Your Personal Source of Information

New Applications for NIR Exist All Around You

Vol. 1 No. 4 — 2003

scans of paint samples show the degree of curing? But you ask, “How can a thin film of paint have enough of a path length to enable a significant sigBruce Campbell, President CNIRS nal-to-noise level to be achieved?” Well, why not have the light beam impinge at a decided angle to Are you thinking of dethe surface of the paint, veloping a new application only a few degrees from for NIR? Perhaps you are zero, with the detector also not at all sure if there would at the same angle but albe a correlation that would most 180 degrees different? permit a decent calibration This may increase the path to be derived? Don’t worry. length through the paint Try it anyway. If you knew while giving a longer path beforehand that the applilength for the space immecation would not work, you diately above the paint. would have to know ALL This latter path length may there is about the relationenable the detection and ships. I don’t know about quantification of the gases you, but I have yet to meet coming off the paint - sort anyone who knew all about of a remote sensing arthe spectro-chemical proprangement. If this speculaerties of a sample set. Therefore, unless you are tion really would works, as I think it would, a new that rare breed, there is a good probability that application would be garnered. The usage would some sample attribute will complement present methods have some effect on the of testing and may even supspectra. And when anything plant them. affects the spectra, it is fair Would such an approach game for development of an be feasible? There are probapplication. lems that would have to be Presidents Message ................................ 1 There is one parameter overcome, such as how to enthat doesn’t directly affect Editorial Board ......................................... 2 sure a long enough path individual spectra. I am length for the gases when Governing Board/Committees .................. 3 thinking here of time. Nuthere could be appreciable Lab-Process Monitoring .......................... 4 merous applications exist scattering of the light beam Chambersburg Meeting .......................... 8 where time is important. from the paint layer. The Spotlighting Italy ...................................... 9 Consider, for example, curing method of applying the paint Computer Tips ....................................... 11 paint. Is curing time imporlayer may introduce variables. Member Activities .................................. 12 tant? Many paint companies The thickness of the paint think so. Some even adverRemembering ........................................ 13 layer could be very important. tise “fast curing paints.” In And on and on. But consider Bibliography ........................................... 14 addition, a major challenge the rewards of overcoming Membership Guidelines ......................... 15 for paint companies is to deCNIRS Awards ....................................... 16 crease the amount and type FOSS NIR Systems ................................ 17 of volatile organic comCont’d Page 7 — President’s pounds, VOC. Wouldn’t

Contents

http://www.pharm.uky.edu/asrg/cnirs/cnirs.html http:/www.idrc-chambersburg.org The NIR Spectrum - Vol. 1 No. 4 (2003)

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Germany From the Editors We are continually looking for ways to improve The NIR Spectrum.usda. USA Darrell Donahue ddonahue@umche. Editor pasquini@iqm.an@swp.com Guided Wave. You will note that the boundary lines in this issue are thinner and there are fewer of them. Japan Asia Hong Yang. Brazil South America Editorial Advisors Woody Barton wbarton@qaru.gov.edu University of Maine USA Emil Ciurczak Nirprof@cs.kwansei. Editor k. Inc.de Zeiss.edu Kansas State University USA Andy Hale hale@eos.kee. (2) easy to read on a computer screen and (3) be widely available. Editor jing.au Central Queensland University Australia Theo van Kempen t_vankempen@ncsu.edu Duquesne University USA John Guthrie John. the content (or text). rather than detract from.” Font research suggest that the font you use should be (1) in keeping with objectives. which in the past have been a little gaudy. Basically.wang@bruker.Editorial Board Rob Lodder Beverly Jacobson bjacobso@crystalsugar. USA lodder@pop.edu Iowa State University USA Susan Foulk sfoulk@aol.com NIR Consultant USA Roberto Giangiacomo rgiangiacomo@ilclodi. Boundaries of text boxes. pulled together information on “fonts for webpages.com NC State University USA Gary Ritchie GER@usp.ncsu. there are only two types of fonts — serif and sans serifs. Editor ozaki@ksc. Hungary Europe Qian Wang Qian. Fred McClure –EIC Editors Fred McClure. The font of the articles have changed. Serif fonts are those that have fine cross-lines at the extremities of the letter.ac. He ranked Verdana exceptional “because its wide body makes it the clearest font for on-screen reading.au Centre for Food Technology Australia Bill Fateley bisnbil@ksu.qld.edu.gov USDA/ARS USA Associate Editors Nils Berding nberding@bses.net ATK Elkton.ars.hu Szent Istvan University. San serif (“san” is French for “without”) are fonts that don’t have serifs.uky. LLC USA David Funk.org US Pharmacopoeia USA David Semmes dsemmes@juno. This issue contains some changes that have been taken from the comments of members.Guthrie@dpi.org.maine.walsh@cqu. USA The NIR Spectrum . Ltd. Stations Australia Bruce Campbell campclan@prodigy.Vol. Editor dave@elfiz2. Times New Roman.edu NC State University USA Deborah Habernicht debrah@montana. have been reduced in size in hopes that they enhance. even at small sizes. hyang@ncat. Canada North America Lois Weyer lweyer@fcc.” Enjoy. 4 (2003) Page 2 . Editor-in-Chief nirprofessor@nc.com Proctor and Gamble USA Kerry Walsh.edu Montana State University USA Charles Hurburgh tatry@iastate. Editorial Advisor. Arial is typical of sans serif.edu A & T University USA Celio Pasquini.com Saskatchewan Wheat Pool.edu University of Kentucky USA Michael Rode rode@zeiss.net Avian. 1 No. Of the five. The author of this font data (Mario Sanchez in The Internet Digest) talks about four fonts: Arial.jp Kwansai Gakuin University. making the text more readable on a screen. Sanchez says that only Georgia and Verdana qualify for on-screen reading. Times New Roman is a common serif font.br State University of Campinas.it Istituto Sperimentale Lattiero Caseario Italy Jim Drennen drennen@duq.edu NC State University USA Jing An.com Bruker Optics USA Yuki Ozaki.rr.au Bureau of Sugarcane Exp.com American Crystal Sugar Co. Susan Foulk.unicamp. Verdana and Georgia. Inc.

