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Carbon and Graphite

for Plain Bearings Applications

This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as guaranteeing specific properties of the products described or their suitability for a particular application. Any existing industrial property rights must be observed. The quality of our products is guaranteed under our General Conditions of Sale. 02 02/3E Printed in Germany

Graphite Specialties Business Unit SGL CARBON GmbH Werk Ringsdorff Drachenburgstrae 1 D-53170 Bonn Phone: +49 (228) 841-394 Fax: +49 (228) 841-456 Internet: www.sglcarbon.com

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Material Grade Recommendations for Plain Bearings

Design Guideline / Calculations


Cylindrical bearings, flanged bearings
(DIN 1850, Sheet 4)
15

Type M
IT 8

Type N
A IT 8 A

15

Base materials are carbon graphite, graphite and resin bonded graphite, also used with special impregnations (antimony or resin) depending on the application. The range of use includes wet running, mixed and dry running.

Small batch and unit production EK 20 Carbon graphite grade with good dry running properties. Suitable for wet running plain bearings. EK 24 Carbon graphite grade with very good dry running properties. Particularly suited for dry running use and for use in media with poor lubricating properties. EK 40 Graphite grade for dry running plain bearings.

d1 d2 d3 s l f p b v

= bearing bore (mm) = bearing outside diameter (mm) = flange diameter (mm) = bearing wall thickness (mm) = bearing length (mm) = radial or axial load (N) = specific radial or axial load (N/mm2) = flange thickness = rubbing speed (m/s)

f x 45 d1 d2

f x 45 d1 f l d2 d3

r
b

Dry running and mixed running


1 Bearing size v (m/s) 0.1 Bearing clearance F Projected bearing area I d1 0.3 F Projected bearing area I d1 1.5

l 2d1

0.3 ... 0.5 % of shaft diameter at operating temperature (warm clearance) 0.3 ... 0.5 % of shaft diameter at fitting temperature (cold clearance), if shrunk into a metal housing

High volume production Coefficient of friction EK 23 Carbon graphite grade, pressed-to-size, with very good dry running properties. Suitable for plain bearings running wet and dry.

0.1 0.15 for mixed running 0.15 0.25 for dry running

Wet running
Bearing size 1) Bearing clearance1) v (m/s) 20 F Projected bearing area I d1 1.5 l 20d1

RIDURID V 1640 Resin bonded material for wet running bearings.

0.1 ... 0.3 % of shaft diameter at operating temperature (warm clearance) 0.1 ... 0.3 % of shaft diameter at fitting temperature (cold clearance), if shrunk into a metal housing 0.01 0.05

Coefficient of friction
1)

Observe the laws of hydrodynamics

Information for wet and dry running


Tolerances Surface finish Bearing design Fitting Outside diameter Bore Outside diameter Bore IT 6 / IT 7 IT 7 / IT 8 Ra = 6.3 m 3.2 m Ra = 3.2 m 0.8 m

Do not subject bearing to tension, shear or bending stress Cold press fitting Shrink fitting Bonding

Cylindrical bearing for pumps in the chemical industry 2

Counter surface material (Surface finish)

Generally hard materials, HV > 250

Rt = 0.5 0.8 m 3

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Example: Cylindrical bearing calculation, dry running


Given values rubbing speed v = 0.5 m/s load P = 150 N temperature 60 C Determining bearing size Projected bearing area P 150 l x d1 = = 500 mm2 0.3 0.3 Bearing bore l d1 , we choose d1 = l 2 d1 = 500 = 22.36 mm rounded up d1 = 23 mm Bearing length l= 500 23 = 21.7 mm Bearing clearance (min.) 0.3 % x 23 = 0.069 mm (is added to nominal bore) Bearing tolerances (see below) Bearing outside diameter chosen s6 (cold press fitting) Bearing bore chosen F7 Bearing lenght DIN 7168 medium Resulting in: 23.069 F7/30 s6 x 22 0.2

Axial Bearings
The following information applies also when calculating the face surfaces of cylindrical and flanged bearings when loaded axially.

rounded up l = 22 mm Bearing outside diameter d2 = d1 + 2s smin = 0.15 x d1 = 3.45 mm 23 + 2 x 3.45 = 29.9 rounded up d2 = 30 mm Bearing dimensions 30/23 x 22 mm Bearing clearance Dry running 0.3 ... 0.5 % of shaft- d Shaft diameter d = 23 h6

d3

d1

Dry running/Mixed running Bearing area A (mm2) Coefficient of friction Surface finish Bearing design Fitting v (m/s) 1 0.1 0.25 Bearing surfaces fine ground to lapped Solid or split Cold press fitting, shrink fitting, bonded or screwed Usually hard materials, HV > 250 Rt = 0.5 0.8 m F A 0.3

