1. What are the optimization tools you use? Drive test, analysis, others? 2.

Are System Information Blocks (SIB) transmitted all the time? No, system information block is multiplexed with synchronization channel. Synchronization channel occupies the first time slot (TS) and SIB occupies the other 9 time slots. 3. How does UE camp (synchronize) to a NodeB? 1. UE uses the primary synchronization channel (P-SCH) for slot alignment (TS synchronization). 2. After aligning to NodeB time slot, UE then uses secondary synchronization channel (S-SCH) to obtain frame synchronization and scrambling code group identification. 3. UE then uses scrambling code ID to obtain CPICH, thus camping to a NodeB.

4. What could be the cause of soft handover failure? • UE issue. • Resource unavailable at target NodeB. • Inadequate SHO threshold defined. o Etc. 5. What are the three sets in handover? The 3 sets in handover are:Active set – the list of cells which are in soft handover with UE.

Monitored set – the list of cells not in active set but RNC has told UE to monitor. o Detected set – list of cells detected by the UE but not configured in the neighbor list.

6. What are the major differences between GSM and UMTS handover decision? GSM:

Time-based mobile measures of RxLev and RxQual – mobile sends measurement report every SACH period (480ms). o BSC instructs mobile to handover based on these reports.


Event-triggered reporting – UE sends a measurement report only on certain event “triggers”. o UE plays more part in the handover decision.

7. What are the events 1a, 1b, 1c, etc.? • e1a – a Primary CPICH enters the reporting range, i.e. add a cell to active set. • e1b – a primary CPICH leaves the reporting range, i.e. removed a cell from active set. • e1c – a non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH, i.e. replace a

• • • •

cell. e1d: change of best cell. e1e: a Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold. e1f: a Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold.Soft handover events 1a, 1b,

1c Hard handover event 2d -> 3a

strong interference. Ec/Io ≤ -16dBm. 11. Average DL/UL throughput for PSD: 210kbps for loaded. What is the typical event sequence of IRAT Handover from 3G to 2G . • Etc. What is the typical UE transmit power? Varies – most of the time below 0dBm. e3b: the GSM cell quality has moved below a threshold. 13. • Poor data throughput. power quickly: power_Offset_P0. e3d: there was a change in the order of best GSM cell list. Did you work on neighbor prioritization? 16.8. Have your used Ericsson TEMS? If so: • Do you know how to create command sequence? • What are the call sequences you typically have? CS long call. Dropped call rate (≤ 2%). number of preambles sent in a given preamble cycle: preamble_Retrans_Max. What are the conditions you typically set to trigger IRAT handover? RSCP and Ec/Io are used to trigger IRAT handover: • • RSCP ≤ -100dBm. 15. 10. 12. • Call setup time (CS: over 95% of the time < 6-second for mobile-to-PSTN. number of RRC Connection Request retries: N300. e3c: the GSM cell quality has moved above a threshold. • What are the typical commands you have for CS and PS call? • Do you regularly stop and restart a new log file? Why and when to stop and start a new file? • How do you stop a log file? Stop command sequence first. the number of preamble cycles: max_Preamble_Cycle. etc. CS short call. 14. PSD call. BLER: over 95% of the blocks ≤ 2%. PS: over 95% of the time < 5-second). What may happen when there’s a missing neighbor or an incorrect neighbor? • Access failure and handover failure: may attempt to access to a wrong scrambling code. What can we try to improve when access failure is high? When access failure is high we can try the following to improve RACH performance: • • • • • Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase maximum UE transmit power allowed: Max_allowed_UL_TX_Power. • Poor voice quality. 9. What are event 2a-2d and 3a-3d? Events 2a-2d are for inter-frequency handover measurements and events 3a-3d are for IRAT handover measurements. • Dropped call: UE not aware of a strong scrambling code. 9-second for • • • mobile-mobile. wait and make sure all equipment are in idle mode before stop logging. • • • • e3a: the UMTS cell quality has moved below a threshold and a GSM cell quality had moved above a threshold. 240kbps for unloaded. What are the typical KPIs you use to measure a network and what criteria? • Access failure rate (≤ 2%).