net Bibliography Fred McClure.ars.net Beverly Jacobson bjacobso@crystalsugar. Richard Streamer. Phil Williams.edu Susan Foulk. Don Dahm.com Gary Ritchie GER@usp. Chr.ncsu. Hong Yang and David Semmes Conference (IDRC) Lois Weyer.com Susan Foulk.gov. registration must be received by July 1. Treasurer sfoulk@aol. Chr.Governing Board/Committees Governing Board Executive Committee Bruce Campbell. Secretary hlmark@nearinfrared.com Emil Ciurczak emil@ciurczak. Roumiana Tsenkova and Qian Wang Constitution and Bylaws Dave Ryan. Woody Barton. Susan Foulk and Howard Mark Inter-Society Program Development Woody Barton. Chr wbarton@qaru. Emil Ciurczak. 4 (2003) Page 3 .edu Gary Ritchie. Qian Wang Celio Pasquini. Further information is on the web at: www. Past President mcclure@eos.com Fred McClure.maine.ncsu. Email: IDRC2004@aol. Yuki Ozaki. Chr. with no obligation.Vol.com Don Dahm DJDahm@aol. and to receive a copy of the subsequent circulars. Howard Mark.edu David Hopkins dwh@tds. President campclan@prodigy. To reserve your place.edu Committees Awards Dave Hopkins.net Howard Mark.com To retain your place.org International Diffuse Reflectance Conference — 2004 Attendance is limited to the first 150 regular conferees.usda.maine. lweyer@fcc.net Sandra Kays. 2004.IDRC-Chambersburg. 1 No.org The NIR Spectrum . Chr. Fred McClure and Brian Osborne Members at Large Darrell Donahue ddonahue@umche. Chr. Howard Mark and Christian Paul Membership Darrell Donahue. dwh@tds. mcclure@eos. ddonahue@umche.

1 No. the number of applications where NIR spectroscopy is implemented for monitoring of laboratory processes is comparatively low. real time monitoring by NIR of fast-changing laboratory processes. Both technologies can acquire NIR spectra over a wide spectral range in a matter of seconds. Therefore. However. achieving a low cost/benefits ratio in the development of synthetic routes. 4 (2003) Page 4 . all still at the bench stage. for inNEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY carried on in a chemistry labora. CEP: 13084971 – Campinas – SP – Brazil Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an analytical technique that surpasses requirements for monitoring most industrial processes. Based on the results of a recently published paper. The feature that allowed the continuous monitoring of the composition of a condensate in a distillation device was very simple. record a full NIR transmitfor LABORATORY PROCESS MONITORING tory. mainly related to its composition and expected composition changes. This facilitates the production of standards for qualitative and/or quantitative purposes. It is used to monitor many of the critical quality parameters in the petroleum. The very fact that NIR spectroscopy does not destroy the sample is another attractive feature. including supplying rationale for making objective decision in precision agriculture. such as thin layer chromatography [10. An nm in about 50 ms. The example below illustrates the use of fast scanning instruments along with chemometrics to enhance the extraction of information from laboratory processes. This comes from the fact that the system under study in the laboratory presents some well defined characteristics. However. permitting the monitoring of small quantities of (sometimes very expensive) products and/or reagents employed in specialized chemical reactions. Characteristics of the NIR spectra. textile. are such that. selectivity for a given product or reagent is achieved and a single clear and unique spectral feature can be used to follow the reaction. The use of NIR spectroscopy for monitoring reactions in real time in the laboratory is frequently described in the literature. Sometimes. The approach has become even more attractive by the introduction of rapid-scan Fourier Transform (FT) and Acousto-optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) instruments. The use of already common chemometric multivariate data treatments can help to correlate the total spectra to concentration or property changes taking place inside a reaction flask. Arriving at a suitable NIR system for laboratory process monitoring is often simpler than with other quantitative analytical methods. not to mention the economy of NIR equipment. we mean processes occurring in chemistry laboratories as part of research or processes involved in the development of a product or industrial process.stance. paper. S-H and O-H containing compounds. Micro-reactors can be designed and reactions can be easily monitored.Lab-Process Monitoring All these processes.11] and molecular selfassembling[12]. namely: the fast scanning speed of modern instruments and the use of chemometrics to simplify the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the huge amount of spectral data obtained. By laboratory processes. The NIR Spectrum . the spectral set obtained can not be analyzed without the use of chemometrics. N-H. perhaps. lyophilization[9] or even more complex separation processes. and polymer industries — not to mention the numerous documented applications in the field agriculture where NIR spectroscopy continues to help achieve the highest standards in production.Vol. commonly AOTF spectrometer can. Celio Pasquini Instituto de Química Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) Caixa Postal: 6154. reduced requirements for sampling and sample conditioning. all bursting with information. this fact led to the sub-utilization of NIR to tackle the laboratory reaction-monitoring problem. including solid. when necessary. remote sensing through optical fibers and probes. this is not the case for most applications and. even when coaddition is implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. have been monitored by NIR tance spectrum from 1100-2500 spectroscopy with the inherent advantages shown by that spectral region. perhaps by chance. the potential of NIR spectroscopy for monitoring laboratory processes can be evaluated[8]. including fast chemical reactions. brewing. distillations[8]. many times. Numerous physical-chemistry processes can be documented. Two aspects are relevant. has become a reality. such as reaction monitoring[1-7]. liquid and gaseous samples. fast and reliable spectrum acquisition (enabling a multivariate approach to be applied to process monitoring). namely: almost universal capability for the detection of C-H.

