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U.S. Department of Justice RT


Office of Justice Programs





Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention J US T I C E P

Volume III • Number 1

Restoring the Balance:
Juvenile and
Community Justice
◆ Aftercare Not Afterthought:
Testing the IAP Model
◆ Using Satellite

A Journal of the
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
From the Administrator

A s we approach the dawn of the next millennium, juvenile justice is at

a crossroads. The direction we choose to take as a Nation may well determine the
destiny of our youth.
To make informed decisions, we need timely information. With this issue, Juvenile
Justice continues to make its contribution to that end.
In Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice, Gordon Bazemore and
Susan Day provide valuable insights into balanced and restorative justice. Decrying
the failure of traditional treatment and criminalized retributive models to restore
public confidence in the juvenile justice system, the authors advocate an alternative,
community-oriented system that involves citizens in setting clear limits on antisocial
behavior and establishing appropriate consequences for juvenile offenders.
OJJDP’s Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Programs (IAP) initiative, launched
in 1988, helps correctional agencies enhance aftercare, commonly regarded as one
of the weak links in the juvenile justice system. In Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing
the IAP Model, coprincipal investigators David Altschuler and Troy Armstrong
describe the implementation of the initiative.
If information is essential to making sound decisions, getting information into the
hands of those who can use it is crucial. Satellite teleconferencing is changing the
way people receive information, where they receive it, and from whom. OJJDP is
committed to using state-of-the-art techniques to disseminate information to the ju-
venile justice field, as Michael Jones, Bruce Wolford, and F.M. Porpotage evidence
in Using Satellite Teleconferencing.
Juvenile justice is at a crossroads, but with the support of committed professionals
and concerned citizens like the readers of Juvenile Justice, I am confident that the
road ahead will be one of promise for America’s youth.

Shay Bilchik
Office of Juvenile Justice
and Delinquency Prevention
JUVENILE Office of

Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention

633 Indiana Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20531
Volume III • Number 1 December 1996 (202) 307–5911

Shay Bilchik

FEATURES Executive Editor

Earl E. Appleby, Jr.

Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice Assistant Editor

by Gordon Bazemore and Susan E. Day ....................................................... 3 Catherine Doyle

The balanced and restorative model is a promising new approach to juvenile justice Managing Editor
Bob Jefferson
that focuses on meaningful community involvement as an alternative to the treat-
ment versus punishment paradigm. Juvenile Justice Staff
Chadwick Bash
Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing the IAP Model John Calderone
by David M. Altschuler and Troy L. Armstrong............................................. 15 Nancy Hegle
Stephanie Melis
Has OJJDP’s intensive, community-based aftercare initiative helped public and
private correctional agencies transition high-risk juvenile offenders from secure Juvenile Justice is published by
the Office of Juvenile Justice
confinement to the community?
and Delinquency Prevention
(OJJDP) to advance its man-
Using Satellite Teleconferencing date to disseminate infor-
by Michael A. Jones, Bruce I. Wolford, and F.M. Porpotage II ........................... 23 mation regarding juvenile
delinquency and prevention
OJJDP employs state-of-the-art strategies to train and inform all levels of the juve-
programs (42 U.S.C. 5652).
nile justice, child welfare, and law enforcement communities about critical issues
affecting America’s youth. Points of view or opinions
expressed in this publication
are those of the authors and
do not necessarily represent
IN BRIEF the official positions or poli-
cies of OJJDP or the U.S.
Justice Matters Department of Justice.
Reducing Overrepresentation of Minority Youth in Confinement ...................... 29
Resolving Conflict ................................................................................................. 30 The Office of Juvenile Justice
and Delinquency Prevention
OJJDP Resources is a component of the Office
State Responses to Serious and Violent Juvenile Crime ....................................... 31 of Justice Programs, which
OJJDP Fact Sheets ................................................................................................. 32 also includes the Bureau of
Put OJJDP Information To Work for You ............................................................. 33 Justice Assistance, the Bureau
OJJDP Teleconference Videotapes ........................................................................ 34 of Justice Statistics, the
National Institute of Justice,
and the Office for Victims
ORDER FORM ....................................................................................................... 35 of Crime.
Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice

Restoring the
Balance: Juvenile and
Community Justice
by Gordon Bazemore and Susan E. Day

The problem of crime can no longer be simplified to the problem of the criminal.
Leslie Wilkins

Offender-based control strategies are incomplete, since they take a ‘closed

system’ view of correctional interventions: change the offender and not the
James Byrne

I n a democratic society, citizens’ ex-

pectations of government agencies are
as one judge aptly put it, “bad choices
between sending kids to jail or sending
critically important. Unfortunately, them to the beach.”
within our juvenile justice system,
It is doubtful that either traditional Gordon Bazemore is associate
community needs have been lost in the
treatment or criminalized retributive professor in the School of Public
decade-long debate over the future of
models can restore public confidence Administration at Florida Atlantic
the juvenile court and the relative effi- University. He is currently editing
in the juvenile justice system. Only
cacy of punishment versus treatment. A a book on international juvenile
through extensive, meaningful citizen justice reform. Dr. Bazemore is
number of politicians and policymakers
participation will public expectations principal investigator of a nation-
argue for criminalizing our juvenile jus- al action research project funded
and community needs be met. For most
tice system through “get tough,” adult by OJJDP to pilot systemic reform
juvenile justice systems, achieving this based on restorative justice prin-
sentences for juvenile offenders. Some
level of involvement will require sub- ciples. He has directed several
even advocate abolishing the juvenile evaluations of juvenile justice,
stantial restructuring.
justice system and its foundation, the policing, and minority overrepre-
independent juvenile court. This article describes an alternative sentation programs.
approach to addressing juvenile crime Susan E. Day is director of the
On the other hand, many proponents
that focuses on the interests of multiple Florida Youth Restoration Project,
of the juvenile court call for reaffirming
justice clients. Alternatively referred a community service program for
the traditional treatment mission. In- delinquent youth in Palm Beach
to as restorative justice, the balanced
creasingly, the public and even many ju- County, Florida. She serves as
approach, and balanced and restorative program manager for the Balanced
venile justice professionals perceive that
justice (BRJ), this model is viewed by and Restorative Justice Project.
treatment and punishment options are,

Volume III • Number 1 3

Juvenile Justice

a growing number of juvenile justice Although the punitive approach may

professionals as a way to reengage the appease public demand for retribution,
community in the juvenile justice process. it does little to rehabilitate or reintegrate
juvenile offenders. Punishment is often
used inappropriately, resulting in amply
The Limits of Current documented negative effects. Ironically,
Paradigms retributive punishment may encourage
offenders to focus on themselves rather
Crime should never be the sole or even
than on their victims. Even increasing
primary business of the State if real
differences are sought in the well- its severity may have little impact if we
being of individuals, families, and com- have miscalculated the extent to which
munities. The structure, procedures, sanctions such as incarceration are expe-
and evidentiary rules of the formal rienced as punishment.1
criminal justice process coupled with
most justice officials’ lack of knowl- In the public mind, punishment is at
edge and connection to (the parties) least somewhat related to offense. In
affected by crime preclude the State contrast, treatment appears to address
from acting alone to achieve transfor-
only the needs of the offender. Treat-
mative changes.
ment programs often ask little of the
Judge Barry Stuart offender beyond participating in coun-
Worse still, we fear that even when seling, remedial services, or recreational
something does work, it is seen to do so programs. Even when such programs
only in the eyes of certain profession- “work,” they make little difference in
als, while ‘outside’ the system, ordi-
the lives of victims of juvenile crime,
nary citizens are left without a role or
voice in the criminal justice process. citizens concerned with the safety of
their neighborhoods, or individuals who
John Braithewaite and
want young offenders held accountable
Stephen Mugford
for their actions.2
In fact, both punitive and treatment
If juvenile justice is underfunded, it is models focus little attention on the needs
of victims and victimized communities.
also underconceptualized. Neither model engages them as clients
or as coparticipants in the justice process.
Advocates of reaffirming treatment ar- Whether treatment or punishment is em-
gue that the system is failing because phasized, the offender is the passive and
it lacks adequate resources. Critics and solitary recipient of intervention and
defenders of juvenile justice, however, service. Increasingly reliant on facilities,
argue that juvenile justice systems have treatment programs, and professional
failed to articulate a vision of success. experts, juvenile justice systems exclude
If juvenile justice is underfunded, it is victims and other community members
also underconceptualized. As closed- from what could be meaningful roles in
system paradigms, the treatment and sanctioning, rehabilitation, and public
retributive models are insular and one- safety.
dimensional. They are insular because Fortunately, treatment and retributive
they are offender-focused and one- models are not the only options for juve-
dimensional because they fail to address nile justice. The alternative, a community-
the community’s diverse interests. oriented system, would involve citizens

Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice

in setting clear limits on antisocial be- children. In Palm Beach County, victim
havior and determining consequences advocates train juvenile justice staff
for offenders. Victims’ needs for repa- on sensitivity in their interaction with
ration, validation, and healing would victims and help prepare victim aware-
be at the core of a community justice ness curriculums for youth in residential
system, which would work toward build- programs.
ing crime-resistant communities whose
residents feel safe. It would emphasize
the need for building relationships and Punitive and treatment models focus little
involving youth in work, service, and
other roles that facilitate bonding with attention on the needs of victims.
law-abiding adults. Finally, a community
justice system would articulate more ◆ In cities and towns in Pennsylvania,
meaningful roles in rehabilitating offend- Montana, Minnesota, Australia, and
ers and improving community safety for New Zealand, family members and other
employers, civic groups, religious com- citizens acquainted with a juvenile of-
munities, families, and other citizens. fender or victim of a juvenile crime
gather to determine the best response
Toward Community to the offense. Held in schools, churches,
or other community facilities, these fam-
Juvenile Justice: ily group conferences are facilitated by a
A Balanced and community justice coordinator or police
officer and ensure that offenders hear
Restorative Approach community disapproval of their behavior.
Government is responsible for preserv- Participants develop an agreement for
ing order but the community is respon- repairing the damage to victim and com-
sible for establishing peace. munity and a plan for reintegrating the
Daniel Van Ness offender.

◆ In inner-city Pittsburgh, young offend- ◆ In Minnesota, Department of Correc-

ers in an intensive day treatment program tions staff collaborate with local police
solicit input from community organiza- and citizen groups to establish family
tions about service projects they would group conferencing programs and in-
like to see completed in the neighbor- form the community about offender mon-
hood. They work with community resi- itoring and victim support. In Dakota
dents on projects that include home County, a suburb of Minneapolis, retail-
repair and gardening for the elderly, voter ers and senior citizens whose businesses
registration drives, painting homes and and homes have been damaged by bur-
public buildings, and planting and culti- glary or vandalism call a crime repair
vating community gardens. hotline to request a work crew of pro-
bationers to repair the damage.
◆ In Florida, young offenders sponsored
by the Florida Department of Juvenile ◆ In Deschutes County, Oregon, of-
Justice and supervised by The 100 Black fender work crews cut and deliver fire-
Men of Palm Beach County, Inc., plan wood to senior citizens and worked with
and execute projects that serve as shel- a local contractor to build a homeless
ters for abused, abandoned, and HIV- shelter.
positive and AIDS-infected infants and

Volume III • Number 1 5

Juvenile Justice

◆ In more than 150 cities and towns on repairing this harm by ensuring that
throughout North America, victims and offenders are held accountable for mak-
offenders meet with volunteer mediators ing amends for the damage and suffering
to develop an agreement for restitution. they have caused. The most important
At these meetings, victims express their issue in a restorative response to crime is
feelings about the crime and gain infor- not deciding whether to punish or treat
mation about the offense. offenders. Rather, as Howard Zehr sug-
gests, the three primary questions to be
◆ In several cities in Montana, college
answered are “What is the harm?” “What
students and other young adults in the
needs to be done to make it right?” and
Montana Conservation Corps supervise
“Who is responsible?”4
juvenile offenders working on environ-
mental restoration, trail building, and A restorative system would help to en-
other community service projects. They sure that offenders make amends to their
also serve as mentors. victims. Juvenile justice cannot do this
alone, however. Restorative justice re-
While many professionals have become
quires that not only government but
demoralized as juvenile justice systems
victims, offenders, and communities be
are threatened with extinction, others
actively involved in the justice process.
are seeking to create a new partnership
In fact, some have argued that the health
between youth and victim advocates,
of a community is determined by the
concerned citizens, and community groups.
extent to which citizens participate in
community decisions. An effective jus-
tice system strengthens the capacity of
The health of a community is determined communities to respond to crime and
by the extent to which citizens participate empowers them to do so. As Judge Barry
Stuart notes:
in community decisions. When members fail to assume respon-
sibility for decisions affecting the
The balanced and restorative justice community, community life will be
characterized by the absence of a col-
model is centered around community- lective sense of caring, a lack of re-
oriented responses to crime.3 Jurisdic- spect for diverse values, and ultimately
tions implementing it represent a diverse a lack of any sense of belonging. . . .
range of urban, suburban, and rural com- Conflict, if resolved through a process
munities. These communities share a that constructively engages the parties
involved, can be a fundamental build-
common commitment to restructuring ing ingredient of any relationship. As
juvenile justice on the basis of a new members increase their ability to re-
mission (balanced approach) and a new solve disputes creatively, the ability of
value framework (restorative justice). the community to effectively sanction
crime, rehabilitate offenders, and pro-
mote public safety increases.5
Restorative and The most unique feature of restorative
Community Justice justice is its elevation of the role of vic-
tims in the justice system. Victim rights
From the perspective of restorative jus- has become a popular slogan, but victim
tice, the most significant aspect of crime needs are addressed by the system only
is that it victimizes citizens and commu- after the needs of judges, prosecutors,
nities. The justice system should focus probation officers, treatment providers,

Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice

and even offenders are considered. Re- to function as productive adults. When
storative justice does not define victim competency is defined as the capacity
rights as the absence of offender rights; to do something well that others value,
it focuses on the needs of victim, com- the standard for achieving success is meas-
munity, and offender. To bring balance ured in the community. Competency
to the present offender-driven system, is not the mere absence of bad behavior.
however, it is necessary to give priority It should increase the capacity of adults
to victims’ needs for physical, material, and communities to involve young
and emotional healing. people in work, service, dispute resolu-
tion, community problem solving, and
cognitive skills building.
The Balanced
◆ Public safety. Assuring public safety
Approach Mission requires more than mere incapacitation.
The balanced approach is a back-to- Communities cannot be kept safe simply
basics mission for juvenile justice that by locking up offenders. Locked facilities
supports a community’s need to sanction must be part of any public safety strategy,
crime, rehabilitate offenders, and ensure but they are the least cost-effective
public safety. Toward these ends, it ar- component. A balanced strategy invests
ticulates three goals for juvenile justice: heavily in strengthening a community’s
accountability, public safety, and com- capacity to prevent and control crime. A
petency development (see figure 1).6 problem-oriented focus ensures that the
Balance is attainable when administra- time of offenders under supervision in
tors ensure that equitable resources are the community is structured around such
allocated to each goal. activities as work, education, and service.
Adults, including parents, are assigned
◆ Accountability. Crime is sanctioned clear roles in monitoring offenders. A
most effectively when offenders take balanced strategy cultivates new relation-
responsibility for their crimes and the ships with schools, employers, and other
harm caused to victims, when offenders
make amends by restoring losses, and
when communities and victims take Figure 1

storative Justice
active roles in the sanctioning process.
Because the offender’s obligation is de-
fined primarily as an obligation to his
victims rather than to the State, ac- Pu
countability cannot be equated with y b
responsiveness to juvenile justice pro- nc

fessionals by obeying a curfew, comply-


ing with drug screening, or writing an



essay. Nor can it be equated with punish-

ment. It is easier to make offenders take
their punishment than it is to get them
to take responsibility for their actions.
◆ Competency. The most successful re- countability
habilitation ensures that young offenders
make measurable gains in educational,
vocational, social, civic, and other com-
petencies that enhance their capacity

