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If motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are the more important for individual employees. In this regard, Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfilment are pursued. In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is shown in the following diagram:
Self esteem Social Safety
Physiological Needs Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as: Air, water, nourishment, sleep According to Maslow's theory, if such needs are not satisfied then one's motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one's bodily functioning. Safety Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by: Living in a safe area, Medical insurance, Job security, Financial reserves According to Maslow's hierarchy, if a person feels that he or she is in harm's way, higher needs will not receive much attention. Social Needs
Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include: Need for friends, Need for belonging, need to give and receive love Esteem Once a person feels a sense of "belonging", the need to feel important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to selfesteem such as self respect and achievement. External esteem needs are those such as social status and recognition. Some esteem needs are: Self-respect, Achievement, Attention, Recognition, Reputation Maslow later refined his model to include a level between esteem needs and self actualization: the need for knowledge and aesthetics. Self-Actualization Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as: Truth, Justice, Wisdom, Meaning Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. Limitations of Maslow's Hierarchy While Maslow's hierarchy makes sense from an intuitive standpoint, there is little evidence to support its hierarchical aspect. In fact, there is evidence that contradicts the order of needs specified by the model. For example, some cultures appear to place social needs before any others. Maslow's hierarchy also has difficulty explaining cases such as the "starving artist" in which a person neglects lower needs in pursuit of higher ones. Finally, there is little evidence to suggest that people are motivated to satisfy only one need level at a time, except in situations where there is a conflict between needs. Even though Maslow's hierarchy lacks scientific support, it is quite well-known and is the first theory of motivation to which many people they are exposed. To address some of the issues of Maslow's theory, Clayton Alderfer developed the ERG theory, a needs-based model that is more consistent with empirical findings. Q. Explain the ERG theory of motivation.
Clayton Alderfer proposed the ERG theory. . then steps can be taken to concentrate on relatedness needs until the subordinate is able to pursue growth again. the ERG theory is hierarchical . Similarities to Maslow's Hierarchy . so it has much in common with it but also differs in some important aspects. they may regress to relatedness needs.Studies had shown that the middle levels of Maslow's hierarchy have some overlap. which like Maslow's theory. managers must recognize that an employee has multiple needs to satisfy simultaneously. Alderfer addressed this issue by reducing the number of levels to three. iii.existence needs have priority over relatedness needs.In addition to the reduction in the number of levels. the hierarchical aspect is not rigid. Unlike Maslow's hierarchy. The letters ERG stand for three levels of needs: Existence. Hygiene factors are those factors the presence of which does not necessarily motivate but the absence of which. Relatedness. Ans. The ERG needs can be mapped to those of Maslow's theory as follows: i. ii. The ERG theory is based on the work of Maslow. iii. the person may regress to lower level needs that appear easier to satisfy. if growth opportunities are not provided to employees. which have priority over growth. This is known as the frustration-regression principle. If the manager is able to recognize this situation. it can explain the "starving artist" who may place growth needs above existence ones. The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher level need remains unfulfilled. while the ERG theory presents a model of progressive needs.Ans. and Growth. describes needs as a hierarchy. Furthermore. This flexibility allows the ERG theory to account for a wider range of observed behaviours. the ERG theory allows for different levels of needs to be pursued simultaneously. To address some of the limitations of Maslow's hierarchy as a theory of motivation. The ERG theory allows the order of the needs be different for different people. Existence: Physiological and safety needs Relatedness: Social and external esteem needs Growth: Self-actualization and internal esteem needs Like Maslow's model. ii. For example. Thus. demotivates. the ERG theory differs from Maslow's in the following three ways: i. then unlike with Maslow's theory. Implications for Management If the ERG theory holds. Differences from Maslow's Hierarchy . Q. Explain Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory or the Two Factor Theory.
and this need is fulfilled by activities that cause one to grow. but rather. there is the psychological need to achieve and grow. Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction.. listed in the order of higher to lower importance. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction. are external factors. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. the process of providing incentives or a threat of punishment to cause someone to do something. there are physiological needs that can be fulfilled by money. Herzberg argued that there are two distinct human needs portrayed. the two feelings cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another.. no satisfaction. Herzberg argues that these provide only short-run success because the motivator factors that determine whether there is satisfaction or no satisfaction are intrinsic to the job itself. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. for example. the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. but rather.According to Herzberg the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate from those that lead to job dissatisfaction To better understand employee attitudes and motivation. one observes that the factors that determine whether there is dissatisfaction or no dissatisfaction are not part of the work itself. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction (and presumably motivation) were different from those causing job dissatisfaction. Factors Affecting Job Attitudes Leading to Dissatisfaction Leading to Satisfaction Company policy Supervision Relationship w/Boss Work conditions Salary Relationship w/Peers Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Herzberg reasoned that because the factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction. where KITA is an acronym for Kick In The A. Similarly. to purchase food and shelter. and do not result from carrot and stick incentives. The following table presents the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing satisfaction. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfier‘s hygiene factors. . Second. First. From the above table of results. Herzberg often referred to these hygiene factors as "KITA" factors..
Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement. Affiliation . Q. These individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction. then there will be a motivation problem. Most of these needs can be classed as: Achievement. David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences.People with a high need for achievement seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. Furthermore. Explain Mcclelland's theory of needs. management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. achievers see the outcome as one of chance rather than one's own effort. Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility. Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization. Ans. Critics of Herzberg's theory argue that the two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Power . They tend to conform to the norms of their work group.A person's need for power can be one of two types . job satisfaction does not necessarily imply a high level of motivation or productivity. then the firm should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has a lower level of skill. In high-risk projects. If a job cannot be designed to use an employee's full abilities. If a person cannot be fully utilized. or Power Achievement . and this need often is perceived as undesirable.personal and institutional. They prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers.Implications for Management If the motivation-hygiene theory holds. According to Herzberg: The job should have sufficient challenge to utilize the full ability of the employee. Managers with a high . In his acquired-needs theory. Those who need personal power want to direct others. Affiliation.Those with a high need for affiliation need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. Herzberg argued that job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation. and that it is a continuous management process. but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations. Achievers need regular feedback in order to monitor the progress of their achievements.
High need for affiliation . McClelland's theory allows for the shaping of a person's needs. The soft approach is to be permissive and seek harmony with the hope that in return employees will cooperate when asked to do so. or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. training programs can be used to modify one's need profile Q. Theory X Theory X assumes that the average person: 1. Theory X .Management should provide power seekers the opportunity to manage others. Ans. 3. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power. purposely low-output and hard-line union demands. controlled. . Implications for Management People with different needs are motivated differently. Employees inherently dislike work and however possible will try to avoid it. neither of these extremes is optimal. High need for power . close supervision. 2. High need for achievement . The hard approach relies on coercion.Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment. implicit threats. essentially an environment of command and control. 4. The soft approach results in everincreasing requests for more rewards in exchange for ever-decreasing work output.High achievers should be given challenging projects with reachable goals.The Hard Approach and Soft Approach Under Theory X. The hard approach results in hostility. Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. and tight controls. Essentially. Help understand the Theory X and Theory Y. They should be provided frequent feedback. Employees will avoid responsibilities and will seek formal direction whenever possible. management approaches can range from a hard approach to a soft approach. While money is not an important motivator. Since employees dislike work they must be coerced. However. it is an effective form of feedback.
People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that addresses higher needs such as self-fulfillment. in a Theory X environment it may be the only way. it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: 1. As such.. But it is in satisfying their higher needs that employees can be most productive. thus making Theory X a self-fulfilling prophecy. each manager will have more . Under these assumptions. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. Under these conditions. resist change. there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals by using the employee's own quest for fulfillment as the motivator. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. Theory X management styles in fact hinder the satisfaction of higher-level needs. 4. one would expect employees to dislike their work. etc. so it is quite predictable that they will focus on monetary rewards. Under Theory X. 2. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and inspiration are common in the population.If firms decentralize control and reduce the number of levels of management. Consequently. 5. From this reasoning. In this situation. and once those needs are satisfied the source of motivation is lost.Under Theory X the firm relies on money and benefits to satisfy employees' lower needs. the only way that employees can attempt to satisfy their higher level needs in their work is by seeking more compensation. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment. McGregor proposed an alternative: Theory Y. people use work to satisfy their lower needs. Theory Y Management Implications If Theory Y holds. and seek to satisfy their higher needs in their leisure time. the firm can do many things to harness the motivational energy of its employees: i. have no interest in organizational goals. people will seek responsibility. avoid responsibility. 3. Work can be as natural as play and rest. People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. Decentralization and Delegation . Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied.
