# LESSON 8

Necking of Test Specimen
LEGEND

1.20

-EID=17-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=18-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=19-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=20-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=21-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=22-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=23-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=24-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R

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Objectives:
s Large Deflections/Strains analysis s Elastic-Plastic material model using isotropic hardening

PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook

8-1

8-2 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook .

db. This test specimen will be modeled using a quarter symmetry model. Use the XYZ method to create a 4 x 1 surface. s Fix the vertical and horizontal lines of symmetry of the bar and pull the other end by 2 inches.e. Suggested Exercise Steps: s Create a 4x1 inch surface in the XY plane. 0] . you will stretch an 8 inch long planar steel bar by 2 inches (i. Database Name: OK Analysis Code: OK 2.. s Mesh the model with 16x4 mesh of QUAD/4 elements. 0. Thus. 0> [0..LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen Model Description: In this lesson. MSC/ADVANCED_FEA necking. Exercise Procedure: 1. 1. this elasto-plastic problem will demonstrate the importance of the concept of true stress (or Cauchy stress) in non-linear analysis. 25% of its length). Create a new database named necking. File/New .db x Geometry Action: Object: Method: Vector Coordinates List: Origin Coordinates List: Apply PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-3 Create Surface XYZ <4.

1: Figure 4.1 Create Mesh Seed Uniform The next edge to be seeded is the bottom.1 . Create mesh seeds on the surface. To create the mesh seeds.1 Y Z X Mesh Seeds = 16 Surface 1. see Figure 4. 8-4 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook . first click on the Finite Elements toggle in the Main Window You will be defining a mesh seed of 4 on the left edge of the surface and a mesh seed of 16 on the lower edge of the surface as shown in Figure 4.Mesh seed locations Mesh Seeds = 4 Surface 1. Surface 1. It will have 16 elements. 4 on the vertical and 16 on the horizontal.3.4.4 x Finite Elements Action: Object: Method: x Number of Elements Number: Curve List: 4 left edge.

New Group Name: s Make Current Apply Cancel 5.LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen 4..2: Create Mesh Surface Quad4 Surface 1 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-5 . Mesh the surface. Group/Create . Create a group fem and make it current. This group will contain all of the finite elements.. fem x Finite Elements Action: Object: Type: Element Topology: Surface List: Apply Your model should now appear as shown in Figure 4.

. Create a field for the elasto-plastic material data.Meshed bar Y Z X 6.2 .. Create Material Property Tabular Input plastic_s_e Ë Temperature (T) s Strain (e) 8-6 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook .Figure 4. x Fields Action: Object: Method: Field Name: Active Independent Variable: Input Data.

1D Material Scalar Table Data Input Scalar Data Data e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. click on the cell you wish to Table 1: Stress vs.350 1.000 Stress 2842 4897 6096 8045 10682 13934 18225 23969 edit.89700E+03 6.06820E+04 1.50000E-02 1.39340E+04 1.005 0.125 0. To fill in the table.09600E+03 8. Strain data for Wrought aluminum 1100 Strain 0 0.00000E+00 2. The table will automatically tab down.04500E+03 1.00000E-03 1.00000E-03 5.002 0.045 0.82250E+04 OK OK PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-7 .LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen The 1D Material Scalar Table Data form needs to be filled out as shown in Table 1.015 0. enter the value in the Input Scalar Data databox and then press <Return>.84200E+03 4.25000E-01 3.50000E-02 4.50000E-01 Value 2.

apply the material aluminum to all the elements. Plastic Strain: Apply Cancel 8. Create the material aluminum_1100. with elastic and plastic properties. Create the element properties. Constitutive Model: Hardening Rule: Stress vs.. Constitutive Model: Elastic Modulus: Poisson’s Ratio: Apply Now to create the plastic material properties..33 Create Isotropic Manual Input aluminum_1100 x Properties Action: Dimension: Type: Property Set Name: Options: Plane Stress 8-8 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook Create 2D 2D Solid test_specimen . x Materials Action: Object: Method: Material Name: Input Properties.Apply 7. Plastic Isotropic plastic_s_e Elastic 1E7 0.

Material Name: Thickness: OK Select Members: Add Apply 9. Geometry Filter: Select Nodes: x FEM see Figure 4.0 x Load/BCs Action: Object: Type: New Set Name: Input Data.. Create the load to fix the nodes on the left edge of the surface in the x direction.3: PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-9 . Surface 1 aluminum_1100 1.... .. > Create Displacement Nodal symmetry_vertical Click in the Select Nodes databox and select the five nodes on the left edge of the surface as shown Figure 4..3 <0. Translations <T1 T2 T3>: OK Select Application Region.LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen Standard Formulation Input Properties.