Volume III • Number 1 7

Juvenile Justice

community groups to enhance the role mission of their juvenile justice systems.
of juvenile justice professionals as re- A number of States have administrative
sources in prevention and positive youth rules or statewide policies that require
development. case managers and other decisionmakers
to consider the goals of the balanced
The principle behind BRJ is that justice
approach in dispositional recommenda-
is best served when victims, offenders,
tions. In Pennsylvania and Montana,
and communities receive equitable at-
decisionmakers are using balanced ap-
tention in the justice process. The needs
proach criteria as funding guidelines and
of one client cannot be met unless the
have formed statewide groups to oversee
needs of other clients are addressed.
the development of restorative justice
Crime severs bonds between victims,
offenders, and families. Although of-
fenders must take full responsibility for Balanced and restorative justice cannot
their acts, the responsibility for restor- be achieved by mandates or legislation
ing mutual respect, understanding, and alone. As the three jurisdictions that
support among those involved must be constitute the OJJDP-funded demonstra-
shared by the community. tion effort are learning, the new model
cannot be implemented overnight.
Working with different juvenile justice
Small Changes Yield systems in diverse communities, adminis-
Large Results trators in Palm Beach County, Florida,
Dakota County, Minnesota, and Alle-
The change at the heart of BRJ is gheny County, Pennsylvania, are pursu-
embodied in the community-building ing varied approaches to systemic change
interventions described above. BRJ to build a restorative model from the
collaborators, including juvenile justice ground up. These administrators have
and other service professionals, have made significant progress but acknowl-
discovered that even small changes in edge that the kind of change envisioned
how they conduct business can have by BRJ is quite different from past prac-
immediate and lasting effects on the tices. This change is especially striking
dynamics of community relationships. in the model’s focus on citizen involve-
Communities in the United States and ment, including restructuring juvenile
across the globe are making dramatic justice agencies to more effectively en-
policy changes on the basis of restorative gage the community.
priorities. In 1989, New Zealand began
requiring that all juvenile offenders over
age 14 (except in the most serious cases)
Balanced and
be referred to a family group conference Restorative Justice:
in which restorative goals are addressed
in meetings that include victims, offend-
New Roles for Citizens
ers, support groups, families, policymakers, and Professionals
social workers, and others. The New
I’m glad to see somebody is finally
Zealand law appears to have drastically trying to instill some responsibility
reduced court workloads and the use of in these kids. I’m happy to help when
incarceration.7 it’s obvious that we’re trying to make
taxpayers out of these kids, rather
Fourteen States have enacted legislation than tax liabilities.
adopting the balanced approach as the
Community Member

Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice

Table 1
The Participants in a Balanced and Restorative Juvenile Justice System
Citizens, Families, and
Crime Victims Offenders Community Groups
◆ Receive support, assistance, compensa- ◆ Complete restitution to their victims. ◆ Are involved to the greatest extent
tion, information, and services. ◆ Provide meaningful service to repay possible in rehabilitation, community
◆ Receive restitution or other reparation the debt to their communities. safety initiatives, and holding offenders
from the offender. accountable.
◆ Face the personal harm caused by
◆ Are involved and are encouraged to their crimes by participating in victim ◆ Work with offenders on local com-
give input at all points in the system offender mediation or other victim munity service projects.
as to how the offender will repair the awareness programs. ◆ Provide support to victims.
harm done. ◆ Complete work experience and active ◆ Provide support to offenders as
◆ Have the opportunity to face the and productive tasks that increase skills mentors, employers, and advocates.
offenders and tell their story. and improve the community. ◆ Provide work for offenders to pay res-
◆ Feel satisfied with the justice process. ◆ Are monitored by community adults titution to victims and service oppor-
◆ Provide guidance and consultation as well as juvenile justice providers tunities that allow offenders to make
to juvenile justice professionals on and supervised to the greatest extent meaningful contributions to the quality
planning and advisory groups. possible in the community. of community life.
◆ Improve decisionmaking skills and ◆ Assist families to support the offender
have opportunities to help others. in obligation to repair the harm and
increase competencies.
◆ Advise courts and corrections and play
an active role in disposition.

In the mediation session I learned our resources. And my staff are getting
that the offender was just a little kid a better sense of what their role is and
and not the threat I thought he was. how this fits with my vision of what
I also learned he had some needs that the community’s role should be. We
weren’t being met. . . . For the first know we’re really ‘out of balance,’ but
time (I’ve been a victim before), it for the first time we have a plan to
seemed like someone was responding move forward without chasing every
to my needs and listening to me. fad and new program that comes along.
We can also talk to the community
Youth Crime Victim about what we’re doing in a way that
When I first walked into the confer- they understand and want to help.
encing meeting and saw the victim Manager of a Local Juvenile
and her friends and then saw my Justice System
grandfather there I wished I could
have gone to jail instead. But once As a community justice model, balanced
everybody had talked about the crime and restorative justice offers a new vision
I began to realize that Mrs. B was
really hurt and scared by what I had
of how victims, offenders, and others
done. I had to work hard to earn the can be involved in the juvenile justice
money to pay her back and to do the process. As table 1 illustrates, this vision
community service hours (but the is best understood by examining how
work on the crew was pretty fun) the model is viewed by its participants.
and I thought it was fair after all.
Balanced and restorative justice is a work
Juvenile Offender
in progress. No juvenile justice system is
Now I know what my job is really completely balanced or fully restorative.
about! As a manager, I have a better But if juvenile justice systems, including
sense of how to allocate, or reallocate,
those most committed to the model, fail

Volume III • Number 1 9

Juvenile Justice

to making their agencies and systems

Figure 2 value- and client-driven and outcome-
oriented. Decisions are based on the
What’s New About the Balanced Approach? premise that programs are means to
accomplish restorative outcomes that
Balanced and address community needs (see table 2).
Current System Restorative Justice
From a community justice perspective,
Resource Allocation New Values the value of a program and the quality
and Staffing Patterns of its implementation is gauged in large
measure by the extent to which it in-
volves community members at all levels
New Clients
of implementation.

New Performance Outcomes Citizen Involvement

Programs and Practices and Client Focus
New Decisionmaking In the total quality management (TQM)
movement,8 the concept of a client in-
volves three components: a recipient
of service, a target of intervention and
New Resource Allocation change, and a coparticipant who must
Performance Outcomes? and Staffing Patterns have input into the process and be in-
volved to the greatest extent possible
in decisionmaking.
to meet the standards they have set for
The input of each client group is needed
community and client involvement, it
to stimulate and maintain community
is not because the model is utopian. It is
involvement. Currently few citizens are
because administrators are constrained
involved at significant levels in juvenile
by management protocols designed to
justice because they are seldom asked.
deliver services based on the treatment
Although many professionals would wel-
and retributive paradigms.
come community involvement and may
The innovation of balanced and restor- work hard at collaboration and service
ative justice lies in its agenda for restruc- brokerage, such efforts often fail to in-
turing the juvenile justice system to clude employers, clergy, civic leaders,
make it community-focused rather and neighborhood residents. Too often,
than bureaucracy-driven. This agenda juvenile justice agencies are unable to
demands new values, clients, perform- find appropriate roles for community
ance objectives, decisionmaking proc- members who are not social service
esses, program priorities, staff roles, professionals or time to support their
and patterns of resource allocation. As efforts. Short-term involvement is often
figure 2 suggests, while most juvenile uninteresting because it is not linked
justice agencies determine intervention to interventions that achieve significant
priorities on the basis of current staff outcomes for offenders or victims. When
roles and resource allocations, juvenile citizens are asked to participate, it is often
justice managers who adopt the bal- on the basis of civic duty rather than per-
anced approach mission are committed sonal commitment. As Braithwaite and

Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice

Mugford observe, citizens are more will-

ing to become involved if they have a Table 2
personal interest in the offender, victim, Outcome Measures and Priorities for Practice in the Balanced
or the family.9 Approach
Crimes typically evoke a community Competency Development
of concern for the victim, the offender, Intermediate Outcome
families and friends, and interested citi- Measures Priorities for Practice
zens and community groups. As the New ◆ Proportion of youth on supervision ◆ Structured work experience and
completing successful work experi- employment programs.
Zealand experiment with family group ence or employment (quality of ◆ Service/active learning.
conferencing illustrates, these personal experience?). ◆ Cognitive and decisionmaking
◆ Proportion of youth on supervision programs.
communities can be a primary resource completing meaningful work/service ◆ Dispute resolution training.
in resolving youth crimes. It is around project. ◆ Intergenerational projects.
◆ Extent of bonding between youth
such microcommunities that citizen par- under supervision and community
◆ Cross-age tutoring.
◆ Conservation and environmental
ticipation in justice decisionmaking is adults. awareness.
◆ Increase in empathy and improve-
being built.10 ment in skills.
◆ Demonstrated improvement in
BRJ practices and programs invite a high conflict resolution and anger
level of citizen participation. Community management.
◆ Measured increase in educational,
involvement is never easy, but it is satis- interpersonal, citizenship, and other
fying for citizens to help young offenders competencies.
make restitution to their victims. Accountability
The more active roles for offenders, Intermediate Outcome
Measures Priorities for Practice
victims, and community in the juvenile
◆ Proportion of offenders completing ◆ Restitution to victims.
justice process, noted in table 1, have fair and appropriate restitution ◆ Restorative community service.
implications for the roles of juvenile jus- orders or agreements. ◆ Victim offender mediation.
◆ Proportion of victims given input ◆ Direct service to victims or surrogate
tice professionals. The most important into the process. victims.
and difficult challenge in moving toward ◆ Proportion of victims satisfied with ◆ Victim awareness panels or victim
the process.
balanced and restorative justice will be ◆ Proportion of offenders showing
offender groups in treatment
to alter the job descriptions and profes- measured increase in victim
awareness and empathy.
sional orientations of juvenile justice ◆ Proportion of offenders and victims
staff. For those accustomed to working completing mediation or other
with offenders individually or in pro- resolution and community service.
◆ Proportion of offenders completing
grams and facilities, the role change meaningful community service
implied by the need to engage victims projects (number of such projects
and communities may be dramatic.
Essentially, this change may be best un- Public Safety
derstood as moving from direct service Intermediate Outcome
provider or service broker to community Measures Priorities for Practice
◆ Proportion of offenders reoffend- ◆ Structuring time of offenders being
justice facilitator.11 ing while under juvenile justice supervised in the community: work
supervision. experience, community service, and
As table 3 suggests, the new roles in- ◆ Number of citizens involved in pre- alternative education.
volve juvenile justice professionals ventive and monitoring activities. ◆ Effective use of natural surveillance
◆ Decrease in community fear and and community guardians such as
in activities with each of the three increase in understanding of juve- employers, relatives, churches, and
justice clients. These activities include nile justice. mentors.
◆ Decrease in school violence and ◆ Continuum of graduated community-
a variety of efforts to enhance preven- increase in school and community- based sanctions and surveillance.
tive capacity and to help adults provide based conflict resolution. ◆ Prevention and capacity building
◆ Increase in competency, empathy, in schools and other community
offenders with opportunities for compe- and internal controls for offenders groups.
tency development. under supervision.

Volume III • Number 1 11

Juvenile Justice

Frustrated that these workmen had little

Table 3 to say about the significance of working
New Roles in the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model on this historical effort, the reporter
moved to another part of the building
The Coparticipants and approached a man carefully cutting
Victim Active participant in defining the harm of the crime and shaping the
obligations placed on the offender.
stained glass windows. Surely, this man
Community Responsible for supporting and assisting victims, holding offenders
felt that his work was the artistic oppor-
accountable, and ensuring opportunities for offenders to make amends. tunity of a lifetime. Once again the re-
Offender Active participant in reparation and competency development. porter was disappointed; the man said
that he was very tired and somewhat
Juvenile Justice Professional bored with his task. Finally, as he walked
Sanctioning Facilitate mediation, ensure restoration, develop creative or restorative out of the cathedral in despair, the re-
community service options, engage community members, and educate
the community on its role. porter passed an elderly woman stooped
Rehabilitation Develop new roles for young offenders that allow them to practice and and working rapidly to clean up the de-
demonstrate competency, assess and build on youth and community bris left from the stone and glass cutters,
strengths, and develop community partnerships.
painters, and other artisans. He asked
Public Safety Develop incentives and consequences to ensure offender compliance
with supervision objectives, help school and family control and main- what it was that she was doing. Her an-
tain offenders in the community, and develop prevention capacity of swer was that she was building the most
local organizations.
magnificent cathedral in the history of
the world to the glory of God.
As this story illustrates, the key to prog-
Getting There ress toward restorative justice is viewing
Some may say this [movement toward small steps as the building blocks of a
restorative justice] is Utopian. While more effective juvenile justice system.
this may be true, in a climate of failure
and irrational extremism in the re- Will balanced and restorative justice
sponse to juvenile crime, there may work? BRJ is not a treatment program
be nothing so practical as a good Utopia. but a model for system reform. It cannot
Lode Walgrave be assessed by using traditional program
evaluation technologies. The success
Robert Fulcrum tells the story of a re-
of a restorative justice system should be
porter visiting the cathedral in Chartres,
measured not only by recidivism but also
France, during the cathedral’s construc-
by victim satisfaction, offender account-
tion. Hoping to get a sense of how those
ability, competency development, and
working on this magnificent structure
public safety.12 The success of BRJ will
understood and experienced their contri- depend on the consistency and integrity
bution to its completion, the reporter be- of implementation, how well its core phi-
gan asking several workmen about their losophy is understood, how effectively it
jobs. The first, a stonecutter, said that is adapted to local conditions, and whether
his job was simply to cut the stone into restorative justice is given a chance. Al-
square blocks for someone else to use in though restorative justice may not lead
the foundation; the job was monotonous, to immediate reductions in recidivism,
and he had been doing the same thing the standard of comparison should be the
day in and day out. Next, the reporter current system. As a First Nations Com-
asked a workman who was painting stone munity Justice Coordinator in Yukon,
blocks on the front of the building about Canada, reminds us:
his job. “I just paint these blocks and
nothing more,” he said. “There is not So we make mistakes. Can you—the
much to it.” current system—say you don’t make

Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice

mistakes? . . . If you don’t think you do, 2. The critique of the individual treatment model
walk through our community. Every presented here is not premised on the largely dis-
family will have something to teach credited “nothing works” perspective, nor do we
you. . . . By getting involved, by all of question the need for an effective rehabilitative
model for juvenile justice. Rather, our criticisms
us taking responsibility, it is not that
of traditional counseling-based treatment are
we won’t make mistakes, we would based primarily upon the very limited context of
be doing it together, as a community intervention in most treatment programs and on
instead of having it done to us. . . . the deficit assumptions about offenders on which
We need to make real differences in the most of these programs are based. A more com-
way people act and the way we treat prehensive agenda for rehabilitation and reinte-
others. . . . Only if we empower them gration would focus more on relationship building
and support them can they break out and the development of roles for delinquent
of this trap.13 youth that allow them to demonstrate compe-
tency while forming bonds with conventional
It is the failure of current paradigms that peers and adults. A competency development
has moved some policymakers toward component of such a reintegrative and restorative
agenda is outlined in G. Bazemore and P. Cruise,
radical measures to abolish the juvenile “Reinventing Rehabilitation: Exploring a Com-
justice system. Those who wish to pre- petency Development Model for Juvenile Justice
serve it see balanced and restorative jus- Intervention,” Perspectives 19 (1995): 4; and
G. Bazemore and C. Terry, “Developing Delin-
tice as a means to do so by crafting a new quent Youth: A Reintegrative Model for Reha-
system in which juvenile justice reflects bilitation and a New Role for the Juvenile Justice
community justice. System,” Child Welfare (forthcoming).
3. Balanced and Restorative Justice (BRJ) is also
the title of a national action research project
Notes funded through the Technical Assistance and
Training Prevention division of the Office of Ju-
1. For commentary on closed-system approaches venile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This
to community corrections, see J. Byrne, “Reinte- project provides national training and information
grating the Concept of Community in Community dissemination as well as support and assistance to
Corrections,” Crime and Delinquency 35 (1989): demonstration projects currently implementing
471– 499; see also A.J. Reiss and M. Tonry, “Why BRJ.
Are Communities Important in Understanding
Crime?” Communities and Crime (Chicago: Uni- 4. H. Zehr, Changing Lenses: A New Focus for
versity of Chicago Press, 1986). Like treatment, Crime and Justice (Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press,
punishment will remain an essential component 1990).
of any juvenile justice system. However, punitive 5. Judge B. Stuart, notes from presentation at the
measures focused primarily on incarceration rep- annual conference of the Society for Professionals
resent only one limited approach to meeting in Dispute Resolution (Toronto, Canada, 1993): 7.
community needs to sanction crime. For com-
mentary on more educative and expressive ap- 6. In a balanced system, programs and practices
proaches to setting tolerance limits for crime, aimed at repairing harm to victims should, as
see J. Braithewaite, Crime, Shame and Reintegra- Troy Armstrong has phrased it, “resonate with”
tion (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University practices aimed at rehabilitative and public safety
Press, 1989); L. Wilkins, Punishment, Crime and objectives. Specifically, holding offenders
Market Forces (Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Pub- accountable is a first step in the rehabilitative
lishing Company, 1991); G. Bazemore and M. process. Developing capacities for competent be-
Umbreit, “Rethinking the Sanctioning Function havior in offenders increases community safety
in Juvenile Court: Retributive or Restorative Re- by increasing connectedness and concern for
sponses to Youth Crime,” Crime and Delinquency others as well as life skills. Enhanced community
41 (1995): 296–316. The counterdeterrent effects safety is often necessary to carry out meaningful
of retributive punishment, including stigmatiza- community sanctioning, offender reintegration,
tion, weakening bonds, and conventional peer and and victim support and restoration. For a detailed
adult relations, are also well documented. Finally, discussion of the balanced approach mission, see
empirical evidence that criminal justice decision- D. Maloney and G. Bazemore, “Rehabilitating
makers typically overestimate the perceived pu- Community Service: Toward Restorative Service
nitive effects of incarceration is provided in M. in a Balanced Justice System,” Federal Probation
Crouch, “Is Incarceration Really Worse? Analysis (1994); G. Bazemore, “On Mission Statements
of Offenders’ Preferences for Prison Over Proba- and Reform in Juvenile Justice: The Case of the
tion,” Justice Quarterly 10 (1993): 67–88. Balanced Approach,” Federal Probation (1992);