Broadening the scope of an employee's job adds variety and opportunities to satisfy ego needs. 5. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. . Illustrate with an example from daily life. it allows us to act within our environment.ii. touch. such an environment would result in a high level of motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their jobs. Mention the stages in the Perception Process. iv. 2. Size: The larger the size. Stimulation Perceptual selection is the process by which people filter out irrelevant or less significant information so that they can deal with the most important matters. and some of the ways in which we can make our perceptions more accurate. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us. Q. Ans. Perception is the process of making sense of the world around us. External Factors i. If properly implemented. The 5 Stages are: 1.Consulting employees in the decision making process taps their creative capacity and provides them with some control over their work environment.Having the employee set objectives and participate in the process of evaluating how well they were met. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. The tallest person in the office will invariably be noticed. subordinates and consequently will be forced to delegate some responsibility and decision making to them. sight. Selection -We select what we want to perceive. the more likely it is to be perceived. Perception has its own broadly defined 5 stages of how we perceive people. the processes that influence our perceptions. Performance Appraisals . Participative Management . Perception includes the five senses. Perceptual Selection is determined by 1. Selection Interpretation -we starts to interpret on the things that we perceive and organize in selection and organization. Organization -We arrange the information that we perceive from. Through the perceptual process. Memory -We don't retain all we select. 3. The perceptual process allows us to experience the world around us. taste smell and taste. iii. 4. Job Enlargement .
Repetition: A repeated factor is more likely to be noticed. and disciplined in making perceptual selections. Motion: A moving factor is more likely to be perceived than stationary factor. Less conscientious persons are impulsive. allowing themselves to retrieve data quickly and in an organized manner.) the more likely it is to be perceived. Novelty and familiarity: Either novelty or familiarity will can attract attention. On the other hand. vi. They see their environment as hectic and unstable which affects the way they make perceptual selections. Films (motion pictures) attract people more than a static picture. Internal Factors i. EXAMPLE: imagine that you are out on a morning jog at your local park. people process pleasant event more efficiently and accurately than they do unpleasant events. Also. Marketing managers use this principle in trying to get attention of the prospective customers. On the other hand. a car drives past with the windows rolled down and the ii. One may notice that the TV commercials always have high pitch as compared to normal telecast. iv. Personality: Personality has an interesting influence on what and how people perceive. one is likely to spot a familiar face in a crowd or a familiar voice even if there is a lot of noise and confusion 2. according to Pollyanna principle. ii. iii. v. more conscientious people organize their perceptions into neat categories. A perceptual set is an expectation of a particular interpretation based on past experiences with the same or an identical object. Learning: Learning determines the development of perceptual sets. they are careful. As you perform your workout. an employee who receives both positive and negative feedback during the appraisal meeting may more easily and clearly remember the positive statements than the negative ones. iii. there are a wide variety of environmental stimuli that might capture your attention. People perceive things that promise to help satisfy their needs and that they have found rewarding in the past. high pitch sound etc. Contrast: External factors that stand out against the background or things that are not which people expect are more likely to be perceived. Motivation: A person‘s most urgent needs and desires at any particular time can influence perception.Intensity: The more intense an external factor (bright light. loud noise. conscientious people tend to pay more attention to external environmental cues than does a less conscientious person. methodical. . careless. The tree branches are swaying in the slight breeze. In other words. People would quickly notice a person riding an elephant on a busy street in Delhi. For example. and irresponsible. a man is out on the grass playing fetch with his Labrador. For example. In organizational settings. past experiences of the managers and employees influence their perceptions to a great extent.
Define Leadership. 8. Leadership is the ability to influence a group towards achievement of goals.and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. task. reliable. Scholars taking the trait approach attempted to identify physiological (appearance. and social characteristics (sociability and cooperativeness) with leader emergence and leader effectiveness. height. and aggressiveness). 2. judgment. Achievement drive: High level of effort. Transformational Leadership Theory: People can choose to become leaders. intellective (intelligence. Q.both successful and unsuccessful . All of these things represent the environmental around you. 5. It is the most widely accepted theory today. education and socioeconomic background). Explain the Trait Theory of leadership. Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission. Great Events Theory: A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion.music blaring. Trait Theory: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. task-related (achievement drive. creativity and flexibility Strengths/Advantages of Trait Theory . the man playing with his dog and the person driving the car with loud music. The Trait Model of Leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders . Leadership means responsibility. and persistence). decisiveness. demographic (age. Ans. a duck splashes in a nearby pond. and open Self-confidence: Belief in one‘s self. does not suffer from severe psychological disorders. which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. energy and initiative Leadership motivation: an intense desire to lead others to reach shared goals Honesty and integrity: trustworthy. strong analytical abilities. ideas. Others: charisma. and ability Cognitive ability: Capable of exercising good judgment. The leader is the guy the others look to get the job done. initiative. 3. 4. and conceptually skilled 6. In short Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. People can learn leadership skills. Emotional Maturity: well adjusted. or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure. Knowledge of business: Knowledge of industry and other technical matters 7. serving as a starting point for the perceptual process and you forming the perception of the weather. high levels of ambition. and weight). and knowledge).Among the core traits identified are: 1. selfconfidence. personality.