Wet running v (m/s) 20 0.01 0.05 Bearing surface lapped Solid or split, lubricating grooves Cold press fitting, shrinkfitting, bonded or screwed Usually hard materials, HV > 250 Rt = 0.5 0.8 m F A 1.0

Fitting
Recommended ISO-Tolerances Method of fitting d1 before after before after F7 H7 H8 D8 E8 E92) d2 Housing diameter Max. operating temperature F C 1,0 about 150 1)

Counter surface materials (surface finish)

Cold pressing

s6

H7

Example: Axial bearing calculation, wet running


Given values shaft- rubbing speed load medium temperature Bearing outside diameter d3 20 mm v = 3 m/s P = 500 N Water 30 C By going back and calculating from the required area P 500 F= = = 500 mm2, 1.0 1.0 it results in: F = x (d32 - d12) 4 d3 = F x 4 + d12 Bearing outside diameter chosen as d3 = 35 mm Bearing length b 0.1 d3 (see design) chosen as b = 5 mm d3 = 500 x 4 + 20 2 d3 = 32

Shrink fit

x8 z8

H7

about 300 3)

Bonding

In principle this is possible. We can recommend suitable bonding agents.

The recommendations of DIN 1850, Sheet 4 apply. Cold press fitting and shrink fitting are treated separately.

For housing materials having a thermal expansion > 12 10-6/K the maximum operating temperature is correspondingly reduced. Press fitting is effected with a stepped fitting pin with a tolerance of h5. 2) We recommend that the bearing bore be finished to size after shrink fitting. 3) For higher temperatures and for housing materials having a thermal expansion > 12 10-6/K the special tolerances and/or a locking arrangement may be employed please enquire about this.
1)

Determining bearing size Bearing bore d1 = 20 mm (given)

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Bearing Design
In principle design should follow the requirements of DIN 1850, Sheet 4, Carbon Bearings. In addition we recommend following the design recommendations given below: bearings for dry running should have a smooth bore when bearings are running wet, bores should have spiral grooves or axial grooves according to the application. Groove design is shown in DIN 1850, Sheet 2.
Avoid sharp steps in the bore and on the outside. Break sharp edges

Counterface Materials, Surface Finish, Wear Rates


Recommended are hard materials, HV > 250 grey cast iron steel, alloy, non-alloy and nitrided (hard) hard metal aluminium oxide silicon carbide glass Of limited use steel, alloy and non-alloy (soft) light metal alloys chromium plated materials non-ferrous metals carbon materials In dry running conditions the surface finish should generally be of a higher standard than when a liquid film is present. In the latter case, even hydrodynamically poor media such as water or petrol will achieve some compensating effect and reduce friction between the micro-irregularities of the mating surfaces.

Dimension l 0.1 D, if possible not below 3 mm


D

Surface finish of metallic counter parts


Load l<2d s = 0.15 ... 0.2 x d smin = 3 mm Rt m v < 0.5 m/s p < 0.1 N/mm2 1 v < 1 m/s p < 0.2 N/mm2 0.5 0.8 v < 3 m/s p < 0.3 N/mm2 < 0.5

Wear [m/h]

EK 200 EK 24

Wear rates of machined bearings of different carbon grades at a steady rubbing speed of 1 m/s and with increasing specific load when running dry.

Cylindrical bearings should be fully supported by the housing or by a special metal bush

10

EK 40

EK 305 EK 2240 EK 3245

Wear [m/h]

Flange thickness should be at least equal to wall thickness. A transitional angle should be radiused. Housing thrust face for flange to be machined. bs
b

0.01

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Load (N/mm2)

Bearing 30/20 x 20 mm Wear rates of machined bearings of different carbon grades at a steady rubbing speed of 1 m/s and with increasing specific load when running wet.

10

EK 20

EK 24 EK 2240

Any arrangement to prevent rotation such as a check plate or plain pin, should be in an unloaded area not in the bore. Any keyway should be axial and milled out carefully to avoid breakage.

EK 3245 EK 2200

0.1

EK 3205

0.01

Specific load (N/mm2)

Bearing 30/20 x 20 mm