Volume III • Number 1 13

Juvenile Justice

G. Bazemore and C. Washington, “Charting the 13. Rose Couch, Community Justice Coordinator,
Future of the Juvenile Justice System: Reinventing Quanlin Dun First Nations, Yukon, Canada. As
Mission and Management,” Spectrum: The Journal quoted in B. Stuart, “Sentencing Circles: Making
of State Government (1995). Table 2 of this paper ‘Real Differences’,” monograph, Territorial Court
provides a general summary of how performance of Yukon, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada.
objectives on each goal can be measured.
7. F.W.M. McElrae, “Restorative Justice—The
New Zealand Youth Court: A Model for Develop- Supplemental Reading
ment in Other Courts?” Journal of Judicial Adminis-
Bazemore, G., and M.S. Umbreit. (1995). “Re-
tration 4 (1994), Australian Institute of Judicial
thinking the Sanctioning Function in Juvenile
Administration, Melbourne, Australia.
Court: Retributive or Restorative Responses to
8. W.E. Deming, Out of Crisis (Cambridge, MA: Youth Crime.” Crime and Delinquency 41(3):
MIT Center for Advanced Engineering, 1986); 296–316. This article proposes restorative justice
L. Martin, Total Quality Management in Organiza- as an alternative model for the juvenile courts
tions (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993). to address limitations of sanctioning choices in-
herent in individual treatment and retributive
9. J. Braithewaite and S. Mugford, “Conditions justice paradigms. NCJ 156328
of Successful Reintegration Ceremonies: Dealing
with Juvenile Offenders,” British Journal of Crimi- Bazemore, G., and M.S. Umbreit. (1994). Bal-
nology (1995): 34. The authors give examples of anced and Restorative Justice. Washington, DC: U.S.
how relatives, friends, and acquaintances of young Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice
offenders, victims, and their families become vital and Delinquency Prevention. Community super-
resources in restoring and meeting the needs of vision of juvenile offenders based on the balanced
crime victims while also helping offenders when and restorative justice approach is discussed in
asked to participate in family group conferences. this examination of the Balanced and Restorative
Justice Project being developed as an outgrowth
10. For a more detailed description of the New of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Zealand and Australian models of family group Prevention’s juvenile restitution training and
conferencing, including research findings and technical assistance program. NCJ 149727*
critical concerns about implementation, see
G. Maxwell and A. Morris, Family, Victims, and Cragg, W. (1992). Practice of Punishment: Towards
Culture: Youth Justice in New Zealand (Wellington, a Theory of Restorative Justice. New York: Routledge.
New Zealand: Social Policy Agency and Victoria This book develops a theory of punishment in
University, Institute of Criminology, 1993); which the central function of law is to reduce
C. Alder and J. Wundersitz, Family Group Con- the need to use force in the resolution of disputes.
ferencing: The Way Forward or Misplaced Optimism? The author examines traditional approaches to
(Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of punishment to determine why they have failed
Criminology, 1994); M. Umbreit and S. Stacy, to provide a coherent and humane approach to
“Family Group Conferencing Comes to the U.S.: sentencing and corrections. NCJ 143921
A Comparison With Victim Offender Mediation,”
Umbreit, M.S. (1995). “Holding Juvenile Offend-
Juvenile and Family Court Journal (forthcoming).
ers Accountable: A Restorative Justice Perspective.”
11. The transformation from service provider to Juvenile and Family Court Journal 46(2): 31–42.
the facilitator role is used to describe changes in This article defines accountability for juvenile
probation services in the Vermont Department of offenders as an intervention strategy within the
Corrections’ restructuring of the State’s probation context of the restorative justice paradigm, in
system through Community Reparative Boards. which the meaning of accountability shifts from
incurring a debt to society to incurring a respon-
12. Answering the question “Does it work?” in sibility for making amends to the victimized per-
a restorative community justice framework must son. NCJ 156121
give consideration to improvements in the capac-
ity of community groups and citizens to prevent, Umbreit, M.S., R.B. Coates, and B. Kalanj.
sanction, and control crime. For example, the de- (1994). Victim Meets Offender: The Impact of
velopment of community support groups of non- Restorative Justice and Mediation. Monsey, NY:
professional citizens is generally not viewed as a Willow Tree Press. This book reports findings
success outcome, but such measures may be a more from a study of victim-offender reconciliation
critical gauge of long-term community safety than and mediation programs for juvenile offenders
reductions in recidivism of offenders in treatment in California, Minnesota, New Mexico, and
programs. Texas. NCJ 147713

The above publications are available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse; those with
an asterisk can be ordered using the order form on page 35.

Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing the IAP Model

Aftercare Not
Afterthought: Testing
the IAP Model
by David M. Altschuler and Troy L. Armstrong

R esponding to commonly held perceptions that aftercare was

one of the weakest links in the juvenile justice system and contributed
to high rates of recidivism, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
quency Prevention (OJJDP) announced its Intensive Community-Based
Aftercare Programs (IAP) initiative in July 1987. The IAP initiative
was designed to help public and private correctional agencies implement
effective aftercare programs for chronic and serious juvenile offenders.

Launched in spring 1988 under the high-risk juvenile offenders from secure
direction of coprincipal investigators confinement into the community in a
Dr. David Altschuler of Johns Hopkins gradual and highly structured manner.
University and Dr. Troy Armstrong of
Organizationally, the system domain for
California State University, Sacramento,
applying the proposed IAP model is most
the IAP project used a four-stage ap-
clearly conceptualized as a correctional
proach to long-term program research
continuum consisting of three distinct,
and development. After 7 years of re-
yet overlapping, segments:
search, development, and training, dem-
onstration sites in Colorado, Nevada, ◆ Prerelease and preparatory planning
New Jersey, and Virginia began imple- during incarceration. David M. Altschuler and Troy
menting the IAP model. L. Armstrong are coprincipal
◆ Structured transition that requires investigators of OJJDP’s In-
the participation of institutional and tensive Community-Based
Aftercare Demonstration and
IAP Model aftercare staff prior to and following Technical Assistance Program.
community reentry. Dr. Altschuler is principal research
The model of intensive aftercare being scientist at the Johns Hopkins
tested at the pilot sites is best described ◆ Long-term, reintegrative activities Institute for Policy Studies in
as theory driven, risk assessment based, that ensure adequate service delivery Baltimore, and Dr. Armstrong
and the necessary level of social control. is professor in the Department
and empirically grounded. The approach of Anthropology, California
prepares, transitions, and reintegrates (See figure 1.) State University at Sacramento.