a minimum weight and height might be necessary to perform the tasks efficiently in a military leadership position. honesty and integrity are a matter of personal choice. height and weight. these natural talents need encouragement and development. The theory is very complex Implications of Trait Theory The trait theory gives constructive information about leadership. 5. 3. A person is not born with selfconfidence. The model attempts to relate physical traits such as. 2. It is naturally pleasing theory. these are not mutually exclusive alternatives. Limitations of The Trait Theory 1. It serves as a yardstick against which the leadership traits of an individual can be assessed. Conclusion The traits approach gives rise to questions: whether leaders are born or made. motivation to lead comes from within the individual. it still requires the application of special skills and techniques. For example. They can get an in-depth understanding of their identity and the way they will affect others in the organization. However. It can be applied by people at all levels in all types of organizations. In business organizations. 3. Self-confidence is developed. Even if there are certain inborn qualities that make one a good leader. It gives a detailed knowledge and understanding of the leader element in the leadership process. . to effective leadership.1. More than 100 different traits of successful leaders in various leadership positions have been identified. Leadership may be something of an art. and the knowledge of business can be acquired. Most of these factors relate to situational factors. 4. It is valid as lot of research has validated the foundation and basis of the theory. This theory makes the manager aware of their strengths and weaknesses and thus they get an understanding of how they can develop their leadership qualities. These descriptions are simply generalities. While cognitive ability has its origin partly in genes. it still needs to be developed. The list of possible traits tends to be very long. Managers can utilize the information from the theory to evaluate their position in the organization and to assess how their position can be made stronger in the organization. There is also a disagreement over which traits are the most important for an effective leader 4. There is bound to be some subjective judgment in determining who is regarded as a ‗good‘ or ‗successful‘ leader 2. None of these ingredients are acquired overnight. these are not the requirements to be an effective leader. and whether leadership is an art or science.
Define Group. They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. Participative or democratic style . there are different types of leadership too. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. Describe the stages in Group formation. as with dictators. 2.Leader acts as a ‗father figure‘. Leadership is a method through which a person or group influences others to obtain certain goals and objectives.Q. they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. What are the different types of Leadership? Explain. It permits quick decision-making. It has high degree or dependency on the leader and can create de-motivation and alienation of staff.The democratic leadership style favours decisionmaking by the group. Paternalistic . as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group. Leadership can also be defined as being able to motivate and inspire others. Workers feel ownership of the firm and it thus improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business. Delegative/ Laissez-faire or free rein style . 3. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. 4. It encourages decision making. who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Such a leader gives instructions after consulting the group. The downfall is it can delay decision making. Ans. . Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult as believes in the need to support staff. Q. interacting and interdependent. It can be broadly defined under the following classes: 1. Such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. With the different definitions of leadership. Groups can be either formal or informal. Ans. but leaves the group entirely to itself. A group is defined as two or more individuals. Autocratic or authoritarian style Participative or democratic style Delegative/ Laissez-faire or free rein style Paternalistic Style Autocratic or authoritarian style . which in turn improves the coherency and efficiency of the group. all decisionmaking powers are centralized in the leader.Under the autocratic leadership style.A free-rein leader does not lead. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them.
