................................................ 40
Juvenile Justice Professionals Engaging the Community ..................................................................... 40
Identification and Involvement of Key Stakeholders ............................................................................. 42
Long-Term Prevention Activities ............................................................................................................ 42
Creation of Partnerships for Prevention ................................................................................................. 42
A Change in Countywide Systems Toward Restorative Justice ........................................................... 43
A Move From Community “Corrections” to Community “Justice” ...................................................... 44
Community Policing: Solving Problems ................................................................................................. 45
Getting Help: Strategies for Involving Stakeholders ....................................................................... 47
Guiding Principles ........................................................................................................................................ 47

Measuring Outcomes .................................................................................................................................... 51
Guiding Questions for Measuring Outcomes for Individual Dispositions ........................................... 51
Guiding Questions for Measuring Outcomes for the Juvenile Justice System ................................... 51
Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice Tools .............................................................................. 53
Quality Restorative Justice Practice ......................................................................................................... 53
Grounding Interventions in Key Restorative Justice Values ................................................................. 53
Community Justice Officer Position Description ................................................................................... 53
Sample Disposition ...................................................................................................................................... 56
Balanced and Restorative Justice Case Management Guide .................................................................. 56
Case Studies That Demonstrate Change Toward a Balanced and
Restorative Justice Model .......................................................................................................................... 59
Dakota County Community Corrections, Dakota County, MN: Organizational Change .................. 59
Overview of the Dakota County Restorative Justice Effort ................................................................. 59
Dakota County Within the Context of the Larger Balanced and Restorative Justice Effort .............. 60
Organizational Change: Eliciting Staff Support ..................................................................................... 61
Implications for Other Jurisdictions ....................................................................................................... 62
Department of Juvenile Justice, Palm Beach County, FL: Expanding the Victim Component ........ 62
Overview of the Palm Beach County Restorative Justice Effort .......................................................... 62
Palm Beach County Within the Context of the Larger Balanced and Restorative Justice Effort ...... 62
Case Study: Expanding the Victim Component ..................................................................................... 63
Implications for Other Jurisdictions ....................................................................................................... 64
Community Intensive Supervision Project (CISP), Allegheny County Juvenile Court
Services, Pittsburgh, PA: Involvement of the Community ....................................................................... 64
Overview of CISP .................................................................................................................................... 64
CISP Within the Context of the Larger Balanced and Restorative Justice Effort .............................. 65
CISP Strengths Related to the Balanced and Restorative Justice Approach....................................... 65
Case Study: Building Links With Neighborhoods and Community Residents .................................... 66
Implications for Other Jurisdictions ....................................................................................................... 67
Bumps in the Road: Issues and Challenges ............................................................................................... 67
Appendix A: For More Information ........................................................................................................ A–1
Appendix B: Deschutes County Department of Community Justice Position Description ............ B–1
Appendix C: Sample Disposition .............................................................................................................. C–1

Tables and Figures

Table 1 Key Competencies ....................................................................................................................... 20
Table 2 Differences Between Individual Treatment and Competency Development Practices ........... 21
Table 3 Range of Community Safety Interventions for Use by Juvenile Justice Professionals .......... 28
Table 4 Weaving the Strands Together ................................................................................................... 37
Table 5 New Roles in the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model ..................................................... 41
Table 6 Quality of Restorative Justice Practice Continuum .................................................................. 54
Table 7 Balanced and Restorative Justice Case Management Guide ................................................... 56

Figure 1 The Balanced Approach ................................................................................................................ 6

About the Balanced and Restorative
Justice Project

The Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) Project began as a national initiative of the Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in 1993 through a grant to Florida Atlantic University (FAU).
In 1994, FAU developed a partnership arrangement with the Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation
through a subcontract with the University of Minnesota. The goals of the project are to provide training and
technical assistance and develop a variety of written materials to inform policy and practice pertinent to the
balanced approach mission and restorative justice.
The Guide for Implementing the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model is part of a series of policy and practice mono-
graphs and training materials for the field. Other publications in the series include:

◆ Balanced and Restorative Justice, Program Summary (1995) (available through NCJRS).
◆ Balanced and Restorative Justice for Juveniles: A Framework for Juvenile Justice in the 21st Century (published for
OJJDP by the Balanced and Restorative Justice Project).

◆ Balanced and Restorative Justice Project Training Guide (published for OJJDP by the Balanced and Restorative
Justice Project).

Balanced and Restorative Justice Report Cover Design

This Report’s cover design features three unique abstract icons created to
symbolize the three major conceptual components of the philosophical frame-
work for balanced and restorative justice (BARJ): accountability, competency
development, and community safety. The icon that represents accountability shows
balance; for example, a negative action on the part of an offender is balanced by
a positive response from coparticipant implementors of the BARJ approach.
The icon for competency development shows steps leading upward, a positive direc-
tion that represents self-improvement on the part of the offender. The icon for
community safety symbolizes protection, which is represented by the two shielding
elements that surround an interior sphere.


The debate over the future of the juvenile court and Juvenile justice professionals, including probation
the juvenile justice system has historically been be- and parole officers, prosecutors, judges, case manag-
tween proponents of a retributive, punitive philoso- ers, and victim advocates, recognize the need for
phy and advocates of the traditional individual juvenile justice system reform. People who work on
treatment mission. Both approaches have failed to the front lines of the system are faced daily with the
satisfy basic needs of individual crime victims, the frustration of seeing growing numbers of young
community, and juvenile offenders. people involved in criminal behavior, youth who
leave the system with little hope for real change, and
The Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) countless crime victims and community members
Model outlines an alternative philosophy, restorative who are left out of the process. That frustration has
justice, and a new mission, “the balanced approach,” inspired many of these professionals to work toward
which requires juvenile justice professionals to de- changing organizational culture, values, and pro-
vote attention to: grams to reflect a more balanced and restorative
◆ Enabling offenders to make amends to their vic- approach to juvenile justice.
tims and community. The BARJ Model is a vision for the future of juve-
◆ Increasing offender competencies. nile justice that builds on current innovative prac-
tices and is based on core values that have been
◆ Protecting the public through processes in which part of most communities for centuries. It provides
individual victims, the community, and offenders a framework for systemic reform and offers hope
are all active participants. for preserving and revitalizing the juvenile justice
The BARJ Model responds to many issues raised by
the victims’ movement, including concerns that vic- Implementation must begin with consensus build-
tims have little input into the resolution of their own ing among key stakeholders and testing with small
cases, rarely feel heard, and often receive no restitu- pilot projects to develop the model. This evolution-
tion or expression of remorse from the offender. ary process can build on existing programs and
practices that reflect restorative justice principles,
The balanced approach is based on an understand- such as victim-offender mediation, family group
ing of crime as an act against the victim and the conferencing, community service, restitution, and
community, which is an ancient idea common to work experience.
tribal and religious traditions of many cultures.
Practitioners have used techniques consistent with
this approach for years; however, they have lacked a Purpose of This Document
coherent philosophical framework that supports This document is intended to assist juvenile justice
restorative practice and provides direction to guide professionals in implementing a BARJ approach in
all aspects of juvenile justice practice. The BARJ their work. The BARJ mission includes attention to
Model provides an overarching vision and guidance each of three components:
for daily decisions.

◆ Accountability. The BARJ approach is a way of thinking about how
the community responds to crime, not a set of direc-
◆ Competency development. tions. Because practitioners know their own commu-
◆ Community safety. nities and are aware of local resources, values, and
cultures, they are the experts in determining how to
For each of these three components, the Guide for apply these ideas within their own jurisdictions in
Implementing the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model collaboration with other stakeholders.
Once the BARJ goals and objectives are under-
◆ Key characteristics of appropriate practices. stood, practitioners can assess where the greatest
opportunities are for taking the first steps. Moving
◆ Promising practice examples, including practice toward a BARJ system is an evolutionary process,
definitions and existing programs. taken one step at a time. Local conditions will dic-
tate which first step has the greatest probability of
◆ Common problems faced in attempting to imple-
success on which to build further steps.
ment the model.
The Guide provides criteria by which practitioners
◆ Possible allies for implementation.
can judge current or proposed practice in terms of
◆ Roles for juvenile justice professionals. BARJ principles. It also provides examples of ap-
propriate programs and practices. However, these
◆ Expected outcomes. examples can never be definitive, because creative
practitioners and communities are continually devis-
◆ Benefits to juvenile justice professionals.
ing new strategies for achieving BARJ goals.
◆ Guiding questions.
To effectively evaluate any new or existing practice,
practitioners must understand the guiding values of
the approach and be familiar with the characteristics
Appendix A to this Report includes key re-
of interventions that adhere to restorative justice
sources that expand upon each of the above values. It is not sufficient to know just technique.
variables as they relate to each of the three BARJ Practitioners must also understand underlying val-
components of accountability, competency de- ues and principles.
velopment, and community safety.
For a more indepth discussion of the underlying
theoretical concepts, see Balanced and Restorative Jus-
tice (Program Summary), Balanced and Restorative
The Guide presents practical information and tools
Justice for Juveniles: A Framework for Juvenile Justice in
to enable juvenile justice professionals to implement
the 21st Century, and Balanced and Restorative Justice
the BARJ philosophy and mission. The information
Project Training Guide.
in this document is based on the experience of juve-
nile justice practitioners in several BARJ Project This document provides concrete examples to assist
pilot sites and in other jurisdictions where this new juvenile justice professionals at all levels in examining
vision for juvenile justice has inspired experimenta- how their roles can change to facilitate greater victim
tion and testing of new ideas. involvement, community partnerships, and positive
development for offenders. For example, probation
The document is a guide only, not a prescription.
officers can work more directly with victims of crime
There is no single “right way” to implement the
by coordinating a victim-offender mediation program.
BARJ Model. Within the general principles and val-
Judges can share decisionmaking with the commu-
ues of restorative justice, implementation may vary
nity by supporting community panels to hear cases.
based on local resources, traditions, and culture. The
Police officers can collaborate with schools and com-
process of change toward a balanced and restorative
munity members to help set up positive community
system is one of continual learning and assessment.

service projects that allow offenders the opportunity Project monographs and other materials have found
to build valuable competencies. Victim advocates can their way into policy documents at the State level.
work with juvenile justice professionals to set up vic- The importance of this legislation and policy is that it
tim impact panels. sends a message to local practitioners already inter-
ested in implementing restorative justice, giving them
The information in this document is intended to a green light to proceed with implementation of these
stimulate the reader’s thinking and to assist in the ideas.
journey of continual discovery of new possibilities
for a balanced and restorative response to crime. Although the scope of the BARJ effort is national,
Readers are encouraged to use the Guide’s frame- to ensure that all training and technical assistance
work to design new programs and processes that fit material was grounded in real-world practice, three
their individual environments. primary jurisdictions were chosen that were willing
to demonstrate the BARJ Model in their local sys-
tems. For the past 3 years, the BARJ Project has
Overview of the Balanced and targeted developmental assistance toward these
Restorative Justice Project three demonstration sites—Palm Beach County, FL;
Dakota County, MN; and Allegheny County (Pitts-
In its 4-year history, the BARJ Project has provided
burgh), PA. Each site has received technical assis-
assistance to numerous juvenile justice systems and
tance visits, written material, and training both on
professionals across the country. Training and tech-
and offsite. Recently, the project has supported ex-
nical assistance have been provided in numerous
changes between managers and senior staff in vari-
State and local jurisdictions across the United
ous jurisdictions that have allowed information
sharing between sites. For the past 2 years, the
The BARJ Model is gaining support in communities project has also funded a part-time coordinator for
and juvenile justice systems nationwide. A dozen each demonstration effort. These individuals have
States have balanced approach or restorative justice been instrumental in coordinating training, develop-
legislation, another half dozen are reviewing bills ing local policy and new programs, attracting grant
that would change their juvenile justice codes, and funds for program demonstration, and providing
numerous States and local jurisdictions have outreach to community and crime victim groups.
adopted restorative justice policies. Each jurisdiction has made measurable progress in
moving toward the restorative vision of a balanced
approach to community justice.

Balanced and Restorative Justice Philosophy

The foundation of restorative juvenile justice prac- ◆ The juvenile justice process is respectful of age,
tice is a coherent set of values and principles, a guid- abilities, sexual orientation, family status, and
ing vision, and an action-oriented mission. diverse cultures and backgrounds—whether ra-
cial, ethnic, geographic, religious, economic, or
other—and all are given equal protection and due
Principles of Restorative Justice process.
◆ Crime is injury.
◆ Crime hurts individual victims, communities, and The Restorative Justice Vision
juvenile offenders and creates an obligation to ◆ Support from the community, opportunity to de-
make things right. fine the harm experienced, and participation in
◆ All parties should be a part of the response to the decisionmaking about steps for repair result in
crime, including the victim if he or she wishes, the increased victim recovery from the trauma of
community, and the juvenile offender. crime.

◆ The victim’s perspective is central to deciding ◆ Community involvement in preventing and con-
how to repair the harm caused by the crime. trolling juvenile crime, improving neighborhoods,
and strengthening the bonds among community
◆ Accountability for the juvenile offender means members results in community protection.
accepting responsibility and acting to repair the
harm done. ◆ Through understanding the human impact of
their behavior, accepting responsibility, express-
◆ The community is responsible for the well-being ing remorse, taking action to repair the damage,
of all its members, including both victim and and developing their own capacities, juvenile of-
offender. fenders become fully integrated, respected mem-
bers of the community.
◆ All human beings have dignity and worth.
◆ Juvenile justice professionals, as community jus-
◆ Restoration—repairing the harm and rebuilding tice facilitators, organize and support processes in
relationships in the community—is the primary which individual crime victims, other community
goal of restorative juvenile justice. members, and juvenile offenders are involved in
finding constructive resolutions to delinquency.
◆ Results are measured by how much repair was
done rather than by how much punishment was
inflicted. The Balanced Approach Mission
◆ Crime control cannot be achieved without active Figure 1 is a graphic representation of the balanced
involvement of the community. approach mission.

Figure 1. The Balanced Approach

Restorative Justice

Community Safety

Accountability Competency Development

Clients/Customers Goals Values

Victims Accountability When an individual commits an offense, the
offender incurs an obligation to individual
victims and the community.

Youth Competency development Offenders who enter the juvenile justice system
should be more capable when they leave than
when they entered.

Community Community safety Juvenile justice has a responsibility to protect

the public from juveniles in the system.

Adapted from Maloney, D., Romig, D., and Armstrong, T. 1998. Juvenile Probation: The Balanced Approach. Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and
Family Court Judges.

Transforming the Current Juvenile ◆ Actively involve community members, including

individual crime victims and offenders, in making
Justice System Into a More decisions and carrying out plans for resolving
Restorative Model issues and restoring the community.

Juvenile justice professionals have the power to ◆ Build connections among community members.
transform juvenile justice into a more balanced and
restorative justice system. By developing new roles, ◆ Give juvenile offenders the opportunity and encour-
setting new priorities, and redirecting resources, agement to take responsibility for their behavior.
juvenile justice professionals can: ◆ Actively involve juvenile offenders in repairing
◆ Make needed services available for victims of the harm they caused.
crime. ◆ Increase juvenile offenders’ skills and abilities.
◆ Give victims opportunities for involvement and

Getting Started: Steps in Who benefits (victims, community members,
juvenile offenders, juvenile justice professionals)?
Organizational Change
How do staff spend their time?
The new roles and daily practices for juvenile justice
professionals described in this Guide will be most What are community perceptions about juve-
effective if implemented as a part of comprehensive nile justice?
systemic change in juvenile justice. System-level What are victim perceptions about juvenile
leadership in organizational change will set the cli- justice?
mate for line staff commitment to a new vision.
Who has input into disposition decisions?
At the most general level, jurisdictions implementing What is the level of community involvement in
the model need to: the juvenile justice process?
◆ Develop consensus around common goals and What factors determine case handling?
performance objectives of the balanced approach
mission. ◆ Identify discrepancies between current practices
and BARJ goals and objectives.
◆ Assess current practices and policies for consis-
tency with those goals and objectives. ◆ Identify the most promising opportunities for
◆ Establish action steps and benchmarks for gaug-
ing progress and ensuring movement toward the ◆ Set specific goals based on the information you
goals and objectives. have gathered.

◆ Begin using the mission actively each day to guide ◆ Create an ongoing advisory process involving
decisions. stakeholders.

To accomplish significant reform, the BARJ Model ◆ Measure results.

must be understood as an alternative that replaces, ◆ Modify plans periodically based on results.
rather than adds to, existing practices and policies.
BARJ is a framework for strategic planning rather Changes in practice must go hand in hand with
than a new service or program. changes in the value system. Implementing this new
approach will be evolutionary, and some practices
The following is a list of key activities that jurisdic- will look similar on the surface but will be guided by
tions find necessary for implementing their desired different values. Consequently, it is essential that
system reforms toward a more balanced and restor- policy and practice be tested against restorative val-
ative justice model: ues on a regular basis.
◆ Identify the stakeholders in the work of juvenile Frequently referring to and reflecting on the overall
justice. vision will assist in keeping changes on track. It is also
◆ Involve representatives of the stakeholders in all important that specific implementation plans be devel-
planning. oped at the grassroots level through a community-
based process that engages all stakeholders.
◆ Assess the current status of the agency with re-
spect to BARJ policies and practices by asking: There is no single blueprint for this model. For change
to be meaningful, implementation of the BARJ ap-
How are resources spent? proach should be guided by the needs of each jurisdic-
tion and its community members. Implementation may
What are the current performance outcomes
appear different in different jurisdictions, but if the
for agency intervention?
process of planning and implementation is closely tied
to the restorative framework, common values will be
reflected, leading to similar outcomes.

Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice:

The BARJ Model defines accountability as taking To fully acknowledge responsibility for harm to oth-
responsibility for your behavior and taking action to ers is a painful experience. It is, however, a process
repair the harm. Accountability in the BARJ Model that opens up the opportunity for personal growth
takes different forms than in the traditional juvenile that may reduce the likelihood of repeating the
justice system. Accountability in most juvenile justice harmful behavior. It is difficult to accept full respon-
systems is interpreted as punishment or adherence sibility for harming others without a support system
to a set of rules laid down by the system. However, in place and a sense that there will be an opportu-
neither being punished nor following a set of rules nity to gain acceptance in the community. Therefore,
involves taking full responsibility for behavior or accountability and support must go hand in hand.
making repairs for the harm caused. Punishment
and adherence to rules do not facilitate moral devel- Support without accountability leads to moral
opment at a level that is achieved by taking full weakness. Accountability without support is a form
responsibility for behavior. of cruelty.
—Stan Basler
Taking full responsibility for behavior requires:
Oklahoma Conference of Churches
◆ Understanding how that behavior affected other
human beings (not just the courts or officials).
Characteristics of Restorative
◆ Acknowledging that the behavior resulted from a
choice that could have been made differently.
Accountability Strategies
Strategies that lead to restorative accountability
◆ Acknowledging to all affected that the behavior goals:
was harmful to others.
◆ Focus on repair of harm to the victim.
◆ Taking action to repair the harm where possible.
◆ Provide a process for making amends to the
◆ Making changes necessary to avoid such behavior community.
in the future.
◆ Provide a process for greater understanding of
In the BARJ Model, accountability goals are often how the incident affected others.
met through the process itself as much as through
actions decided by the process. To be accountable ◆ Offer a meaningful way for the juvenile to take
for behavior is to answer to individuals who are responsibility for the actions.
affected by the behavior. Face-to-face meetings with
community members or victims in which an offender ◆ Encourage apology or expressions of remorse.
takes responsibility and hears about the impact on ◆ Involve the victim and the community in deter-
others constitute significant forms of accountability. mining the accountability measures.

Restorative Accountability tive to going through the traditional juvenile jus-
tice system.
Practice Definitions
◆ Peacemaking Circles. A peacemaking circle is a
◆ Victim-Offender Mediation and Dialogue.
community-directed process, in partnership with
Victim-offender mediation/dialogue is a process
the juvenile justice system, for developing consen-
that provides interested victims of property crimes
sus on an appropriate disposition that addresses
and minor assaults with the opportunity to meet
the concerns of all interested parties. Peacemak-
the juvenile offender in a safe and structured set-
ing circles use traditional circle ritual and struc-
ting. The goal of victim-offender mediation is to
ture from Native-American culture. They create a
hold the juvenile offender directly accountable for
respectful space in which all interested commu-
his or her behavior while providing important as-
nity members, victim, victim supporters, offender,
sistance to the victim.
offender supporters, judge, prosecutor, defense
With the help of a trained mediator (usually a counsel, police, and court workers can speak from
community volunteer), the victim is able to tell the heart in a shared search for understanding of
the juvenile offender how the crime affected him the event and to identify the steps necessary to
or her, to receive answers to questions, and to be assist in healing all affected parties and prevent
directly involved in developing a restitution plan. future occurrences.

The juvenile offender is able to take direct re- Circles typically involve a multistep procedure,
sponsibility for his or her behavior, to learn of the including application by the offender to the circle
full impact of the behavior, and to develop a plan process, a healing circle for the victim, a healing
for making amends to those violated. Cases can circle for the offender, a disposition circle to de-
be referred both pre- and postadjudication. velop consensus on the elements of a disposition
agreement, and followup circles to monitor
A written restitution agreement or plan is usually progress of the offender. The disposition plan may
generated during the mediation but is secondary incorporate commitments by the system, commu-
to discussion of the full impact of the crime on nity, family members, and the offender.
those affected, often in the presence of the juve-
nile offender’s parents. ◆ Financial Restitution to Victims. Restitution is
technically the return of goods or money stolen or
These types of programs may be called “victim- the repair of damaged property. Financial restitu-
offender meeting,” “victim-offender conferencing,” tion is an attempt to repay or restore to the victim
or “victim-offender reconciliation” programs. the value of what was lost. Victims must be directly
involved in determining the amount of losses.
◆ Family Group Conferencing. Based on tradi-
tions of the Maori of New Zealand, a family ◆ Personal Services to Victims. Personal services
group conference is a meeting of the community to victims are services provided directly to vic-
of people who are most affected by a crime or tims, such as house repairs, lawnwork, and sea-
harmful behavior. The conferences are coordi- sonal chores. Personal services can strongly
nated by trained facilitators. The victim, the juve- reinforce personal accountability for juvenile of-
nile offender, and the victim’s and offender’s fenders by making them responsible directly to
families and friends participate. All have the op- victims. It is the victim’s right to choose whether a
portunity to speak about how the crime has af- juvenile offender will perform personal service.
fected their lives. Other affected community
members may also be involved. The purpose of ◆ Community Service. Community service is pro-
the meeting is to decide, as a group, how the harm ductive work performed by juvenile offenders that
will be repaired by the offender. The meeting may benefits communities, such as equipment repairs in
occur before or after sentencing or as an alterna- parks, winterizing homes for the elderly, and other

upkeep, repair, and maintenance projects. Often, members provide an opportunity for citizens
community service projects enhance conditions for whose lives are affected by crime to inform the
the less fortunate in communities. court, community reparative board, or offender
how crimes affect the community’s quality of
Restorative community service provides an life. Community impact statements have been
opportunity for the juvenile offender to make used in crimes that are thought of as victimless,
amends to the community in a way that is valued such as drug offenses.
by the community. When the community work
service experience allows youth to create new, ◆ Victim Empathy Groups or Classes. The victim
positive relationships with members of the com- empathy class is an educational program designed
munity, the fabric of the community is strength- to teach offenders about the human consequences
ened. The process also works to increase the of crime. Offenders are taught how crime affects
juvenile offender’s investment in the community. the victim and the victim’s family, friends, and
Successful community work service helps to community, and how it also affects them and their
change the juvenile offender’s negative view of own families, friends, and communities. A key
the community to a positive one. element of the classes is the direct involvement of
victims and victim service providers. They tell
Community members and the offender recognize their personal stories of being victimized or of
the offender’s capacity to contribute to the gen- helping victims to reconstruct their lives after a
eral well-being of the community. Community traumatic crime.
work service must have personal meaning to both
the community and the youth performing it. The
best examples are projects that use youth as men- Promising Programs:
tors, resources, leaders, and interactive commu- Accountability
nity members. Whenever possible, crime victims
should be asked about what specific type of ◆ Institute for Conflict Management; Orange, CA.
community service the offender should perform The Institute for Conflict Management is spon-
(i.e., their choice of a particular charity, church, sored by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, a church-
or agency that is important to them). related and community-based social service
agency. Prior to bringing a victim and offender
◆ Written or Verbal Apology to Victims and together, a mediator meets separately with each
Other Affected Persons. An apology is a written party to listen to each story, explain the process,
or verbal communication to the crime victim and and invite participation. During the mediation
the community in which a juvenile offender accu- session, the victim and offender discuss the crime
rately describes the behavior and accepts full and its impact on their lives. They devise a plan
responsibility for the actions. for the offender to make amends.
◆ Victim or Community Impact Panels. These This program began in 1989 as a relatively small
panels are forums that offer victims and other program. Today, it represents the largest victim-
community members the opportunity to describe offender mediation program in North America.
their experiences with crime to juvenile offenders. Recently, the program received a county grant for
Participants talk with juvenile offenders about more than $300,000 to divert more than 1,000
their feelings and how the crime has affected their juvenile offenders from an overcrowded court
lives. Panels may be conducted in the community system.
or in residential facilities and may meet several
times to help offenders better understand the full The program provides 30 to 40 hours of class-
human impact of crime in communities. room training for community volunteers who
serve as mediators. An evaluation by Neimeyer
◆ Community or Neighborhood Impact State- and Shichor (1996) found that 99 percent of its
ments. These statements drafted by community mediation sessions resulted in a successfully