That is the case with the distillation of gasoline. Figure 1B. were incorporated into the distillation spectra set shown in A. Figure 1A shows spectra of the distillation of a mixture of hexane and toluene. chemometrics plays an invaluable and important role in making NIR spectroscopy feasible for monitoring laboratory processes. obtained directly in the flow cell.Lab-Process Monitoring It consisted of a glass flow cell molded as a small funnel and a siphon (inner volume of 150 microliters) adapted at the end of the condenser. However. The scan speed of the AOTF-based instrument allowed for 50 spectra in the region from 800 to 1800 nm (nominal resolution of 2 nm) to be obtained in about 4 s. the condensate was monitored in real time at 4 s intervals. the information obtained by monitoring the distillation by The NIR Spectrum . e. This type of data can be used to control the optimization of the distillation process. d. which in Brazil. binary mixture containing 70% (v/ v) of hexane. b. must contain about 25% of ethanol.Vol. Two optical bundles were implemented to carry the monochromatic radiation from an AOTF crystal to the flow cell and from there to the detector (transmission mode). Spectra of pure substances present in the binary system and of some mixtures in different proportions have been added to the spectra of the condensate before the whole set was submitted to PCA. A. c d b e a Figure 1. 1 No. Therefore. scores obtained by PCA of the distillation data of the mixture in A. a 50:50% mixture. 1A) can not be directly associated with condensate levels. Thus. mixture containing 70% (v/v) toluene and. the bi-dimensional graph of scores allows one to observe the composition of the condensate during distillation. a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. pure hexane. Spectral differences between regular and adulterated gasoline are observed in the spectra of the original samples (without distillation). The bold symbols in B represents the scores values for the five spectra obtained: a. shows the scores for the first and second principal components of the data set shown in Figure 1A. Figure 2 shows the scores for the first and second PCs obtained by monitoring the condensate coming from the distillation of 10 samples of regular and 2 samples of adulterated gasoline. pure toluene. The contribution of chemometrics is more evident where complex systems are under investigation and composition information is scarce. Observe that the changes in the spectral features in the NIR spectral region (though possible to be identified in the original spectra set of Fig. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed a substantial amount of information about the characteristics of the distillation process. c. 4 (2003) Page 5 . B. Although many chemometrics tools could be employed to access the information in the data set. The PCA was carried out after five spectra of mixtures of toluene and hexane and the pure substances. for instance. v/ v). Collection of spectra obtained during real time monitoring of a distillation of a mixture of toluene and hexane (50:50%. Therefore.

and AOTF-based technologies. the interior of which contains the process activity being observed.02 0. Additionally. 4 (2003) Page 6 . the information will be distributed in tiny spectra l variations prese nt throughout the spectrum. thus.06 -0. It may become necessary to construct a suitable cell.01 -0.04 0. The arrows indicate the direction of temperature/time increase during the distillation of regular gasoline. At this point. the system is ready to generate data.04 -0. Teamwork between the technical supporters of the spectrophotometer manufacturer can be extremely helpful to overcome problems encountered. diode arrays or optical interfering filters may be put into prac- PC2 0. the process apparatus can be assembled in the optical path of the NIR instrument. Reflectance and transmittance measurements may be utilized.02 0. development and optimization of industrial process at the bench stage as well as other physical processes carried out in the laboratory. is the extraction of information from the acquired spectra. Once the hardware has been set. since distillation is a common practice in laboratories 0. improving the versatility of the monitoring system. optical fibers constitute the best way to look at the process. 1 No.Lab-Process Monitoring NIR is far more effective in distinguishing between the two adulterated samples and in locating the fractions of condensate responsible for the greatest differentiation. like FT.03 0. This limits the potential for real-time (or automatic) control of the process by utilizing feedback voltages based on recorded spectral data.00 -0. Fast processes. allowing the spectrophotometer to be placed far away from the reaction. avoiding possible damage to the instrument.03 -0.00 0. Instrument manufacturers could assure many more success stories if they would simply supply more details of possible control signals and software source code. the information obtained can help in the identification of the adulterant employed. the use of very simple instruments based on NIRLEDs.02 -0.02 0. This is where chemometrics comes into play. Chemometrics can be used for extracting subtle information useful for determining the process The NIR Spectrum . but a no less relevant step. Most spectrometer-control programs do not allow the user to develop auxiliary software. Sometimes. it would tice for dedicated applications if some expertise in the design of optical instrumentation is available. Sometimes the process can be follow by looking only at specific wavelengths that present the relevant information.04 PC1 Figure 2. the simple adaptation of commercial distillation devices to NIR spectroscopy increases the quality and quantity of information the process can generate. Furthermore. On the other hand.04 -0. such as distillations.01 be necessary to establish the realtime requirements for monitoring any given process. Last. an external (hardware) trigger must be present to synchronize spectral data acquisition with the beginning of the process. dealing with petroleum derivatives. in most cases encountered in near infrared spectroscopy. The examples above help to illustrate the potentials of NIR spectroscopy for monitoring smallscale laboratory processes. thus. Usually. An important question is: What are the steps involved in converting a laboratory-bench NIR spectrophotometer to a useful fullscale laboratory process monitoring system? First of all. However. Ideally. causing the user to resort to external software for further analysis. may require the use of fast instruments. another question becomes relevant: Does the software supplied along with the spectrophotometer allow for the acquisition of data dictated by the process? The software must allow the user to set the time interval and frequency of data acquisition.Vol. The same approach could be used to follow synthesis reactions. Scores distribution for the first two PCs for ten regular samples of gasoline (black circles) and for two adulterated samples (open triangles and circles).08 -0. High storage capacity on permanent media should be available in the controlling computer. The next step is to adapt the spectrophotometer by selecting the correct approach to probe the process.