What is Paging Success Ratio? What is the typical PSR that you have seen in a UMTS network? • PSR – Paging Responses to the Paging Attempts • About 90% 19. Stronger and meets the criteria for Event1a or Event1c. What could be possible causes for this drop? • Delayed Handover • Loss of Synchronization • Fast Fading • Pilot Pollution / Spillover issues 23. What are the possible causes for a lower PSR? • Non-continuous RF Coverage – UE going in and out of coverage area frequently • Very High ‘Periodic Location Update Timer’ – Keeping UEs in VLR long time after it moved out • • • of coverage Lower Paging Channel Power Access Channel Parameter Issues Delayed Location Update when crossing the LA / CN Boundaries 20. if the spillover is there. a SC is coming in to Monitored Set and Event1a is triggered. 24. But UE is not receiving Active Set Update from NodeB and the call drops. A UE is served by 2 SC in AS. Add the neighbor. What is the typical Call Setup Time for a 3G UE to 3G UE Call? What are the possible RF related causes for a delayed CST in this type of call? • 6 to 9 seconds . A UE is served by 2 or 3 SC in AS. What are the possible causes for a Drop Call on a UMTS network? • Poor Coverage (DL / UL) • Pilot Pollution / Pilot Spillover • Missing Neighbor • SC Collisions • Delayed Handovers • No resource availability (Congestion) for Hand in • Loss of Synchronization • Fast Fading • Delayed IRAT Triggers • Hardware Issues • External Interference 21. What is Hard Handover in UMTS? When will it happen? • Hard Handover in UMTS is a break before make type Handover • It can happen in the inter RNC boundaries where there is no Iur link. It is identifying a SC from 3rd tier. What are the possible causes for an IRAT Failure? • Missing 2G relations • Non availability of 2G Resources • Poor 2G Coverage • Missing 3G Relations 18. 22. But SHO did not happen because of missing neighbor relations? How do you optimize this issue? • Study the Pilot spillover from the 3rd Tier SC and control its coverage • Even after controlling the coverage.• Event 2d – entering into compressed mode – measurement of 2G candidates – Event 3a – Verification of 2G resources – Handover from UTRAN Command from 3G RNC to UE 17.

What will happen to the Soft Handover Overhead when you apply OCNS on the network? And Why? • With OCNS. or .7 (Avg Active Set Size) or 35% (Secondary / Total ) 26. without changing any other parameters? • Reduction in number of Event1a • Delayed Event1a trigger • Reduction in Average Active Set Size • Delay in Event1a could increase DL interference. 2) Secondary / Total Traffic Typical Values are like 1. the interference (load) increases. In addition. This leads to reduction in Ec/Io of a Pilot. What is Soft Handover Overhead? What is the typical value in UMTS network? • Soft Handover Overhead is calculated in two ways. 27. What is Admission Control? • Admission Control is an algorithm which controls the Resource Allocation for a new call and additional resource allocation for an existing call. Reduction in Pilot Spillover will reduce the Soft Handover Overhead. Congestion Control will attempt to resolve the congestion by either down switching. 1) Average Active Set Size – Total Traffic / • Primary Traffic. If overload conditions do occur. What are the possible causes for an Access Failure in UMTS? • Missing Neighbors • Poor Coverage • Pilot Pollution / Spillover • Poor Cell Reselection • Core Network Issues • Non – availability of resources. admission control denies permission for the additional resource requirement. 31. 33. (FOR ERICSSON EXPERIENCED) What is the System Reference Point at which all the Power Levels are measured in Ericsson NodeB? • System Ref Point for E/// NodeB is at the output of TMA (Between TMA and Antenna) 30. which reduces the pilot spillovers. if a cell is heavily a loaded and enough resources in terms of power.• • • • Multiple RRC Attempts (UE is on poor coverage – need more than Access Attempt) Delayed Page Responses High Load on Paging and/or Access Channel Paging / Access Parameters 25. Congestion Control will immediately restrict Admission Control from granting additional resources. What will be the impact when you change ‘reportingrange1a’ from 3 to 4 dB and ‘timetotrigger1a’ 100 to 320 ms. What is Congestion Control? • Congestion Control monitors the dynamic utilization of specific cell resources and insures that overload conditions do not occur. What are the typical values for ‘reportingrange1a’ and ‘reportingrange1b’? • 3 dB and 5 dB respectively. Admission Control denies • Hardware Issues • Improper RACH Parameters • External Interference 28. codes or CEs are not available. (FOR ERICSSON EXPERIENCED) What is RTWP? What is the significance of it? • Received Total Wide-band Power • It gives the Total Uplink Power (Interference) level received at NodeB 29. Incase. which could lead to a drop call or increase in Average Power Per User (reduction in cell capacity) 32.

Once the congestion is corrected. . and Admission Control will be enabled. the congestion resolution actions will cease.terminating existing users.

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