negotiated agreement and that 96.8 percent of neighborhoods, thus allowing the community
these agreements were successfully completed greater access to alternative methods of conflict
or nearing completion. resolution.
◆ Juvenile Reparation Program; Center for Com- ◆ Victim-Offender Meetings; Victim Restoration
munity Justice; Elkhart, IN. The Juvenile Program; Dakota County Community Correc-
Reparation Program (JRP) targets older juve- tions; Dakota County, MN. The Victim Restora-
niles who may have previously failed in the juve- tion Program of Dakota County Community
nile justice system and risk continuing their Corrections provides opportunities for crime vic-
negative behavior into adulthood. tims to meet face to face with the juvenile offend-
ers who violated them. They can talk about the
JRP staff assist the youth in developing a con- offense and its full impact and develop a plan for
tract, which routinely includes accountability restoring victim losses. Community volunteers are
strategies such as restitution to the victim, volun- trained in victim-offender mediation skills, with
teer service as symbolic restitution to the commu- an emphasis on the use of victim-sensitive com-
nity, and specific self-improvement strategies. The munication and procedures. Volunteers complete
contract may also include face-to-face mediation 35 training hours and are expected to accept 8 to
with the victim. 10 cases per year.
To address community safety goals, the youth are ◆ Crime Repair Crew; Dakota County Commu-
restricted to their homes, except when attending nity Corrections; Dakota County, MN. As a
approved activities such as school, employment, form of community service to hold juvenile of-
or counseling. Community volunteer telephone fenders accountable, Dakota County Community
monitors ensure that the youth follow these rules Corrections has established the Crime Repair
and provide added encouragement. Crew. The crew, under the direction of a trained
◆ Victim Offender Reconciliation Program coordinator, consists of juvenile nonviolent of-
(VORP) of Nashville; Nashville, TN. The fenders. The crew is contacted by police, if a vic-
Council of Community Services, an alliance of tim wishes, to immediately repair any damage and
private and public social service and advocacy clean up at a property crime scene. The crew is
agencies, established VORP of Nashville in 1989 available to respond at any time, on short notice.
with a broad base of support from individuals, The crew offers juvenile offenders the opportu-
religious organizations, and the justice system to nity to “give back” to the community while learn-
offer victim-offender mediation and alternatives ing skills in construction and painting.
to incarceration. The program has trained more Each job affords crew members the opportunity
than 100 volunteer mediators and offers conflict to learn how criminal activity impacts community
resolution classes twice per week at juvenile court residents. The program differs from existing work
that count toward community service hours for crew operations in that work is performed not
the juveniles who attend. only for government and nonprofit organizations
As a community-based program, VORP of Nash- but also for businesses and private citizens whose
ville is committed to assisting the juvenile court in lives have been interrupted by criminal activity.
implementing the BARJ Model. Mediators are ◆ Restorative Justice Program; Youth Service
available onsite at the courts and attend the gen- Bureau; Forest Lake, MN. As part of the Restor-
eral sessions court at least once per week. Police ative Justice Program, juvenile offenders appear
officers and judges can refer cases directly, and before a panel of community volunteers, read a
juvenile offenders under age 12 are automatically letter of apology, list expenses related to their
referred for mediation. offense, and hear from community members
The program has two neighborhood community about how the crime affected the community.
mediation sites, with plans to expand to other Victims or victim representatives may attend the

panels. The program allows juveniles to take re- Department of Community Justice exemplify the
sponsibility for and reflect on their actions while idea of “community service as a resource.” For
being held accountable to the community. For example, the Community Justice Corps super-
example, juvenile offenders develop a contract vises adult and juvenile probationers and parolees
that includes a community service project to be who work on a variety of human service and
completed in conjunction with their parents and public works projects. Through community ser-
family members. They attend peer personal-goal vice, adults and youth make amends to the com-
groups, write research papers on offense-related munity for their offenses while gaining valuable
topics, and attend educational programs with skills. In these projects, youth have worked with
their parents regarding their offense. The pro- volunteer builders and carpenters to help con-
gram is usually reserved for first-time offenders of struct a homeless shelter (after raising money for
lesser property crimes, including shoplifting, van- materials) and a domestic abuse crisis center.
dalism, and age-related offenses. Participants are Offenders provide important long-term benefits
typically 11, 12, or 13 years old. to their community, learn about the needs of other
citizens (including those victimized by violent
◆ Navaho Peacemaker Court; Navaho Nation abuse), develop skills, and have positive interac-
(Arizona, New Mexico, Utah). In 1982, the Na- tions with law-abiding adults. The corps also pro-
vaho Nation created a horizontal system of justice motes community safety, because the offender’s
that promotes equality, balance, and preservation time during community service is occupied under
of relationships. In the Navaho tradition, dishar- adult supervision for significant portions of the
mony exists when things are “not as they should day and evening.
be.” The Navaho Peacemaker Court includes
songs, prayers, history, and stories. A “peace- ◆ Reparative Probation Program; Vermont
maker,” generally a designated elder or other re- Department of Corrections. Intended for of-
spected community member, guides the victim, fenders convicted of misdemeanor or nonviolent
offender, and support community to harmony by felony crimes, the Reparative Probation Program
persuasion, not coercion. Peacemakers, who have directly involves community members meeting
strong values and morals that are based on Na- face to face with offenders to negotiate a “repara-
vaho teachings, act as guides to identify how har- tive agreement” that specifies how offenders will
mony can be regained through community make reparation to their victims and other com-
solidarity. munity members.
◆ Nez Perce Peacemaker Project; Nez Perce A judge, using an administrative probation order
Tribal Court; Idaho Legal Aid Services, Inc.; with the condition that the offender has no fur-
Lewiston, ID. The Nez Perce Peacemaker ther involvement in criminal activity, sentences
Project offers tribal members a more traditional, the offender to the Reparative Probation Pro-
culturally appropriate alternative to court. The gram following adjudication of guilt with a sus-
project trains law students and tribal members to pended sentence. The offender’s requirement to
comediate disputes. Cases are referred by the Nez complete the program is also a special condition
Perce Tribal Court to the project, where they are of probation.
screened and the involved parties are prepared
for the eventual mediation session. Tribal media- Following sentencing, the probation department
tions include victims, offenders, and other family conducts a brief intake, including information
and tribal members who are affected by the con- about the crime, criminal history, and the extent
flict. Agreements to restore victim losses are mu- of damages/injuries. The offender then appears
tually determined by all parties. before a five- or six-member community repara-
tion board in the community where the crime was
◆ Community Justice Corps; Department of committed. During the meeting, the nature of the
Community Justice; Deschutes County, OR. offense, its impact, and restitution are discussed.
Numerous projects of the Deschutes County, OR,

The offender leaves the room while the board Seriousness of the offense.
deliberates on the sanctions. The offender subse-
Past record of the youth.
quently rejoins the meeting to discuss the pro-
posed agreement. All parties agree and sign the Attitude of the youth.
agreement. The board may then meet with the Attitude of the youth’s parents.
offender from time to time to monitor progress.
To participate in the program, offenders must
If the agreement is satisfied, the board recom- admit their offenses. Each case is screened indi-
mends the offender’s discharge from probation. vidually using the above four criteria as guides—
If the offender fails to satisfy the agreement not as hard-and-fast rules.
within the required period, he or she may be
returned to the court for further action or con- Once the case is referred to the Restorative
tinued supervision. Justice Program, all necessary participants are
contacted. The juvenile offender, the offender’s
◆ Travis County Neighborhood Conference parents, the victim, and the victim’s family and
Committees; Austin, TX. Neighborhood Confer- friends are invited to participate in a community
ence Committees are community citizen panels that conference using the family group conferencing
hear youth diversion cases and help families and model. The process is explained to all participants
youth resolve legal issues. Committee members are via telephone and followup letter. Personal visits
volunteers who live or work within a community are made only when absolutely necessary. If all
(as defined by ZIP Code). Eligible cases include agree to the process, a conference is scheduled.
first-time offenders for residence and nonweapon
misdemeanors. The committee holds separate in- The conference is facilitated by trained officers.
terviews with the youth and his or her parents to Facilitators direct conversations between partici-
gain a better understanding of the family’s life and pants and protect them from unfair treatment due
possible causes of the criminal act. The committee to adult/juvenile power imbalances or revictimi-
determines sanctions appropriate for each offense zation. Facilitators never attempt to force a settle-
and each family situation. A contract is created that ment in the conference or agreement process.
all participants sign to enable restoration of loss to
The conference concludes with a written agree-
the neighborhood, restitution to the victim, and
ment signed by the juvenile offender and victim to
reintegration and acceptance of the juvenile into
make restitution to the victim and/or community.
the community after completion of the agreement.
Comments from supporters at the conference are
Participation in the process is voluntary.
encouraged. The agreement must be fulfilled in a
◆ Restorative Justice Program (Family Group timely manner and any breakdown in the process
Conferencing); Woodbury Police Department; prior to completion results in a referral to court.
Woodbury, MN. The Woodbury Police Depart- Agreements are monitored by the police depart-
ment Restorative Justice Program is a juvenile ment to ensure that they are fulfilled.
diversion program operated by the police depart-
Conferences are always voluntary for both the
ment that intervenes prior to prosecution/court
victim and offender. (The traditional court pro-
intervention. Juvenile crimes are investigated by
cess is also an option.) Once a conference is com-
officers in a traditional way, that is, with cases pre-
pleted and the agreement is satisfied, the case is
pared for prosecution and investigations and peti-
tion forms completed prior to restorative justice
program consideration. (All cases considered for ◆ Impact of Crime on Victims Program; State
diversion in this program must be prosecutable.) of California, Department of Youth Author-
ity. The goal of the Impact of Crime on Victims
A trained police officer screens all juvenile cases
Program is to increase juvenile offenders’ un-
to determine if they will be diverted. Screening
derstanding of the personal harm caused by
criteria include:

crime. Program objectives for youthful offend- social service providers in surrounding jurisdic-
ers are to: tions. The program recently completed a new
training manual.
Prevent further victimization.
Create offender awareness of the impact that
crime has on the victim, the family, and the
Common Problems in Choosing
community. Accountability Strategies
Teach offenders how to make positive ◆ Confusing Community Safety Strategies and
decisions. Accountability Strategies. From a restorative
justice perspective, punishment or restrictions on
The program involves 60 hours of classroom in-
freedom are not forms of accountability because
struction using small-group discussion, lectures,
they do not involve an offender’s accepting re-
victim and victim advocate speakers, video pre-
sponsibility or taking direct action to repair harm.
sentations, case studies, role-play, reading, writ-
Restrictions on freedom may serve community
ten exercises, and homework.
safety goals, but they do not contribute to accept-
The curriculum covers property crime, domestic ing responsibility, increasing understanding of the
violence, elder abuse, child maltreatment, sexual human harm, or making amends.
assault, robbery, assault, homicide, and gang
◆ Deciding on Strategies To Repair Harm With-
out Offering Opportunity for Input From Vic-
◆ Community Justice Project; Washington tims. Accountability should focus on repairing
County, MN, Department of Court Services. the harm of the incident. If victims wish to par-
The Washington County Community Justice ticipate, they are in the best position to define the
Project, which is part of the county’s probation harm of the crime and suggest possible repara-
department, conducts victim-offender conferences tion. Absent victim input, strategies for reparation
at both diversion and postdisposition stages. Ap- may be inappropriate.
proximately 70 percent of the cases referred dur-
◆ Having Only the Justice System Determine
ing 1996 were mediated. Of cases referred, more
Accountability Sanctions Without Stakeholder
than 70 percent were juvenile cases. Referrals
Involvement. Answering to the community and
originated primarily from probation officers,
to the victim puts a human face on the crime and
judges, prosecutors, and victim advocates. Fifty
is a more powerful form of accountability than
percent of referrals were felonies, and 50 percent
just answering to the system. Without community
were misdemeanors.
and victim involvement, an opportunity for a
In addition to conducting victim-offender confer- more personal message to the offender is lost.
ences, project mediators are available to conduct Community involvement also increases the possi-
conferences in matters that have not been crimi- bility for ultimate reintegration of the juvenile
nally charged, such as group conflicts in schools offender.
or neighborhoods.

The project also sponsors community forums on Recommended Participants for

restorative justice and issues that concern spe- Implementation
cific neighborhoods. For example, mediators
have facilitated dialogue within schools experi- ◆ Support system of juvenile offender (e.g., family,
encing tension due to issues such as race and extended family, neighbor, coach, and clergy).
ethnicity. Project staff are involved in extensive ◆ Victim and victim support system (e.g., family,
outreach to the community and actively provide extended family, neighbor, coworker, and faith
technical assistance in conflict management and community member).
conferencing to educators, law enforcement, and

◆ Victim advocacy groups (e.g., Mothers Against ◆ Help create victim impact panels.
Drunk Driving, Parents of Murdered Children,
and victim assistance programs, for assistance ◆ Organize volunteer community panels, boards, or
with impact panels or victim empathy classes, committees that meet with the offender to discuss
staff training, and planning and advisory groups). the incident and offender obligation to repair the
harm to victims and community members.
◆ Community members (e.g., panel members, vol-
unteer mediators, and planning and advisory ◆ Facilitate the process of apologies to victims and
groups). communities.

◆ Nonprofit organizations in the community ◆ Invite local victim advocates to provide ongoing
(e.g., community service sites). victim-awareness training for probation staff.

◆ Employers (e.g., owners or managers of worksites

where the offender can earn monies for restitution Expected Outcomes
and learn job skills). ◆ Repayment of material losses to victim.
◆ Law enforcement personnel. ◆ Visible contribution to the community.
◆ School personnel. ◆ Victim sense of acknowledgment of the harm and
some degree of repair.
Roles for Juvenile Justice ◆ Community sense of juvenile offender’s having
Professionals made some degree of amends.

◆ Facilitate victim-offender mediation or family ◆ Increased juvenile offender awareness of the

group conferences. This role requires skill behavior’s impact on other people.
◆ Organize community volunteers to facilitate Benefits to Juvenile Justice
victim-offender mediation or family group con- Professionals
ferences. Volunteers can be recruited through
community fairs, faith communities, advertise- ◆ Greater victim satisfaction with performance of
ments, and civic groups. juvenile justice professionals.

◆ Solicit input from victims to determine the nature ◆ Greater community satisfaction with the juvenile
of the harm and possible ways of making amends. justice system.

◆ Create employment opportunities for juvenile ◆ Increased fulfillment of requirements by the juve-
offenders to earn monies for restitution. Work nile offender because he or she recognizes that
with local businesses or the chamber of commerce the accountability strategies in the BARJ ap-
for short-term job opportunities. proach are fair and reasonable.

◆ Develop sites for community work service, par- ◆ Increased options for creative forms of account-
ticularly work that is highly valued by the com- ability because of input from the victim, commu-
munity (e.g., work that eases the suffering of nity, and offender.
others is particularly revered).
◆ A broader group of people who feel responsibility
◆ Develop victim empathy groups or classes with for ensuring fulfillment of the accountability strat-
input and assistance from victim services or vic- egies as a result of their involvement in the sup-
tim advocacy groups. Request curriculum that is port system of the offender or other involvement
available from the Office for Victims of Crime, in the process.
U.S. Department of Justice.

◆ Opportunities to facilitate a process that pro- ◆ How do we help the crime victim to feel that she
motes a greater sense of closure for the victim and or he did not deserve what happened?
personal growth of the offender.
◆ How do we increase opportunities for victims to
define the harm (physical, emotional, financial)
Guiding Questions for Juvenile from the incident and create ways for the offender
Justice Professionals to repair the harm where possible, if the victim
◆ How do we increase the offender’s understanding
of the effect of the incident on the victim, the ◆ How do we offer opportunities for the offender
victim’s family, the offender’s own family, and the and encourage him or her to make repairs to the
neighborhood? victim and the community?

◆ How do we encourage offenders to take responsi- ◆ How do we involve the community in creating
bility for their actions? opportunities for the offender to take responsibil-
ity and repair the harm?

Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice:
Competency Development

Competency is the capacity to do something well skills and insight about conflict management. Victim
that others value. Juvenile offenders, like other empathy classes may increase the interpersonal skills
young people, need to become competent, caring of a juvenile. A sense of competency is fundamental
individuals who are concerned for those around to a healthy relationship with family and community.
them. Once juvenile offenders have been held ac- See table 1 for a list of key competencies.
countable for rectifying their behavior with their
victims, the BARJ approach provides opportunities
for them to belong, contribute, form close relation- Characteristics of Restorative
ships, make meaningful choices, develop transfer- Competency Development
able skills, and mentor others while avoiding
◆ Strategies build on the strengths of offenders,
harmful behavior.
families, and communities.
To allow them to practice and demonstrate compe-
◆ Youth are given a role in work, family, and com-
tency, juvenile offenders need meaningful commu-
munity that instills a sense of belonging, useful-
nity roles that contribute to the well-being of others.
ness, and control.
The cycle of reciprocity (doing favors for one an-
other) is the basis of community, and this requires ◆ Youth have active roles that allow them to prac-
the capability to perform functions of value to tice productive behavior.
◆ Cognitive learning and decisionmaking are inte-
Restorative accountability practice can also build grated with active, experiential, and productive
competencies. Restorative community service allows pursuits.
youth to develop competencies by learning new
skills and work habits. A youth who participates in a ◆ Treatment and services (e.g., counseling) are used
victim-offender mediation session may gain personal as supports for the overall restorative process
rather than in isolation.
◆ Youth work and interact with law-abiding adults
It is not enough to develop strategies to prevent
in the community (especially the elderly).
dangerous things, such as substance abuse, or to
preach against behaviors that place youth in ◆ Delinquent and nondelinquent youth and adults
jeopardy. We must be equally adamant about are mixed whenever possible to avoid the image
of programs for “bad kids.”
stating and enabling goals that we wish young
people to achieve: postsecondary education, ◆ Activities are designed with input from the com-
community involvement, civic contribution, and munity (e.g., employers, civic groups, and reli-
leadership roles. gious institutions).

Source: Pittman and Fleming. 1991. A New Vision: ◆ Activities are chosen that can be continued
Promoting Youth Development. permanently.

Table 1. Key Competencies

Vocational ◆ Preparation and experience for work, career, and family life
◆ Understanding and value of work, leisure, and family life.
◆ Awareness of life’s options and steps for making choices.

Education, Knowledge, ◆ Adequate credentials, basic academic skills, and eligibility for
Reasoning, and Creativity and awareness of opportunities for continued learning and
◆ Broad base of knowledge and ability to appreciate and
demonstrate creative expression.
◆ Good oral, written, and computing skills and ability to learn.
◆ Interest in lifelong learning and achieving.

Personal/Social, Conflict ◆ Intrapersonal skills, such as the ability to understand emotions

Management, and and practice self-discipline.
Communication Skills ◆ Interpersonal skills, such as working with others and developing
and sustaining friendships through cooperation, empathy,
negotiation, and conflict management.
◆ Developing judgment skills and a coping system.

Decisionmaking, Reasoning, ◆ Ability to make good decisions in daily interactions, to manage

and Problem Solving anger and emotions, and to solve problems creatively.

Citizenship ◆ Understanding of the history and values of one’s Nation,

community, and racial, ethnic, or cultural group.
◆ Desire to be ethical and to be involved in efforts that contribute
to the broader good.

Health/Recreation ◆ Good current health status and evidence of knowledge, attitudes,

and behaviors that will ensure future well-being, including non-
violence, exercise, good nutrition, and effective contraceptive and
safe sex practices.
Adapted from Pittman and Fleming. 1991. A New Vision: Promoting Youth Development.

◆ Opportunities are provided for youth to help their tive participants in the process. As such, youth build
peers, younger children, and the less fortunate. a sense of personal ownership in the outcome.
◆ Group experience and teamwork are emphasized In contrast, in traditional individual treatment ap-
frequently. proaches, young offenders are seen as recipients of
services. Traditional individual treatment interven-
Table 2 contrasts examples of competency develop- tions listed in the table may be necessary for an indi-
ment practices with individual treatment interven- vidual youth. However, in restorative justice, these
tions. Balanced and restorative competency interventions are used most effectively to support
development allows young offenders to become ac-

Table 2. Differences Between Individual Treatment and Competency Development Practices

Individual Treatment Competency Development

Group and family counseling Peer counseling, leadership development, service
projects, and family living skills

Drug therapy and drug education Youth as drug educators and drug researchers

Remedial education Cross-age tutoring (juvenile offenders teach younger

children) and educational action teams

Job readiness and job counseling Work experience, service crews, employment, job
preparation, and career exploration

Recreational activities Youth as recreation aides and recreation planners

Outdoor challenge programs Conservation projects, community development

projects, recycling, and community beautification

Cultural sensitivity training Youth-developed cultural education projects

Youth and family mediation Conflict resolution training and youth as school
conflict mediators

Mentoring and “big brother” programs Work with adult mentors on community projects and
intergenerational projects with the elderly
Adapted from G. Bazemore and P. Cruise. 1995.

competency development strategies—not instead of make future contributions to the community as a

or as a prerequisite for competency development. valued citizen.
Competencies are best developed when young of- ◆ Service Learning. Service learning involves
fenders have the opportunity to become providers doing worthwhile work in the community, with
of service to others in the community—not just pas- a purposeful outcome that the offender can
sive consumers of services. Through the competency recognize. This work meets a real need in the
development process, young offenders have the po- community, is positively acknowledged by the
tential to view themselves and be viewed by those community, and achieves clear educational out-
around them as community assets and resources comes. Service learning aids the development of
rather than as liabilities or threats to community life. work skills, social competencies, and reliability
that the offender can transfer to compensated
Restorative Competency
Development Practice Definitions ◆ Participation in Resource and Action Teams
(Planning and Problem Solving for Real Is-
◆ Work Experience in Jobs Involving Meaningful sues). Rather than being viewed as recipients of
Skills. Meaningful skills are those that have value services, youth are seen as true resources for and
for the community and transfer competencies to representatives of the community. Juvenile jus-
offenders that enhance the offender’s ability to tice professionals may facilitate a process where

juveniles have the opportunity to identify needs Promising Programs: Competency
in the community and work together to imple-
ment a needed service or change. Development
◆ Community Justice Corps; Deschutes County
◆ Cognitive and Decisionmaking Skills Training.
Department of Community Justice; Deschutes
Cognitive and decisionmaking skills training ad-
County, OR. Probation officers created this com-
dresses specific deficit areas that may hamper an
prehensive community work service program to
offender’s ability to analyze situations and make
offer juvenile offenders the opportunity to give
reasonable decisions about his or her behavior.
back to their community while gaining valuable
Attention is given to improving the youth’s moral
competencies. The corps has built a 70-bed shel-
reasoning, which means decisionmaking pro-
ter for the homeless, stocked firewood for the
cesses (as opposed to a religious definition of
county’s impoverished elderly, and performed
many other services.
Developmental deficits related to self-control,
◆ ALIVE (A Look in the Victim’s Eyes);
cognitive style, interpersonal problem solving,
Deschutes County Department of Community
critical thinking, and values are addressed
Justice; Deschutes County, OR. A core compe-
through psychoeducational and social learning
tency required in the BARJ philosophy is empa-
techniques to help juvenile offenders rehearse
thy for others. If juvenile offenders can develop
both new behavioral and thinking techniques.
a genuine sense of empathy for their victims, the
Programming areas also help youth examine and likelihood of their continued criminal behavior
define their current beliefs, thinking, and values can be reduced. In Deschutes County, young
and the impact these attributes have on their offenders complete a six-session course designed
lives. Anger management and empathy develop- to build empathy for victims. The program is par-
ment may be components of cognitive and ticularly useful in advance of victim-offender me-
decisionmaking skills training. Attention is given diation. Offenders engage in role-playing and
to beliefs and reasoning that inform an offender discussion groups and hear from victims in an
about “right” and “wrong” in his or her effort to boost their sense of empathy.
decisionmaking process.
◆ Neighborhood Citizens Committee; Long
◆ Dispute Resolution and Mediation Training Beach, CA. The Neighborhood Citizens Commit-
and Practice. Training youth to become media- tee (NCC) was organized to address the problem
tors or facilitators for victim-offender mediation of increased criminal activity by juveniles, both in
and family or larger group (e.g., school) numbers and severity. NCC works within the Los
conferencing is an excellent means of building Angeles Probation Department to involve parents
competencies for choosing alternatives to violence and juveniles in alleviating troublesome aspects of
to settle disputes and to improve communication family life and guide the juveniles toward a more
and listening skills. meaningful future.

◆ Emotional Control Training. Emotional control NCC consists of community volunteers dedicated
training is designed to foster social and moral to helping youth who have committed minor of-
growth in offenders. The overriding goal is to fenses. The volunteers listen to the youth and
help juvenile offenders rise above past behaviors their families, give attention to the juvenile as an
and reenter the community as productive mem- individual, and supervise community service that
bers who are connected to others. Emotional con- stresses responsibility, contributes to society, and
trol training involves cognitive and social helps the youth develop an awareness of the
competencies, including self-control, cognitive world around him or her through exposure to
style, interpersonal problem solving, critical new people, places, and events.
thinking, and values.