Figure 4. 8-10 <2. Create Displacement Nodal pull_at_end Action: Object: Type: New Set Name: Input Data.0. Translations <T1 T2 T3>: Rotational <R1 R2 R3>: OK Select Application Region. > < > PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook . 0.. Create a displacement set to move the nodes on the right edge of the surface 2 inches in the +X direction...Nodes to select for symmetry BC Nodes to select Y Z X Add OK Apply 10..3 .

4 .5: PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-11 .Nodes at pulled end of bar Nodes to select 1 1 1 1 1 Y Z X Add OK Apply Your model should now appear as shown in Figure 4.4 Click in the Select Nodes databox and select the nodes on the right edge of the model: Figure 4.LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen Geometry Filter: Select Nodes: x FEM see Figure 4.

Bar with pull_at_end BC applied 1 1 1 1 1 2. > < > x FEM see Figure 4.000 2 2 2 2 2 Y Z X Action: Object: Type: New Set Name: Input Data.0..000 2.000 2..000 2. Translations <T1 T2 T3>: Rotational <R1 R2 R3>: OK Select Application Region.5 ..6 8-12 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook .Figure 4. Geometry Filter: Select Nodes: Create Displacement Nodal symmetry_horiz <.000 2..

6 .. PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-13 Analyze Entire Model Full Run necking necking Nonlinear Static .000 2.000 2 2 2 2 2 Y Z X Add OK Apply 11. x Analysis Action: Object: Method: Job Name: Step Creation...000 2.Nodes to select for symmetry BC Nodes to select 1 1 1 1 1 2..000 2.LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen Figure 4. Create the analysis step.000 2. Job Step Name: Solution Type: Solution Parameters.

0 Integ Point Integ Point Integ Point Select the analysis step and submit it.msg.. 13. Again.Large Deflection/Strains: Max No of Increments Allowed: Automatic Load Increment: Time Duration of Step: OK Output Request. Selected Job Steps: Apply Apply The analysis job will take (on average) about 2 to 5 minutes to run.msg and necking. ON 100 ON 1. you can monitor the progression of the job by looking at necking...sta as well as using the UNIX command ps -a and tail necking. Be sure to deselect the Default static step. Step Selection.. Read Results 8-14 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook .. import the results. When the job is done there will be a results file titled necking.fil in the same directory you started MSC/PATRAN in.. necking x Analysis Action: Select Results File. Stress Invariants: Plastic Strains: Elastic Strains: OK Apply Cancel 12. When the job is finished.

necking. 1. Start by clicking on the Select Results icon. Action: Object: Select Result Case: Select Fringe Result: Create Quick Plot pick the last result case (none) PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-15 .LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen Available Files: OK Apply The database will close to allow data transfer to the PATRAN database. fem x Results Select the Deformation Atrributes icon Scale Factor: Scale Interpretation Ë Show Undeformed 16..fil Group/Post . 14. When it opens again the results will be in.0 x True Scale Create a deformed plot of the last analysis step. Post the group fem only.. Select Groups to Post: Apply Cancel 15. Change the display for postprocessing.

You may need to zoom out to see the whole model. Use the toolbar Zoomout Icon.7.Deformation result of pulled bar 17. you will select 8 elements to plot their plastic strains as a function of load increment.8: First. Displacement Your plot should look like the one shown in Figure 4. Plot the plastic strains as a function of increment. Zoom Out Figure 4.7 .Select Deformation: Apply Deformation. In this step. clean up the display using the following toolbar icons: Reset Graphics Fit View 8-16 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook . The eight elements will start at the necking point and go toward the fixed end as shown in Figure 4.

LESSON 8 Necking of Test Specimen Figure 4.8 . Components X Component Global Variable Increment PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook 8-17 .Elements to select for XY plot of plastic strains Elements for XY Plot Elements 17 thru 24 Y Z X Action: Object: Method: Create Graph Y vs X Click on View Results and then Select Subcase Filter Method Filter Apply Close Y: Select Y Result Quantity: X: Variable All Result Plastic Strain.

800 . This element acts as a “load fuse” to absorb all of the model deformation and hence its area reduces (i.5 14.5 21. 0.9: Figure 4.e.20 1. 3. necking).400 . 8-18 PATRAN 322 Exercise Workbook .50 7.00 10.00 -EID=17-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=18-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=19-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=20-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=21-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=22-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=23-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R -EID=24-CMP=xx-EP=1-LP=1-R .600 .0 17.Click on the Target Entities icon and select Target Entity Select Elements Apply Elements Elm 17:24 Your plot should look like the one in Figure 4.200 0.0 Note that most of the plastic strain occurs at the middle element. This concludes this exercise.XY plot of plastic strain components for selected elements LEGEND 1. Close the database and quit PATRAN.9 .