Storming . and of testing the leader's guidance both formally and informally. anticipation. This is a stage of transition from individual to member status. The team often accomplishes little concerning its goals. 4. and confront each other to decide on the best course of action. There is often difficulty in identifying some of the relevant problems as there is so much going on that members get distracted. Forming includes these feelings and behaviours: 1.This is probably the more tumultuous phase during which the members of the team all have their own ideas and directions that they want to go in. This phase can be a bit uncomfortable and/or unpleasant but it‘s still quite necessarily for the growth and development of the team. 7. . 6. with designated work assignments establishing tasks. critique. 5. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. and for some members. impatience with these discussions. Excitement. It can be defined under the Five-Stage Model: 1. 4. 2. and the organizational structure of the team. 2.This is the initial stage of putting the team together where individuals learn about each other and the team requirements as well as the challenges. Usually companies go through serious problems when they cannot leave this phase thus making the entire relationship very tense and difficult for everyone. 5. expectations. Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Forming . and optimism Pride in being chosen for the project A tentative attachment to the team Suspicion and anxiety about the job Defining the tasks and how they will be accomplished Determining acceptable group behaviour Deciding what information needs to be gathered Activities include abstract discussions of the concepts and issues.Formal groups are those defined by the organization‘s structure. Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. Oftentimes team members‘ debate. 3.Members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behaviour. This is also the information gathering and exploratory stage. 3. Stages of Group Development/ Formation Groups generally pass through a standardized sequence in their evolution.
team members have discovered and accepted other's strengths and weakness. 5. 3.They begin to realize the tasks that are ahead are different and more difficult than they previously imagined. Establishing unrealistic goals 8. In addition. Performing includes these feelings and behaviours: . Everyone wants to share the newly found focus. competition. Responsibility and roles are much more clearly defined. 2. and resist collaborating with most other team members. and the individuality of fellow members. members argue about just what actions the team should take. 4. Norming includes these feelings and behaviours: 1. Disunity. Impatient about the lack of progress. During this stage.By now the team has settled its relationships and expectations. and jealousy These pressures mean that team members have little energy to spend on progressing towards the intended goal. 4. and implementing changes. Individuals start to understand each other‘s work habits and ethic and everything seems much more natural. members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities. they have more time and energy to spend on the project. They try to rely solely on their personal and professional experience. and goals Establishing and maintaining team ground rules and boundaries As team members work out their differences. But they are beginning to understand each another. Emotional conflict is reduced as previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. Norming . 5. Enthusiasm is high. and choosing sides Questioning the wisdom of those who selected the project and appointed the members of the team 7. confiding in each other. increased tension. Storming includes these feelings and behaviours: 1. They can begin performing by diagnosing. 6. This phase can often take 3 or 4 meetings before arriving at the next phase. they have learned what their roles are. spirit. expectations are set. 3.This is the phase where the team really starts to function and work together as a team. An ability to express criticism constructively Acceptance of membership in the team An attempt to achieve harmony by avoiding conflict Friendliness. 6. At last. ground rules. Performing . and sharing of personal problems A sense of team cohesion. and the team is often tempted to go beyond the original scope of the process. roles. They accept the team. Resisting the tasks Resisting quality improvement approaches suggested by other members Sharp fluctuations in attitude about the team's chance of success Arguing among members. 2. even when they agree on the real issues Defensiveness. problem solving. and collaboration is in full swing.
In problem-solving teams. Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within . 2. It not only solves problems but also implements the solutions and takes responsibility for outcomes. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks. but from different work areas. Problem-Solving Teams Self-Managed Teams Cross-Functional Teams Virtual Teams Problem-Solving Teams – Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. and create an environment that allows everyone to go beyond their limitations. Self-Managed Teams – Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisor.1. A team comprises a group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. Differentiate between Teams and Groups. Many relationships formed within these teams continue long after the team disbands. efficiency. who come together to accomplish a task. Q. 3. Ans. The team briefs and shares the improved process during this phase. Members have insights into personal and group processes An understanding of each other's strengths and weakness Constructive self-change Ability to prevent or work through group problems Close attachment to the team The team is now an effective. help other team members realize their true potential. and the work environment. cohesive unit. When the team finally completes that last briefing. Team members need to learn how to help one another. 4. 3. A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. You can tell when your team has reached this stage because you start getting a lot of work done. Adjourning and Transforming . Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximise his/her strengths and minimise his/her weaknesses. Define Team and different types of Teams. there is always a bittersweet sense of accomplishment coupled with the reluctance to say good-bye. 4. Cross-Functional Teams – This team is made of employees from about the same hierarchical level. The teams can be categorized as follows: 1. 5. 2.Adjourning refers to the team breaking up after the task has been completed. members share ideas or offer suggestion on how work process and methods can be improved.