Juveniles referred by the juvenile justice system ◆ CISP Drug Awareness Education; Allegheny
are placed on a 6-month contract during which County, PA. Juvenile offenders who either have
they perform community service. Leisure time graduated from CISP or are at advanced levels in
is structured, and the youth are encouraged to the program are active in mentoring and instruct-
set future goals for themselves. They are given ing newer participants.
reading assessments, tutored, and monitored
throughout the contract period. NCC also re- ◆ Youth Restoration/Back on Track Program;
ceives referrals from schools and from law en- Palm Beach County, FL. Youth Restoration/
forcement regarding juveniles who have never Back on Track is a collaboration between the
been arrested but who may need adult super- Palm Beach County Sheriff’s Office, municipal
vision and positive redirection. police departments, the Florida Department of
Juvenile Justice, and community organizations,
NCC recently formed a roundtable discussion such as The 100 Black Men of Palm Beach
group for male juvenile offenders who have no County and MAD DADS of Greater Delray
father or other positive role model in their lives. Beach Youth. Side by side with adult mentors in
Another NCC committee plans social activities the community, youth plan, implement, and man-
for juveniles and their parents where they discuss age community service projects that directly ben-
topics such as job applications, interview dress efit local neighborhoods and fulfill court-ordered
and behavior, and back-to-school competencies, community service hours. Juvenile offenders in
including attitude, attendance, and study habits. this program also earn money toward restitution
for victims.
◆ Community Intensive Supervision Program
(CISP); Service and Action Projects With the Examples of projects in Palm Beach include the
Bloomfield-Garfield Corporation; Allegheny following:
County, PA. The Garfield CISP community work
provided by juvenile offenders has become an More than 50 youth participated in a restora-
integral service to the community. Projects in- tion and beautification project of the Barton
clude “Get Out to Vote” and “Paint Your Heart Memorial Park, a historical black cemetery.
Out,” in which CISP youth and staff painted two The playground of a shelter for HIV-positive
homes in the Garfield and Homewood communi- and AIDS-infected children was cleaned and
ties for low-income, elderly, and disabled commu- upgraded.
nity members. Other projects include envelope
stuffing for the Bloomfield-Garfield Corporation Homes of many elderly and disabled residents
(a local nonprofit organization); distributing fliers were painted and landscaped.
to neighbors about community events; removing Youth performed skits and folktales at a cul-
graffiti from walls and cleaning and weeding va- tural fair designed to teach tolerance and cul-
cant lots in the Garfield community; painting the tural sensitivity.
juvenile court and family court in downtown
Youth planned and implemented a voter
Pittsburgh; shoveling snow for neighborhood
registration drive. Earnings from this project,
business residents; collecting old telephone books
provided through stipends paid by the League
for recycling; distributing food to the elderly and
of Women Voters, were used for victim
other community members in Garfield; participat-
ing in the Martin Luther King community cel-
ebration; and many other community efforts that ◆ South Florida Youth Environmental Service
help to meet the needs of the greater community. Program; Palm Beach County, FL. The core
of this program features paid work experience
CISP community service provides an excellent and also unpaid community service, in which
learning experience for CISP youth and for com- serious juvenile offenders work with national
munity members, who continue to express positive park staff to maintain and restore portions of the
comments regarding these community projects.

Loxahatchee Wildlife Preserve in the Florida Conflict management.
Everglades. Educational curriculums that empha-
Power and control.
size environmental preservation and environmen-
tal career exploration are incorporated into this Each session is 2 hours in length, and attendance
competency-building experience. is reported the next day.

Accountability to victims is addressed by direct ◆ A-B-C Cognitive Change Program; Dakota

payments that are deducted from offender pay- County Corrections Department; Dakota
checks (or payment into a victims fund when County, MN. This program has four components:
original victims cannot be located). The program
incorporates victim-awareness classes and victim Part I assists offenders in examining and defin-
panels to enable youth to learn more about the ing their current beliefs, thinking, and values
impact of their criminal behavior and to develop and the impact these attributes have on their
empathy. lives. The goal is to support group members in
identifying faulty, inappropriate, or distorted
◆ Montana Conservation Corps; Helena, MT. beliefs and thinking that lead to problematic or
The Montana Conservation Corps matches illegal behavior.
young offenders with AmeriCorps (a Federal Part II focuses on anger management and ef-
youth-for-community-service agency) workers fective problem-solving skills.
who, together, perform environmental resto-
ration, national park maintenance, and social Part III has offenders examine their relation-
services in crews of six youth and six adult ships with others and their victim empathy.
mentors. Program youth complete community Part IV assists group members in setting goals
service requirements, pay restitution, and work and developing a prevention plan.
on decisionmaking, conflict management, and
leadership skills in the applied setting of the ◆ Carver-Scott Educational Cooperative Services
community service project. AmeriCorps workers and STS (Sentence to Serve)–PLUS Programs;
also mentor youth for 8 to 10 hours per week. Carver County Court Services; Chaska, MN.
STS–PLUS is designed to reduce recidivism for
◆ Expanded Life Choices Programming for delinquent youth, improve the lives of youth in
Women Under Supervision; Dakota County the community, reduce the number of school
Corrections Department; Dakota County, MN. dropouts, enhance education and vocational
Expanded Life Choices is offered for women who skills, and reconnect youth to the community
are under court supervision. The program is de- through service learning projects.
signed to be a bridge to skills needed to change
personal patterns of behavior. It encourages the Youthful offenders are among the participants in
positive development of skills that women can use the Carver-Scott Educational Cooperative, which
in different situations rather than providing is a collaborative program involving educators,
simple answers for individual problems. social services, law enforcement, public health,
and juvenile justice professionals.
Topics include:
Youth are given school credit based on their expe-
Introduction and assessment of sources of rience with community service projects. In addi-
learned behavior. tion, a portion of their court-ordered community
Self-esteem. work service is pardoned when they adhere to
their personalized educational plan.
Two recent community service projects involved
Values. planning and cultivating crops on a working farm
Changes/problems and decisions. and assisting in building housing for women with
children who are leaving violent relationships.

For the farming project, youth researched and ◆ Using Traditional Passive Learner Models.
decided what crops would be grown and what Youth must learn and practice competency
methods of farming were necessary for the best through active, experiential learning that pro-
yields. They also contacted local produce retail- duces tangible results and includes a reflection
ers and arranged to have their crop of sunflow- component.
ers and pumpkins sold. They learned about
markets, finance, planning, and teamwork and ◆ Using Programs That Do Not Build Transfer-
also made strong connections with members of able Skills. Youth must be able to demonstrate
their community. competencies that are valued by the community
and useful in conventional settings.
Youth are also involved at the farm in raising
horses and serving as riding guides for disabled ◆ Stating Conditions of Supervision Only in the
riders. This experience teaches them how to care Negative (e.g., “Shall Nots”) and Imposing Pas-
for the horses, build relationships, and serve the sive Requirements (e.g., Attend Counseling or
community. Report Weekly). The absence of bad behavior or
deficits is not competency. Competency is the
For the housing program, youth researched issues enhancement and building of strengths, re-
related to family violence and learned about the sources, interests, potentials, and positive at-
needs of women leaving violent relationships. tributes. A key question to consider is, “If you
Together with community members and under take away an undesirable behavior, what are you
the direction of program staff, youth helped to left with?”
construct homes for families in transition. During
the process, they learned about alternatives to
violence and conflict management. Recommended Participants for
Common Problems in ◆ School staff.
Competency Development ◆ Employers.
Programming ◆ Community service programs.
◆ Assuming That Treatment and Remediation
Are the Same as Competency Development. ◆ Adult mentors.
Treatment and remediation may be needed to ◆ Family.
support competency development, but youth do
not become competent by completing treatment ◆ Staff from skill-based community programs (e.g.,
programs. Treatment and remediation typically victim-offender mediation programs).
are grounded in a deficit orientation, which as-
sumes that young offenders have little to con-
tribute to their communities. Competency Roles for Juvenile Justice
development must focus on strengths. Professionals
◆ Programming for Competency Development in ◆ Assess youth, family, and community strengths,
Isolation From the Community. Competency resources, and interests.
development must involve practicing skills in
◆ Develop work and service opportunities for all
community settings and should be designed to
youth under supervision.
increase interaction with conventional adults
other than the service provider. Valued competen- ◆ Develop community partnerships with employers,
cies are defined by community needs and norms. religious institutions, clubs, and civic groups to

provide work and service roles for youth on ◆ Measurable increase in educational, occupational,
supervision, and recruit supervisors. social, and decisionmaking abilities of juvenile
◆ Advocate for a new school curriculum that builds
on the strengths and interests of delinquent youth ◆ Increased bonding to conventional adults.
and allows for school credit for creative commu-
nity service experience. ◆ Improvements in self-image and public image of
delinquent youth.
◆ Find creative, active roles for youth in treatment
programs as helpers to other youth. ◆ Clear demonstration by offenders of skills valued
by the community.
◆ Develop projects in which youth can be trained in
areas such as mediation, conflict management, ◆ Increased involvement of community members in
and drug prevention and then educate others. the juvenile justice system.

◆ Arrange speaking engagements for youth who are

succeeding in competency development activities. Benefits to Juvenile Justice
◆ Involve youth in program-planning groups and
committees with juvenile justice staff and other ◆ Increased community satisfaction with the juve-
adults in the community. nile justice system as a result of measurable in-
creases in competency of delinquent youth.
◆ Involve youth in voter registration and other pro-
grams that teach and reinforce citizenship. ◆ Enhanced image of juvenile justice workers as
assets to the community because of their ability to
◆ Conduct or facilitate decisionmaking skills, con- facilitate transformation of delinquent youth into
flict management, and cognitive training courses community assets.
for offenders and individuals who work with of-
fenders. ◆ Increased number of conventional adults in the
community who become invested in the success of
Juvenile justice professionals can play a critical role the juvenile offender.
in facilitating competency development by providing
opportunities for youth to practice and demonstrate ◆ Personal satisfaction derived from facilitating
competency. However, because juvenile offenders positive change in the juvenile offender.
will not develop transferable competencies within
traditional treatment programs and probation case-
work, community partnerships are a crucial compo-
Guiding Questions for Juvenile
nent in implementing competency development Justice Professionals
◆ How do we increase the juvenile offender’s skills
for living successfully in the community?
Expected Outcomes ◆ How do we demonstrate the juvenile offender’s
◆ Increased capacity of young offenders to contrib- competencies to the community?
ute productively to their communities.
◆ How do we engage the juvenile offender and
◆ Increased capacity of adults and community community members together in activities in
groups to accept and integrate delinquent youth. which they experience a sense of competency and
contribution to one another?

Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice:
Community Safety

Community safety in the BARJ Model refers to Characteristics of Restorative

both immediate and long-term safety. Achieving
community safety requires practices that reduce risk Community Safety
and promote the community’s capacity to manage ◆ The opportunity to commit offenses is restricted
behavior. Balanced and restorative community by community surveillance or by involving
safety is not focused only on short-term external known juvenile offenders in structured, super-
control of individual juvenile offenders. It requires vised, and productive activities.
equal attention to working with adults and youth to
change behavior. Reducing risk often focuses on ◆ Juvenile justice professionals use a consistent
individual offenders, but building community capac- continuum of sanctions in response to a juvenile
ity to manage behavior focuses on adults and organi- offender’s failure to comply with supervision
zations within the community. Community safety is conditions.
achieved when community members live in peace,
harmony, and mutual respect and when citizens and ◆ The level of restriction matches the level of
community groups feel that they personally can pre- risk (i.e., the higher the risk, the more time is
vent and control crime. structured).

Many strategies used for accountability and compe- ◆ Response to breaches of safety measures is swift
tency development goals can also contribute to com- and focused.
munity safety goals. For example, community ◆ Strategies do not rely solely on the juvenile justice
service, through structuring time and increasing the system but engage the community in protecting
juvenile’s investment in the community, contributes itself (e.g., crime watch, block clubs, and
to community safety. Most forms of competency mentoring).
development involve structured activities with adult
supervision, which reduce the opportunity to offend. ◆ Behaviors associated with the risk of delinquency
Accountability strategies emphasize taking responsi- for a particular individual are monitored (e.g.,
bility for behavior, which reinforces internal behav- drug testing).
ior control—the most effective way to achieve
long-term community safety. A major goal of compe- ◆ Community safety interventions do not unduly
tency development strategies is to establish a place restrict the agency’s attainment of goals related to
of value for the juvenile in the community that cre- accountability and competency development.
ates an incentive for abiding by the norms of the ◆ Juvenile justice professionals seek to better un-
community. Therefore, the community safety goal is derstand a community’s fear of young people and
dependent upon effective accountability and compe- develop strategies that involve youth and adults in
tency development strategies. collaborative problem solving.

◆ To improve community safety programs, offender ◆ Community members know each other, mutually
behavior is carefully monitored by professionals agree about behavioral tolerance limits, and work
and other adults in the community. together to prevent crime.
◆ Strategies include working with schools to reduce ◆ Interventions do not increase the risks to the
violence and promote mediation, conflict resolu- community from juvenile offenders. For example,
tion, parenting training, school safety, and restor- interventions should not escalate anger, model
ative practices. unhealthy power and control dynamics, establish
unhealthy peer groups, or increase a youth’s isola-
◆ To build the community’s capacity for controlling tion from conventional community members. In
and preventing crime, strategies include working other words, interventions should do no further
with churches, synagogues, mosques, schools, and harm.
civic and community groups in education,
mentoring, and positive youth development. To put restorative community safety practices into a
broader perspective, table 3 illustrates a range of
◆ Youth connections to positive community mem- juvenile justice community safety interventions from
bers are strengthened. least to most cost effective.

Table 3. Range of Community Safety Interventions for Use by Juvenile Justice Professionals

Type of Prevention Strategy Goal Cost Effectiveness

Tertiary Prevention ◆ Incarceration. Reduce short-term Low cost effectiveness
◆ Surveillance. juvenile offending
Electronic monitoring.
Random drug testing.

Secondary Prevention ◆ Continuum of graduated Reduce long-term Medium cost effectiveness

sanctions: “progressive offending
response system.”
◆ Structuring juvenile offenders’
time in competency development,
reparative activities.
◆ “Natural surveillance” and
community guardians.

Primary Prevention ◆ Community problem solving. Prevention High cost effectiveness

◆ Mediation and dispute
◆ Capacity building.
◆ New roles and leadership
experiences for all youth.

Restorative Community Safety nile offenders develop competencies. Monitoring
also serves to structure a juvenile’s time under
Practice Definitions adult supervision and reduce the opportunity for
new offenses.
Juvenile Offender-Focused Community
◆ Monitored Employment Attendance. Job
Safety Practice: Graduated Community- attendance may be monitored by an offender’s
Based Surveillance employer and reported to his or her probation
Restorative community safety practice is based on officer. Monitoring involves the community
the belief that youth who have strong connections to (employer) in supervising and structuring the
their communities and who care about the people in juvenile’s time. Juveniles who maintain good
their neighborhoods are less likely to offend. Wher- work attendance gain skills and earn income that
ever possible, restorative community safety supports can be used to pay restitution to crime victims.
creating relationships between youth and members
of the community that inhibit offending. ◆ Monitored Program Attendance. Depending on
the program, attendance is monitored by juvenile
Certain young offenders may require incarceration; justice professionals, community volunteers, men-
however, restorative community safety seeks to in- tors, or program facilitators. Monitoring ensures
crease opportunities for youth to remain in the com- that youth are participating in positive activities
munity. Juvenile justice professionals can implement and limits their chances to reoffend.
any number of the community-based surveillance
measures defined below in relation to the severity of ◆ Supervised Community Work Service. A super-
the offense and the risk posed by a particular youth. vised structured work experience for youth, de-
signed to build relationships with community
Unlike traditional incarceration, the restorative members, serves the community, builds offender
community safety practices defined below that competencies, and also serves community safety
feature community-based surveillance all serve to goals by providing adult supervision and strength-
structure the time of juveniles, provide adult super- ening ties to the community. Community work
vision, and support relationships between youth and service offers youth the opportunity to be valued
the community. The goals of each of the defined by others for their contributions.
practices are to (1) limit the opportunities for youth
to reoffend and (2) strengthen rather than sever ◆ Supervised Recreation. Supervised recreation
connections to their community. is another means of intensive monitoring of
offender behavior and serves to deter offending.
Increasingly, juvenile justice professionals are find- Supervised recreation helps youth to develop
ing that supervision can be most efficiently accom- appropriate recreational and relational skills,
plished in structured group settings. For example, such as sportsmanship and conflict resolution,
working with youth in education programs, service and good health.
crews, and victim-awareness, competency develop-
ment classes provides an effective alternative to indi- An additional component of supervised recreation
vidual counseling and surveillance. is participation in cultural events. Pride in their
culture and community enables youth to think
◆ Monitored School Attendance. To ensure that more critically about how an offending behavior
juvenile offenders attend classes, monitors or might show disrespect to self, family, and commu-
counselors visit schools daily to check on atten- nity. Participation may include, but not be limited
dance, behavior, and academic performance. Re- to, attending movies, sporting events, and other
storative juvenile justice programs place a high cultural events. These outings expose youth to
priority on a youth’s educational performance. various music, art, theater, and other educational
Monitoring is one way to ensure that perfor- experiences in the community and help shape posi-
mance standards are met, thereby helping juve- tive values and community pride. Participation is

supervised by juvenile justice professionals and tain locations or environments, such as when
community volunteers. under house arrest.

◆ Community Guardians. An adult community ◆ House Arrest With Random Checks Performed
member assumes responsibility for monitoring by Juvenile Justice Staff or Others. Sentencing
some juvenile offender activities. For example, a to house arrest allows a juvenile offender to return
community guardian may escort or chaperone to his or her home but restricts movement in the
juveniles attending cultural or recreational events. greater community. Random checks, performed by
Community guardians provide adult mentoring juvenile justice staff, volunteers, or others, are con-
and supervision and foster relationships and a ducted through electronic monitoring that identi-
sense of belonging to the community. fies the youth’s location.
◆ Family Monitoring. Offender families monitor ◆ Random Urinalysis Conducted by Juvenile Jus-
associated behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, an- tice Staff or Others. Random urinalysis is con-
ger, and withdrawal) and report to juvenile justice ducted to monitor for offending behavior. If testing
professionals. This practice limits a youth’s oppor- indicates a violation, juvenile justice professionals
tunity to reoffend and helps build competency for intervene. Tests are often conducted randomly on
both the juvenile offender and his or her family. offenders whose offenses are related to drug use.
Through assessment, the agency identifies service Random testing acts to deter offending behavior
needs that can provide support for enhancing while youth are being supervised.
family competency in areas of setting limits, inter-
acting with schools, supporting their children’s For youth who do not fulfill their obligations to re-
involvement in successful activities, and develop- pair the harm that they caused to victims of crime
ing other positive parenting approaches that pro- and the victimized community, who continue to of-
mote competency in the youth and reduce the risk fend, or who pose a high risk to others, residential
of subsequent delinquent behavior. placement or confinement in a secure facility may
be used.
◆ Day Reporting Centers. As an alternative to
secure facilities or residential placement, offend- ◆ Residential Placement. Offending youth are sent
ers are allowed to remain in their homes over- to an out-of-home placement in a residential facil-
night and must report to a day reporting center ity that may include release during the day for
for structured programming during the day. The supervised activities.
program may include education, skill building, ◆ Confinement in a Secure Facility. The tradi-
tutoring, community service, or employment tional lockup facility is used for highest risk youth
activities. and those who repeatedly fail to comply with key
◆ Electronic Monitoring. Offenders are moni- obligations and responsibilities.
tored by means of an electronic device that is
usually worn around the ankle. The most com- Community-Focused Community
mon devices transmit a signal that can be re- Safety Practice
ceived by a probation officer when driving by a
youth’s residence, school, or place of employ- The following community-focused community safety
ment, or the signal may be connected to a resi- practices require the building of partnerships and
dential phone line. Other forms of monitoring involvement of community members.
systems are available. ◆ Partnerships With Community Police. To assist
Electronic monitoring enables probation officers with juvenile offender surveillance, parental sup-
and others working with juvenile offenders to port, and mentoring efforts, community members
maintain geographic awareness of a youth whose in partnership with law enforcement and proba-
movements or activities may be restricted to cer- tion serve as role models to aid the youth in fulfill-
ing their obligations under restorative justice.

◆ “Beat Probation” or “Neighborhood Super- violence, builds their self-esteem, and helps them
vision.” Probation agents are assigned to geo- develop empathy.
graphical areas (neighborhoods) instead of to
caseloads that are scattered throughout a city. ◆ Anger Management and Mediation Courses for
The juvenile justice professional thereby views Teachers and Parents. Community safety is en-
the community as his or her client or consumer of hanced when the adults who work with juvenile
services. This practice encourages the develop- offenders understand critical thinking processes
ment of community partnerships between juvenile and can model those skills.
justice professionals and community members ◆ Alternatives to Suspension and Expulsion.
that allow the professionals to more effectively Most juvenile burglaries happen in the daytime.
join with the community in working with offend- As both parents more often work outside the
ers to help prevent recidivism and promote com- home, many homes are left vulnerable to these
munity connections. Whenever possible, juvenile types of breakins. If juveniles are kept in school,
justice professionals assist the community in ad- their opportunity for offending is restricted.
dressing underlying problems beyond the indi-
vidual offender (a problem-oriented versus In BARJ, schools provide alternatives to suspen-
incident-driven approach). sion and expulsion that build competencies in
youth. For individuals who are suspended or
Walter Dickey, in Community Justice: Striving for expelled, mandatory community work service
Safe, Secure, and Just Communities (1996), charac- is ordered, preferably involving experiences that
terizes major community concerns as often build competencies and have personal meaning
including: to the juvenile.
Situational crime prevention (i.e., monitoring ◆ Community Guardians and “Natural Surveil-
hot spots where youth often appear, such as lance.” Community members contribute to re-
shopping malls). storative community safety by helping to guide
Street order and quality of life. young people toward activities that build com-
munity and develop self-esteem and potential
Intimidating gangs.
while monitoring and mentoring youth on com-
Apartment complexes as sources of disorder, munity supervision.
such as drug traffic.
Repeat victimization. Promising Programs:
Drug houses. Community Safety
Lack of housing, jobs, and education in com- ◆ Community Intensive Supervision Program;
munities where offenders are concentrated. Allegheny County, PA. Designed to provide an
Beat probation changes the persons involved in alternative to institutionalization for youth under
community problems, the role of government, the court supervision, this program uses the following
priorities of juvenile justice professionals, the strategies to address community safety concerns:
methods of supervision, and the places that super- monitored school attendance, required attendance
vision occurs in order to meet the needs of the at the CISP neighborhood center 7 days a week
community. from approximately 4 p.m. to 9 p.m., electronic
monitoring, and drug and alcohol testing. Exten-
◆ Peer Mediation and Dispute Resolution in sive community service opportunities provide
Schools. Schools and community members teach structured supervised time.
youth conflict management skills and alternatives
to violence. Learning these valuable skills when ◆ Massachusetts Probation Agencies Target
they are young deters these youth from future Drunk Driving. Each year, tens of thousands of
Americans are killed by drunk drivers, and many

more are injured in drunk-driving crashes. Proba- Common Problems in Choosing
tion agencies in Massachusetts have targeted cer-
tain bars that are known to have served drunk Community Safety Strategies
drivers before their arrests and have supplied the ◆ Use of Secure Confinement for Juvenile
names of the bars to licensing boards. The State Offenders, Especially Property or Drug
has also abolished “happy hours” after probation Offenders, Whose Community Safety Risk Can
agencies documented how the practice generated Be Managed in the Community. In this scenario,
a disproportionate number of drunk drivers. the level of restriction does not match the level of
risk, incarceration creates the possibility of an
◆ Police and Probation Working in the Commu-
unhealthy peer group, cost is high for the level of
nity—Operation Night Light; Boston, MA.
risk, opportunity for repaying the victim and
Operation Night Light is a cooperative effort
community is severely reduced, and isolation
between the Youth Violence Task Force and the
from conventional community members is in-
Massachusetts Department of Probation that
creased. Although incarceration may limit oppor-
sends teams of police and probation officers on
tunity for offending in the short term, the effects
regular home, school, or worksite visits to enforce
may increase the risk of future offending.
curfews or court-designated area restrictions and
ensure that youth on probation are complying ◆ Use of Strategies That Rely Solely on the
with the terms of their probation. The visits pro- Juvenile Justice System. Safety strategies
vide for an interactive relationship between the based solely on the juvenile justice system limit
probation officer and the probationer, strengthen the options for a variety of responses, are less
relationships between police officers and proba- cost effective, and fail to maximize opportunities
tion officers, get parents involved in their to reconnect youth to the community. Addition-
children’s probation, and serve notice to other ally, measures that rely solely on the juvenile jus-
youth that police and probation officers are seri- tice system perpetuate the cycle of community
ous about their mission. dependence on the system to solve problems sepa-
rately from the community, which weakens the
◆ New Chance Program; Dakota County, MN.
community’s own problem-solving capability.
As an alternative to out-of-home placement and
secure detention, juveniles attend an extended ◆ Failure To Respond Swiftly to Breaches of
day-treatment program that includes school, life Safety Measures. Community perceptions of
and communication skills development, health, safety depend upon confidence in the system to
substance abuse treatment, recreation, commu- respond to breaches of safety. If the system fails
nity work service, and tutoring. Evenings are to respond swiftly, public trust in the system is
spent at home under electronic monitoring and eroded, which often prompts calls for more dras-
parental supervision. tic responses.
◆ Belle Glade and Pleasant City Beat Probation; ◆ A Prevailing Focus by Juvenile Justice Profes-
Palm Beach County, FL. Modeled after problem- sionals on Case Management Instead of Neigh-
oriented policing, the juvenile justice program borhood Problem Solving. Traditional case
assigns workers to a specific neighborhood or management strategies place primary responsibil-
community center to assist in solving community ity for juvenile offenders on the juvenile justice
safety problems and supervising structured group system rather than engaging the community in
activities such as community service. finding creative solutions to the problem. A focus
on individual cases fails to address larger causes
of crime in the community.