Volume III • Number 1 15

Juvenile Justice

Figure 1
I ntervention for Youth
tin uum of Corr
on ecti
eC on
Th s

Tr a n s i t i o n

Confinement Normalization

The Institution T h e C o m m u n i t y

Point of Successful
Point of Termination
Commitment Community
Reentry of Aftercare

1. Prerelease Planning 3. Long-Term Reintegrative


2. Structured Reentry

Programmatic Principles peers, schools, employers) on the quali-

ties needed for constructive interactions
A multifaceted and integrated approach that advance the juveniles’ reintegration
to community reentry, the IAP model into the community.
requires an overarching case management
process that ensures significant control ◆ Developing new resources and
over released juvenile offenders and en- support as needed.
hanced service delivery focusing on rec- ◆ Monitoring and testing juveniles
ognized risk and protective factors. To and the community on their capacity
reduce recidivism and relapse, the IAP to deal with each other productively.
sites forge working collaborations across
diverse professional and agency boundaries.
Critical Elements
The following programmatic principles
As formulated, the IAP model is descrip-
are the foundation of the IAP model:
tive, not prescriptive, because it can be
◆ Preparing juveniles for progressively structured and applied in diverse ways
increased responsibility and freedom in if the framework is compatible with the
the community. foundational programmatic principles
◆ Facilitating interaction and cited above.
involvement between juveniles and Although policymakers, planners, admin-
the community. istrators, and staff must have adequate
◆ Working with offenders and targeted leeway to select the components, fea-
community support systems (families, tures, and processes that best address the

Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing the IAP Model

specific needs of their communities and serious, violent, and chronic juvenile
confined youth, some contextual and offenders are among the most troubled
programmatic elements must be taken juveniles in society in terms of personal
into account. The following elements problems, skill deficits, and emotional
are critical to successfully translate IAP instability. Such multiproblem youth
principles into practice: demand a broad spectrum of treatment
◆ Organizational factors and the
external environment. Accordingly, no single agency or organi-
zation can realistically or successfully
◆ Overarching case management,
design, fund, direct, and implement after-
which includes the following:
care programs that comprehensively
❖ Risk assessment and classification address the problems and needs of such
for establishing eligibility. high-risk offenders. Collaboration among
❖ Individual case planning that in- several agencies is a sine qua non for
corporates a family and community success.
❖ A mix of intensive surveillance Pilot Site: Colorado
and services.
The IAP project in Colorado is operated
❖ A balance of incentives and by the State Division of Youth Services
graduated consequences coupled (DYS), Department of Institutions.
with the imposition of realistic, The catchment area comprises parts of
enforceable conditions. Jefferson, Arapahoe, and Denver Coun-
❖ Service brokerage with commu- ties, including greater metropolitan
nity resources linkage with social Denver.
networks. The site benefits from its proximity to
◆ Management information and pro- the juvenile offenders’ home commu-
gram evaluation. nities. Only 18 miles from downtown
Denver, Lookout Mountain Youth
Services Center (LMYSC) is a secure
Summary facility whose residents include the
The IAP model builds on several innova- most delinquent youth in the DYS sys-
tions that have taken place within the tem. LMYSC houses IAP participants
juvenile justice system during the past in a single cottage.
First, findings from the intensive
supervision movement have provided
Collaboration among agencies is a sine
invaluable insights. Technological qua non for success.
advancements have improved the
ability to assess risks and needs. Other
advancements, such as electronic Enhanced Assessment
monitoring and enhanced drug testing,
Participants in Colorado’s IAP project
have strengthened supervision efforts by
benefit from enhanced assessment tech-
facilitating more effective social control.
niques such as the Young Offender Level
Second, there is a growing consensus of Service Inventory, the Adolescent
among juvenile justice professionals that Living Independently Via Education and

Volume III • Number 1 17

Juvenile Justice

Employment (ALIVE-E) assessment, with youth in the community. Trackers

and privately provided vocational assess- are trained to make random contacts,
ment. These techniques supplement monitor daily schedules, and employ
the standard battery of educational and electronic technology using both active
psychological assessment instruments, (e.g., voice verification) and passive
complementing data gathered to pro- (e.g., ankle monitors) equipment. They
file a youth’s social, legal, medical, and make the majority of their contacts out-
substance abuse dimensions. side normal working hours.
The above assessment tools identify areas
critical to reducing risk, promoting pro- Key Services
social support systems, and providing In addition to family therapy and sup-
treatment. Within 60 days of confine- port, other critical areas of service pro-
ment, a discrete case plan that establishes vision include education, vocational
goals for successful community reintegra- training, job placement, and substance
tion outlines an IAP strategy specifically abuse treatment. Each service provider
developed for that youth. Input from develops an individual treatment plan
family members, LMYSC staff, service that establishes goals and time frames
providers, and other concerned parties consistent with objectives stated in the
is used to implement tasks set forth in discrete case plan. Client managers coor-
the plan. dinate the delivery of services through a
brokerage model.
A system of graduated sanctions ensures Although positive incentives are used,
a system of graduated consequences en-
accountability for misconduct. sures accountability. Consequences for
misconduct include work program as-
signments, community service orders,
Client Manager timeout in detention, and short-term
To ensure adequate levels of supervision placement in the secure Reflections
and service, an IAP client manager over- Unit, a program operated by a private
sees each case from institutional referral service provider in the Denver area.
through community reentry to followup Reflections serves as an alternative
and discharge. Specific standards for cli- to revocation by offering a residential
ent management include monthly face- setting where IAP youth can be held
to-face contacts with the youth during accountable for their poor community
institutional treatment and weekly con- adjustment and prepared for return to
tacts that begin 60 days prior to release the community.
and continue through community place-
ment. Caseload size is capped at 18 cases,
with a maximum of 6 institutional and
Pilot Site: Nevada
12 community clients. The Division of Nevada Youth Cor-
rections Services’ Youth Parole Bu-
Although client managers assume pri-
reau operates that State’s IAP project.
mary responsibility for all community
Clark County, which has the greatest
contacts, various service providers aid
concentration of serious juvenile offend-
community supervision. Trackers em-
ers committed to State confinement,
ployed by private providers are used ex-
was selected as the pilot site.
tensively for daily face-to-face contacts

Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing the IAP Model

The 150 miles between the offenders’ facilitating the brokerage of additional
home community of Las Vegas and the resources.
Caliente Youth Center, the participating
Team staffing allows each member to de-
youth correctional facility, presented a
velop individual expertise in areas such
significant challenge to implementing
as substance abuse treatment, family
the IAP model.
therapy techniques, vocational education
Youth are screened for IAP eligibility and training procedures, and job devel-
and randomly assigned to the experi- opment and placement. The team has
mental group. Selected youth are sent devised a system of positive incentives
to the Nevada Youth Training Center and graduated sanctions, with conse-
in Elko for an initial 3-week assessment. quences including community service
Subsequently, they are transferred to for lesser infractions and more stringent
the Caliente Youth Center, which houses curfews, house arrest, and brief periods
IAP participants in a single cottage. of confinement for serious misconduct.

Transition Additional Activities

Particular emphasis is placed on the Additional personnel augment the IAP
prerelease curriculum taught during supervision team. Two community out-
the month prior to reentry into the reach trackers provide expanded hours
community. The course focuses on of supervision during evenings and week-
social skills training and issues related ends. Outreach workers blend surveil-
to street readiness. lance with service that includes life skills
training and monitored recreation. Pro-
An aftercare worker from Las Vegas
bation staff from the juvenile court share
resides at Caliente and serves as an on-
electronic monitoring equipment, when
going liaison between the institution
needed, to restrict the mobility of IAP
and the community, ensuring regular,
sustained contact. The Clark County
School District employs an educational
liaison worker who spends considerable
time at the institution and has primary Team staffing allows members to develop
responsibility for reintegrating IAP individual expertise in diverse areas.
youth into the public school system.