Their supervisor/leader may put off intervention until serious damage is done. Suggestion and creativity are not encouraged. 8. members feel a sense of ownership for their jobs and unit. Win/lose situations are common. Ownership. 5. members may or may not participate in decisions affecting the team. Individuals sometimes cross purpose with others. Expressions of opinion or disagreement are considered divisive or non-supportive. They approach their job simply as a hired hand. i. members receive good training but are limited in applying it to the job by the manager or other group members. members recognise their independence and understand both personal and team goals are best accomplished with mutual support. Understandings. a crisis situation.In a group.In a group. Common Understandings. and coordinate complex projects.In a group. members distrust the motives of colleagues because they do not understand the role of other members. In a team. disagreements and feelings. opinions. Difference between Team and Groups 1. members participate in decisions affecting the team but understand their leader must make a final ruling . In a team. members realise conflict is a normal aspect of human interaction but they view such situations as an opportunity for new ideas and creativity.In a group. 4. members find themselves in conflict situations they do not know how to resolve. 7. 3. Creativity and Contribution. In a team. Conformity often appears more important than positive results. Time is not wasted struggling over "Turf" or attempting personal gain at the expense of others. members tend to focus on themselves because they are not sufficiently involved in planning the unit's objectives. members think they are grouped together for administrative purposes only. members are so cautious about what they say. In a team. members are told what to do rather than being asked what the best approach would be. knowledge and creativity to team objectives. Conflict Resolution. Trust. In a team.e. They make an effort to understand each other's point of view. Personal Development. 6.In a group.In a group. Questions are welcomed. They work to resolve conflict quickly and constructively. In a team. develop new ideas and solve problems. "Castle Building" is common. members practice open and honest communication. In a team. They perceive they have the support of the team. Game playing may occur and communication traps be set to catch the unwary. In a team.In a group.an organization to exchange information. Participative Decision Making. members contribute to the organisation's success by applying their unique talents. members are encouraged to continually develop skills and apply what they learn on the job.In a group. 2. members work in a climate of trust and are encouraged to openly express ideas. because they are committed to values-based common goals that they helped establish. that real understanding is not possible. Virtual Teams – Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
2. The leader sets agreed high standards of performance and he/she is respected via active. Nature of workforce Technology Economic and Social Forces Competition Globalization Political Changes Changing Customer Preferences Changing demographics Organization restructuring Steps for successful change – . Performance levels tend to be mediocre. 8.whenever the team cannot decide. Change management is a structured approach to the change in individuals. Forces for Change – They can be defined as follows: (please explain the terms) 1. members tend to work in an unstructured environment with undetermined standards of performance.In a group. or an emergency exists. willing participation. Clear Leadership. teams. Staff turnover is high because talented individuals quickly recognise that (a) personal expectations are not being fulfilled (b) they are not learning and growing from others and (c) they are not working with the best people. 5. Define Change and the need for Change Management. OR Movement from one state of being to another. Ans. Change management is an aspect of management focusing on ensuring that the firm responds to the ever-dynamic environment in which it operates. Leaders do not walk the talk and tend to lead from behind a desk. It need not be voluntary. Positive win/win results are the goal at all times. Commitment. 9. members are uncommitted towards excellence and personal pride. 7. 10. give or begin to have a different form. 3. In a team. they know what boundaries exist and who has final authority.To make or become different. Change can be defined as . desired or planned. 4.In a group. Q. Give the forces for change and steps to minimize resistance to change. It need not be physical movement. 6. 9. organizations and societies that enables the transition from a current state to a desired future state. members work in a structured environment.
assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. Personality – Personality can be defined as‖ the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Write Short notes on : 1. The resulting leadership styles are as follows: to 9 (High). each axis ranges from 1 (Low) to 9 (High). ii. anxiety. Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness. The resulting leadership styles are as follows: . Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability. talkativeness. 2. The model is represented as a grid with concern for production as the x-axis and concern for people as the y-axis. altruism. moodiness. The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y. Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability. affection. Environment and Situation. with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviours.Q.‖ There are three personality determinants – Heredity. Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight. iii. This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. and other prosaically behaviours.The managerial grid model is a behavioural leadership model developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details. Personality can be broadly categorized under the Big-Five Modeli. and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. iv. v. Managerial Grid . Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust. and sadness. kindness. sociability. irritability.