◆ Failure of Juvenile Justice Professionals To Be ◆ Work with juvenile offenders, school staff, mem-
Involved in the Planning or Implementation of bers of community groups, offenders’ families,
Prevention Strategies. Juvenile justice profes- law enforcement, and employers to ensure struc-
sionals are in a position to make a valuable impact tured day and night community supervision of
on preventing criminal behavior through restor- juvenile offenders.
ative practice. Rather than just reacting to crime,
juvenile justice professionals have the ability to ◆ Develop role as a “resource” to schools and com-
serve as resources and educators to strengthen munity groups for mediation, parent training, and
community safety and build partnerships with other conflict resolution efforts.
schools, communities, social service agencies, and ◆ Work collaboratively with others to address com-
the families and youth in their community. munity conditions that contribute to crime.

Recommended Participants for Expected Outcomes

Implementation ◆ No further offenses by youth while on supervision.
◆ School staff who provide supervision for a large
part of a youth’s day. ◆ Reduced levels of fear in the community and for
◆ Community programs for youth that provide
adult supervision. ◆ Increased community understanding of juvenile
◆ Recreation and sports programs with adult
supervision. ◆ Increased competency, victim empathy, and inter-
nal controls for juvenile offenders who are under
◆ Employers. supervision.

◆ Individual community members who are willing ◆ Increased connections to conventional community
to be mentors or community guardians. members.

◆ Local law enforcement, especially officers as- ◆ Increased sense of belonging to the community.
signed to community-based policing efforts.
◆ Decreased school violence and increased school-
◆ Family members. and community-based conflict resolution.

◆ Increased community involvement and ownership

Roles for Juvenile Justice in managing the behavior of all youth in the
◆ Develop and implement a continuum of sanctions
for supervised juvenile offenders who violate Benefits to Juvenile Justice
conditions of compliance on probation or during Professionals
◆ Increased victim and community satisfaction be-
◆ Promote youth development and community cause community safety is seriously addressed.
problem solving.
◆ Increased responsibility for community safety
◆ Gather information about victim and community shared by numerous institutions and individuals,
fears and develop strategies to address those thereby alleviating the burden of sole responsibil-
fears. ity on the juvenile justice professional.

◆ Increased number of adults monitoring the be-

havior of delinquent youth.

◆ Decreased opportunity for delinquent youth to ◆ How can we be seen as community resources for
reoffend while on supervision. schools and community groups?

◆ Increased sense of efficacy in addressing commu- ◆ How do we promote youth development?

nity safety issues.
◆ Have we identified members of the community
who are concerned and involved in improving the
Guiding Questions for Juvenile community? Have we built relationships with
Justice Professionals them?

◆ How do we restrict the opportunities for juvenile ◆ Are we involved in community problem solving? Do
offenders to commit offenses? (How well is the we know how to listen and work collaboratively
juvenile offender’s time structured under commu- with community members to identify concerns and
nity supervision, day and night?) engage victims, offenders, and other community
members in addressing the community’s needs?
◆ How do we build relationships that inhibit
offending? ◆ Have we developed and do we use a continuum of
sanctions other than incarceration for supervising
◆ How do we involve multiple systems and commu- juvenile offenders who violate their conditions of
nity members in managing the behavior of the probation or aftercare?
juvenile offender?

Putting the Pieces Together

Weaving the Strands of ◆ Crime victims.

Accountability, Competency Receive information, support, assistance, com-

pensation, and services.
Development, and Community
Are involved and encouraged to provide input
Safety into the BARJ process, particularly into how
Discussion of the BARJ approach has been divided juvenile offenders will repair the harm done.
into separate components of accountability, compe- Have the opportunity to meet with juvenile of-
tency development, and community safety to describe fenders in a safe environment and tell their story
and clarify those objectives. In practice, however, to the offenders and others if they so desire.
strategies may overlap and contribute to more than
one objective. Interventions that achieve more than Receive restitution and/or other reparation
one objective are preferable, because the impact can from the juvenile offenders.
be mutually reinforcing and more cost effective. Provide guidance and consultation to juvenile
When applying interventions, it is important to rec- justice professionals on planning and advisory
ognize that different techniques may impede or en- groups.
hance one another. Therefore, a careful analysis of Feel satisfied with the justice process.
cost, expected outcomes, and the interactive effect of
◆ Citizens, families, and community groups.
possible strategies is critical.
Play an advisory role to courts and community
Table 4 on page 37 provides a framework for analyz-
justice systems and/or play an active role in
ing the contributions of various strategies to each of
disposition through one or more neighborhood
the three objectives of the BARJ mission. A similar
sanctioning processes.
analysis can be done for other strategies that are not
included in this Report. Are involved to the greatest extent possible in
holding juvenile offenders accountable and
providing offender rehabilitation opportunities
Balanced and Restorative and community safety initiatives.
Justice in Practice Provide support to victims.
Coparticipants in a BARJ system are crime victims; Provide support to juvenile offenders as men-
citizens, families, and community groups; juvenile tors, employers, and advocates.
offenders; and community juvenile justice profes-
sionals. Roles associated with each coparticipant Work with juvenile offenders on local commu-
group in the BARJ approach include the following: nity service projects.
Provide work so that juvenile offenders can pay
restitution to victims and create service opportu-
nities that develop skills and also allow juvenile

offenders to make meaningful contributions to Develop regular reporting system on criteria
the quality of community life. such as restitution and completion of commu-
nity service, juvenile offender skill develop-
Assist families in supporting the offender to
ment, and coparticipant satisfaction.
fulfill his or her obligation to repair the harm
and increase his or her competencies. Become active members of the community and
work with community groups, families, and
Address social conditions that cause and sup-
individual citizens to:
port crime and violence within communities.
– Develop meaningful offender work and ser-
Monitor and supervise juvenile offenders to the
vice opportunities.
greatest extent possible in the community.
– Recruit community mentors and supervisors
◆ Juvenile offenders.
for youth.
Face the personal harm caused by their crimes – Recruit and train community volunteers and
by participating in victim-offender mediation coordinate victim-offender mediation and
or family group conferencing, if the victim is dialogue with them.
willing, or through other victim-awareness
processes. Provide consultation and training to schools on
dispute resolution, anger management, critical
Complete restitution to their victims. thinking skills, and delinquency prevention.
Provide meaningful service to repay the debt to Develop, in partnership with victims, commu-
their communities. nity, and offenders, a continuum of alternatives
Complete work experience and active and pro- to placement in a correctional facility for pro-
ductive tasks that increase skills and improve bation violations.
the community. Creatively develop, with direct input from vic-
Improve decisionmaking skills and become tims, community members, and offenders, pro-
involved in prevention efforts. grams that strengthen communities.
◆ Community juvenile justice professionals.
The subsection, Balanced and Restorative Justice in Practice, is
adapted from Bazemore, G. 1997 (May). What’s new about the
Understand and integrate restorative justice balanced approach? Juvenile and Family Court Journal. Reprinted
values throughout their work. with permission.
Measure program and practice effectiveness by
how well needs of individual victims, other
community members, and juvenile offenders
are addressed.

Table 4. Weaving the Strands Together

Accountability Competency Community

Intervention Benefits Development Benefits Safety Benefits

Community Service Makes amends to the Develops skills, including Structures time, involves
community work skills (experiential) community in supervision

Victim-Offender Answers personally to Develops communication Reduces victim fear in most

Mediation the one harmed and makes and conflict resolution cases and increases under-
amends skills and empathy standing of crime

Small or Large Group Makes amends to all Develops communication Reduces victim fear in most
Conferencing (Family impacted by the offense and conflict resolution cases and increases under-
Group Conferencing) skills and empathy standing of crime

Monitored School Builds skills Structures time, community

Attendance supervises

Victim Empathy Classes Increases understanding of Increases interpersonal Structures time

impact of own behavior skills

Residential Placement May address some skills Provides high level of


Electronic Monitoring Restricts movement to reduce

opportunities to offend

Secure Detention Removes youth from

opportunity to offend

Drug Testing Reduces likelihood of

behavior associated with
substance abuse

Work Experience Generates revenue to Teaches work and social Structures time under adult
pay restitution skills supervision

Cognitive Skills Classes Increases understanding Improves decisionmaking Structures youth’s time
of responsibility for and critical thinking skills
behavior and the impact
of behavior

Source: Pranis, K. 1997.

Role Changes in Balanced and Restorative

New Roles for Victims, In expanding and changing roles, juvenile justice
professionals need to base their work on restorative
Communities, Juvenile Offenders, justice values and continually assess how well they
and Juvenile Justice Professionals are facilitating community involvement, including
individual victims of crime, and assisting juvenile
Victims, community members, juvenile offenders, offenders in building competencies and becoming a
and juvenile justice professionals move from operat- part of the community. See table 5 on page 41 for
ing in isolation to working together on coordinated, examples of new roles within the BARJ Model.
collaborative activities for planning and implement-
ing policy, programs, and individual interventions.
Changing Decisionmaking Roles:
◆ The victim role shifts from being a witness or
observer to being an active participant in finding New Options
an appropriate response. Decisionmaking on an appropriate set of obligations
(or sanctions) by which the juvenile offender can
◆ The community role shifts from a passive position
satisfy accountability, competency development, and
to active participation in managing the juvenile’s
community safety objectives can be shaped by:
behavior and supporting the victim.
◆ Direct participation by the victim and juvenile
◆ The juvenile offender role shifts from passive
offender in dispositional decisions through victim-
avoidance to active taking of responsibility.
offender dialogue.
◆ The juvenile justice professional role shifts from
◆ Direct participation by the victim, juvenile of-
attempting to directly manage the juvenile’s be-
fender, and their respective communities of care
havior to facilitating community processes that
in dispositional decisions through family group
manage the juvenile’s behavior.
conferencing or similar community sanctioning
In encouraging role changes for juvenile justice pro- and dispute resolution processes, including peace-
fessionals, it is important to recognize the multiple making sentencing.
ways in which juvenile justice professionals can ap-
◆ Direct participation by selected community
ply restorative justice, regardless of job title or tradi-
members in decisions through community panels
tional area of practice.
(e.g., Vermont’s reparative boards).
For example, victim-offender mediation practice
◆ Direct victim and community input through vic-
may be initiated and supervised by probation offic-
tim and community impact statements to the
ers, by prosecutors in a county attorney’s office, or
by victim-assistance advocates within a department
of community safety. Indeed, law enforcement offic- ◆ Indirect victim and community input through
ers are developing family group and large group client satisfaction surveys by juvenile justice
conferencing programs in collaboration with local professionals.
schools and community resources.

◆ Indirect victim input through a victim representa- Juvenile Justice Professionals Engaging
tive who speaks on behalf of the victim in the the Community
decisionmaking process.
◆ Identifying a Problem. In central Minnesota, a
◆ Leadership from judges and prosecutors in facili- probation officer became frustrated with the fail-
tating restorative alternatives to the traditional ure of available interventions to change the be-
court system, such as circle sentencing and havior patterns of offenders from a particular
Vermont’s reparative boards. community. Offenders were in and out of the
system repeatedly, both on new offenses and on
violations of conditions of probation or super-
Skills and Knowledge Needed by vised release. Looking for a solution, the officer
the Juvenile Justice Professional began discussions with a social service provider
who runs a job skills program.
◆ Understanding of the victim experience.
◆ Restorative Justice Planning. The probation
◆ Conflict management and mediation skills.
officer (agent) and social service provider decided
◆ Knowledge of community organizations, leaders, to explore restorative justice options. The agent
and processes. obtained written material on various restorative
justice program models from the restorative jus-
◆ Knowledge of youth development and the compe- tice planner at the Minnesota Department of Cor-
tency framework. rections. He then shared and discussed some
restorative justice material with a local judge.
◆ Ability to work with multidisciplinary groups and Having engaged the judge’s interest, the agent
possession of facilitation skills. identified key leaders in the target community
◆ Communication skills. and key players in the justice system. In conjunc-
tion with the social service provider, the agent
◆ Knowledge of job opportunities in the organized a seminar to introduce restorative jus-
community. tice and possible program models to the group.
The agent recruited speakers, sent invitations,
◆ Ability to supervise and support community made personal contacts to encourage attendance,
members and organizations that work with and facilitated the meeting.
◆ Facilitating the Community Planning Meeting.
◆ Knowledge of program resources in the Meeting participants expressed an interest in
community. further exploring the circle sentencing model.
◆ Ability to identify extended support networks of With the help of the social service provider, the
victims and juvenile offenders. agent organized and facilitated a series of monthly
meetings that enabled the group to:
◆ Ability to initiate change and then pass leadership
to others. Become more knowledgeable about a commu-
nity process of responding to crime known as
circle sentencing.
Juvenile Justice Professional Identify a target offender population for the
Role-Change Examples process.
The following promising practices reflect how the Identify other interested community members.
changing roles of juvenile justice professionals in Begin planning implementation steps.
BARJ practice result in greater community involve-
ment, support, and ownership in the outcomes.

Table 5. New Roles in the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model

Sanctioning Through Rehabilitation Through Enhancement of

Accountability Competency Development Community Safety

Juvenile Offender Must accept responsibility Actively participates as a Becomes involved in con-
for behavior and actively resource in service roles structive competency build-
work to restore loss to that improve quality of ing and restorative activities
victims (if victims wish) life in the community and in a balanced program while
and the community and provide new experiences, under adult supervision,
face victims or victim skills, and self-esteem as a develops internal controls
representatives (if victims productive resource for and new peer and organiza-
wish) and community positive action tional commitments, and
members helps others escape offend-
ing patterns of behavior

Victim Actively participates in all Provides input into the Provides input regarding
stages of the restorative rehabilitative process, continuing safety concerns,
process (if victim wishes suggests community ser- fear, and needed controls on
and is able), documents vice options for juvenile juvenile offenders and en-
psychological and finan- offenders, and participates courages protective support
cial impact of crime, par- in victim panels or victim- for other victims
ticipates in mediation awareness training for
voluntarily, and helps staff and juvenile offend-
determine sanctions for ers (if victim wishes)
juvenile offender

Community Member Participates as volunteer Develops new opportuni- Provides “guardianship”

mediator/facilitator and ties for youth to make of juvenile offenders,
community panel member, productive contributions, mentoring, and input to
develops community ser- build competency, and juvenile justice systems
vice and compensated establish a sense of regarding safety concerns;
work opportunities for belonging addresses underlying com-
juvenile offenders with munity problems that
reparative obligations, and contribute to delinquency;
assists victims and sup- and provides “natural
ports juvenile offenders in surveillance”
completing obligations

Juvenile Justice Facilitates mediation, Develops new roles for Develops range of incen-
Professional ensures that restoration young offenders that al- tives and consequences to
occurs (by providing ways low them to practice and ensure juvenile offender
for juvenile offenders to demonstrate competency, compliance with supervision
earn funds for restitution), assesses and builds on objectives, assists school
develops creative/restor- youth and community and family in their efforts to
ative community service strengths, and develops control and maintain juve-
options, engages commu- community partnerships nile offenders in the com-
nity members in the pro- munity, and develops
cess, and educates prevention capacity of local
community on its role organizations

Adapted from Bazemore and Washington. 1995. Charting the future for the juvenile justice system: reinventing mission and management. Spectrum, The
Journal of State Government. 68(2):51–66.

Over the course of these meetings, the agent Long-Term Prevention Activities
gradually eased himself out of the primary leader-
◆ Community Involvement and Education.
ship role, while remaining vigilant to ensure that
Juvenile justice professionals from CISP’s
the process did not lose momentum.
Garfield Center in Allegheny County, PA, ac-
◆ Carrying on the Process. The social service pro- tively engage the community in crime prevention
vider applied for a grant on behalf of the group to and community strengthening. The center offers
obtain training in circle sentencing. Community many community activities, including family sup-
members committed themselves to participate port group meetings, parent effectiveness train-
and recruit others. (Circle sentencing requires ing, open houses, a violence prevention program,
significant involvement of the community.) The and a Martin Luther King, Jr., Day celebration.
agent now provides support and encouragement
For example, juvenile justice professionals offer
as the community moves forward in its prepara-
parent effectiveness training for juvenile offend-
tion to conduct circles. The agent also identifies
ers under their supervision and for other youth
possible cases for which the circle process might
in the area. Because CISP staff have found that
be effective. Throughout the process, the agent
many offenders are parents of young children
has facilitated communication among the commu-
and are in need of parenting education in addition
nity, other system players, and State resources.
to safe sex and reproductive health education,
This example illustrates the role of the justice CISP offers its classes to the wider community
professional as a change agent in bringing to- as a preventative to possible future violence.
gether available resources, the community, and
the system to develop new solutions to difficult Creation of Partnerships for Prevention
In 1995, an unoccupied new addition to a senior
citizens apartment complex in Dakota County, MN,
Identification and Involvement of was burned to the ground by three males, ages 14,
Key Stakeholders 16, and 18. The three youth were charged with ar-
◆ Collaborative Planning. The Faribault County son. The oldest admitted the charge and spent 6
(MN) Local Coordinating Council includes key months in jail. The two juveniles were placed on
decisionmakers from education, human services, probation. All were ordered to apologize in some
corrections, private youth service providers, and way to the community and to pay restitution.
law enforcement. The council handles case plan- Providing for Restorative Justice Accountability.
ning and case management for current juvenile The Dakota County, MN (BARJ Model Site),
cases from participating agencies through a pro- Victim-Offender Meeting Program contacted the
cess that includes meeting with the juvenile and at senior residents and invited them to an informa-
least one parent monthly. The parents and child tional meeting about the victim-offender meeting
are equal players in the process. Cases range from process. Thirty residents attended the meeting,
youth having difficulty in school to youth return- which was facilitated by the juvenile justice pro-
ing to the community from an out-of-home place- fessional who directs the Dakota County program.
ment. Relationships with the family that may be Of the residents who attended, 10 expressed inter-
confrontational at first have later developed into est in meeting face to face with the boys who had
supportive relationships. On occasion, parents burned their building. The facilitators also met
have asked for continuation of the meetings after with each of the boys and explained the process to
the council was prepared to close the case, be- them. The juveniles agreed to meet with the seniors
cause it had become a source of support for the but only if each met with the group alone, without
family. the other juveniles present.

Telling the Impact of the Crime. At the meeting, The fire marshal from the community where the fire
the seniors told the boys how their lives had been occurred helped determine the best ages to target for
changed forever by the fire. They recalled waking an arson prevention video. It was decided that the
up that March morning to the fierce orange glow video would target youth who were similar in age to
outside their windows. They told of how they had to those who started the fire. In preparation for the
leave all their worldly possessions and run out of the video, the juvenile justice professional arranged for a
building, some in their nightgowns. The seniors re- focus group consisting of children and youth to pro-
counted how it felt to experience the heat from the vide input on content. A second focus group of
fire and watch their blinds melt to the window. They teachers and school administrators provided input
talked about the terror of not knowing if they were from an educational perspective. It was decided that
going to escape in time. the video would feature one of the boys who started
the fire and that a supplemental written curriculum
Just “Goofing Around.” The seniors heard the boys would be developed as a teaching aid. In addition, it
explain that they never meant to start a fire. The was agreed that the youth would participate in the
boys were just “goofing around” by starting paper video project under the condition that his identity
on fire and then putting it out. would not be revealed.
At the time of the fire, the eldest of the three was Taping included a reenactment of the youth’s arrest
engaged to be married and was looking forward to and incarceration. The juvenile justice professional
starting a career with the U.S. Marine Corps. Fol- was present at the video shoot with the youth. The
lowing a 6-month jail term for burglary and arson, arresting officer was interviewed, as were seniors
he now works two jobs and attends college. His life who had participated in the meeting with the boys.
will never be the same.
The production and film crew were supplied by the
Repairing the Harm to the Community. The insur- St. Paul Companies. Five insurance companies fi-
ance companies paid for most of the financial loss nanced the production, and copies were distributed
from the fire, leaving a minimal amount for the boys to fire marshals throughout Minnesota. To order this
to pay. However, the seniors requested that the two video, see appendix A (page A–14).
oldest boys go out and teach others about the dan-
gers of “playing with fire.” It was suggested that the
boys might be able speak before groups of young A Change in Countywide Systems
people about their experience. The juvenile justice Toward Restorative Justice
professional agreed to help the boys fulfill that re- Juvenile Justice and Human Services Joint
quest in order to make amends to the seniors and Effort. During 1996 and 1997, the Dane County,
the community. WI, Department of Human Services and Juvenile
Following Through. After contacting several Court have joined forces in enlisting social workers,
schools, the juvenile justice professional found that law enforcement, human services administrators,
a videotape would be the most effective way for the district attorneys, public defenders, and juvenile
boys to reach a large number of students. Cable court judges to team up to implement the BARJ
television stations were willing to provide technical Model throughout their county in an effort to re-
assistance; however, it was necessary to find a pro- form their juvenile delinquency supervision system.
ducer who would either donate time or find inves- Areas of development and planning include:
tors willing to donate a large amount of money for ◆ Involving the Community in Preventing and
the project. Responding to Juvenile Delinquency. Dane
The juvenile justice professional enlisted the help of County intends to present and discuss BARJ
the St. Paul Companies, a national insurance com- in a variety of community forums. Community
pany based in the area, and the Insurance Federa- outreach efforts are being directed at educators,
tion of Minnesota to produce the video. students, service clubs, policymakers, law

enforcement, civic organizations, and other inter- ◆ Reducing Institutionalization. Services for Chil-
ested citizen groups. Discussions focus on how dren Come First (CCF), which serves children
BARJ principles can be implemented and on the with severe emotional disturbance, include inten-
roles community members and organizations can sive supervision, immediate onsite crisis response,
play in preventing and responding to delinquent backup plans for school disruptions, mentoring,
behavior. and short-term residential stabilization. Care
planning is based on the balanced approach and is
◆ Developing a Victim-Offender Conferencing achieved by intense coordination by a team in-
Program. Dane County is developing a juvenile cluding school, community, family, and other rel-
victim-offender conferencing service program to evant agencies. Part of the program includes
provide victims of crime an opportunity to ex- focusing on juveniles at high risk of correctional
plain directly to offenders, in a safe and facili- placement, with applications of related intensity
tated meeting, the impact of the offense and to supervision (e.g., home detention, electronic
ask questions of the offender. Planning, develop- monitoring, and community supervision).
ment, and implementation of this service will be
overseen by a group of professionals and citizens
representing a variety of systems and communi- A Move From Community “Corrections”
ties. Their goal is to integrate restorative justice to Community “Justice”
and victim-centered justice into the already suc- Deschutes County, OR, has long been committed to
cessful system of restitution and community ser- a BARJ approach to juvenile justice. To support its
vice work performed by juvenile offenders in shift from a retributive to a more restorative system,
Dane County. Deschutes County has worked to change how the
◆ Designing a Consistent Risk and Strengths community views its juvenile justice department and
Assessment Process for Youth. Dane County how juvenile justice professionals view themselves.
is conducting research on risk for youth and is Changing roles reflect changing goals and objec-
examining factors that contribute to recidivism, tives. The following goals and objectives are now a
nature of the offense, and characteristics of the part of Deschutes County’s focus on community
juvenile and family that will impact intervention justice:
strategies. Juvenile justice staff and community ◆ Program Development. With community justice,
members are also developing “Youth as Re- the program focus shifts from a corrections em-
sources” projects, which allow young offenders phasis on offenders to a balanced emphasis on the
to demonstrate competency in the community. community, crime victims, and offenders. Thus,
◆ Educating County Staff About the Balanced program initiatives reflect this balance. For ex-
and Restorative Justice Approach Through ample, program development is now required to
Meetings, Newsletters, and Other Communica- build an array of community crime prevention
tions. To educate county staff, the juvenile justice and community restoration programs, victim par-
department holds conferences, publishes a news- ticipation and compensation services, and effec-
letter dedicated to the balanced approach, and tive offender control and recidivism-reduction
involves staff in developing restorative policies efforts.
and practices. ◆ Public Information. At the heart of community
◆ Tailoring the Model to the Needs of Their justice is the community. An ill-informed commu-
County. The county plans to include the concept nity should not be expected to respond with en-
of family competency in their programming relat- thusiasm to the community justice movement.
ing to families, including learning to set limits, Therefore, Deschutes County is making a sub-
interacting with schools, supporting their child’s stantial effort to educate the public about the
successful activities, and other positive parenting goals and objectives of community justice. The
approaches to promote competence in youth. most informed public is thought to be an involved

public. Therefore, extensive effort is being made is exemplified by a police department in a large ur-
to have community members organized and active ban area in England.
with their public relations strategies. Special ef-
forts are being made to have community members For fiscal year 1994–95, a comprehensive audit of
describe community justice to other residents via expenditures across criminal justice agencies was
service club presentations, neighborhood gather- undertaken that revealed how money was spent by
ings, and religious events. the criminal justice system.

