340 views

Uploaded by Elias Iruela

Electric and hibrid vehicles

- Electric Vehicle Drive Simulation With MATLAB-Simulink
- Ford Battery Electric Vehicle
- Electric Vehicles Modelling and Simulations
- Electric Vehicle
- HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWERTRAIN
- Electric Vehicles and Their Batteries Development in China
- Electric Vehicle
- Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International - January 2015
- The Electric Car Battery
- Electric Vehicles
- Electric Vehicles - Modelling and Simulations
- Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
- Electric vehicle
- Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
- New Generation Electric Vehicles i to 12
- power system design for electric car.pdf
- OVE- Everything you need to know about electric car-11
- Hybrid Electric Vehicles
- EV Final Report Final Version
- Hybrid Electric Vehicles

You are on page 1of 24

Tai Ran Hsu, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering San Jose State University San Jose, California October 12, 2011 Tai Ran Hsu

Principal references: Build your own electric vehicle, by Seth Leitman and Bob Brant, 2nd Edition McGraw Hill, Build vehicle Brant Edition, Hill New York, ISBN: 978 0 07 154373 6, 1994 Spartan Zero Emissions Hybrid Human Powered Vehicle ZEM HHPV, by Amandeep Manik, Scott MacPherson, Heath Fields and Mark Rafael, San State University student senior design project report, Electrical Engineering Department, May 2008

Content

Part 1 The Basics

History of Electric Vehicles Anatomy of EVs Design for Power Drive Train Electric System and BMS Design for Velocity and No charge Cruising Range

Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) for Hybrid Gas electric Vehicles The Flywheel Driven RBS

(Limited to streets with low posted speed limits)

Tesla Roadster

Anatomy of EVs

B Battery Man nagement Dr Train rive System (BMS) m

AC from Power source to Charger DC from Charger to Batteries Turn key closes Main controller leads to Batteries to Speed controller Throttle controls Speed controller. More volts for higher rpm and higher vehicle speed (48 v for ZEM, 84 v for ZEEN)

The very first item in EV design is to determine how much electric power required to y g p q drive the vehicle at a top velocity with expected payloads for a no charge cruising range. A simple formula from rigid body dynamics will do the job. A moving rigid body such as a vehicle traveling at a velocity V is subjected to the following forces: 1) The friction forces between the wheel tires and the road surface (Ff) 2) Th aerodynamic resistance (Fr) The d i i 3) The dynamic forces associated accompanied with any accelerations (Fd) 4) Gravitational force when traveling along up or down slopes (Fg) Fr V, a Fd Ff W = mg Fg

Ff

Fr

Fd

Fg V

where P has the unit of horse power (hp); F in (lb); V in (ft/s) 1 hp = 550 ft lb/s In SI system: P has a unit of Watt (W): 1W = 1 J/s; (1 J = 1 N m), so 1 W = 1 N m/s, and 1kW = 0 / d k 0.7457 hp h

Fr V, Va Fd Ff W = mg Fg

The total weight of the vehicle (curb wt. + payload) is very important in the design Normally weight distribution is about 45% on front axel Total weight contributes to the friction force (Ff) the primary force in determining required power for EVs with 4 wheels:

Ff = N = (W/4) where = coefficient of friction, or rolling resistance factor between wheel tires and road surface: = 0.015 on a hard surface (concrete) = 0.08 on a medium-hard surface (asphalt) = 0.3 on a soft surface (sand) The -values may vary with speed V (mph) with: = 0.012 (1 + V/100)

Fr V, Va Fd Ff W = mg Fg

The aerodynamic drag force (Fr) to the vehicle is unavoidable when it is running. It can be expressed as:

Fr = (Cd A V2)/391

where Fr is in (lb), A is the frontal area in (ft2) and V is the velocity of the vehicle in (mph) The drag coefficient Cd for typical EVs are: Cd = 0.3 to 0.35 for cars; 0.33 to 0.35 for vans; and 0.42 to 0.46 for pickup trucks Coefficient Cd needs to be modified when there is a relative wind velocity of Vw present: Cw = [0.98 (Vw/V)2 + 0.63 (Vw/V)]Crw 0.4 (Vw/V) where Vw = average wind velocity (mph); V = vehicle velocity (mph); Crw = relative wind coefficient = 1.4 for most sedans Total aerodynamic drag force on vehicle is: Fr = (Cd A V2)/391 + [0.98 (Vw/V)2 + 0.63 (Vw/V)]Crw 0.4 (Vw/V)

Fr

V, a Fd Ff W = mg Fg

Dynamic forces (Fd) to the vehicle needs to be accounted for only if the vehicle changes its velocity y ( y g y e.g., in accelerations or decelerations. The magnitude of these forces is: Fd = Ma where M = mass in slug or kg in SI system; and a = acceleration with (+) sign and deceleration with (-) sign in unit of ft/s2 of m/s2 in SI system Gravitational, or body force (Fg) in determining the required power only when the vehicle travels on sloped roads. Its magnitude is: Fg = W Sin in which W = the total weight of the vehicle; = is the inclination of the road surface. A +ve sign for traveling up the slope and a ve sign for down-slope traveling. Notice All forces are related to the WEIGHT of the vehicle. Minimizing weight is a major consideration in design

Wheel

Clutch

Manual Transmission

Drive Shaft

Differential Gear

Wheel

Three useful formula: hpmotor = (Torquewheel x mph x Revolution/mile)/(315120 x ) for selecting motor p ( q p / )/( g Torquewheel = Torquemotor x (Overall gear ratio x Overall drive train efficiency ( )

Speedwheel (mph) = (rpmmotor x 60)/(Overall gear ratio x revolution/mile)

where

Determine the torque of wheels: Torquewheel = Ff R + Fh where R = radius of driving wheel tire, ft; h = distance between center of gravity (CG) of the vehicle and the wheel axel, ft

Electric system and its associated battery management system (BMS) are the cardiology system of human bodies. Most EVs contain a system as illustrated below:

Battery Charger e.g., 48 DCV, 15A

Battery Banks

e.g. 48 DCV, 4000 Wh ea. 48 DCV

48 DCV

DC/DC / Converter

SPDT Switch

Main Contactor 400 A Max Dash Instrument Panel & Control Switching

Electronic Throttle

DC Motor

e.g., 10 hp (40 hp peak) 48 72 DCV series wound

Component Name Battery charger Picture Principal Function 15 A wall charger from 110 ACV to e.g., e g 48 DCV of the EV battery banks It is a heavy duty safety switch delivering power to the DC motor To allow electronically controlled forward/reverse motion of the motor To control motor speed and allows safe reversing g The motor that drives the EV. Should deliver the maximum designed power for the EV

Main contactor

Reverse contactor

Motor controller

DC motor

Batteries are like the gas tank for a vehicle powered by internal combustion engine gas tank engine. No car can run without gas tank. The larger the gas tank the farther the car runs. Batteries are where the vehicle driving energy is stored. No EV or HEV can run without batteries. The more electric energy is stored in the batteries, the farther the vehicle will run batteries run.

Characteristics Voltage (v) Electrolytec (Environmental merits) Theorectical Energy Density (kW/kg) Theoretical Amp hr Regular charging time (hr) Memory effect Self discharge Cost C Lead Acid Pb acid 12 Surfuric acid 35 42 45 (Discharged @1.75A) @1 75A) 4 to 8 At low voltage 2 to 10%/mo Low L Lithium Ion Li ion 3.2 to 3.6 per cell Lithium salts (non aqueous solution) 150 250 3 to 12 1.5 to 2 No 1%/mo High Hi h Nicke Metal Hydride y NiMH 1.4 to 1.6 per cell Alkaline (Potassium hydroxide) 60 70 5 to 10 1 No >30%/mo Moderate M d