The dictatorial (previously. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y.1): evade and elude. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees. which results in less innovative decisions. team style) (9. Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and workers' needs. managers have low concern for both people and production. The sound (previously. Managers use this style to preserve job and job seniority.1): control and dominate. managers using this style find employee needs unimportant. This style is often used in cases of crisis management. and is commonly applied by companies on the edge of real or perceived failure. middle-of-the-road) style (5. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly.The indifferent (previously called impoverished) style (1. With a high concern for production. and a low concern for people.9): contribute and commit. This dictatorial style is based on Theory X of Douglas McGregor. managers who use this style hope to achieve suitable performance but doing so gives away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are met. protecting themselves by avoiding getting into trouble. The status quo (previously. .9): yield and comply. Managers using this style also pressure their employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. in hopes that this will increase performance. managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. By giving some concern to both people and production. high concern is paid both to people and production. produce or perish) style (9. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes. country club) style (1. The accommodating (previously. they provide their employees with money and expect performance in return. This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production.5): balance and compromise. This method relies heavily on making employees feel themselves to be constructive parts of the company. but not necessarily very productive. In this style. In this style.
They adopt whichever behaviour offers the greatest personal benefit.The opportunistic style: exploit and manipulate. As a positive influence. It can result into – 1. 4. nervous tension or necessarily something damaging or bad to be avoided. This style was added to the grid theory before 1999. More subtle and even more damaging effects of long term organizational commitment. It has physical and emotional effects on us and creates positive or negative feelings. it was redefined to alternate between the (1. Individual Stress is the ―wear and tear‖ our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. They don‘t feel good this has a direct affect on the organization.Stress can be categorized as: i. A Process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. iii. stress can help compel us to perform an action which results in new awarenessAs a negative influence it can result in feeling of ―rejection‖. The paternalistic style: prescribe and guide. low morale and poor work performance. iv.‖Stress is not simply anxiety.1) locations on the grid. Ans. Individuals using this style.9) and (9. ii. from the groups of employees and are influenced by and from employees themselves. or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about. Stress – Stress can be defined as:―An adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical. 2. 3. Interdepartmental conflict Deterioration in industrial relations Reduction in long term productivity General dissatisfaction. 5. 6. outside and inside of an organization. Define Conflict. Extra-organizational ii. High absenteeism and staff turnover. Conflict occurs whenever: . In The Power to Change. ‖anger‖ and ―depression‖. Group iv. State the ways to manage Conflict. Organizational iii.The potential sources of stress can be listed as follows: i. psychological and or behavioural deviations for organizational participants. but discourage challenges to their thinking. Mental (how the mind works) Physical (how the body works) Behavioural (the things we do) Cognitive (the way we think and concentrate) When employees of an organization feel stressed then well-being is negatively affected. Managers using this style praise and support. do not have a fixed location on the grid. are sabotage and ultimately organizational breakdown Q. which was added to the grid theory before 1999. 3.The sources of stress come from both.
In instances in which conflict is attributed to the widely different styles. Change the Composition of the Team. fear. group members take a vote. and to uncover the root cause of the problem. by focusing attention on a competitor company. the amount of conflict increases.Group conflict within an organization can be mitigated by focusing attention on a common enemy such as the competition. Consider Majority Rule.When a fundamental disagreement happens over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment . consider a physical layout solution. etc. such as a recession. But. In problem-solving mode.There are a number of different ways of managing organizational conflict – Change the Structure. Problem Solve. values.Problem solving is a common approach to resolving conflict. each wanting to maximize advertising money devoted to their product. the easiest solution may be to change the composition of the team. the conflict tends to decrease. and preferences of a small number of members. If that‘s not possible because everyone‘s skills are needed on the team and substitutes aren‘t available. structural change can be the solution to resolving the conflict. when they are seated side by side.When interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger. the individuals or groups in conflict are asked to focus on the problem. replacing some of these members may resolve the problem. the groups may decide to work together to enhance the marketing effectiveness for the company as a whole. separating the personalities that were at odds. The majority rule approach can work if the participants feel that the procedure is fair. Create a Common Opposing Force. dislike.Emotional conflict. resentment.When structure is a cause of dysfunctional conflict. However. The ―enemy‖ need not be another company—it could be a concept. . This approach recognizes the rarity of one side being completely right and the other being completely wrong. and the idea with the most votes is the one that gets implemented. That is.If the conflict is between team members.– Disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance. not on each other. – Emotional antagonisms cause frictions between individuals or groups There are two types of conflicts – Substantive conflict. For example.Sometimes a group conflict can be resolved through majority rule. that unites previously warring departments to save jobs during a downturn. mistrust. Research has shown that when known antagonists are seated directly across from each other. two software groups may be vying against each other for marketing dollars.
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