◆ Staff Development. Many of Deschutes The audit revealed that the criminal justice system
County’s community corrections officers are spends the vast majority of resources processing
trained probation officers. To serve victims and the cases brought to it and attempting to ensure
join hands with community members in crime due process but little on the prevention of crime
prevention, extensive training is now required to (including the prevention of reoffending and
assist in professional development of the officers revictimization) or service to victims, witnesses,
for their new role as community justice officers. and offenders.

◆ Leadership Development. Deschutes County The system spends time consulting with itself and
has formed a new community safety council that obtaining information (often from the offender) in
consists of citizens, judges, law enforcement offi- order to make decisions, but not much is done to
cials, criminal defense attorneys, prosecutors, address the needs of offenders, victims, or communi-
corrections officials, victim advocates, human ties. The system seems primarily occupied with
service professionals, and elected officials. Lead- speeding the passage of cases and offenders.
ership development training will be focused on The audit was conducted following the implementa-
the community safety council, which will hence- tion of problem-solving policing in Milton Keynes,
forth be known as the community justice council. England, after it was recognized that police efforts
◆ Research and Evaluation. Studying the effects, were often hampered by the lack of a clearly defined
benefits, and shortcomings of a community- underlying purpose of the criminal justice system.
centered focus on crime prevention, interven- The audit was difficult to implement because of the
tion, and corrections will aid ongoing program system’s large number of agencies and its diverse
development. Research and evaluation design management and financial information systems. For
must be tailored to community justice, which the first time, resource allocations have been made
includes outcomes related to community mem- transparent for practitioners and the public alike.
bers, victims of crime, and offenders.
For example, less than 1 percent of the overall bud-
◆ Systems Modification. Community justice is a get is used for victim support and less than 1 percent
shift in philosophy and practice. To succeed, the is spent on intervention for young offenders. These
entire criminal justice system must participate, numbers have provoked considerable debate about
with community members playing a leadership the purpose of the justice system and its current
role. The shift to community justice requires a criti- deployment of resources.
cal analysis of intervention priorities, adoption of
new practices in place of unproductive or counter- Milton Keynes police discovered that most offenders,
productive practices, and a commitment to inter- youth and adult, began with shoplifting. It was de-
dependence by the criminal justice community. cided that a problem-solving approach to shoptheft
(shoplifting) offenders was needed to identify the
Community Policing: Solving Problems underlying problems as soon as someone came to the
notice of the police. Traditionally, the police had given
Shoplifting Program; Milton Keynes, England. warnings (a police “caution”) and prosecuted in only
Police have often led in changing their role to create the more serious cases. The police also wanted to
a more restorative response to crime. This initiative experiment with involving retailers (the victims) in

handling shoplifting cases so that the offenders hol and drug abuse, marital problems, and bereave-
learned the consequences of their behavior on others, ment have surfaced as underlying reasons.
and for themselves. In 1994, the Milton Keynes
Retail Theft Initiative began, in which retailers and To deal with these issues, the police, in partnership
shop thieves are brought face to face by the police. with other local agencies, have developed a series of
Subsequent mediation sessions allow the retailers to programs that include antibullying programs; “Pro-
express their feelings and concerns, and many offend- tective Behaviors,” which teaches young people to
ers are unaware of the impact of their behavior on the make decisions independently without succumbing
retailers. to outside pressure; youth counseling; and a prison
awareness program, which alerts offenders at risk of
The offenders learn that shop theft is an offense that reoffending to what life is like inside prison.
has implications for their victims, the wider commu-
nity, and for themselves. At the sessions, offenders The Home Office evaluation of the retail theft initia-
respond to the approach, which enables them to talk tive showed that recidivism rates were reduced sub-
frankly about what is going on in their lives that stantially (by well over a third) and the costs of
may be provoking their behavior. conducting the mediation sessions and implementing
other programs were easily offset by not prosecuting
Aside from mediating between the two parties (with cases through the criminal justice system. Victims
a parent or guardian present in juvenile cases), the reported greater satisfaction with the program and,
police try to identify the underlying problem. In after their involvement, began recognizing the needs
more than 3 years since the initiative was launched, of the offenders instead of viewing all as needing
the police have determined many of the reasons why punishment. The shift in perception has helped at-
offenders steal from shops. For young people, peer tract funding for intervention programs. The initia-
pressure, bullying, and even parental abuse may be tive has stimulated wide interest in the concept of
almost daily occurrences. In the case of adults, alco- victim-offender mediation and community policing.

Getting Help: Strategies for Involving

The juvenile justice system cannot succeed in chang- In general, communities manage individual behavior
ing the behavior of juvenile offenders or improving more effectively than governments do. However,
community safety without the active involvement of communities need government support and re-
the community. The community has tools, resources, sources and the perspective of an oversight mecha-
and power that the system does not have. Juvenile nism that is separate from the community.
justice system activity must be built around a core of
community activity. Because formal government processes have gradu-
ally assumed much authority and power, the juvenile
This new relationship between the community and justice system also has a leadership responsibility
the juvenile justice system is shaped by several key in moving from the current approach to one in
ideas: which the community is the lead partner. The
system needs to:
◆ The community is the source of moral authority
or influence. ◆ Assist in developing the transformed community
role through information, education, and techni-
◆ The community is the center of decisionmaking cal assistance.
whenever possible.
◆ Link communities with others that have common
◆ The community is the center of action. interests and goals to share experience and
◆ Formal government is the source of legal author- knowledge.
ity (as contrasted with the moral authority of the ◆ Lead a process of clarifying the statewide vision
community). and goals for the juvenile justice process.
◆ The government is in a position of broader over- ◆ Monitor community activities to ensure that val-
sight than the community. ues of the State and Nation are honored (e.g.,
◆ The government is the guardian of individual fairness and appropriate due process).
concerns (in contrast with community responsi-
bility for collective concerns). Guiding Principles
The purpose of the legal authority is to affirm the The following principles should guide efforts to gain
community’s authority and provide a mechanism for greater commitment to restorative justice values in
responding to offenders’ failure to comply with re- the community.
quirements of the sanction. The community’s moral
authority is central and the State’s legal authority is ◆ Special outreach efforts to victims groups are
secondary and a backup. Legal authority that is not important because victims have historically been
clearly grounded in the community’s moral authority left out of the juvenile justice process. Victims
as demonstrated by active community involvement groups have had to fight the system for nearly
is hollow and ineffective. every gain they have achieved. Consequently,
many victims and their advocates are skeptical

that an initiative of an agency serving juvenile ◆ The community contains natural allies in fields
offenders can genuinely have victim interests at outside juvenile justice who can bring depth
its center. An unwavering commitment to involve and credibility to the advocacy of a restorative
victims despite obstacles that may be encountered approach.
is critical to ensure that the outcomes are genu-
inely restorative. ◆ Energy is most effectively expended in working
with individuals who are interested in trying re-
◆ Victims and community members should be in- storative approaches. Seeds sown in fertile soil
cluded on advisory boards, councils, and commit- produce the most impressive results, which, by
tees for implementing the BARJ Model. (Work example, will convince skeptics more readily
groups that include only juvenile justice and than direct persuasion.
agency professionals should be avoided.)
◆ There is no single roadmap or blueprint for build-
◆ Restorative justice should not be mandated in a ing a restorative system.
top-down authoritarian process.
◆ A feedback loop between stakeholder and leader-
◆ The work of putting the principles of restorative ship is important.
justice into practice must be accomplished at the
local level and must involve all stakeholders. ◆ The juvenile justice system and the community
must be prepared to make mistakes.
◆ The appropriate role of national, State, or regional
leadership is to articulate the vision, disseminate ◆ Proponents of the BARJ Model do not have an-
information, and provide support and technical swers to all questions raised by the principles of
assistance to jurisdictions attempting to evolve into restorative justice. The process of searching for
a more restorative approach. National and State answers should involve dialogue with all who
agencies can also implement pilot programs to have an interest in the question.
demonstrate application of the principles. The Putting the principles and strategies to work to build
Federal Government and State governments are community support and participation requires sev-
responsible for monitoring outcomes to ensure eral basic community organizing skills:
fairness, equity, and effectiveness of processes
designed at the local level. ◆ Find Your Natural Allies in the Community.
◆ The process of implementing restorative ap- Talk to individuals interested in violence pre-
proaches must model the principles themselves vention, underlying causes of crime, social jus-
(e.g., victims must have a voice, and the commu- tice, stronger neighborhoods, a sense of
nity must be involved). community, and children’s issues. You are
likely to find some who resonate to restorative
◆ A clear understanding by practitioners and stake- justice values and see great potential for ad-
holders, including the community, of the philo- dressing some of their own interests through
sophical underpinnings of the approach is that framework.
essential to ensure that changes are substantive
and not merely cosmetic. Program implementa- Listen to the interests of others. Ask them how
tion without an explicit understanding of underly- restorative justice fits with their interests.
ing values often leads to undesirable results. Learn to use language that makes connections
for the audience. When speaking to educators,
◆ Each juvenile justice professional and community talk about the connections between restorative
member has opportunities to contribute to a re- justice and school discipline problems. When
storative vision in the community even without talking to law enforcement, talk about the
making major system changes. natural fit between community-based policing

and restorative justice. When speaking to busi- resolved than is initially apparent. For ex-
ness people, talk about restorative justice in the ample, what may appear to be a desire for
language of total quality management or effec- retribution is often actually a concern for
tive government and economics. public safety. A restorative approach cannot
deliver retribution but can potentially deliver
Identify the common ground for others—do
at least as much community safety as the cur-
not assume that it is obvious to them. Explain
rent system.
why restorative justice matters to them, based
on their own interests. ◆ Deal With Victim Issues First.
Engage people in a discussion of their own If those raising objections are victims groups or
worries, fears, and concerns and identify, advocates, then use the above skills over and
where possible, how a restorative approach over again.
provides a potential solution to that problem.
Be willing to engage in dialogue with victims or
◆ Avoid Becoming Identified With a Particular victim advocates on their “turf” repeatedly.
Political Label. Offer to come back to hear their concerns.
Articulate their concerns in your own words to
Find community allies on both ends of the po-
be sure you understand.
litical spectrum. Restorative justice is consis-
tent with fiscal conservativism, the call for a Ask a sympathetic victim supporter to help you
reduced role for government, and an emphasis understand the issues being raised. Seek victim
on personal accountability. On the other hand, input for any proposed policy and program
the reduced emphasis on physical punishment change. Learn about victim issues and the ex-
and the call for community accountability are perience of victimization.
consistent with traditional liberal values.
Listen to victim stories. Use victim stories in
Seek out respected leaders with divergent your public speaking. In written materials or
points of view as key supporters of restorative overheads, for example, list items related to
justice. victims before those related to offenders.
◆ Listen to Those Who Disagree. ◆ Balance Focus With Flexibility.

The entire community is a stakeholder in the It is critical to be clear and consistent about the
issue of community safety, so everyone de- values and vision of the BARJ approach, but
serves to be respectfully heard in the process there are multiple ways to achieve the vision.
of deciding the direction of the system. Listen Be prepared to modify your approach if it is
carefully so that you can understand the objec- not working and other more promising avenues
tions. Develop an explanation that responds to appear. Success may depend more on being
the objections for use when speaking to other responsive to opportunity than on detailed
groups. long-range action plans.
Acknowledge the need to have dialogue and ◆ Monitor Your Own Assumptions and
explore further on issues for which you do not Stereotypes.
have answers. Be prepared to learn from the
objections raised. BARJ is an emerging model, Promoting a new paradigm requires breaking
and proponents should be responsive to valid out of your own paradigms in many ways. Un-
objections. expected sources of support and opportunities
may be missed if you do not become aware of
Probe beneath surface objections to identify your own assumptions about others and con-
underlying issues that may be more readily sciously put those aside.

Measuring Outcomes

Desired outcomes are defined by the vision. Actual ◆ What are the measurable increases in competency
outcomes will be determined by the quality of the for the juvenile offender?
process—not just what gets done, but how it is
done. If the process of responding to an offender is ◆ What bonds among victim, community members,
humiliating or demeaning, the outcome is unlikely families, and the juvenile offender have been cre-
to be a respectful attitude by the offender. If the ated or strengthened?
process of responding to a victim is patronizing or ◆ What positive roles in the community were cre-
discounts the victim’s voice, the outcome is unlikely ated for the juvenile offender?
to be the recovery of personal power. Respectful
process treats each participant as equal in human ◆ Does the disposition structure the juvenile’s time
dignity and in capacity to contribute to construc- based on the risk to reoffend?
tive solutions. Respectful process for victims facili-
tates the recovery of a sense of personal power. ◆ Has the juvenile fulfilled the requirements of the
Respectful process for offenders encourages them disposition?
to experience responsible use of their personal
◆ Has the juvenile refrained from committing any
power to own their behavior, to make amends, and
new offenses?
to help others.
◆ Did the disposition provide roles for community
Measuring outcomes is a way of checking the sys-
members in promoting accountability and com-
tem—holding the system accountable to the vision.
munity safety?
Paying attention to what gets measured is a power-
ful strategy for promoting change. Line staff take
their cues about what is really important from what Guiding Questions for
gets measured and reported.
Measuring Outcomes for
Guiding Questions for the Juvenile Justice System
◆ What percentage of cases provide for active vic-
Measuring Outcomes for tim input into the terms of the disposition?
Individual Dispositions
◆ What percentage of cases provide for active com-
◆ What is the level of victim satisfaction with the munity input into the terms of the disposition?
overall disposition?
◆ What percentage of cases provide for active
◆ How much repair was achieved for the victim? juvenile offender input into the terms of the
◆ How much repair was achieved for the
community? ◆ How many community members participate in
policymaking, case decisionmaking, or implemen-
◆ What is the level of the juvenile’s understanding
tation of dispositions?
of the impact of the offense on others?

◆ What percentage of cases involving financial loss ◆ What percentage of juveniles continue to volun-
require payment of restitution by the juvenile? teer at the sites where they completed their com-
munity service?
◆ What percentage of restitution ordered is paid?
◆ What percentage of community service assign-
◆ What percentage of community work service is ments involve juveniles working side by side with
completed? conventional adult volunteers?
◆ What percentage of cases are referred to media- ◆ What level of responsibility does the community
tion/dialogue? How many mediate? How many feel for addressing the problem of delinquent
reach agreement? What percentage of agreements youth and community safety?
are successfully fulfilled?
◆ Does the community have expectations for posi-
◆ What percentage of cases involve other organiza- tive contributions from delinquent youth?
tions or individuals to assist in monitoring the
juvenile’s activities and behavior (e.g., schools, ◆ Are the levels of fear in the community abating?
family members, recreation programs, and treat-
ment programs)? ◆ What percentage of juveniles reoffend while on
supervision? Within a 2-year period?
◆ What is the level of involvement of juvenile jus-
tice staff in community problem-solving efforts ◆ Are resources spent in a way that supports ac-
aimed at preventing delinquent behavior? countability, competency development, and
community safety equally?

Balanced and Restorative Justice Practice

Quality Restorative Justice most affected by crime—the victim, victimized com-

munity, and juvenile offender.
Cooptation of programs could easily lead to the “fast
Restorative justice emphasizes the importance of
food” version of restorative justice practice, which
elevating the role of crime victims and communities
would provide a “quick fix,” remain offender fo-
in the process of holding offenders accountable for
cused, use victims as “props” rather than active part-
their behavior, while offering offenders the opportu-
ners, and have little patience to listen to victims’
nity to make amends directly to the people and com-
stories, validate their needs, or invite their participa-
munity they violated.
tion in the process.
Financial restitution, community service, victim-
Without adequate community involvement, juvenile
offender mediation, and the more recent development
justice professionals could continue to be service
of family group conferencing are widely understood
providers instead of facilitators of community jus-
to illustrate restorative justice practice. The manner in
tice. A seemingly restorative practice could remain a
which these interventions are implemented, however,
primarily punitive exercise that keeps offenders in
is likely to influence the degree to which the interven-
passive roles and stigmatizes them rather than re-
tions are experienced as restorative by victims, com-
spectfully allowing them to take responsibility and
munities, and juvenile offenders.
earnestly make amends.
It is overly simplistic to conclude that specific inter-
Table 6 illustrates how common restorative justice
ventions are either totally restorative or not restor-
interventions might be implemented from “least re-
ative at all, particularly if such an assessment is
storative” to “most restorative.”
based solely upon a program’s description. Instead,
it is more likely that most of these interventions,
and others, can be viewed along a continuum from Community Justice Officer
having a least restorative to most restorative impact
on crime victims, other community members, and
Position Description
offenders. To realize greater systemic reform toward a bal-
anced and restorative system of juvenile justice, the
Deschutes County, OR, Department of Community
Grounding Interventions in Key
Justice has transformed its probation officer posi-
Restorative Justice Values tions into “community justice officer” positions. The
Unless an intervention is clearly grounded in restor- revised position description, which is included as
ative justice values and its procedures are designed appendix B, illustrates how juvenile justice profes-
to maximize the use of those values, it can easily be sionals can change the way they view their work,
compromised to meet primarily traditional, retribu- their responsibilities, and their performance goals to
tive justice system political, bureaucratic, or eco- serve victims, community members, and offenders.
nomic needs, rather than meeting the needs of those

Table 6. Quality of Restorative Justice Practice Continuum

Intervention Least Restorative Impact Most Restorative Impact

Financial Restitution ◆ No phone or in-person contact with ◆ In-person or phone contact to hear the
victim to receive his or her input. victim’s story of how the crime affected
◆ Written input only. him or her and to identify his or her
need for restitution or other concerns
◆ Offender makes payment to court
(this could be followed up with written
and has no sense of making amends
to the victim.
◆ Restitution requirement presented to
◆ Restitution viewed as punishment
offender as way to repair harm.
rather than reparation.
◆ Restitution used as a way to increase
offender’s understanding of the concrete
nature of victim loss.

Community Service ◆ Court orders a specific number ◆ In-person or phone contact to hear the
of hours of community service victim’s story of how the crime affected
with no victim or community him or her and to ask if there is a par-
input. ticularly meaningful type of community
◆ Service projects are demeaning. service that the victim would like to see
the offender complete.
◆ Community service viewed by
the community and offender as ◆ Involvement of community in identify-
punishment. ing projects valued by the community
and the offender.
◆ Projects that involve offenders and com-
munity members working side by side.
◆ The contribution of offenders is ac-
knowledged in public.
◆ Service includes a reflection component
that helps community and offender
understand community service as a
process for giving back to the
◆ Service gives opportunity for offender
to gain or enhance meaningful compe-
tencies and skills.


Table 6. Quality of Restorative Justice Practice Continuum (continued)

Intervention Least Restorative Impact Most Restorative Impact

Victim-Offender Agreement Driven: Offender Focus Dialogue Driven: Victim Sensitive Focus
Mediation ◆ Entire focus is upon determining the ◆ Primary focus is on providing an opportu-
amount of financial restitution to be nity for victim and offender to talk di-
paid, with no opportunity to talk di- rectly to each other, to allow victims to
rectly about the full impact of the express the full impact of the crime upon
offender’s crime upon the victim and their lives and to receive answers to im-
the community. portant questions they have, and to allow
◆ No separate preparation meetings with offenders to learn the real human impact
the victim and offender prior to bring- of their behavior and to take direct re-
ing the parties together to discuss ex- sponsibility for making things right.
pectations and needs. ◆ Restitution is important but secondary to
◆ No choice given to victims about where talking about the impact of the crime.
they would feel safest and most com- ◆ Victims are continually given choices
fortable to meet or whom they would throughout the process, such as where to
like to be present. meet and whom they would like to have
◆ Victims given only written notice to present.
appear for mediation session at preset ◆ Separate preparation meetings with vic-
time, with no preparation. tim and offender prior to bringing them
◆ Mediator or facilitator describes the together, with emphasis upon listening to
offense, and offender then speaks, with how the crime has affected them, identi-
the victim simply asking a few ques- fying their needs, and preparing them for
tions or responding to questions of the the mediation or conference session.
Family Group mediator. ◆ Nondirective style of mediation or facili-
Conferencing ◆ Highly directive style of mediation or tation, with mediator not talking most of
facilitation, with the mediator talking the time; high tolerance of silence; and
most of the time, continually asking use of a humanistic or transformative
both the victim and offender questions, mediation model.
but little if any direct dialogue between ◆ High tolerance for expression of feelings
the involved parties. and full impact of crime.
◆ Low tolerance of moments of silence or ◆ Voluntary attendance for victim and of-
expression of feelings. fender.
◆ Voluntary for victim but required of ◆ Trained community volunteers serve as
offender regardless of whether he or mediators or comediators along with
she takes responsibility. agency staff.
◆ Settlement driven and brief (15 to 20 ◆ Dialogue driven and typically about an
minutes). hour in length (or longer).

Adapted from Umbreit. 1997. Restorative justice: Interventions’ impact varies; manner of implementation critical. In The Crime Victim Report.

Sample Disposition Balanced and Restorative Justice
The Deschutes County, OR, Department of Com- Case Management Guide
munity Justice has developed a balanced and restor-
The BARJ Case Management Guide shown in table
ative format for developing case dispositions. A
7 was modified from one originally developed by the
sample disposition of a juvenile offender who admit-
Deschutes County, OR, Department of Community
ted to theft of a vehicle parked at a senior citizen
Justice for juvenile justice professionals to compre-
housing project is included as appendix C. The vic-
hensively apply BARJ principles to their work with
tim agreed to mediation, and the disposition reflects
youthful offenders. The Guide takes the juvenile
the victim’s suggestions.
justice professional through assessment, planning,
supervision, and outcome-measurement functions,
while considering the three components of the bal-
anced approach— accountability, competency devel-
opment, and community safety.

Table 7. Balanced and Restorative Justice Case Management Guide

Accountability Competency Development Community Safety

1. Is the victim identifiable? 1. Is the offender employed? 1. Is the offender a warrantable
2. Can the victim determine loss? 2. If not, is the offender about to risk to remain in his or her
secure work on his or her own own home?
3. Is the loss amount within rea-
sonable limits to be repaid? or does he or she need job- 2. Do the parents have the capa-
seeking skills? bility to control the behavior of
4. Is the victim willing to
3. Is a therapeutic program needed the offender?
participate in victim-offender
mediation? to enable youth or parents to 3. Is there need for supervised
take part in skills programs? home detention backup?
5. Is the offender’s attitude
appropriate for victim-offender 4. What are the youth’s strengths 4. What behavior will prompt the
mediation/dialogue? and interests that may be fur- use of detention?
ther developed? 5. Are there any adults in the
6. Is victim empathy training
required prior to offender’s 5. What opportunities exist for the youth’s life who may currently
participation in victim- juvenile to teach others from or potentially have a positive
offender mediation/dialogue? the experience? influence?
7. What is the level of under- 6. With what communities does
standing by the offender of the youth identify?
the harm to the victim and the 7. What portion of the juvenile’s
community? time is spent in structured
8. Does the victim wish to activities?
designate a form of community


Table 7. Balanced and Restorative Justice Case Management Guide (continued)

Accountability Competency Development Community Safety

1. What level of restitution order 1. What specific living, learning, 1. What resources can be identi-
is reasonable? or working skills programs will fied to ensure surveillance and
2. What will be the repayment be arranged for the youth? monitoring of the youth?
schedule? 2. Is there a need for individual 2. Are there grandparents or
3. What consequences will be tutoring? neighbors who can help super-
imposed if the restitution order 3. What job skills program is vise the youth?
is not followed? available for the offender? 3. Is there a need to identify
4. Is interaction with the victim 4. Is there an appropriate detention backup space if the
advisable or desired by the parenting-skills program for the home detention efforts fail?
victim? offender’s parents? 4. What reporting requirements
5. Is there a particular community 5. Are mentors available to work should be imposed?
service activity that is related to with the youth? 5. What should specific responsi-
the offense? 6. What community resources will bilities of the parents be to
6. What community service will be used? ensure compliance with rules?
be required and who will 7. Can the community service be 6. How can the parents access
supervise? designed to provide learning support from the system when
7. What strategy will be used to opportunities or skill building? they have difficulty with com-
increase the juvenile’s aware- pliance by the youth?
8. How can the juvenile be in-
ness of the harm of the offense? volved in planning, leadership, 7. What community activities
and teaching others? can be used to provide super-
vision and structure to the
juvenile’s day?