Ozaki. O.... C. certainly a powerful tool is created whose full potential is still waiting to be explored by scientists responsible for developing chemistry in many of their specialties. 1 No.... M. 125. perhaps. Matsuzawa.. M. A. If you do. to a culture where univariate-based process monitoring is still predominate. Spectrosc. W. and Jee. 9.. H. A. Y. PCA. 4. 6.. Hammond. J. 75. Their interest. President’s—Cont’d from Page 1 those limitations. S pectrosc. 2270-2275 (2003). Katayama. development of analytical instrumentation. Many calibrations have been developed for various aspects of fruit. Iwahashi. 20..) And if you want to try a really. M. P.D. 494-499 (2003). 11. and Serrano. A. Comm.Vol. 50. Micron. These drawbacks can not be attributed to the lack of chemometrics software packages but. S. Geladi. Spectrosc. the chosen data treatment should extract both qualitative or quantitative information from the spectral data. REFERENCES 1... Lachenal. development of optrodes. S. and Rasmuson. Spectrosc. Yamamoto.. Data collected during a process usually will generate threeway data sets (time x wavelength x absorbance/reflectance) containing the information about the process evolution. sort of a prepublication tool. 10. 36. 27. Brulls.F. Chem. 1541-1544 (1996). Spectrosc. This last step. Near Infrared. but possibly with only seven types of stars. H. not surprisingly.W. Sponsors Vol 1 No 4 We thank FOSS NIR Systems for sponsoring this issue of The NIR Spectrum.. Have any been have been developed that incorporate the effect of time and storage conditions? And wouldn’t it be nice to take your spectrometer to a restaurant to test the freshness of the fish you ordered? (Actually. and Murphy. He and his wife. 127-129(1999). M. Blanco. Dulcineia. Yoshikawa. T. D.. E-Polymers. really far out one. J. Maazouz. 3. Anal. 018 (2003).. R. Appl. Moffat. Appl. SP. and Aberg. Appl. M. Res. M. 5.. 7.. 2. Analyst. Chemom. Inc. Sparen. When the capacity of NIR spectroscopy for gathering information from the progress of a laboratory process is combined with the interpretative capacity of modern multivariate data treatments..... The team spirit exhibited by all our sponsors is deeply appreciated.. POSTNOTE Dr. 3. 12. A. FOSS NIR Systems. and Scafi.R. Pasquini. 8. Pharm. One would have to work with variable light-source intensities. H. this newsletter would be a good place to let others know about it. and Forsstrom. The NIR Spectrum .. cooperation and support of The Council for Near Infrared Spectroscopy over many years has enabled CNIRS to offer technical education and training in NIR technology throughout the world. 268-276 (2000). S. 39-44 (1991).A. E. Processes carried on by a research or development laboratory can make impressive use of the new NIR instrumentation that is now capable of generating realtime data even for fast processes. B. J. P. A. 45. but to discover the types of material that is absorbing some of the energy transmitted through space.R. A.. Aline and Diego. and Wakisaka. Geladi. 2059-2064 (2000).. Nakatani.H. J. flow analysis and NIR spectroscopy.Lab-Process Monitoring variables of interest. N. Celio Pasquini is Full Professor in the Chemistry Institute of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). what about analyzing the near infrared spectra from stars? Not to find out what the stars composition is... P. where he has taught and conducted research in analytical chemistry since 1982. and Poisson. Int.C. Czarnecki.. Brazil.. and Benali. We in CNIRS look forward to exciting times ahead for NIRS. Depending on the type of information required for evaluating the process. Bjorsvik. have two children. 1 166-117 0 (1991). Anal. Ciurczak. 329-334 (1996). let your imagination free. He is coordinator of an “Instrumentation and Automation Group” whose research goals include: Lab automation. N. constitutes a major bottle neck for the use of NIR spectroscopy in laboratory process monitoring. and Maeda. J. Other measurements of the effect of time could be envisioned. Neither NIR spectroscopy nor chemometrics can be ignored when facing these issues. 16.. Pierre. is an important multivariate technique producing qualitative and even quantitative information about laboratory processes. the restaurant owner may want to have such a test run on the fish delivered to the restaurant. 1-9 (2001). Dupuy. 9. Chemometric software packages can be purchased that will supply the more usual procedures of multivariate regression and data analysis. Folestad.. 329-338 (2002). I think you would be surprised at what applications you can develop. 54. G. Suzuki. 4 (2003) Page 7 . Kellam. In any new application. as shown in the example above. the variations in source may not constitute an insurmountable problem.

As an exciting first. For further information Optional Sessions: A variety of techvisit the CNIRS/IDRC websites— nical sessions will be during the addresses are on the front of afternoons this newsletter. August cal golf courses are 7-9. USA August 8-13. To reserve your place. registration must be received by July 1.Chambersburg Meeting — www.org 12th International Diffuse Reflectance Conference (IDRC) Wilson College.awarded.feree. Software Shootout: There will be an opportunity to work on a sample set prior to the conference. Certain posters will be selected for 15 minute presentations at the plenary sessions. as well as the more traditional poster format. the Recreational OpportuniIDRC will sponsor a Joint ties: The facilities of the USP/FDA Symposium/ college campus and loWorkshop on PAT." Mon Aug 9: NIR in the Pharmaceutical Industry (8:00 AM & 7:00 PM) Dining and Lodging: Meals at the college cafeteria Tue Aug 10: NIR in the Food and Agricultural and accommodations in the college dormitories Industry (8:00 AM & 7:00 PM) (non-air conditioned) are included for a regular conWed Aug 11: Medical Applications of Diffuse Re. Chr. For details see above web site. Adjourn (noon) Don Dahm. The facilities of the college campus and Sun Aug 8: Opening of Conference local golf courses are available for use in (7:00 PM) the free/non-session afternoons. The Aug 9 (Monday) available. tant because this conference attempts to meet the Don Dahm Scheduled Plenary Sessions: needs of the total person. 4 (2003) Page 8 . 2004 Poster Sessions: Each Conferee will have the opportunity to present a poster. ees. The shootout is contest designed to help new NIR users First Circular know if their approach is “state of the art” and for experienced people to show off a bit. 1 No.com commercial) presentations. The cost for a Fri Aug 13: Attacking Typical Chemometric regular attendee will Problems in NIR Spectroscopy generally be less than (8:00 AM) $500. Pennsylvania.idrc-chambersburg. A wellsession of the conference developed recreational will be part of the Sympoprogram is always imporsium. 2004. flectance Spectroscopy (8:00 AM & 7:00 PM) Costs: The conference Thu Aug 12: Emerging Uses of and Recent Adattempts to keep costs vances in Diffuse Reflectance down to make atten(8:00 AM) dance attractive for those paying their own Banquet (6:00 PM) way. Chambersburg. The setting will include a 10 minute oral presentation. 12th IDRC The NIR Spectrum . with no obligation. To retain your place.Vol. Prizes will be Attendance is limited to the first 150 regular confer. and to receive a copy of the subsequent circulars Vendor presentations: Vendors who support the conference are entitled to give brief technical (nonEmail: IDRC2004@aol.