Efforts have been made to expand the

Team Approach
spectrum of community-based services
The community supervision component while enhancing existing services. IAP
relies on a team approach. The 3 juve- aspirations include increasing the num-
nile parole officers assigned to the IAP ber of group homes, developing a tran-
project are collectively responsible sitional living center to prepare older
for supervising 45 IAP parolees in the adolescents for independent living, and
community. These officers also work improving the availability of inpatient
with IAP staff and youth at Caliente. and outpatient drug and alcohol treat-
ment programs.
The team approach affords 24-hour
coverage in the community when re- Providing services depends on the bro-
quired. At the same time, it ensures kerage of services to private vendors.
the provision of service delivery while In addition to these purchase-of-service

Volume III • Number 1 19

Juvenile Justice

arrangements, service provision is incarceration and includes group coun-

coordinated with other public sector seling sessions with institution staff,
organizations and agencies such as case managers, parole officers, and resi-
schools, vocational training institu- dential center staff.
tions, and mental healthcare centers.
Case managers and parole officers
also conduct family sessions at NJTSB.
Pilot Site: New Jersey Transportation is provided to facilitate
participation in these family sessions.
New Jersey’s IAP project focuses on
high-risk youth from Camden and Essex
(Newark) Counties. These youth are
Transition Team
incarcerated at the New Jersey Training Staff and residents from the transitional
School for Boys (NJTSB) in Jamesburg. residential centers and other community
Eligibility for participation is based on service providers visit NJTSB to help
a risk assessment instrument developed IAP participants become oriented to life
specifically for the IAP demonstration. in the community. One-on-one coun-
The instrument, an adaptation of stand- seling sessions conducted during these
ard risk assessment instruments that visits focus on transitional issues such
incorporate static and dynamic risk fac- as education, work, peer influences,
tors, also has an override capability. The conflict resolution, and substance abuse.
override option is designed to take into The IAP design allows a parole officer
account either aggravating factors that to carry a caseload of approximately 25
could justify placing a low- or moderate- juveniles. The parole officer supervises
risk juvenile into IAP or mitigating fac- youth in the community. The case man-
tors that could result in the diversion of ager works with participants in NJTSB,
a high-risk juvenile from IAP. Examples establishing and monitoring case plans
include placing a low-risk juvenile with for transition. Working as a team, the
no priors who committed a single violent case manager and parole officer share
offense into IAP and diverting a chronic, office space at the step-down residential
multiproblem youngster from IAP to a center, which promotes partnership and
special needs program. facilitates access to community service
providers, schools, and employers.

Residential centers provide a transition Final Phase

for reintegration into the community. IAP participants spend up to 4 months
in a community residential center or
At NJTSB, IAP participants are housed day treatment program, with structured,
in a designated cottage. Affiliated resi- onsite programs offered throughout
dential centers in Camden and Essex the first 2 months. Upon successful com-
Counties provide a step-down transition pletion of this transitional phase, juve-
for reintegration into the community. niles are released to family members
or guardians or to independent living.
Project participants typically spend 4 (An independent living rental subsidy
to 6 months at NJTSB before being pa- may be provided for up to 2 months.)
roled into the community. Programming
established specifically for the project Supervision during the final phase of the
begins within the first 4 to 6 weeks of IAP program is initially intensive, with

Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing the IAP Model

in-person contacts with the parole officer other group activities, which include
occurring at least three times per week. recreation, cultural awareness, and coun-
Such supervision and contacts decrease seling. At a minimum, the counselor
as progress dictates. calls the Norfolk IPP counselor weekly
and visits the families monthly.
Pilot Site: Virginia
The Intensive Parole Program (IPP),
Virginia’s IAP project, is designed The Norfolk Court Service Unit has ap-
for chronic offenders who have been pointed two senior parole counselors who
committed to the Beaumont Juvenile supervise IPP participants and coordinate
Correctional Center by the Norfolk family services. Norfolk IPP counselors
Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court. visit participating youth at Beaumont at
To be eligible for IPP, participants must least once per month. Upon release from
be at least 16 years old. Participation Beaumont, participants are contacted at
in IPP is determined by an intensive least three times per week.
aftercare risk assessment instrument that Norfolk IPP counselors have an average
identifies candidates at risk of recidivism. caseload of 15 juveniles. Counselors hold
The Reception and Diagnostic Center weekly family meetings; conduct unan-
(RDC) assigns two counselors to assess nounced spot checks at school, home,
youth recommended for the program. and place of employment; continue the
An IPP counselor provides ongoing life skills curriculum through weekly
case management and counseling to meetings; and coordinate other group
committed IPP youth. IPP counselors activities involving participants and
are trained in a life skills curriculum their families.
used with participating youth and their In consultation with CAT staff and
families throughout all phases of the agencies, Norfolk counselors refer youth
program. for services and work closely with the
In addition, a Norfolk Youth Network Norfolk School’s Transition Specialist
Community Assessment Team (CAT) to address educational needs. A para-
handles all IPP cases. CAT works with professional, serving as a parole aide,
parole officers, offenders, and offenders’ assists with monitoring, transportation,
families to identify treatment, service and other functions. Every 30 days, the
needs, and agencies to address problems. youth appears in court for a judicial re-
view, at which time the parole officer
updates the participant’s progress.
As case manager, the Beaumont IPP
counselor is responsible for implementing
treatment plan objectives during incar- The primary goal of the IAP initiative
ceration. The Beaumont IPP counselor is to test the effectiveness of a carefully
and youth have daily contact, compared designed, highly intensified, and multi-
with the customary bimonthly contact dimensional model for reducing recidi-
that regular Beaumont counselors have vism among chronic and serious juvenile
with non-IPP youth. The Beaumont IPP offenders who are being reintegrated
counselor continues the life skills cur- into their communities from secure
riculum initiated at RDC and conducts confinement. The model is grounded

Volume III • Number 1 21

Juvenile Justice

in theoretical and practical assumptions Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. (1994).
“Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles:
about identifying factors correlated with An Assessment.” Program Summary. Washington,
serious, chronic delinquency and devel- DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juve-
oping intervention strategies to effec- nile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This
tively address those factors. If this model 195-page report presents a review of programs
and literature concerning juvenile prerelease,
is effective, additional States will imple- transition reintegration, and aftercare. It includes
ment IAP projects and incorporate them information on assessment and classification for
into the continuum of response estab- risk and need, descriptions of community- and
institution-based programs, and an overview of
lished for their juvenile justice systems. theory-driven interventions. NCJ 144018*
Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. (1994).
References “Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Poli-
cies and Procedures.” Program Summary. Washing-
Altschuler, D.M. (1994). “Tough and Smart Ju- ton, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
venile Incarceration: Reintegrating Punishment, Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This
Deterrence and Rehabilitation.” Saint Louis Uni- 28-page program summary explains the underlying
versity Public Law Review 14(1): 217–237. This principles and program elements of the intensive
analysis of juvenile justice policies concludes that aftercare program model, which can be applied
increasing emphasis on punishment neglects risk in a variety of settings. It addresses organizational
factors that tend to predict juvenile offending. factors, case management, and program evalua-
These factors include dysfunctional family rela- tion. NCJ 147712*
tions, school behavior problems, negative peer Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. (1991).
group influences, and drug involvement. NCJ “Intensive Aftercare for the High-Risk Juvenile
158827 Parolee: Issues and Approaches in Reintegration
Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. (1995). and Community Supervision.” in T.L. Armstrong,
“Managing Aftercare Services for Delinquents.” ed., Intensive Interventions With High-Risk Youths:
in B. Glick and A.P. Goldstein, eds., Managing Promising Approaches in Juvenile Probation and Pa-
Delinquency Programs That Work. Laurel, MD: role. Monsey, NY: Willow Tree Press, pp. 45–84.
American Correctional Association, pp. 137–170. This summary describes an OJJDP-sponsored re-
Reflecting the experience of the Office of Juvenile search program on intensive, community-based
Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Intensive parole for high-risk juvenile offenders released
Community-Based Aftercare Program, this paper from secure confinement. It identifies and reviews
discusses management and administrative issues key issues and provides an intervention model for
critical to constructing the institutional and after- juvenile intensive aftercare. NCJ 129821
care experiences of high-risk juvenile offenders. Armstrong, T.L., and D.M. Altschuler. (1994).
NCJ 156513 “Recent Developments in Programming for
Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. (1994). High-Risk Juvenile Parolees: Assessment Findings
“Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: and Program Prototype Development.” in A.R.
A Community Care Model.” Program Summary. Roberts, ed., Critical Issues in Crime and Justice.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.,
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Pre- pp. 189–213. This paper describes a research
vention. This 20-page program summary reports and development project initiated by OJJDP to
the interim findings of OJJDP’s initiative to assess assess, test, and disseminate information on in-
intensive aftercare program models for serious, tensive juvenile aftercare program prototypes
violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. It de- for chronic serious juvenile offenders who ini-
scribes the framework for a prototype proposed tially required secure confinement. NCJ 149863
for field testing. NCJ 147575*

The above publications are available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse; those with
an asterisk can be ordered using the order form on page 35.