1. Has the restitution contract 1. Has the youth or family com- 1. Has the youth followed all
schedule been followed? pleted the skills programs? home detention orders?
2. Have community service hours 2. What evidence exists that the 2. Has the youth demonstrated the
been performed? competencies are gained? ability to control delinquent
3. If the responsibilities are not 3. Is there need to enroll the youth behavior when there has been
performed, what consequences or family in more indepth free time?
should be imposed? programs? 3. What long-term controls can
4. Is the offender fulfilling com- 4. Is there need to utilize a thera- the family adopt to remedy the
mitments made to the victim? peutic program to enable the problems?
youth to take part in skills 4. Has the youth developed any
programs? deeper connections with the
5. What adults will supervise or
mentor the youth?

Table 7. Balanced and Restorative Justice Case Management Guide (continued)

Accountability Competency Development Community Safety

Measures of Success
1. Did the victim express satisfac- 1. Is the youth and/or family using 1. Did the youth refrain from a
tion with the system’s response the skills taught to succeed in new offense?
and the youth’s subsequent home, school, and work? 2. Is the family more capable of
behavior? 2. Is the youth replacing his or her providing successful supervi-
2. Has the youth made concrete offense-behavior pattern with sion and control of all children
amends to the victim and the competencies and habits that in the family?
community? meet his or her needs? 3. Does the youth feel connected
3. Does the youth express and 3. Has the youth developed a or have a greater sense of
demonstrate an understanding positive relationship with an belonging to his or her
of the link between his or adult mentor? communities?
her offense behavior and 4. Are community members
consequences? involved in supervision and
control of the youth in the

Case Studies That Demonstrate Change Toward
a Balanced and Restorative Justice Model

In many ways, the demonstration efforts of the It is impossible, in this document, to adequately
BARJ Project discussed below have shown that summarize the experience of these jurisdictions in
a great deal of time is needed to implement change implementing restorative justice. The case studies
as complex as that prescribed by restorative justice that follow illustrate aspects of the experiences of
values. Given the expectations for each site, there Allegheny, Dakota, and Palm Beach Counties in
is room for disappointment at how slow progress their journeys toward a more balanced and restor-
has been in completing basic steps of action plans. ative justice system.
Although significant change has occurred in aware-
ness of the values and goals of restorative justice,
even this awareness seems thin once outside the Dakota County Community
circle of senior management and those assigned to Corrections, Dakota County, MN:
special units and programs. There are new pro-
grams and small examples of responses to cases Organizational Change
that encompass all principles of restorative justice.
However, on a given day, it might be difficult for a Overview of the Dakota County
visitor to observe what is new and different about Restorative Justice Effort
implementation of the BARJ Model. History. Dakota County’s systemic restorative
Part of what is new is the enthusiasm about the pos- justice effort began in 1993. Previously, restorative
sibilities of a new type of juvenile justice interven- justice principles and programming had existed on
tion and revitalized thinking that views increased a continuum among staff from those who were
victim and community involvement as a needed committed to those with little or no commitment.
shot in the arm. As a site coordinator in one juris- Restorative justice practices were seen in programs
diction put it, “There is more, and less, here than such as victim-offender mediation, restitution, and
meets the eye.” There is, for example, great excite- the youth repay crew. While these programs were
ment about plans for the future about BARJ initia- operating, a large segment of juvenile justice pro-
tives. Conversely, there is less than meets the eye in fessionals in Dakota County Community Correc-
that many of the most innovative efforts are in the tions had limited understanding and commitment
earliest stages of implementation, or only being to restorative justice principles and practices.
talked about. The critical observer would note, for The paradigm shift from a retributive model to a
example, that a list of new programs and policies restorative justice model for Dakota County Com-
does not necessarily characterize the way most munity Corrections began under the creative and
crime victims, offenders, and citizens are treated by visionary leadership of the Dakota County Commu-
the system at the present time. However, there is nity Corrections director who, over the past few
also more than meets the eye in that practitioners in years, has led the department on the journey to de-
individual probation units and special programs are velop a vision. The resultant vision became the pro-
developing innovative, restorative programs that cess of implementing restorative justice principles
often go undocumented and unrecognized.

and practices from which a new model of probation ◆ Justice for the victim.
has begun to evolve.
◆ Respectful treatment for all involved.
Purpose. The transformation process began with Overview of Committees. Department progress is
an assessment of the level of receptivity among staff guided by five implementation committees, or
for adopting a restorative justice framework. It was groups. Each committee is at a different stage of
apparent that if the majority of the staff could not development based on their assigned tasks.
align themselves with this framework, then it would
be futile to proceed with the goal of implementing ◆ Group One—Assessment and Case Planning.
restorative justice. The assessment and case planning group contin-
ues to review appropriate tools to guide practice
The key for organizational change was collaboration and service delivery. Risk/needs assessment and
between staff and management. As a result, early in case planning can impact accountability, compe-
the process, staff became involved in reviewing in- tency development, and community safety inter-
formation and selecting a new model for community ventions. An effective risk/needs tool can predict
justice. each offender’s risk to recidivate, identify the
target areas of treatment and interventions, and
Target Population. Leadership (not limited to man-
assist in holding offenders accountable to the
agement) within the department was the primary
victim and community.
target for change. For BARJ to become the prac-
tice, department leadership needed a clear under- The completed risk/needs assessment will direct
standing of the model and how it would impact the case planning in each of the areas of restorative
organization. In addition to targeting leadership justice.
within the department, it was essential to educate
and continually update the entire department. ◆ Group Two—Intake Support. The intake sup-
port group launched a pilot project to mainstream
Key Element. The key element in this organizational the intake process. Presently, there are two intake
change was strong influential, creative, passionate, specialists, located in the county’s Apple Valley
and visionary leadership, with a commitment to a office and the Hastings office. Their role is to
long journey and a collaborative process. provide more efficient service by shortening client
waiting time and eliminating the need to meet
Dakota County Within the Context of with a probation officer. This process allows the
the Larger Balanced and Restorative intake probation officers more time on the most
serious high-risk cases.
Justice Effort
On January 5, 1995, the department adopted a new ◆ Group Three—Community Work Service. The
mission statement that reflects the department’s primary focus of the community work service
commitment to restorative justice. The mission state- implementation committee is the development of
ment, the result of more than 2 years of work, reads revenue-producing community work service
as follows: projects that will support the development of
additional projects that are “good for the soul.”
We are committed to preventing crime and Such projects will target community needs simi-
repairing harm caused by crime. We promote: lar to those addressed by Habitat for Humanity.
In addition to teaching transferable skills, com-
◆ Community safety and crime prevention in the munity work service often provides a vehicle for
community. empathy development by exposing the youth to
◆ Accountability and opportunity for positive work that helps others in need. Projects now
change of the offender. under development include chore services and
woodworking. Obstacles and barriers that must

be addressed with revenue-producing commu- The first edition of the department’s Restorative Jus-
nity work service include: tice Reporter was distributed in November 1995. The
purpose of the newsletter is to facilitate the flow of
Generating enough funds to have the project restorative justice information and to recognize the
become self-sufficient. work of the department staff.
Ensuring appropriate supervision as a means
to avoid problems or liabilities. Organizational Change:
Eliciting business community “buy-in” to avoid Eliciting Staff Support
having the project viewed as a threat to their The timeline for implementing restorative justice
own revenue. proceeded through five phases of development:
Avoiding interference with public/private em-
ployment opportunities, either union or non- ◆ Phase I: Information. Key staff presented con-
union, whether the interference is perceived or cept (mid-1993 to March 1994).
real. ◆ Phase II: Organization. Action groups were
Identifying a worksite/space. developed that represent each area of restorative
justice—accountability, competency development,
Establishing a relationship with the community community safety (January 1994). Mission group
that is strong enough to engender a comfort was developed (January 1994).
level for offender-provided chore services.
Maintaining a group of qualified offenders ◆ Phase III: Vision. Key people presented recom-
large enough to meet the demands of the ser- mendations of each action group (September
vices being provided. 1994).

◆ Group Four—Victim Restoration Unit. The ◆ Phase IV: Action. The mission group presented
victim restoration unit is responsible for deter- three possible mission statements at all-staff
mining restitution, arranging victim-offender meeting (December 1994). Restorative justice
meetings, and providing information, support, implementation committees were developed
and referrals to victims. The unit is also tasked (January 1995).
with enhancing the department’s awareness of
◆ Phase V: Implementation. Mission was adopted
victim issues.
(October 1995). Restorative justice mission and
◆ Group Five—Restorative Justice Marketing/ logo were developed. Completion of the mission
Financing Committee. The restorative justice statement was celebrated (January 1996). Strate-
marketing/financing committee was formed to: gies for cognitive behavioral interventions for
competency development were presented (Janu-
Examine grant funding and the development of ary 1996).
a restorative justice foundation.
Major Strength of the Organizational Change
Elicit input from staff to identify needed com- Process in Dakota County. The major strength in
munity supports, with the goal of facilitating this organizational change process was the use of
the positive adjustment of their clients in the all-day training sessions with national consultants
community. who were credible and knowledgeable and had
Explore business partnership with other made similar departmental changes in regard to
community-based agencies. restorative justice principles and practices. In addi-
tion, the entire department was encouraged to par-
Plan and implement communications strategies
ticipate in this collaborative effort. Approximately
to keep staff and stakeholders informed about
80 percent of the department currently supports
how BARJ is progressing in Dakota County.
restorative justice practices.

Plans for Strengthening Weak Areas. The plan tutionalize a balanced approach to restorative justice
currently is to continue strengthening staff support throughout the county’s juvenile justice system. This
of restorative justice through continued education, effort has required collaboration between case man-
training, and support, with a primary focus on com- agement and residential facility staff, community
petency development. In that area, probation staff activists, the nonprofit sector, law enforcement,
participated in implementing cognitive behavioral victim-services providers, the court system (i.e.,
interventions with offenders with the overall goal of judges, public defenders, and State’s attorneys),
reducing recidivism. To support that process, staff local businesses, and other government entities.
will continue to participate in skill-development
trainings. Three basic strategies have been used to build the
system’s capacity to actualize the three components
of restorative justice. First, the district IX adminis-
Implications for Other Jurisdictions tration and the BARJ site coordinator have worked
Developing and implementing restorative justice is a to develop partnerships and system infrastructure
challenging task that requires commitment to a long that support the translation of BARJ philosophies
journey, which allows sufficient time for staff to into programmatic activities. Education of key
process their concerns and offer input. Success de- stakeholders in the district has also required contin-
pends on clear and specific goals and collaboration ued dialogue, debate, and forums for continued com-
among staff. In addition, it requires the involvement munication on district activities. Finally, much effort
of other systems that are impacted by changes made has been expended on developing resources such as
in the correctional department. leadership talent among the staff and new funding
sources to support new restorative initiatives.

Department of Juvenile Justice,

Palm Beach County Within the Context
Palm Beach County, FL: Expanding of the Larger Balanced and Restorative
the Victim Component Justice Effort
Accountability. Accountability in juvenile justice
Overview of the Palm Beach County requires balanced attention among victims, commu-
Restorative Justice Effort nities, and offenders. It also requires that juvenile
Palm Beach County is the third most populated offenders be held accountable to the persons who
county in the State of Florida. Between 1980 and were directly injured by their delinquent activity
1990, the county grew by nearly 50 percent. The and to communities that suffer when these youthful
population age 19 and under is projected to increase offenders do not participate as productive citizens.
32 percent from 1990 to the year 2000. In 1990, the Accountability in juvenile justice also includes hold-
population age 19 and under was 75.8 percent Cau- ing the community accountable to its young people.
casian, 22.5 percent African-American, and 1.6 per- The community-at-large is responsible for providing
cent other races. A total of 11.2 percent of this its youth with structures and opportunities that
population was reported to be of Hispanic origin. teach them how to be productive, successful mem-
bers of society and how to get what they need with-
Palm Beach County’s involvement in the BARJ out hurting others. Communities must also provide
effort began in 1993 with the hiring of a new juve- youth with opportunities to practice the skills they
nile justice manager. He brought the BARJ mission learned.
and philosophy to the county’s district IX system.
He began by educating the major stakeholders— Responsiveness to the victims of juvenile crime was
judges, staff, public defenders, case managers, and perhaps the most neglected aspect of restorative
the State’s attorney. In 1993, Palm Beach County justice in the county. Similar to most juvenile justice
was selected as a pilot site for the national BARJ systems in this country, juvenile justice in Palm
Project. Since then, district IX has worked to insti- Beach County allotted relatively little attention to

the victims of juvenile crime and, in some cases, working with the local private industry council to
sought to avoid victims altogether. District IX has provide work opportunities so that restitution is
worked to address this area of weakness. paid. Certain youth will receive Red Cross training
and certification in child care in order to operate a
Competency Development. In the area of compe- babysitting program within the complex.
tency development, efforts have been made to move
from traditional types of community service toward Other juvenile justice case management units make
youth development projects. In the past, community regular presentations on crime prevention and the
service has involved picking up trash, writing es- consequences of crime to the elementary and middle
says, stuffing envelopes, and, in some cases, showing schools. One case manager provides crisis interven-
up with shovels. However, rarely has completion of tion/anger control training to teachers, parents, and
community service hours required the youth to show students at a local school. Counselors, under the
up with lively and active minds. direction of a case management supervisor, visit at
least once per week with local school administrators
District IX is developing its infrastructure to sup- to monitor youth on community control and partici-
port youth development projects that provide pate in an early warning program designed to iden-
youth with the opportunity to learn marketable tify at-risk young people. A supervisor and project
skills, earn money for restitution, and act as re- staff assist school staff on a regular basis during the
sponsible members of their communities. For ex- lunch period. These efforts represent effective part-
ample, the Loxahatchee project is providing the nerships and mutually beneficial relationships be-
opportunity for young men from a residential facil- tween the educational community and district IX.
ity to work in a wildlife refuge and learn about
environmental planning and management. Youth
involved in the project have also earned money to Case Study: Expanding the
pay restitution and, where relevant, child support Victim Component
through a partnership with the U.S. Department of District IX has worked to open new lines of commu-
the Interior U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. nication with victims and victim services advocates
District IX received two grant awards to support and providers. In November 1995, all members of
service projects for first- and second-degree the Victims Coalition of Palm Beach County were
misdemeanants. The projects are modeled after a invited to a roundtable discussion of victim issues.
national crime prevention program called “Youth as Victim advocates shared their concerns regarding
Resources,” which involves youth in the victim rights and will continue to provide a victim’s
conceptualization, planning, and management of perspective on policy decisions.
community service projects. Two community-based In early December 1995, case management units
organizations and one civic organization provide and residential facility staff participated in victim-
adult supervision for the projects. District IX sup- awareness training based on the work of the Na-
ports existing organizations that want to work with tional Organization for Victim Assistance. One goal
the community’s young people. of the district administration is to develop an organi-
Community Safety. The Exodus project at Palm zational culture that is sensitive and responsive to
Beach County’s Glades Glen Apartment complex victim needs. Case management counselors and all
involves onsite support services. A department of facility staff are encouraged to be “the voice of vic-
juvenile justice delinquency counselor has offices at tims” when they speak to offenders, not allowing
the apartment complex. Youth under juvenile justice offenders to depersonalize the victims of their crimes
supervision report for afterschool activities between and educating offenders on the tremendous impact
3:30 p.m. and 7 p.m. Activities include tutorial pro- their actions have on innocent lives.
grams, computer labs, individual and group counsel- Two residential facilities participated actively in the
ing sessions, employability skills development, and victim-awareness training, and they are working to
recreational activities. The project supervisor is also update victim-awareness curriculums developed for

offenders. Facility staff collect newspaper stories, ◆ Facility staff must be sold on the idea of victim
educational material, and case scenarios on victim- impact panels, because they will be responsible
ization as the basis for group discussion. District IX for the necessary ongoing work with offenders.
is collaborating with the Giddings State School in
Texas to both update and streamline training mate- ◆ Staff should be trained to spot possible reactions
rial that may be used for juvenile institutions nation- (e.g., the victim stance (by offender), closed-channel
ally and develop a questionnaire that will help thinking, and sentimentality). Role-playing is an
measure offender improvements in victim sensitivity. appropriate training tool in these cases.
Efforts have built on earlier work by Ohio’s Buck- ◆ Staff need training on victim issues so that victim
eye Training Program. awareness and sensitivity become an organiza-
In addition, district IX is working with the office of tional norm and part of the organizational culture.
the State’s attorney, residential facilities, and the ◆ Staff must be provided followup training after
contracted clinical overlay staff of the local parent- experiencing several victim impact panels to de-
child center to institutionalize a victim-dialogue brief, answer questions, and reinforce key points.
program. The Palm Beach Youth Center, a maxi-
mum security facility for committed juvenile offend-
ers, has independently had crime victims, including Community Intensive Supervision
drunk-driving victims, speak at the facility since
1993. The State’s attorney’s office agreed to send
Project (CISP), Allegheny County
out notification of the program when cases are Juvenile Court Services,
closed out, except when deemed not in the best in-
terest of the crime victim. Victims of juvenile crime
Pittsburgh, PA: Involvement
are provided the opportunity to tell their stories of the Community
through letters and victim impact panels. The clini-
cal staff at the Youth Center are responsible for Overview of CISP
screening and preparing participants for the victim
CISP began in June 1990 as a component of Al-
impact panels, in addition to working with facility
legheny County Juvenile Court Services. CISP
staff and offenders to maximize the impact of the
is governed by the court of common pleas, family
panel presentations. Youth Center staff work to
division–juvenile section under the direction of the
provide victims with a sense of security and care
director of juvenile court services. CISP’s purpose
when they visit the facilities.
is to provide an alternative to institutionalization
The weak link in these efforts is direct victim in- for youth under court supervision who continue
volvement. Since early November 1995, notices to commit delinquent acts. A community-based
have been sent to victims to enlist their involvement, program, CISP uses highly structured supervision
with little response. As a result, both case manage- and scheduling to control behavior.
ment and facility staff have been asked to invite
The program began with three centers in Pittsburgh
victims of juvenile crime that they know to partici-
neighborhoods. A fourth was added in April 1994,
pate. By asking only individuals that staff know, it
and a fifth opened in 1996.
is hoped that the process will avoid revictimizing
victims. The program also has plans to advertise on Key elements of the program are:
public access television.
◆ Required school attendance.
Implications for Other Jurisdictions ◆ Required attendance at the neighborhood CISP
The following are considerations for incorporating center 7 days a week from 4 p.m. to approxi-
victim impact panels and victim awareness into facil- mately 9 p.m.
ity programs:
◆ Electronic monitoring.

◆ Drug and alcohol testing. the areas where CISP is setting new expectations
and priorities to facilitate movement toward a more
◆ Required community service. balanced and restorative system. Accountability to
◆ Family counseling and support. communities through community service is well
established at all CISP sites. However, more work is
needed to increase community involvement and a
CISP Within the Context of the sense of community ownership in some sites. In gen-
Larger Balanced and Restorative eral, BARJ has helped CISP expand its objectives
Justice Effort from primarily those focused on community safety
to additional goals that focus on accountability and
Although not designed specifically around BARJ competency development to weave all three strands
principles, CISP incorporated aspects of the BARJ together.
approach from its inception, thus making the
program’s transition to becoming a BARJ Model
site relatively smooth. Consistent with BARJ prac- CISP Strengths Related to the Balanced
tices, project design emphasized achieving community and Restorative Justice Approach
safety without using secure custody. The program ◆ Accountability. Every offense causes harm to the
uses a comprehensive approach to monitoring and fabric of a community. Therefore, one important
structuring activities in the community to ensure that aspect of accountability involves making amends
the juveniles involved will not reoffend while in the to the community. Fulfilling that obligation is a
program. Also consistent with BARJ practices, the strong component of the program. Each partici-
program was designed with a strong emphasis on pating juvenile offender is involved in numerous
having juveniles maintain ties to their community. community service activities that are valued by
Juveniles at each center are residents of the neigh- the community and that place the juvenile in a
borhood where the center is located, and most staff position of making a contribution to the commu-
are from the same neighborhood. nity. Several community service projects in all
Although the project included education and treat- five CISP centers are now considered a regular
ment from its inception, the conceptualization of service to these communities. Projects include
those components has been altered by involvement painting homes for low-income, elderly, or dis-
in the BARJ Project. For example, BARJ training abled community members; recycling old tele-
and technical assistance helped staff discern poten- phone books; tutoring younger children at a local
tial in the juveniles with whom they worked. They reading center; removing graffiti from neighbor-
evolved from thinking of things to do to the youth hood walls; cleaning vacant lots; shoveling snow
(i.e., to “fix” them) to things the youth could do for for neighborhood business residents; registering
themselves and others. Staff began to recognize the voters in a “Get Out To Vote” project; assisting at
youth’s skills. In the drug and alcohol treatment the community Christmas party; planting a gar-
component, instead of viewing juveniles as recipi- den in a once blighted lot; maintaining yards for
ents of information needed to make better choices, elderly persons; and assisting with bulk mailings
staff view youth as potential teachers who can for community organizations.
become involved in wider community prevention ◆ Competency Development. CISP incorporates
efforts. strong competency development elements in its
The most visible changes have occurred in the area program. CISP youth are required to attend
of accountability to victims. Restitution has become school, and their progress is monitored. CISP
a much higher priority as a result of involvement in centers emphasize completing homework each
the BARJ Project. However, more work is needed day and provide support through computers,
to increase victim awareness and involvement in the tutors, and quiet places to work. Many of the
process of holding offenders accountable. These are community service projects build competencies

that are valuable for functioning in the commu- tionship between the juvenile justice system and the
nity. For example, the gardening project involves community. The CISP experience exemplifies both
planning and gardening skills and cooperation. the potential and the challenges of creating new
Paint Your Heart Out activities involve painting links with communities in a new relationship.
and teamwork skills and good work habits. Assis-
tance in organizing and conducting community In the BARJ Model, community ownership of the
events develops planning, organization, and inter- problem of delinquency and community commit-
personal relationship skills. CISP’s drug and ment are critical to being a part of the solution. In
alcohol program is enlisting the juveniles as most jurisdictions today, communities send youthful
teachers who can take prevention messages to offenders to the juvenile system to get rid of them.
the community. Communities expect the system to “fix” the juveniles
or to keep them away forever. However, the system
◆ Community Safety. CISP effectively addresses cannot “fix” juveniles without reference to the con-
community safety needs while keeping juveniles text of community, nor can it simply banish youth
physically in the community through a compre- forever.
hensive approach to structuring time and moni-
toring. All juveniles are required to attend school The CISP sites experience varying degrees of com-
during the week and are required to attend the munity support and commitment to being part of
CISP center 7 days a week. During those times, the solution. For example, the Garfield Center has
the youth are under constant adult supervision, an exemplary relationship with the Bloomfield-
which severely restricts their opportunities to Garfield Corporation (BGC), a neighborhood-based
commit crimes and thus protects the community community development group that constructs brick
from new offenses. The juveniles are also on elec- and mortar projects and also actively promotes
tronic monitoring at all times. Phone checks are youth development. BGC’s director believes that
made at night to ensure that participants are at these young people are part of the community and
home. CISP staff visit schools daily to ensure a resource to the organization and the neighborhood
attendance at school. Random testing for drugs and refers to them as “extended staff.” BGC involves
and alcohol reinforces the prohibition on use of juveniles in multiple activities, including community
chemicals, thus reducing one of the major risk service, participation in community events, job
factors for reoffending. opportunities, and community forums and media
interviews. BGC defends CISP against community
◆ Other Strengths Related to Restorative Jus- criticism and advocates in the community for the
tice Principles. CISP has been extraordinarily youth who are involved in the program. BGC con-
successful at staffing its program with people sciously incorporates a role for CISP youth in its
who live in the neighborhood served by the proposals. For example, a Get Out To Vote project
center. Juvenile participants are largely African- included 10 paid positions for CISP youth to do the
American, and the staff are nearly all African- canvassing work. A BGC construction proposal
American. The staff truly understand the youth’s included a component to introduce six youth to the
circumstances of living and are a part of their construction trades through experience with the
familiar world. Therefore, the program is contractor. BGC treats CISP youth as an integral
grounded in a reality base and ties to the com- part of the community and actively seeks ways to
munity through its staff. involve them in BGC activities.
BGC support is contingent on the program serving
Case Study: Building Links With youth from the neighborhood. If the program was
Neighborhoods and Community simply located in the neighborhood but served the
Residents entire city, BGC would be much less likely to view
the youth as its responsibility. The strong relation-
One major change implicit in shifting to a more bal-
ship between the Garfield Center and BGC was
anced and restorative system is a change in the rela-

initiated by BGC, although with concerns. BGC’s important to remain flexible and able to respond
director had seen a newspaper article about a new to overtures from community members.
program that was to be placed in the neighborhood
and wondered why BGC had not been involved or ◆ Community organizations can be the source of
informed. The director immediately contacted all creative opportunities for the juveniles.
whose names were in the article and asked questions ◆ Community organizations can begin to view these
about the program. After extensive research, she juveniles as assets to the community.
concluded that not only could BGC support the
program, but working with CISP would fit BGC’s ◆ Community service projects provide a way to
mission. build credibility with the community. The first
step in that process is asking the community for
Although the initial interaction between BGC and input.
CISP held the potential to be adversarial, CISP
responded cooperatively, provided information, and
listened to concerns. That response opened the door Bumps in the Road:
to a long-term positive relationship. The Garfield
Center’s supervisor serves on BGC’s board of direc-
Issues and Challenges
tors. Further, based on that positive experience, the Each pilot site has experienced significant change as
Garfield Center developed mutually beneficial rela- it carves a path toward a more balanced and restor-
tionships with other community organizations. ative system. Progress along the path raises new
issues and challenges.
Nevertheless, at other CISP centers it has been
more difficult to establish the program as an integral In CISP, difficult questions have arisen regarding exit
part of the community. However, the Hill Center from the program.
took advantage of an opportunity provided by a
resident who offered to help the juveniles develop a Although CISP has been successful at managing the
garden on a vacant lot. That project has provided a behavior of the juveniles; keeping them in school,
foundation for positive membership in the commu- scheduled, and off drugs and alcohol; and giving
nity by the program. them constructive roles in the community through
community service, the juvenile and his or her par-
ents may have come to rely on the program to con-
Implications for Other Jurisdictions trol the juvenile’s behavior. How does that control
Critical lessons learned from the CISP experience: get transferred back to the parent? Who can the
juvenile turn to in the community for support? Staff
◆ Neighborhood programs that serve neighborhood report that some parents dread the program’s con-
juveniles have a much better chance of gaining clusion because the structure and control have been
support than programs serving juveniles from beneficial, and the parents may feel unable to pro-
other neighborhoods. vide these essential ingredients themselves. Can the
community be engaged in the program in a way that
◆ Neighborhood relationships are strengthened by
continues after the juvenile leaves the program?
drawing staff from the neighborhood.
◆ It is important to involve key neighborhood At the Dakota County site, there is tension between
groups or individuals at the program’s earliest the sense that things are moving too slowly and the
planning stages to develop ownership. sense that they are moving much too quickly.