Spotlighting Italy The Dairy Science Institute Agriculture. is large library. cates. Today the Instineeds became the drivtute is organized in four departments (Applied Techniques. It is lo. Bulletins and develop NIRS applicaSymposia Proceedtions that are easy to ings. Dr. The Applied Techniques Lab ership of Roberto Giangiacomo lope.moisture. when Roberto a Royal decree to integrate sci.portant to note that. ITALY The NIR Spectrum . and Technology) in a cen.cially contracted analyses.gan to push the research enve.Front Row (L-R): Tiziana M. Sources for addi.nondestructive fast.Vol. vantages of being Nineteen permaand nent staff with the aid Back Row (L-R): Michele Curti. a systral unit of 800 m2. vegetables wards standardizing procedures vices.also receives funding from the started his work at the Dairy Scicated in Lodi. zaghi. due to the mology. particularly at The Institute has a the industrial level. conduct research at the and cheese. Katia Cremonesi is also working toincluding contract per. The Institute cooperates with captured preservation processes the optimization and validation of various universities and hosts stu. nondestructive attribute of NIRS international levels. and mentation of historical offer the intrinsic adinterest. the use processing pilot plant. dairy field. the National Council knowledge and develop a focus for (DSI) was established in 1871 by of Research and/or The Ministry of his future efforts. certifi.Roberto closely cooperated with Science and Technology. Through his studies of through collaborative studies for DSI. European Union. In 1923. ser.Italian industrial structure. In addition.tem that involves a lot of small with 55 milk cows and a 600 m2 gions. the apply.Scientific Research. offi. Giangiacomo be.(ATD).1976 working on fruits. etc.and product quality and other the analytical methods at national and dents doing graduate research.source of financing as are re. 1 No. 4 (2003) Page 9 . For a long time. 36 km from Milan. etc. The Institute ence and cheese making. are an important ing force for his research. the public. Microbiology & Enzy. It is imChemistry. There are The Applied Tech2250 books.now has three fulltime specialists. open to still rather limited. and medium enterprises.Applied Techniques Department Padana plane. he became keenly in.Federation) activities. that produce archive contains docuaccurate results. etc. the Ministry of Agriculture and materials. protection Consortia. He quickly became infatusince 1998. Mountain Communities. The department of 27 support units. under the lead. the only injects financed by the Ministry of American NIR teams to expand his The Institute of Dairy Science Lodi. scholarship recipients. technology. the development of fast reliable procedures and tute bought a farm to analytical techniques in carry out research on response to Italian proproducts from milk to ducers and consumers cheese. the Insti. Stefania Bar. In the early beginnings. Roberto began his NIR studies in of NIRS technology within dairy sector.P. Nicoletta Sinelli. containing This situation seems major national and to be changing as international journals noted by increased and magazines of inrequests to develop terest for the entire NIRS applications. participating including both Masters and PhDs. dergraduate students from Food tional funding include special pro. Proceeds derived ence Institute as Director of the toward the Southeast in the from selling farm products. Re. Since 1985. one part-time approved by the national Council place when sugar and salt absorb graduate student and several unof Agriculture. Roberto Giangiacomo. Cattaneo and Claudia Giardina sonnel.two scientists employed on multiForestry under research programs terested in the changes that take annual contracts. FIL-IDF niques Department Standards and Docuhas a the expertise to ments.search contracts with private in.in FIL-IDF (International Dairy The Institute. is mainly funded by ated with the water matrix in bio. a 40 ha farm dustries.

Roberto and his staff regularly attend international events. an instrument that was primarily operated in the reflection mode. The feasibility of models was verified by transferring lab results to pilot scale involving an FT-NIR spectrometer Infrared Spectroscopy (ICNIRS). Dr. has greatly increased the labs output.it The NIR Spectrum . Over the last four years. The lab currently has three NIR spectrometers. such as International Diffuse Reflectance Conference (USA) and the International Conference on Near POSTNOTE The Institute of Dairy Science (IDS). along with his team and cooperators.it Dr. Tiziana Cattaneo Email: tcattaneo@ilclodi. Contacts: Dr. several collaboration studies were carried out in order to identify the influence of substrate.000 citizens—has a mission comparable to USDA centers. Current Projects within the ATD Include: > Improving chemometrics knowledge > Monitoring the coagulation process > Studying the interaction of water and solids during processing > Evaluating the influence of physical treatment on milk quality > Comparing NIR-MIR spectral information > Applying the 2D-COSS for data interpretation > Verifying the authenticity of products > Using NIRS to predict textural characteristics of cheese for determining shelf life tor of the benefits of NIRS. Data were optimized using multiple chemometrics. resulting in additional investments in NIR research for improving techniques. Roberton Giangiacomo has lived and worked there for almost 20 years. Results from early studies helped to convince the dairy secoptically coupled to the sample stream using fiber optics. Roberto Giangiacomo Email: rgiangiacomo@ilclodi. Italy—a town of 45. 1 No. One of more interesting challenges confronting researchers in the ATD is: How can milk coagulation be monitored in real time using NIR spectroscopy. Giangiacomo. New instrumentation. 4 (2003) Page 10 . A man that cannot be separated from his pipe. Roberto enjoys rowing with his children (two sons and one daughter). Dr. derived from active cooperation with instrument manufacturers for realizing common research goals. unlike USDA. All three children are equestrians. Next year the Dairy NIR team will promote an Italian event. attending the opera and movies.Spotlighting Italy strument available in the laboratory was a dispersive spectrometer (InfraAlyzer 500. pH and rennet on spectral data of whole milk. located in Lodi. temperature. ranging from the original dispersive unit (see above) to a modern FT-NIR spectrometer. in cooperation with the Chemical Department of the University of Ferrara.Vol. were host to the 9th ICNIRS held in Verona in 1999. as a nonprofit entity that receives partial funding from the Italian Ministry of Agriculture. instrumentation and chemometrics. in order to further stimulate Italian NIR users to actively exchange experiences. Bran+ Luebbe). NIR-Italia 2004. with the exception that IDS operates.