The velocity of the EV relates to the speed of the driving motor and the drive train of the vehicle, as shown by the formula: f th hi l h b th f l

where Overall gear ratio = RPMmotor/RPMwheel Revolutions/mile = 5280/( d) in which d = diameter of wheel tire in ft The velocity (or speed) of the vehicle (V) in the following formula is also related to the the ELECTRIC POWER (P) that the batteries can provide:

Obviously, the electric power (P) in the above equation must be greater than the power required to drive the motor (hpmotor)

The Th cruising range of an EV (R) d ii f depends on h f the vehicle travels on specific d how fast h hi l l ifi road conditions and the traffic en route. g g (R) y g g The cruising range of an EV ( ) can be obtained by using the following formula:

R = n E Vav/P

miles

where n = total no. of batteries or cells E = (Theoretical Amp h) x (voltage output by each battery or cell, v) from characteristics of the selected batteries (W h) Vav = A Average vehicle velocity ( il /h ) hi l l i (miles/hr) P = Required power to drive the vehicle, W

Design Case

A neighborhood electric vehicle with a curb weight at 1200 lbs and is designed to carry a payload of 400 lbs. the vehicle is designed to operate under the following conditions: 1) The vehicle is powered by 2 banks of lead acid batteries with 12 v output by each battery. Each bank consists of 4 batteries connected in series. The DC amp h output is 45/battery. 2) Travels on straight flat concrete paved roads with an average slope av = 3o. 3) Maximum speed Vmax = 35 mph with an average speed Vav = 25 mph (or 36.67 ft/s). The latter is used as the designed velocity 4) The vehicle is designed to acceleration from zero to 25 mph in 30 seconds after each stop. 5) The vehicle has a small front surface area of 8 ft2 with an aerodynamic drag coefficient Cd = 0.3. 6) The vehicle wheel tire diameter is 20 inches.

Electric power requirement for the NEV can be obtained by the equation:

where V = Vav = 25 mph = 25x5280/3600 ft/s = 36.67 ft/s The forces acting on the vehicle are: The friction force: Ff = W /4 = 0.015 x (1600)/4 = 6 lbs

The aerodynamic drag force: Fr = (CdAV2)/391 = (0.3 x 8 x 252)/391 = 1.4 lbs The dynamic force Fd = Ma = (1600/32.2) x [(36.67 0)/30] = 60.7 lbs

The gravitational force Fg = W Sin = 1600 Sin(3o) = 83.74 lbs Total forces acting on the vehicle is F = 6 + 1.4 + 60.7 + 83.74 = 151.84 lbs Hence the required power P = F V = 151.84 x 36.67 ft lbs/s = 5568 ft lbs/s = 5568/550 h = 10.12 h 68/ 0 hp 0 2 hp = 10.12/0.7457 kW = 13.58 kW

Selection of DC motor:

Use the formula: hpmotor = (Torq ewheel x mph x Re ol tion/mile)/(315120 x ) form la (Torque Revolution/mile)/(315120

In the above formula: Torquewheel = FfR + Fh with R = 10/12 = 0.833 ft and h = 2 ft (estimated) with forces: Ff = 6 lbs, Fr = 1.4 lbs, Fd = 60.7 lbs, and Fg = 83.74 lbs, and Revolution/mile = 5280 (ft/mi)/(2 R) (ft/rev) = 1009 rev/mi, and = 0 9 a common assumption, we h d 0.9, ti have th h the horsepower of the motor t b f th t to be:

where n = no. of b tt i = 8 h f batteries E = (Theoretical Amp h) x (voltage output by each battery or cell, v) from characteristics of the selected batteries (W h) = 45 (Amp h) x 12 (v) = 540 W h V = Vav = 25 mph h P = Required power to drive the vehicle = 13.58 kW = 13580 W

Hence the no charge cruising range is: R = 8 x 540 x 25/13580 = 0.318 mi This no charge cruising range R for the EV is UNACCEPTABLY LOW!! One need to either use more and more powerful batteries (n), or cut down the power requirement (P) by reducing the weight (W) of the vehicle.