The value-driven nature of the BARJ approach

◆ Respectful responses to initial adversity can
engages some people at a deep emotional level. It
transform relationships into positive ones.
may connect with a person’s spirituality in a way
◆ Opportunities to build relationships in the com- that energizes and motivates that person to want to
munity may come in a variety of forms. It is move quickly to the vision. Others may not share

that passion and wish to move cautiously, easing into in the BARJ sites. Inertia, longstanding habits, un-
new practices and behavior. Some staff may feel certainty about how to involve victims, and a lack of
frustrated by the slow pace while others may feel knowledge about victimization are all challenges to
unable to get their bearings because the change is so overcome. Although awareness is growing, much
rapid. Can an organization maintain the energy of remains to be done to achieve the full participation
the enthusiastic staff without alienating the more called for in the Balanced and Restorative Justice
cautious staff? Model.

The Palm Beach site has succeeded in increasing For more information about the Balanced and
awareness of victim issues within juvenile justice prac- Restorative Justice pilot sites, contact:
tice. Will that effort continue?
Mark Carey, Director
Staff have embraced the goal of increasing offender Dakota County Community Corrections
awareness of victim impact through the victim impact Judicial Center
panels. Through working with victim advocates, the 1560 West Highway 55
staff began to notify victims of the possibility of par- Hastings, MN 55033
ticipating on these panels but were disappointed by 612–438–8290
the lack of response from victims. Enormous patience 612–438–8340 (Fax)
is required in implementing new approaches involv-
ing victims. Past experience with the justice system Greg Johnson, Juvenile Justice Manager
often prompts great wariness among victims. The Department of Juvenile Justice
length of time since the offense may discourage victim 111 Georgia Avenue, Room 309
involvement. Many victims may simply never wish to West Palm Beach, FL 33401
interact with juvenile offenders. All of these compli- 407–837–5135
cate the process of involving victims. Will juvenile 407–837–5141 (Fax)
justice practitioners be willing to persist in finding George Kinder, CISP Program Coordinator
solutions to these barriers and to build relationships 519 Pennsylvania Avenue
over a long period of time with victims and victim Pittsburgh, PA 15221
advocates? To address this barrier, the Palm Beach 412–243–6886
site is encouraging staff to invite known victims, in- 412–243–6590 (Fax)
cluding staff members who have been victimized
themselves, to participate on victim impact panels.
Comprehensive involvement of victims in planning
and implementation has not yet been accomplished

Appendix A: For More Information


Balanced and Restorative Justice Project

A joint project of the Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation, School of Social Work, University
of Minnesota, and the Community Justice Institute, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Florida
Atlantic University, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S.
Department of Justice, Grant 95–JN–FX–0024.

Community Justice Institute Center for Restorative Justice &

Florida Atlantic University Mediation
College of Urban and Public Affairs University of Minnesota, School of Social Work
University Tower, Room 612C 386 McNeal Hall
220 East Second Avenue 1985 Buford Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301 St. Paul, MN 55108–6144
954–762–5668 612–624–4923
954–762–5693 (Fax) 612–625–8224 (Fax)
E-Mail: E-Mail:
Contact: Gordon Bazemore, Director Internet:
Newsletter: Balanced and Restorative Justice
Project Update

National Restorative Justice Training Institute

Contact: Mark Umbreit, Director

American Probation and Parole American Youth Policy Forum

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Newsletter: NOVA Newsletter
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Neighbors Who Care

P.O. Box 16079
Washington, DC 20041

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automated ordering, select 2 for fax-on-demand 541–484–2468
instructions.) 541–484–0729 (Fax)
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Restorative Justice Institute YouthBuild USA
P.O. Box 16301 58 Day Street
Washington, DC 20041–6301 P.O. Box 40322
703–404–1246 Somerville, MA 02144
703–404–4213 (Fax) 617–623–9900
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Restorative Justice Project
Fresno Pacific University Books and Publications
1717 South Chestnut Avenue
Fresno, CA 93702 Book Chapters, Journal Articles
209–453–2064 Bazemore, G. 1991. New concepts and alternative
209–252–4800 (Fax) practice in community supervision of juvenile
E-Mail: offenders: Rediscovering work experience and
Internet: competency development. Journal of Crime and
Justice 14(2):27–52.
Search Institute
Bazemore, G. 1994. Developing a victim orientation
Thresher Square West, Suite 210 for community corrections: A restorative justice
700 South Third Street paradigm and a balanced mission. Perspectives:
Minneapolis, MN 55415-1138 Special Issue 18(3):19–24.
E-Mail: Bazemore, G. 1997 (Winter). What’s new about the
Internet: balanced approach? Juvenile and Family Court Jour-
Magazine: Assets nal 48(1):1–22.

Bazemore, G. 1997. Circles, boards, conferences

Victim Offender Mediation Association and mediation: Scouting the new wave in com-
(VOMA) munity justice decisionmaking. Federal Probation
c/o Restorative Justice Institute 61(2):25–37.
P.O. Box 16301 Bazemore, G., and Maloney, D. 1994. Rehabilitating
Washington, DC 20041–6301 community service: Toward restorative service
703–404–1246 in a balanced justice system. Federal Probation
703–404–4213 (Fax) 58:24–35.
Internet: Bazemore, G., and Quinn, T. 1996. Boot camps or
Newsletter: VOMA Quarterly work camps? A restorative justice approach to
residential programming. In Juvenile and Adult
Victim Offender Reconciliation Program Bootcamps. American Correctional Association.
(VORP) Information and Resource Center Bazemore, G., and Schiff, M. 1996. Community
19813 Northeast 13th Street justice/restorative justice: Prospects for a new
Camas, WA 98607–7612 social ecology for community corrections. Interna-
360–260–1551 tional Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal
360–260–1563 (Fax) Justice 20(2):311–335.

Bazemore, G., and Senjo, S. 1997. Police encounters Maloney, D., Romig, D., and Armstrong, T. 1988.
with juveniles revisited: An exploratory study of Juvenile probation: The balanced approach. Juvenile
themes and styles in community policing. Policing: Family Court Journal 39(3):1–57. (Also reprinted in
An International Journal of Police Strategies & Man- 1989 as part of Juvenile Justice Textbook Series.
agement 20(1):60–82. National Council of Juvenile and Family Court
Judges, P.O. Box 8970, Reno, NV 89507).
Bazemore, G., and Umbreit, M.S. 1995. Rethinking
the sanctioning function in juvenile court: Re- Maloney, D., and Umbreit, M. 1995. Managing
tributive or restorative responses to youth crime. change: Toward a balanced and restorative justice
Crime and Delinquency 41(3):296–316. model. Perspectives (Spring):43–46.
Brown, M., and Polk, K. 1996. Taking fear of crime McShane, M.D., and Williams, F.P. 1992. Radical
seriously: The Tasmanian approach to community victimology: A critique of the concept of victim in
crime prevention. Crime and Delinquency 42 traditional victimology. Crime and Delinquency
(3):398–420. 32(2):258–272.
Guarino-Ghezzi, S. 1994. Reintegrative police sur- Moore, D.B. 1996. Criminal action-official reaction:
veillance of juvenile offenders: Forging an urban affect theory, criminology, and criminal justice. In
model. Crime and Delinquency 40(2):131–153. Knowing Feeling, edited by D.L. Nathanson. New
York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Guarino-Ghezzi, S., and Klein, A. 1997. Protecting
community: The public safety role in restorative Neimeyer, M., and Shichor, D. 1996. A preliminary
juvenile justice. In Restoring Juvenile Justice, edited study of a large victim offender reconciliation
by G. Bazemore and L. Walgrave. Monsey, NY: program. Federal Probation 60(3):30–34.
Criminal Justice Press.
Nugent, W.R., and Paddock, J.B. 1995. The effect
Harris, M.K. 1987. Moving into the new millen- of victim-offender mediation on severity of
nium: Toward a feminist vision of justice. The reoffense. Mediation Quarterly 12(4):353–367.
Prison Journal 67(2):27–38.
Pranis, K. 1997. Communities and the justice sys-
Immarigeon, R. 1997. The impact of restorative tem: Turning the relationship upside down.
justice sanctions on crime victims. In Restoring VOMA Quarterly. Washington, DC: The Restor-
Juvenile Justice, edited by G. Bazemore and L. ative Justice Institute.
Walgrave. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Pranis, K. 1997. The Minnesota restorative justice
Klein, A. 1989. The curse of caseload management. initiative: A model experience. The Crime Victim
Perspectives 13(1):27–28. Report 1(2). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research
Klein, A. 1991. Restitution and community work
service: Promising core ingredients for effective Quinn, T.J. 1996. Restoring Justice in America’s
intensive supervision programming. In Intensive Counties. Washington, DC: National Institute of
Interventions With High-Risk Youths: Promising Ap- Justice.
proaches in Juvenile Probation and Parole, edited by
T. Armstrong. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Quinn, T.J. 1997. Restorative justice addresses
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1(2). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
Maloney, D., and Bazemore, G. 1994. Making a
difference: Community service helps heal Reske, H.J. 1995. Victim-offender mediation catch-
troubled youths. Corrections Today (Decem- ing on. ABA Journal (February):14–15.
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Rubin, T.H. 1997. Restitution helps victims and Umbreit, M.S., and Carey, M. 1995. Restorative
offenders but needs review. The Crime Victim Re- justice: Implications for organizational change.
port 1(1). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute. Federal Probation 59(1):47–54.
Schiff, M. 1997. Effects of restorative justice inter- Umbreit, M.S., and Coates, R.B. 1993. Cross-site
ventions on offenders. In Restoring Juvenile Justice, analysis of victim-offender mediation in four
edited by G. Bazemore and L. Walgrave. Monsey, states. Crime & Delinquency 39(4):565–585.
NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Umbreit, M.S., and Niemeyer, M. 1996. Victim of-
Schneider, A.L. 1986. Restitution and recidivism fender mediation: From the margins toward the
rates of juvenile offenders: Results from four ex- mainstream. Perspectives (Summer):28–30.
perimental studies. Criminology 23(3):533–552.
Umbreit, M.S. and Stacey, S.L. 1996. Family group
Schneider, A.L., and Schneider, P.R. 1984. Compari- conferencing comes to the U.S.: A comparison
son of programmatic and ‘ad hoc’ restitution. Jus- with victim-offender mediation. Juvenile & Family
tice Quarterly 1:259–547. Court Journal 47(2):29–38.
Schneider, P.R. 1983. Juvenile restitution as a sole Umbreit, M.S., and Zehr, H. 1996. Restorative fam-
sanction or condition of probation: An empirical ily group conferences: differing models and guide-
analysis. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency lines for practice Federal Probation 60(3):24–29.

Schneider, P.R., and Bazemore, G. 1985. Research Books and Monographs

on restitution: A guide to rational decision mak- Adler, C., and Wundersitz, J., eds. 1994. Family
ing. In The Guide to Juvenile Restitution, edited by Conferencing and Juvenile Justice: The Way Forward or
A.L. Schneider. Washington, DC: U.S. Depart- Misplaced Optimism? Canberra, Australia: Austra-
ment of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, lian Institute of Criminology.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention. Barajas, E., ed. 1996. Community Justice: Striving for
Safe, Secure, and Just Communities. National Insti-
Stuart, B.D. 1996. Circle sentencing in Canada: A tute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice.
partnership of the community and the criminal
justice system. International Journal of Comparative Bard, M., and Sangrey, D. 1986. The Crime Victim’s
and Applied Criminal Justice 20(2). Book. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press.

Umbreit, M.S. 1994. Victim empowerment through Bazemore, G., Pranis, K., and Umbreit, M. 1997.
mediation: The impact of victim-offender media- Balanced and Restorative Justice for Juveniles: A
tion in four cities. Perspectives 18(3):25–28. Framework for Juvenile Justice in the 21st Century.
Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation. St.
Umbreit, M.S. 1995. The development and impact Paul, MN: University of Minnesota.
of victim-offender mediation in the United States.
Mediation Quarterly 12(3):263–276. Bazemore, G., and Umbreit, M. 1994. Balanced and
Restorative Justice. Program Summary. Washing-
Umbreit, M.S. 1995. Holding juvenile offenders ton, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
accountable: A restorative justice perspective. Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Juvenile and Family Court Journal (Spring):31–42. Delinquency Prevention.
Umbreit, M.S. 1997. Restorative justice: Interven- Bazemore, G., and Walgrave, L. 1997. Restoring Ju-
tions’ impact varies, manner of implementation venile Justice. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
critical. The Crime Victim Report 1(2). Kingston,
NJ: Civic Research Institute.

Boles, A.B., and Patterson, J.C. 1997. Improving Lampman, L., ed. 1996. Helping a Neighbor in Crisis.
Community Response to Crime Victims: An Eight-Step Washington, DC: Neighbors Who Care.
Model for Developing Protocol. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage Publications. McKnight, J. 1995. The Careless Society: Community
and Its Counterfeits. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Braithewaite, J. 1989. Crime, Shame and Reintegration.
New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Messmer, H., and Otto, H-U., eds. 1992. Restorative
Justice on Trial: Pitfalls and Potentials of Victim-
Burnside, J., and Baker, N. 1994. Relational Justice: Offender Mediation—International Research Perspec-
Repairing the Breach. Winchester, England: Water- tives. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
side Press.
Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape. 1996. Victim
Butts, J.A., and Snyder, H.N. 1991. Restitution and Empowerment: Bridging the Systems of Mental Health
Juvenile Recidivism. Pittsburgh, PA: National and Victim Service Providers. Washington, DC: U.S.
Center for Juvenile Justice. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Pro-
grams, Office for Victims of Crime.
Communities: Mobilizing against crime. Making
partnerships work. 1996 (August). National Insti- Schneider, A.L. 1985. Guide to Juvenile Restitution.
tute of Justice Journal. (Contact NCJRS, listed Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice,
above, for a copy of this issue.) Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Davis, R.C., Lurigio, A.J., and Skogan, W.G. 1997.
Victims of Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Schneider, A.L. 1990. Deterrence and Juvenile Crime:
Publications. Results From a National Policy Experiment. New
York: Springer-Verlag.
Finn, P., and Lee, B. 1987. Serving Crime Victims and
Witnesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Spungen, D. 1997. Homicide: The Hidden Victims, a
Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Guide for Professionals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Institute of Justice. Publications.

Galaway, B., and Hudson, J., eds. 1990. Criminal Stoneman, D., and Calvert, J. 1990. Youthbuild: A
Justice, Restitution and Reconciliation. Monsey, NY: Manual for the Implementation of the Housing-Related
Criminal Justice Press. Enhanced Work Experience Program. New York, NY:
The Coalition for Twenty Million Dollars.
Galaway, B., and Hudson, J., eds. 1996. Restorative
Justice: An International Perspective. Monsey, NY: Umbreit, M.S. 1994. Victim Meets Offender: The Impact
Criminal Justice Press. of Restorative Justice and Mediation. Monsey, NY:
Criminal Justice Press.
Gilligan, J. 1996. Violence. New York, NY: G.P.
Putnam’s Sons. Umbreit, M.S. 1995. Mediating Interpersonal Conflicts:
A Pathway to Peace. West Concord, MN: CPI
Hudson, J., Morris, A., Maxwell, G., and Galaway, Publishing.
B., eds. 1996. Family Group Conferences: Perspectives
on Policy & Practice. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Umbreit, M.S., and Greenwood, J. 1997. Guidelines
Press. for Victim Sensitive Victim Offender Mediation. Wash-
ington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office
Immarigeon, R. 1994. Reconciliation Between Victims of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime.
and Imprisoned Offenders: Program Models and Issues.
Akron, PA: Mennonite Central Committee, U.S. Van Ness, D.W. 1986. Crime and Its Victims. Downers
Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.
Klein, A. 1996. Alternative Sentencing: A Practitioner’s
Guide. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing

Van Ness, D.W., and Strong, K. 1997. Restoring Jus- Mediation Quarterly
tice. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing. (Sponsored by the Academy of Family Mediators)
To order, contact:
Viano, E.C. 1990. The Victimology Handbook. New Customer Service
York, NY: Garland Publishing. Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers
Wright, M. 1996. Justice for Victims and Offenders: A San Francisco, CA 94104
Restorative Response to Crime, 2d ed. Winchester, 415–433–1767
England: Waterside Press. Overcrowded Times: Solving the Prison Problem
Wright, M., and Galaway, B. 1989. Mediation and (Periodical)
Criminal Justice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Press. Castine Research Corporation
P.O. Box 110
Young, M. 1995. Restorative Community Justice: A Call Castine, ME 04421
to Action. Washington, DC: National Organization 207–326–9521
for Victim Assistance.
Zehr, H. 1985. Retributive Justice, Restorative Justice. Standards of Mediation/Dialogue Practice
Elkhart, IN: Mennonite Central Committee, U.S., American Bar Association Endorsement of: Victim-
Office of Criminal Justice. Offender Mediation/Dialogue Programs (Approved
by the ABA House of Delegates, August 1994.)
Zehr, H. 1990. Changing Lenses. Scottsdale, PA:
Herald Press. National Association of Social Workers. 1993.
Standards of practice for social work mediators.
Zehr, H., Van Ness, D., and Harris, M.K. 1989. NASW, 1–8.
Justice: The Restorative Vision. Elkhart, IN: Menno-
nite Central Committee, U.S., Office of Criminal
Justice. Training Manuals
Claasen, R., and Zehr, H. 1989. VORP Organizing: A
Other Journals and Newsletters Foundation in the Church. Elkhart, IN: Mennonite
Central Committee, U.S., Office of Criminal
Community Corrections Report Justice.
Civic Research Institute, Inc.
P.O. Box 585 McLeod, C. 1997. Conferencing: Victim Offender, Small
4490 Route 27 and Large Group. Washington County Community
Kingston, NJ 08528 Justice Project, P.O. Box 6, Stillwater, MN
55082, 612–430–6900.
Crime Victim Report
Civic Research Institute, Inc. Quill, D., and Wynne, J. 1993. Victim & Offender
P.O. Box 585 Mediation Handbook. London, England: Save the
4490 Route 27 Children. (Available at Center for Restorative Justice
Kingston, NJ 08528 & Mediation.)
Juvenile Justice Update REALJUSTICE (family group conferencing), P.O. Box
Civic Research Institute, Inc. 229, Bethlehem, PA 18016, 610–807–9221,
P.O. Box 585 E-Mail: (Training manuals,
4490 Route 27 videos, resources).
Kingston, NJ 08528

Stuart, B. 1997. Building Community Justice Partner- Training Resources
ships: Community Peacemaking Circles. Available
from: Aboriginal Justice Section, Department of
RESTTA (Restitution Education, Specialized
Justice of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H8
Training, and Technical Assistance Program)
Canada, 613–941–4105. Ottawa, Ontario: © 1997
publications are available through the Juvenile
Minister of Public Works and Government Ser-
Justice Clearinghouse, 800–638–8736, at no
vices Canada.
charge, unless otherwise noted:
Umbreit, M.S. 1996. Advanced Victim Sensitive Media-
Guide to Juvenile Restitution—NCJ 098466,
tion in Crimes of Severe Violence: Training Manual.
St. Paul, MN: Center for Restorative Justice &
Mediation, University of Minnesota. Juvenile Restitution Management Audit—NCJ
Umbreit, M.S., and Greenwood, J. 1997. Guidelines
for Victim Sensitive Victim Offender Mediation. Liability and Legal Issues in Juvenile Restitution—
St. Paul, MN: Center for Restorative Justice & NCJ 115405
Mediation, University of Minnesota.
National Directory of Juvenile Restitution Program-
Umbreit, M.S., Greenwood, J., and Lipkin, R. ming—NCJ 105188
1996. Introductory Training: Victim Offender Media-
tion and Dialogue (In Property Crimes and Minor As- National Trends in Juvenile Restitution Program-
saults). St. Paul, MN: Center for Restorative ming—NCJ 115214
Justice & Mediation, University of Minnesota.
Accountability in Disposition for Juvenile Drug
Victim Offender Mediation Training Package. Commu- Offenders—NCJ 134224
nity Justice Initiatives Association, 101–20678
Restitution and Juvenile Recidivism—NCJ 137774,
Eastleigh Crescent, Langley, British Columbia,
Out of Print
V3A 4C4, 604–534–5515.
The Restitution Experience in Youth Employment:
A Monograph and Training Guide to Jobs Compo-
nents—NCJ 115404

Restitution Improvement Curriculum: A Guidebook

for Juvenile Restitution Workshop Planners—
NCJ 110007, Out of Print

Victim-Offender Mediation in the Juvenile Justice

System—NCJ 120976

Balanced and Restorative Justice Project Selected Readings

Packet. Center for Restorative Justice and Media-
tion, University of Minnesota, School of Social
Work, 386 McNeal Hall, 1985 Buford Avenue,
St. Paul, MN 55108–6142.

Bazemore, G. 1992. Program Brief: Accountability in

Dispositions for Juvenile Drug Offenders. Monograph.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice,
Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice
Assistance. NCJ 134224.

Bazemore, G., and Schneider, P.R. 1985. Research Umbreit, M.S., and Coates, R.B. 1992. Victim
on Restitution: A guide to rational decision mak- Offender Mediation: An Analysis of Programs in
ing. In The Guide to Juvenile Restitution: A Training Four States of the U.S. St. Paul, MN: Center for
Manual for Restitution Program Managers. Washing- Restorative Justice & Mediation, University of
ton, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Minnesota.
Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention. Umbreit, M.S., and Roberts, A.W. 1996. Mediation of
Criminal Conflict in England: An Assessment of Ser-
Bazemore, G., et al. 1988. Restitution by Juveniles: vices in Coventry and Leeds. St. Paul, MN: Center
Information and Operating Guide for Restitution Pro- for Restorative Justice & Mediation, University
grams. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of of Minnesota.
Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of
Justice Assistance. Young, M. 1993. Victim Assistance: Frontiers and Fun-
damentals. Washington, DC: National Organiza-
Beers, S. 1994. Overcoming Loss: The Other Victims of tion for Victim Assistance.
Homicide. 509 North Seventh Street, Allentown, PA:
18102 Crime Victims Council of the LeHigh Valley.
Lord, J.H. 1990. Victim Impact Panels: A Creative Sen- The following video resources, except where noted,
tencing Opportunity. Ft. Worth, TX: Mothers are available for sale through:
Against Drunk Driving.
Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation
Mackey, V. 1990. Restorative Justice: Toward Nonvio- University of Minnesota, School of Social Work
lence. Louisville, KY: Presbyterian Justice Pro- 386 McNeal Hall
gram, Presbyterian Church U.S.A. 1985 Buford Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55108–6144
Monsey, B., Owen, G., Zierman, C., Lambert, L.,
612–624–4923; 612–625–4288 (Fax)
and Hyman, V. 1995. What Works in Preventing
Rural Violence: Strategies, Risk Factors, and Assess-
ment Tools. St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Dakota County Victim Offender Meeting Program
Foundation Publishing Center. The victim-offender mediation process used by the
Victim Offender Meeting Program at Dakota
Satisfying Justice: A Compendium of Initiatives, Programs
County (MN) Community Corrections Department,
and Legislative Measures. 1996. Ottawa, Ontario,
which uses trained community volunteers as media-
Canada: Church Council on Justice and Correc-
tors, is presented. Role-plays of premediation meet-
tions. Order for $30 U.S. from Church Council on Justice
ings with the offender and victim are presented,
and Corrections, 507 Bank St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
along with the actual mediation session.
K2P 1Z5, 613–563–1668; 613–237–6129 (Fax).
Model of Entire Victim-Offender Mediation Process
Silcox, H. 1995. A How-to Guide to Reflection: Adding
Dr. Mark Umbreit models the entire victim-offender
Cognitive Learning to Community Service Programs.
mediation process, including calling and meeting
Holland, PA: Brighton Press, Inc., 64 Lempa
the offender, calling and meeting the victim, and
Road, Holland, PA 18966, 215–357–5861.
conducting a followup victim-offender meeting. Ex-
Umbreit, M.S. 1993. How to Increase Referrals to cellent core training tape for role-playing the entire
Victim-Offender Mediation Programs. Winnipeg, process. (80 minutes.)
Manitoba, Canada: Fund for Dispute Resolution.
Umbreit, M.S. 1995. Mediation of Criminal Conflict:
An Assessment of Programs in Four Canadian Prov-
inces. St. Paul, MN: Center for Restorative
Justice & Mediation, University of Minnesota.