either manually or automatically.4 megabytes (Mb) of storage. why is it that MS does not display the size of directories when it would be so easy to do—just add up the sizes of files and there is. It allows you to do this by displaying the internal working data and external copies in two side-by-side windows on the screen. Interestingly. After the parameters are fixed. BC is a utility for comparing things. 2003 talked about backing up. Big Time: Part 2 Computer Tips in Issue #3. The problem with DVD technology is that there is more than one standard. A salient feature of BC is it visually helps you analyze differences in detail and carefully allows you to reconcile those differences. 1 No. allowing you to store about 500 Mb of data.5” diskette again. right down to the file level. You do not have to carry around an inline power supply. even though you could. there is only one little box 2” H x 6” W x 10” D. Have Fun Computing! Fred McClure. Computer equipment suppliers have doled out storage media very cleverly—a little bit at a time. have backup commands—of course. Yet.Vol. as well as previous versions of windows. if you are bring another computer in sync. This article reported a 40 Mb disk backup system that cost slightly more than $100. .co. buy a Zip disk. Not so with the program call “Beyond Compare (BC). Utilities are available for file maintenance. File maintenance and information display is an area lacking in MS operating systems file-support utilities. . It is truly a plug-and-play device. With a unit like this. the first three are (1) backup. a single click of a button will allow you sync left-toright. and FTP sites. compare program output and validate CD copies. running WIN2000 and WIN-XP. use the storage media (the CD/ROM disk) only once. In parallel with the 3. You do not need to backup every file each time you do a backup. It can be used to manage source code. folders. First. or. a USB port.Computer Tips Backing Up . BRU is very particularly useful for renaming the files from your digital camera.) The system is universally and automatically recognized by any computer. 11. no longer is it a standard peripheral. Of the 10 most important rules for successful computer operation. As mentioned in Backing Up . If File Maintenance your experiences are like the one I had. having its own power supply—making it necessary to provide two cables: (1) An A/C power cord and (2) a USB to FireWire connection cable. The other rules are of little consequence if the first three are violated. Both are available for a small donation via the WebSite of Jim Willsher: http://www. (2) backup and (3) backup. zip archives. there was the 3. . Then came the I/Omega disk that would backup 100 Mb of information. . or use a 3. (You need to read about it to understand how neat it is. In addition. It runs under Windows 95 through XP.uk/Site/ Main_Intro. keep folders in sync. things like text files. There are two of which you should take note: (1) Disk Info Utility (DIU) and (2) Bulk Rename Utility (BRU). you now have to ask Dell and Gateway to install one if you want it. Big Time (Vol 1 No 3. these tools leave something to be desired—especially when it comes to visualizing the backing up process. you will own your copy before nightfall. making it unreliable as a universal exchange tool. EIC The NIR Spectrum . one of the most effective ways to backup lots of data is to implement an external hard-disk drive. BC can create a snapshot of a live (your internal hard drive that you use ever day) directory structure and compare it against a live copy at a later date. via. if the challenge is to make a duplicate of a directory or directories.jimwillsher. p. It is a self-contained unit. 2003). The NIR Spectrum. Thus.asp These two utilities are easy to learn and very helpful. You can download a free trialversion of BC from the internet. in the beginning. DIU will give you the size of both Directories and files (shown in the left window)—depending what part of the disk you have open in the left window. File Syncing Windows-XP. if you reorganize the working directory the difference from the copy appears clearly color-coded on the screen.5” diskette that maxed out at 1.” by a company called Scooter Software (just search for “Beyond Compare” with your favorite Browser. 4 (2003) Page 11 .5” diskette and the I/O disk was the development of CD recorders. You back up only the changes. Everything is there. a click of another button allow you to sync right-to-left. plus it will do other things. you will never need to burn a CD. Now the DVD provides backup space in the range of 4 Gb (gigabytes). For example. The CD recorder was boon to storage. confirmation of equivalency is difficult at best with WIN commands. with a USB port.

net Speaker: Robert A. send picture and titles by Email to Fred McClure.Vol.edu Speaker: W. If you are a member of CNIRS and would like to participate. Virginia.com ============================ *The Speakers Bureau is a service of CNIRS to its members. Thin Fibrous Cap. Professor Title: In Situ Spectroscopic Cleaning Validation Title: Theoretical and Experimental Characterization of a NearField Scanning Microwave Microscope Title: Remote Hyperspectral Imaging of Endolithic Biofilms Using a Robotic Probe Title: Hyperspectral Techniques in Analysis of Oral Dosage Forms Title: Detection of Lipid Pool. Birth Award is the most prestigious prize awarded by The Council for Near Infrared Spectroscopy.rr.com. Gerald S. the Gerald S. F. 1 No. Email: nirprofessor@nc. Speaker: Bruce Campbell. PhD Title: There is more to chemometrics than NIR: How to decrease the error rate in calibrations Email: campclan@prdigy. Lodder. Birth See Page 16 For Details The NIR Spectrum . Burns. Emeritus Professor Title: Speaking/Writing Technically Title: Electronics for Spectroscopist Title: Fundamentals of NIR Technology Email: nirprofessor@nc. Speaker: Donald A.net CNIRS AWARDS Committee Calls for Nominations Sponsored by Unity Scientific of Purcellville. McClure. Dr. PhD Title: Basic Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Title: Catch ‘em with NIR Title: Improve Your Presentations with Animated Power Point.rr. Email: NIRman@att. and Inflammatory Cells in Human Aortic Atherosclerotic Plaques by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Email: lodder@uky.Member Activities SPEAKERS BUREAU The Individuals below are available to give presentations and/or training courses. 4 (2003) Page 12 .