Batteries and high voltage can make a huge difference in no charge cruising range:

Higher spee ed

Maximum velocity (V) and No charge cruising range (R) are the two most important design features for any EV. These features are the principal reasons for the slow emergence of EV EV presence in marketplace. Up till very recently, most EVs could only be used for what is termed as neighborhood operations with typical V< 35 mph and R< 40 miles miles. Low V and R are primarily attributed to the limited electric power and the energy storage systems using less than efficient batteries.

Electric V hi l on C El i Vehicles Current M k Market Ford Focus Mitsubishi I Nissan Leaf Electric

Base Price* Miles per charge Seats Projected P j t d availability Not available Up to 100 miles Not available 50 to 85 miles $32,780 $32 780 100 miles

Tesla Model S

$56,500 $56 500 160 to 300 miles depend to battery pack Seven Early E l 2012

*Qualify for $7,500 federal tax credit with possible $5,000 state rebate. Source: Make Way for Electric Vehicles San Jose Mercury News, April 3, 2011

Low weight g Streamline exterior Simple drive train DC to get started AC to r n abo e 30 mph run above Use more high frequency components (> 400 Hz) DC motor that gets 96 volts AC motor that gets 400 volts Matching controller and motor impedance Use high energy density batteries

- Electric Vehicle Drive Simulation With MATLAB-SimulinkUploaded bymegustalazorra
- Ford Battery Electric VehicleUploaded byFord Motor Company
- Electric Vehicles Modelling and SimulationsUploaded byrasim_m1146
- Electric VehicleUploaded byJatin Goel
- HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWERTRAINUploaded byTanmay Dalvi
- Electric Vehicles and Their Batteries Development in ChinaUploaded byMaterials Research Institute
- Electric VehicleUploaded bysajs201
- Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International - January 2015Uploaded byRoberto Aliandro Varella
- The Electric Car BatteryUploaded byJordi Jaumà
- Electric VehiclesUploaded bysara_shedid
- Electric Vehicles - Modelling and SimulationsUploaded byJosé Ramírez
- Electric and Hybrid VehiclesUploaded byjhorch
- Electric vehicleUploaded byPrashanth Kumar Reddy
- Electric Vehicle InfrastructureUploaded byMichael James Casey
- New Generation Electric Vehicles i to 12Uploaded byglassyglass
- power system design for electric car.pdfUploaded bySandeep Kumar
- OVE- Everything you need to know about electric car-11Uploaded byGiaccone A.
- Hybrid Electric VehiclesUploaded byElias Iruela
- EV Final Report Final VersionUploaded byasafselinger
- Hybrid Electric VehiclesUploaded byRitesh
- 5.Modeling of an Electric Vehicle Charging StationUploaded bypeng
- Electric CarUploaded byANUJ
- Hybrid Electric VehicleUploaded byIzi
- Electric VehiclesUploaded byJai Chawla
- Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle ApplicationsUploaded byGigiJm
- electric vehicle.pptUploaded bySrinivas Shinu
- Hydrogen Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) R&D PlanUploaded bymojicap
- HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (Rahul Raj)Uploaded byRahul Raj
- Electric Vehicle Charging InfrastructureUploaded bysiddhartha_anirban
- Ev Battery TechnologyUploaded byebsniper