Restorative Justice: A Victim Awareness Resource, “The grams throughout the country. A basic resource for
Importance of Listening to Crime Victims” public presentations. (6 minutes.)
Features the personal stories of three victims/survivors
of crime that reveal how crime affects victims and their Victim-Offender Mediation Simulation
families. Stories are told by survivors of a home bur- Simulation of a mediation session with an emphasis
glary, a car theft, and violent assault. Dr. Marlene A. on modeling an empowering (nondirective) style of
Young, Executive Director of the National Organiza- mediation. This tape is effective for presentations to
tion for Victim Assistance, shares her thoughts on the groups or funding sources interested in learning
importance of listening to victims of crime. Excellent more about victim-offender mediation. (28 minutes.)
resource for victim-offender dialogue and victim
awareness training. (32 minutes.)
Community Intensive Supervision Project
Restorative Justice: For Victims, Communities & (CISP)
Edited, shortened version of the Presbyterian CISP Video
Church USA’s video Restoring Justice, which in- This video highlights the features of a nonresi-
cludes a new, brief presentation of what we have dential supervision and treatment program for
learned about the impact of restorative justice on serious juvenile offenders. Family support and
victims, communities, and offenders. Specific pro- the building of personal relationships are dis-
gram models are presented. Excellent resource cussed, along with a strong treatment program,
for illustrating how restorative justice values and educational achievement, and community res-
practices benefit crime victims, communities, and toration. (21 minutes.)
offenders. (25 minutes.)
Project Success (CISP Community Garden)
Restorative Justice: Victim Empowerment Through CISP youth filmed this video, which documents
Mediation & Dialogue* a creative community service project—a com-
Victim-offender mediation is briefly described, with munity garden. The garden was planned and
an emphasis on the benefits for those victims who developed by youth at the CISP Project and the
voluntarily choose to meet the offender. Comments Hill District Community in Pittsburgh, PA.
by a diverse group of victims who have participated Through this project, youth developed key com-
in mediation are presented, including their initial petencies while giving back to their community.
needs, what occurred in the mediation session, and
their description of the benefits. Several key re- For information on these two videos, contact:
search findings are briefly highlighted. Excellent
George Kinder, CISP Program Coordinator
resource for gaining support from individual victims
CISP Project
and victim advocates.
519 Penn Avenue
Victim-Offender Mediation Overview Pittsburgh, PA 15221
A 6-minute video format explaining the victim- 412–243–6886
offender mediation concept and process. Produced 412–243–6590 (Fax)
by The Center for Victim-Offender Mediation of the
Minnesota Citizens Council on Crime and Justice.
Written by Dr. Mark Umbreit, the video follows a
burglary case through the victim-offender mediation
process and places local program efforts in the con-
text of the growing network of victim-offender pro-

*Available through University College, 315 Pillsbury Drive

SE., 314 Nolte Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455–0139,
612–625–1855, 612–624–5891 (Fax).

Circle Sentencing, Yukon Justice Experiment
Deschutes County, OR, Programs Documentary on circle sentencing practiced in the
Yukon, Canada. Judge Barry Stuart leads the appli-
Save Our Streets cation of circle sentencing practice based on the
A segment of FOX Television’s “Save Our traditions of the native people (First Nation) of
Streets” depicting the Deschutes County Juve- Canada. For a copy, please contact:
nile Justice Program. Deschutes County,
Bend, OR. Northern Native Broadcasting, Yukon
4228A Fourth Avenue
Deschutes National Forest Whitehorse, Yukon
Deschutes County Adult Corrections Work Team Canada Y1A1K1
Program 403–668–6332
Video footage depicts activities in which work Glimmer of Hope
teams conduct restorative community work This video presents the journey toward healing of
service. the family of a young girl who was brutally kid-
For information on these three videos, contact: naped, raped, and killed. Produced by the National
Film Board of Canada, this documentary about a
Deborah Brockman family in Minnesota portrays many expressions of
Department of Corrections restorative justice, including mediated dialogue ses-
1128 NW. Harriman sions with the involved offenders. Excellent resource
Bend, OR 97701 to show how restorative justice principles were ap-
541–385–1723 plied in one of the most serious crimes imaginable.
(51 minutes.)

The Balanced Approach Films for the Humanities and Sciences

Filmed and produced by juveniles who participated P.O. Box 2053
in the South Florida Youth Environment Service at Princeton, NJ 08543–2053
the Loxahatchee Wildlife Refuge. This video de- 800–257–5126
scribes the principles of balanced and restorative 609–275–3767 (Fax)
justice and illustrates positive competency develop- E-Mail:
ment. For a copy, send a blank tape and return Internet:
mailer, including postage, with a request for a copy Marked By Fire
of The Balanced Approach to: Video and discussion guide, produced as a result of a
Daryll Olson mediated agreement between the survivors of an
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice arson and the juveniles who set the fire. Also in-
District 9 cludes footage on the story of a young survivor of a
111 South Sapodillo Avenue, Suite 207 different fire. Example of a productive outcome
West Palm Beach, FL 33401 from victim-offender mediation and dialogue. Cost is
$14.00, including shipping and handling. To order,
The Balanced Approach to Restorative Justice contact:
The South Dakota Unified Judicial System presents
its commitment to a more balanced and restorative Marked By Fire
approach to juvenile justice. This tape provides a Insurance Federation of Minnesota
very good overview of the BARJ model, with sev- 55 East Fifth Street, Suite 750
eral examples of programs. To order, contact: St. Paul, MN 55101
Video Production Services 612–228–7369 (Fax)
325 East Dakota Avenue
Pierre, SD 57501

Portrait of a Reconciliation Pamphlets
Victim-offender training video. (55 minutes.) $35
Justice: The Restorative Vision, by Howard Zehr, Dan
U.S. plus $5 shipping. Series of manuals and train-
Van Ness, and M. Kay Harris (1989).
ing package also available from:
Mediating the Victim Offender Conflict, by Howard Zehr
Community Justice Initiatives Association
20678 Eastleigh Crescent, Suite 101
Langley, British Columbia V3A 4C4 Canada Retributive Justice, Restorative Justice, by Howard Zehr
604–534–5515 or 534–6773 (1985).
604–534–6989 (Fax)
E-Mail: VORP Organizing: A Foundation in the Church, by Ron
Claassen and Howard Zehr with Duane Ruth-
Restoring Justice Heffelbower (1989).
Produced in 1996 by the National Council of
Churches for broadcast on national television, These pamphlets are available through:
Restoring Justice is one of the best videos available
for explaining what restorative justice is and what Mennonite Central Committee
it can mean for victims, community, and offenders. Office of Community Justice
Program examples are excellent. Tape runs 50 min- P.O. Box 500
utes without commercial breaks. Available from: 21 South 12th Street
Akron, PA 17501
Presbyterian Criminal Justice Program 717–859–3889
100 Witherspoon Street
Louisville, KY 40202–1396 Bibliographic Resources
Contact: Kathy Lancaster McCold, P. 1997. Restorative Justice: An Annotated
Bibliography. Alliance of NGOs on Crime Preven-
Tough Justice—Family Group Conferencing, tion and Criminal Justice. Working Party on
New Zealand Restorative Justice. Monsey, NY: Criminal Jus-
Video and resource kit available. (The resource kit tice Press.
includes the video.) To order contact:
Available through the National Criminal Justice
Publications Coordinator Reference Service, 800–851–3420:
P.O. Box 24–005
Wellington, New Zealand National Criminal Justice Reference Service. 1996.
64–184–499–2928 Restorative/Community Justice: A Theoretical Perspec-
tive (Topical Search). #TS011686. 30 bibliographic
Victim Impact Panel Program citations from the NCJRS Abstract Database.
Presents the concept of the victim impact panel in
cases of drunk-driving crashes. Provides good mate- National Criminal Justice Reference Service. 1996.
rial on how the panels work, how to set them up, Restorative/Community Justice: A Programmatic
and the effect on those experiencing them. (13 min- Perspective (Topical Bibliography). #TB010629.
utes.) Available from: Up to 200 citations from the NCJRS Abstract
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
P.O. Box 541688
Dallas, TX 75354–1688

Appendix B: Deschutes County Department of
Community Justice Position Description

Position: Community Justice Officer may also expose the incumbent to potential physical
Reports To: Manager, Juvenile Division harm from offenders.
Department: Community Justice

Distinguishing Characteristics
The community justice officer is a professional coun-
The community justice officer shall work to restore
seling position associated with restoring crime vic-
crime victims, promote safe and secure communities,
tims, promoting safe and secure communities, and
and supervise and rehabilitate juvenile offenders.
supervising and rehabilitating juvenile offenders.
Work is performed within the framework of commu-
Supervision and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders
nity/balanced and restorative justice, that is, ad-
incorporates community/balanced and restorative
dressing needs of juveniles and their families within
justice principles of accountability, competency de-
the three primary areas of accountability, compe-
velopment, and public safety.
tency development, and public safety.

Nature and Scope Essential Responsibilities (May

This is senior-level professional work that requires
Include Any or All of the
the application of specialized knowledge in the areas Following)
of dynamics of victimization, community organizing
and development, and juvenile corrections. Work Responsibility to Victims
may be performed in stressful situations, occasion-
◆ Assess needs of victim to assist in determining
ally during odd hours (e.g., evenings and week-
victim-support services necessary for restoration.
ends). Incumbents are expected to apply extensive
knowledge of Federal, State, and local laws and ◆ Receive and evaluate new referrals and refer ap-
regulations that apply to situations involving juve- propriate cases to victim-offender mediation.
niles and their families. Tasks are governed by estab-
lished policies, procedures, statutes, regulations, and ◆ Enforce compliance with and fulfillment of
general managerial direction. Incumbents exercise the Victim Offender Mediation Program
independent judgment when applying policies and requirements.
procedures in vaguely defined situations. Decisions
on search and seizure and detainment may require ◆ Followup contact with victim to determine level
supervisory approval. Incumbents work under the of satisfaction with the department of community
supervision of the Manager, Juvenile Division. Er- justice.
rors in judgment may have significant impact on ◆ Assist in holding offenders accountable to victims/
behavioral change and the legal aspects of the situa- community by supervising work teams of juvenile
tion, violation of a juvenile’s civil rights, public offenders performing restorative community
safety, and community relations. Judgmental errors work service.

Responsibility to Community ◆ Provide advice and training for law enforcement
agencies on matters pertaining to juveniles, deter-
◆ Serve as a role model for youth in the community.
mination of charges, and the appropriate method
◆ Initiate, participate in, and support youth devel- of dealing with each case.
opment and prevention activities that prevent
◆ Perform other related duties as necessary to carry
crime and delinquency.
out the objectives of the position.
◆ Lead a work team of juvenile offenders assigned
to restorative community work service. Ensure Responsibility to Offenders
that community service projects are completed by
overseeing and monitoring overall productivity ◆ Ensure the safe work habits of offenders.
and quality of work. ◆ Prioritize and organize the daily work schedule
◆ Assist in conducting remote tracking of clients for a work team of juvenile offenders.
and documentation of client files. ◆ Discipline youth according to established policy.
◆ Prepare reports as required by the supervisor, ◆ Provide group supervision to youth in work and
including performance observations and behavior recreational activities.
evaluations. May be required to testify on youth
behavior in court proceedings. ◆ Transport offenders to work, recreation, or other
◆ Provide client data to the Deschutes County
Commission on Children and Families to assist in ◆ Conduct indepth assessment interviews with
development of early intervention and prevention the juvenile and family to determine circum-
programs. stances of the offense and to obtain information
on matters such as financial status, employment
◆ Provide data to the Deschutes County Commis- history, and prior arrest records. Counsel juve-
sion on Children and Families and participate in niles on a one-on-one basis. Encourage family
the planning process for the commission’s com- members to participate in the offender’s reha-
prehensive plan. bilitation and adjustment process. Maintain
◆ Establish and maintain contacts with social ser- chronological records of the counseling and
vice agencies and community organizations that supervising sessions.
may be able to provide assistance and rehabilita- ◆ Investigate the facts of each case and conduct
tion to juvenile offenders. personal interviews with juveniles, family mem-
◆ Whenever possible, refer younger siblings of ju- bers, schools, attorneys, social agencies, and other
venile offenders to community early intervention authorities as needed.
and prevention resources. ◆ Prepare documents and reports of findings for
◆ Prepare and recommend the disposition of each contested juvenile court hearings. Secure judicial
case within established department priorities time, consult with the district attorney, participate
(i.e., victim-offender mediation, restorative com- in pretrial conferences with defense attorneys,
munity work service, and competency develop- summon and interview witnesses, and make ar-
ment program recommendations). If necessary, rangements for presentation of evidence. Partici-
present to the court for official action. pate in the presentation of these cases as needed.

◆ Propose and initiate restorative community work ◆ Facilitate participation of juveniles and families
service projects and sites that enhance a sense of (where appropriate) in programs that lead to the
community. development of internal discipline to interrupt
criminal behavior patterns (public safety).

◆ Facilitate participation of juveniles and families linquent behavior and family problems of juveniles.
in victim-offender mediation (where appropri- Working knowledge of the judicial system relating
ate) to ensure the highest level of accountability to Oregon’s juvenile case law and the special re-
to victims. Initiate victim-support services if quirements for working with other legal and social
needed. Provide mediation outcome to the court services agencies. Well-developed human relations,
when appropriate. Utilize restorative community interviewing, counseling, and writing skills. Work-
work service sites and projects to ensure the ing command of the English language sufficient to
highest level of accountability to the community prepare clear and meaningful reports, document
(accountability). work activities, and communicate effectively with
work teams. Must have completed level 1 first aid
◆ Facilitate participation of juveniles in programs and CPR training (which is specific to Deschutes
that prepare them to become responsible citizens. County).
Programs should address issues of education, job
skill development and training, victim empathy,
community-service commitment, and the estab- Experience and Training
lishment and practice of standards of acceptable Incumbents typically have a bachelor’s degree in
behavior within the community (competency social work, sociology, criminology, corrections,
development). or psychology and have 5 to 8 years of progressively
responsible experience in delivering counseling
◆ Refer juveniles to treatment programs, such as
foster care, youth care centers, and institutions.
Monitor progress of juveniles placed in these
programs. Abilities
Requires the ability to perform the various aspects
Qualifications of the job, including the following: ability to commu-
nicate effectively; ability to organize community
activities that prevent crime and delinquency; ability
Knowledge and Skills to facilitate a counseling session and to prepare a
Position requires thorough understanding of the disposition report; ability to teach interviewing and
dynamics of victimization and the ability to commu- counseling skills; ability to work on call, possess a
nicate empathetically with crime victims. Requires valid driver’s license, and transport clients; and abil-
thorough knowledge of community organizing and ity to render level 1 first aid and CPR.
development. Requires thorough knowledge of de-

Appendix C: Sample Disposition

Deschutes County
Department of Community Justice
Case Summary
Juvenile Name: John Smith Juvenile Case No.: 96–999
DOB: 01–01–80 Juvenile Counselor: Bob LaCombe

Offense Description: Mr. Smith admits to illegally entering Mrs. Jones’s vehicle and dismantling the ignition
lock to start the car. Mr. Smith then drove the stolen car to a friend’s home. The parents of Mr. Smith’s friend
telephoned the police, who apprehended Mr. Smith, without incident, as he attempted to leave the premises of
his friend.
Disposition: The court hereby orders Mr. John Smith to complete the following conditions of probation: The
court recognizes and greatly appreciates the input of Mrs. Jones, the victim of this crime. The term of proba-
tion is to be 18 months from this date. The court will entertain a motion to terminate this order from the de-
partment of community justice in the event Mr. Smith satisfactorily completes conditions prior to the
completion of this probationary period.

Goal Requirements
Community Safety
1. Mr. Smith will complete a term of 30-days house arrest with exceptions granted only for school, approved
skill groups, and work to earn restitution payments.

2. Mr. Smith will refrain from any law violations for a period of at least 90 concurrent days.
3. Mr. Smith will complete a 10-week theft talk class without absence.
4. Mr. Smith will meet with a neighborhood mentor once a week to discuss his schedule, activities, and
progress on his plan.

1. Restitution: Mr. Smith will pay Mrs. Jones $250 to reimburse her for the cost of repairing her vehicle igni-
tion. He will also pay her $150 for the cost of replacing her car keys and replacing and rekeying her home
door locks. These payments will be made at the rate of $25 per week. Upon completion of the payments,
Mr. Smith will send a letter to Mrs. Jones describing what he has learned from this experience.

2. Community Service: Mr. Smith will work to earn the money to pay for five club antitheft devices. These
devices will then be raffled at the senior citizen housing unit’s annual holiday party. Mr. Smith will attend
the party and present the devices to the winning seniors.

3. Understanding the Harm: Mr. Smith will attend and complete, without absence, the department of com-
munity justice victim empathy class.

1. Mr. Smith will enroll in the school district’s career planning class and report to the court his plan, in writ-
ing, to pursue a career following high school completion.
2. Mr. Smith will lead a focus group discussion of juveniles who have committed auto theft to explore the
motivations for auto theft and report the results at the annual crime-prevention coordinators meeting.

Publications From OJJDP
OJJDP produces a variety of publications— Courts Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National
Fact Sheets, Bulletins, Summaries, Reports, Offenders in Juvenile Court, 1995. 1997, Report. 1995, NCJ 153569 (188 pp.).
and the Juvenile Justice journal—along with NCJ 167885 (12 pp.). Keeping Young People in School: Community
videotapes, including broadcasts from the juve- Programs That Work. 1997, NCJ 162783
nile justice telecommunications initiative. RESTTA National Directory of Restitution
and Community Service Programs. 1998, (12 pp.).
Through OJJDP’s Juvenile Justice Clearing-
house (JJC), these publications and other re- NCJ 166365 (500 pp.), $33.50. Sharing Information: A Guide to the Family
sources are as close as your phone, fax, Youth Courts: A National Movement Telecon- Educational Rights and Privacy Act and
computer, or mailbox. ference (Video). 1998, NCJ 171149 (120 min.), Participation in Juvenile Justice Programs.
$17.00. 1997, NCJ 163705 (52 pp.).
800–638–8736 Delinquency Prevention Missing and Exploited Children
(Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m.–7:00 p.m. ET) 1997 Report to Congress: Title V Incentive Court Appointed Special Advocates: A Voice
Fax: Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention for Abused and Neglected Children in Court.
Programs. 1998, NCJ 170605 (71 pp.). 1997, NCJ 164512 (4 pp.).
Allegheny County, PA: Mobilizing To Reduce Federal Resources on Missing and Exploited
Online: Children: A Directory for Law Enforcement and
Juvenile Crime. 1997, NCJ 165693 (12 pp.).
OJJDP Home Page: Other Public and Private Agencies. 1997,
Combating Violence and Delinquency: The NCJ 168962 (156 pp.). National Juvenile Justice Action Plan (Report).
E-Mail: 1996, NCJ 157106 (200 pp.). In the Wake of Childhood Maltreatment. 1997,
NCJ 165257 (16 pp.). (to order materials) Combating Violence and Delinquency: The (to ask questions National Juvenile Justice Action Plan (Sum- Portable Guides to Investigating Child Abuse:
about materials) mary). 1996, NCJ 157105 (36 pp.). An Overview. 1997, NCJ 165153 (8 pp.).
Mail: Mentoring—A Proven Delinquency Prevention Protecting Children Online Teleconference
Strategy. 1997, NCJ 164834 (8 pp.). (Video). 1998, NCJ 170023 (120 min.), $17.00.
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse/NCJRS
P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849–6000 Mentoring for Youth in Schools and Communi- When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival
ties Teleconference (Video). 1997, NCJ 166376 Guide. 1998, NCJ 170022 (96 pp.).
Fact Sheets and Bulletins are also available
through Fax-on-Demand. (120 min.), $17.00 Substance Abuse
Fax-on-Demand: Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Beyond the Bench: How Judges Can Help Re-
800–638–8736, select option 1, select option 2, Crime. 1997, NCJ 165928 (8 pp.). duce Juvenile DUI and Alcohol and Other Drug
and listen for instructions Reaching Out to Youth Out of the Education Violations (Video and discussion guide). 1996,
Mainstream. 1997, NCJ 163920 (12 pp.). NCJ 162357 (16 min.), $17.00.
To ensure timely notice of new publications,
subscribe to JUVJUST, OJJDP’s electronic Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. 1998, Capacity Building for Juvenile Substance
mailing list. NCJ 170027 (8 pp.). Abuse Treatment. 1997, NCJ 167251 (12 pp.).
JUVJUST Mailing List: Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The Coach’s Playbook Against Drugs. 1998,
The MST Approach. 1997, NCJ 165151 (8 pp.). NCJ 173393 (20 pp.).
e-mail to
leave the subject line blank The Youngest Delinquents: Offenders Under Drug Identification and Testing in the Juvenile
type subscribe juvjust your name Age 15. 1997, NCJ 165256 (12 pp.). Justice System. 1998, NCJ 167889 (92 pp.).
In addition, JJC, through the National Criminal Gangs Juvenile Offenders and Drug Treatment:
Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), is the Promising Approaches Teleconference (Video).
Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior. 1997, 1997, NCJ 168617 (120 min.), $17.00.
repository for tens of thousands of criminal and NCJ 165154 (6 pp.).
juvenile justice publications and resources from Preventing Drug Abuse Among Youth Telecon-
around the world. They are abstracted and Youth Gangs: An Overview. 1998, NCJ 167249 ference (Video). 1997, NCJ 165583 (120 min.),
made available through a data base, which is (20 pp.). $17.00.
searchable online ( Youth Gangs in America Teleconference
database.htm). You are also welcome to submit (Video). 1997, NCJ 164937 (120 min.), $17.00. Violence and Victimization
materials to JJC for inclusion in the data base. Child Development–Community Policing:
General Juvenile Justice Partnership in a Climate of Violence. 1997,
The following list highlights popular and re-
cently published OJJDP documents and video- Comprehensive Juvenile Justice in State NCJ 164380 (8 pp.).
tapes, grouped by topical areas. Legislatures Teleconference (Video). 1998, Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in
NCJ 169593 (120 min.), $17.00. Schools. 1998, NCJ 167888 (16 pp.).
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention Brochure (1996, NCJ 144527 (23 Developmental Pathways in Boys’ Disruptive Epidemiology of Serious Violence. 1997,
pp.)) offers more information about the agency. and Delinquent Behavior. 1997, NCJ 165692 NCJ 165152 (12 pp.).
(20 pp.).
The OJJDP Publications List (BC000115) offers Guide for Implementing the Comprehensive
a complete list of OJJDP publications and is Exciting Internships: Work Today for a Better Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic
also available online. Tomorrow. 1998, NCJ 171696 (6 pp.). Juvenile Offenders. 1995, NCJ 153681
OJJDP sponsors a teleconference initiative, Guidelines for the Screening of Persons Work- (255 pp.).
and a flyer (LT 116) offers a complete list of ing With Children, the Elderly, and Individuals Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk
videos available from these broadcasts. With Disabilities in Need of Support. 1998, Factors and Successful Interventions Telecon-
NCJ 167248 (52 pp.). ference (Video). 1998, NCJ 171286 (120 min.),
Corrections and Detention Juvenile Justice, Volume III, Number 2. 1997, $17.00.
Beyond the Walls: Improving Conditions of NCJ 165925 (32 pp.). State Legislative Responses to Violent Juvenile
Confinement for Youth in Custody. 1998, Juvenile Justice, Volume IV, Number 2. 1997, Crime: 1996–97 Update. 1998, NCJ 172835
NCJ 164727 (116 pp.). NCJ 166823 (28 pp.). (16 pp.).
Boot Camps for Juvenile Offenders. 1997, Juvenile Justice, Volume V, Number 1. 1998, White House Conference on School Safety:
NCJ 164258 (42 pp.). NCJ 170025 (32 pp.). Causes and Prevention of Youth Violence
Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 1997 Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States Teleconference (Video). 1998, NCJ 173399
Update. 1998, NCJ 170606 (12 pp.). 1994–1996. 1997, NCJ 165697 (81 pp.). (240 min.), $17.00.
Juvenile Arrests 1996. 1997, NCJ 167578 A Juvenile Justice System for the 21st Century. Youth in Action
(12 pp.). 1998, NCJ 169726 (8 pp.). Planning a Successful Crime Prevention
Juvenile Court Statistics 1995. 1998, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update Project. 1998, NCJ 170024 (28 pp.).
NCJ 170607 (112 pp.). on Violence. 1997, NCJ 165703 (32 pp.).