4 (2003) Page 13 . Canada The NIR Spectrum .Vol. Morimoto (Japan). Stepniewski (Poland). S. Athens. Ga Jim Drennen Bill Fateley (Mars) Int’l Attndees—IDRC2002 A. Kawano. China Emil Ciurczak Peter Griffiths Jing An. S. 1 No. (Japan) Susan Foulk Bruce Campbell Professor Yanlu Yan.Remembering The Confederates USDA.

00* Note® (for Windows 98/NT. called the CNIRS Bibliography (CNIRS-B).com/ defective disks free of charge. 2000 and XP) that allows the Yearly Updates user to do logical searches of any or all fields and recover $220. CNIRS is an all-volunteer organization.ncsu. Furthermore. reports and/or documents prepared with Microsoft Word 97 or higher. 1 No. Some citations (about 65%) have abCopies of the CNIRS Bibliography may be obtained by stracts that will help the user evaluate the references before sending your purchase order along with a check to: they are inserted into documents. stu. words (like water and moisture) are used interPO Box 7625 changeably in the abstracts. 2003. We have over 67 systems in web page at the hands of satisfied customers. and we have yet to receive a complaint. is in three chronologically-ordered libraries (1800-1995. organize references in databases and create your own personal bibliographies. It is the single most complete bibliography of NIR technology in existence. 4 (2003) Page 14 .” Having no paid staff. Raman. they do it the easy way . a non-profit organization. Fred McClure omitted to avoid copyright violations. *************************************** Please make the check payable to "The Council for Near CNIRS-B libraries are furnished on CD only. dents and librarians use EndNote to search online biblio- The NIR Spectrum . Some abstracts had to be W.endnote.*Effective April 1.Vol. More than 200. Costs of CNIRS-B are as follows: Introduction The Council for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (CNIRS) maintains a bibliography of near infrared literature (including patents) that covers all forms of NIR technology from 1800 to present. The CNIRS-B contains more than 23. chromatography. scholarly writers. Price subject to change without notice. We stand behind this product and will replace http://www. This bibliography. keywords and abstracts for Email: mcclure@eos. comes from the fact *Members of educational institutions get a 50% discount that user-selected citations can be inserted directly into publi*Members of CNIRS get a 15% discount cations. COST of the Bibliography The CNIRS-B is a product of the Council for Near Infrared Spectroscopy. visible. we are unable users of the CNIRS database may want to view the EndNote to justify an account manager. Instead of spending THE CNIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY hours typing bibliographies or using index cards to organize OF their references. Monies from the sale of this bibliography are used to promote the advancement and practice of near-infrared spectroscopy.000 citations. etc. 1996-Present and Patents-(1971-2002). When doing any search we always TEL: 919-515-6764 FAX: 919-515-7760 encourage users to search title.CNIRS Bibliography graphic databases. coupled with EndNote. NC 27695-7625 similar words of interest. Potential Infrared Spectroscopy. Bibliography complete with EndNote The bibliography comes with a licensed copy of End$820. photo Council for Near Infrared Spectroscopy acoustics. pigments & dyes.000 researchers. the real power of the new ======================== NIR bibliography. organize their references and create bibliographies instantly and automatically. There are no paid staff. North Carolina State University Sometimes. As a rule.00 citations accordingly. the user may want to search Raleigh.edu word(s) of interest. you can search bibliographic databases on the internet. for example. so. when the Emeritus Professor & Chairman paper discusses technology other than NIR that keyword is Bibliography Committee included in the keyword list.by using EndNote! NEAR INFRARED TECHNOLOGY In addition to accessing the CNIRS bibliography.