- A340_AIRUploaded byElias Iruela
- TI-89 EN UN CURSO DE METODOS NUMÉRICOSUploaded byElias Iruela
- Hp10c Owner HandbookUploaded byElias Iruela
- TI74 Technical Data ManualUploaded byElias Iruela
- 71.Power PlantUploaded byElias Iruela
- Super Mondial Manual AlemanUploaded byElias Iruela
- FX-850PUploaded byElias Iruela
- Paginas Circuitos EléctricosUploaded byElias Iruela
- Casio VQ-10 (qw-373)Uploaded byTractorDiésel
- A340_ELECUploaded byElias Iruela
- a330 Etops DataUploaded byElias Iruela
- Averbach Yuri - Lecturas de AjedrezUploaded byabelra73
- ti89 estadisticaUploaded byElias Iruela
- A330_HYDUploaded byElias Iruela
- A333_AIRUploaded byElias Iruela
- Super Mondial Manual AlemanUploaded byElias Iruela
- 3.El AutogiroUploaded byElias Iruela
- Arniches y Cantó - OrtografiaUploaded bySofthem
- Arniches y Cantó - OrtografiaUploaded bySofthem
- Guia Samsung Scx4200 InglesUploaded byElias Iruela
- Carta de ColónUploaded byElias Iruela
- Carta de ColónUploaded byElias Iruela
- atahualpa yupanqui - el canto del viento- versión corregida por carlos f queirolo abril de 2008Uploaded byElias Iruela
- atmega644pUploaded byElias Iruela
- The Art of the Middle GameUploaded byalan_du22645
- Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Historia Verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España (v1.0 Bercebus)Uploaded byElias Iruela
- Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Historia Verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España (v1.0 Bercebus)Uploaded byElias Iruela
- 700 Chess ProblemsUploaded byMahesh Maggy
- A340_HYDUploaded byElias Iruela
- Lego Ideas Book 2Uploaded byElias Iruela

- Electric VehiclesUploaded bym4nade
- Problems Being Faced by HondaUploaded byMuhammad Umair Muneeb
- FS-Rules_2018_V1.0.pdfUploaded bySinduja Balaji
- Guidelines for Green Technology Tax Incentive Latest 27June2016Uploaded byrex
- Intelligent Control of an Electric Vehicle IcevUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Electric Vehicles and Their Batteries Development in ChinaUploaded byMaterials Research Institute
- 11 Things You May Not Know About Electric VehiclesUploaded byJason Hall
- EIP EssayUploaded byBreyhauna Johnson
- SENATE HEARING, 111TH CONGRESS - ELECTRIC VEHICLESUploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Alignment Tests on LatheUploaded byCharles Ondieki
- Regenerative Applications in Electromechanical DrivesUploaded byeditor3854
- 1-s2.0-S0378779616302425-mainUploaded bysdfsdf
- 2018 GACS Data Deck GermanyUploaded byДеян Петров
- Alabama-Power-Co-Plug-In-Electric-VehicleUploaded byGenability
- Chris Mi HandoutUploaded bymohamedezeldin
- Tram in SZagebUploaded byJermy Tomasoa
- 21208247 2009 IEEE Comparative Study of Fuel Cell Vehicle Hybridization With Battery or Supercapacitor Storage DeviceUploaded byAnja Guns
- SG1.pdfUploaded byBhalchandra Murari
- May 18 Email to James Quinn – Sen. Cassidy Chief of StaffUploaded byDoug Grandt
- Electric CarsUploaded byTony Rebeiro
- 4540Chapter1_NedMohanUploaded byHangya Viktor
- Simulation in the Loop of Electric VehiclesUploaded byAshwa
- Comparison of Ford and Honda and Brief SWOT for Both Companies (1)Uploaded bySohham Paringe
- Applying LCC Compensation Network to Dynamic Wireless EV Charging SystemUploaded byBeema Thangarajan
- Trends in Electric Vehicle Propulsion TechnologyUploaded byAlex Kariyil
- Paper 1 (Conference) Current Event in Vehicle Battery SafetyUploaded byAchyar Maulana Pratama
- LithiumUploaded byOscar Fernández
- 18 SDR Electric_WEB.pdfUploaded bySuhaimi Aziz
- WEVA4-4012Uploaded bywahonot
- Efficiency Optimization Control of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines for Electric Vehicle Traction SystemsUploaded byplnegrao