The Constitution & Bylaws of the Council stipulates the following membership classification (Please NOTE: Dues are per calendar year. Payment of membership dues to the CNIRS may be made in one of several ways. expiration date. card number. Benefit #3: Members of CNIRS in good standing will receive a 15% discount on the CNIRS bibliography. Student—$5/yr. CNIRS Treasurer 128 N. be full-time undergraduate or graduate students engaged in the study or use of near infrared or related forms of Benefit #7: Members in good standing will have access spectroscopy and/or interested in the objectives and to The NIR Spectrum. cil. Chamberscalendar year(s) that apply.pharm. indicating card type. Upon receiving a simple majority vote at a Governing Board Meeting. Dues Payment Guidelines: able to the future of this Society.CNIRS Membership Membership Classifications & Dues 15% discount for all short courses taken at the IDRC. a database that contains more than 24. http://www. No more than two (2) Honorary Mem. name on the card International Diffuse Reflectance Conference at Chambers. Birth Award . Emeritus Members may be proposed by a Local Section. Membership Dues: Corporate — $250/yr. We accept payment via check drawn on a US bank or a Canadian bank written in US dollars.uky.join with them in the furtherance of NIR technology bers can be named in any fiscal year.) burg. (1) Regular Members — $20/yr: Regular Members shall be persons engaged in the study or use of spectroscopy Benefit #5: Help sponsor and administer awards: Honand/or interested in the objectives and scope of the Coun. Council: Honorary Members shall be persons who have made exceptional contributions to near infrared spectrosThe Governing Board of the CNIRS invites you to copy and have been voted into their membership by the Governing Board. In addition. of the Council on a national and/ or international scale. the member will be conferred the status of Emeritus Member.org bers of the Council shall be corporate bodies or private companies actively interested in promoting the objectives Both WebSites have discussion forums accessible from the above home pages. technical sessions and other activities at the International Diffuse Reflectance Conference. We also accept US and International money orders in US dollars. burg.idrc-chambersburg. CNIRS scope of the Council.html (3) Sponsoring Members — $250/yr: Sponsoring Memhttp://www. The Council for Near Infrared Spectroscopy is the only national society solely dedicated to the advancement and practice of near-infrared spectroscopy. through their Governing Board Delegate. PA in August. PA 19352 Membership Benefits Benefit #1: Participate in the only professional memberPayment by credit card may be made by sending your ship society in the world dedicated to the enhancement.orary Membership and the Gerald S. the treasurer.edu/asrg/cnirs/cnirs. 2004. by the Membership Committee. Benefit #6: Join with other members at social receptions (2) Student Members — $5/yr: Student Members shall held at selected conferences every year. 1 No. throughout the world. they will receive a The NIR Spectrum . the CNIRS Web-NewsLetter. or by the Executive Committee. Either form of payment should be mailed to: Susan Foulk. Bank transfers require an additional $10 US to cover transfer fees charged by banks. 4 (2003) Page 15 . This discount is not in addition to the 50% discount awarded to educational institutions and/or their faculty.Vol. cvv2 code (3 their registration fee (room and meals excluded) at the digit code on the back). Your participation is invalu(5) Emeritus Members — Dues Paid for Life by the Council: Emeritus Members shall be persons who have contributed to near infrared spectroscopy and now have retired from active scientific endeavor. Deer Run Drive Lincoln University. plus over 900 patents. credit card information either by mail. All member-discounts Benefit #4: Members may join in the planning of short are based on payment of dues in full for the courses. You may use the Membership Form on the next paid) for 2003 and 2004 will receive a 15% discount on page.000 citations.and the zip code where the bill is normally sent. If sending information by FAX or phone the number is (610) 255-5979 between the hours of 7am and Benefit #2: Members of CNIRS in good standing (dues 9pm EST. PA held biannually in the even numbered years. FAX or by phone to practice and expansion of near-infrared spectroscopy. Student members shall not vote or has two websites: hold office in the Council. (4) Honorary Members — Dues Paid for Life by the Regular — $20/yr.

dwh@tds.Vol.David Hopkins Awards Chairman Email: dwh@tds. In addition. This committee will collect the nominations and supporting documentation that will be passed on the Governing Board for a vote. Lincoln University. for any of the above three awards should be sent to David Hopkins. The deadline for all nomination materials to reach the Awards Committee is 30-Apr-2004. in memory of Gerald Birth. Fellowships will cover meeting registration and travel up to $1000. Birth’s name. The late Dr. Payment made by check or money order should be mailed to the above address. Call for Nominations The Awards Committee is requesting nominations for three award categories: (1) The Gerald S. This prestigious award entails an honorarium of $2000. (3) IDRC Fellowships: Support for students and scientists. Susan Foulk.edu . PA 19352. Birth Award for outstanding innovation in diffuse reflection or diffuse transmission spectroscopy is conferred by the Council for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (CNIRS) and sponsored by Unity Scientific Corp. Treasurer.00 as well as expenses for his/her travel to the IDRC meeting and for an accompanying guest. Deer Run Drive. The awardees must be alive and able to present the award-winning work at the IDRC. who might otherwise be unable to attend the IDRC meeting without additional financial aid. All scientists performing research in Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy or in Diffuse Transmission Spectroscopy in the visible. Nominations and supporting material. This award recognizes a specific accomplishment in advancing the Art and Science of Near Infrared Spectroscopy by a senior research scientist. The awardees (practicing or retired) may be (or have been) affiliated with industry.com. CNIRS.net The NIR Spectrum . individuals selected for support are expected to submit a poster of their work in the Poster Session of the IDRC.to 13-August-2004. Undergraduate students.Darrell Donahue. now sponsored by the CNIRS. Applicants should submit a resume and brief statement of how they would benefit from attending the Meeting. graduate students. (2) Honorary Membership in the CNIRS: According to the Constitution and Bylaws of the CNIRS: “Honorary Members shall be persons who have made exceptional contributions to near infrared spectroscopy and have been voted into their membership by the Governing Board. government. Chair of the CNIRS Awards Committee. Name: _________________________________ Company: ______________________________ Address 1:______________________________ Address 2:______________________________ City: ____________ State/Province: ________ Zip/Post Code: _________________________ Phone: ________________________________ Email Address: _________________________ Credit Card Information: Card Type: ___ VISA. academia.net. up to $1500. 1 No. Birth was the founder of the International Diffuse Reflectance Conference (IDRC). Email: sfoulk@aol. FAX or Email to: Ms. NIR or mid-IR regions are eligible for the award. Membership Chairman Email: ddonahue@umche. to honor him and to recognize his numerous innovations and contributions to the area of diffuse reflection. It is fitting that the Unity Scientific Award carry Dr. 07. transmission and interaction instrumentation.” Nominations are to be submitted to the Awards Committee.maine. is available from the CNIRS.CNIRS Membership / Awards CNIRS AWARDS: Membership Form: Please complete this form and mail. No more than two (2) Honorary Members can be named in any fiscal year. from within the international spectroscopy community at large. 4 (2003) Page 16 . 128 N. or have another suitable affiliation. ___ MasterCard ___ Discover or ___ Amex Card Num _____________________________ CVV2 code (3 digits on back) Expiration Date (Mo/Day/Year): ____________ __________ Name on Card: ________________________ Billing Zip/Post Code ____________________ ———————————————— . He also made many contributions to the instrument technology related to diffuse reflectance. The award-winning work must have been published between 01Mar-2002 and 28-Feb-2004. and post-doctoral researchers are not eligible.

1 No.Vol.The NIR Spectrum . 4 (2003) Page 17 .

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