Using Satellite Teleconferencing

Using Satellite
by Michael A. Jones, Bruce I. Wolford, and F.M. Porpotage II

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

uses satellite telecommunications to effectively and efficiently dis-
seminate training and information to diverse juvenile justice con-
stituencies. This article presents an overview of distance technology,
reviews OJJDP’s successes, and outlines the steps interested parties
should take to participate in future broadcasts or to sponsor their own.

S atellite teleconferencing is a cost-

effective means of delivering training and
Distance Training
information to people who live in geo- The concept of distance training is ex-
graphically diverse areas that may limit panding the definitions of how indi-
their access to such information. During viduals learn, where they learn, and Michael A. Jones, Project Director
the past 5 years, a series of studies, nu- who teaches them (U.S. Congress, of the Juvenile Justice Telecommu-
nications Assistance Project at
merous books, and other reports have 1989). Distance training has become in- the Eastern Kentucky University
examined the rapidly expanding field of creasingly sophisticated since the time Training Resource Center (TRC),
telecommunication technology and its of the first educational radio programs. is responsible for the day-to-day
application to training and information Barker (1989) used distance training as programmatic and fiscal activities
of the project.
dissemination. a catchall phrase to describe any form of
instruction in which the learner and in- Bruce I. Wolford, Ph.D., Di-
A fundamental issue at the core of rector of the Eastern Kentucky
structor were separated geographically
technology-based training is the chang- University Training Resource
and linked via telecommunication sys- Center, has provided oversight
ing nature of today’s professional world.
tems that permitted live, interactive and direction for the telecom-
Evidence suggests that the United States’ munications project since it was
audio and/or video exchanges.
work force is entering a time when awarded to TRC in 1992.
the training that workers receive will be- Applications of distance training have
F.M. Porpotage II, Assistant
come obsolete within 3 to 5 years. Lim- increased dramatically during the past Director of the Training and
ited funds and time, great distances, and decade. In 1988, fewer than 10 States Technical Assistance Division for
other constraints will create a strong were promoting distance training (U.S. OJJDP, served as the monitor for
the telecommunications contract
demand for more efficient, expedient Congress, 1989). Today, all States do. since its inception in 1992 and as
ways to disseminate information (Chute, The quality of distance learning has been Executive Producer of the OJJDP
Hancock, and Balthazar, 1991). recognized with increasing respect and broadcasts.

Volume III • Number 1 23

Juvenile Justice

credibility (Turnbull, 1988). Many train- As fiber-optic cables expand across

ers in the United States subscribe to America, computer-based technologies
the philosophy that the only difference are becoming easier to access and more
between distance training and conven- readily available. However, until a fiber-
tional training is the delivery mecha- optic system is widely implemented,
nism, not the structure (Zigerell, 1984). this medium will not be the preferred
delivery mechanism for disseminating
The motivation for distance training is
training or information to large, geo-
a practical one. Training people where
graphically diverse audiences.
they are is more efficient than transport-
ing them to the trainer. In addition to Satellite teleconferencing is widely used
enhancing productivity, distance train- by business, industry, and government
ing enables OJJDP to reach line staff who agencies to deliver training and informa-
otherwise might be excluded from na- tion to staff and constituencies around
tional training opportunities. Distance the world. This popular training tool re-
training effectively uses qualified trainers quires only a steerable satellite dish and
who do not need to travel across the coun- a television to access broadcast signals
try to deliver a simultaneous, consistent and a telephone for participants to use
message to thousands of professionals. while interacting with panelists during
call-in segments.
The traditional training paradigm, which
requires the instructor and student to oc- Regardless of the medium or approach
cupy the same classroom, has been chal- used, training and education programs
lenged by technological advances. These must engage the learner, identify clear
advances can duplicate the benefit of instructional objectives, and use alter-
traditional training with the flexibility nate instructional strategies to be suc-
and individualization of self-directed cessful. Distance training will not replace
learning. No longer are the instructor face-to-face instruction any more than
and learner confined to the same class- use of the VCR as an educational aid
room. With existing technology, the in- has eliminated the role of the classroom
structor can communicate information teacher. It is simply another instructional
to a limitless number of classrooms. tool.

Training people where they are is more Satellite Teleconferencing

Since 1992, OJJDP has funded the
efficient than transporting them to the Juvenile Justice Telecommunications
trainer. Assistance Project (JJTAP) at Eastern
Kentucky University to train and inform
a geographically diverse juvenile justice
Delivery Systems constituency using satellite teleconfer-
encing. (See table 1.) This technology
The array of distance delivery systems
has become an integral part of OJJDP’s
changes with each new technological
continuing efforts to disseminate infor-
advance. Currently, the most popular
mation across the Nation in a timely
delivery systems are computer-based
fashion. Juvenile justice, education, and
(for example, two-way video and the
child welfare professionals, policymakers,
Internet) or satellite-based (satellite
and the public have watched national
telecasts on issues such as confinement in

Using Satellite Teleconferencing

juvenile corrections and detention facili-

ties; community collaboration; effective Table 1
programs for serious, violent, and chronic OJJDP Teleconferences
juvenile offenders; youth-oriented com-
munity policing; juvenile boot camps; Number of Approximate
Topics Viewing Sites* Number of Viewers
and conflict resolution for youth.
Conditions of Confinement
As these telecasts have demonstrated,
in Juvenile Corrections and
satellite-delivered teleconferences are Detention Facilities (9/93) 165 4,950
most effective when they introduce gen-
Community Collaboration
eral topics that interest large numbers (6/95) 175 5,250
of participants in many locations. Sup-
ported by OJJDP research reports and Effective Programs for Serious,
Violent, and Chronic Juvenile
publications, these satellite broadcasts Offenders (10/95) 162 4,860
are similar in quality to a news program
Youth-Oriented Community
or documentary.
Policing (12/95) 183 5,490
Juvenile Boot Camps (2/96) 288 8,640
Engaging the Conflict Resolution for Youth
Community (5/96) 485 14,550
Reducing Youth Gun Violence
The purpose of education and training is (8/96) 271 8,130
to change behavior. Long-term changes
Youth Out of the Education
that affect communities and youth occur Mainstream (10/96) 380 11,400
at the local level. Recognizing the local
focus of juvenile justice and prevention, Total 2,109 63,270
OJJDP uses satellite teleconferencing to
strengthen and support community ef- Videos of each OJJDP satellite teleconference can be obtained for a nominal fee from the Juvenile
Justice Clearinghouse at 800– 638–8736.
forts to address current pressing issues.
*The Law Enforcement Television Network and local cable television providers sometimes pro-
Satellite teleconferencing can be a na- vided their members with a simultaneous broadcast of OJJDP teleconferences. Those sites may
not be reflected in the totals.
tional catalyst for local, regional, and
State examination of OJJDP initiatives
and research. The low cost per partici- from juvenile justice professionals. On
pant of broadcasting a national telecon- average, more than 90 percent of viewers
ference to a large audience makes the responding to a survey instrument indi-
medium an extremely cost-effective de- cate that the content of OJJDP telecon-
livery mechanism. Furthermore, large ferences successfully addresses critical
numbers of participants who rarely at- issues affecting their professional respon-
tend national conferences now have a sibilities; that panelists provide useful,
means of receiving timely information understandable information; and that
on juvenile justice and delinquency new ideas presented during the telecon-
prevention issues. ferences are used to modify or implement
programs. In addition, 90 to 95 percent
of viewers compliment the effectiveness
Evaluation of the medium, and more than 95 per-
Independent evaluations of teleconfer- cent support its future use for training
ences consistently yield positive feedback and disseminating information.

Volume III • Number 1 25

Juvenile Justice

Generating Community However, participants who report the

greatest benefits from teleconferences
Participation participate in pre- and post-broadcast
activities that give them an opportunity
One of the most tangible benefits of par-
to discuss local issues, concerns, and ap-
ticipating in a teleconference is the local
plications of the information they have
discussion and action that follow a tele-
received. The benefits of teleconfer-
cast. You can attract a local audience to
ences can readily be summed up by the
a national teleconference by:
old saying: “The more you put into
◆ Identifying key stakeholders in the something, the more you get out of it.”
community or jurisdiction who have
Facilitation improves the overall opera-
an interest in juvenile justice and delin-
tion of a teleconference and enhances
quency prevention.
the participants’ discussion and learning.
◆ Establishing contacts with members Quality facilitation, like quality training,
of each stakeholder group. results from planning and preparation.
◆ Disseminating information about the Select an effective local facilitator who
teleconference through your stakeholder has the time to review the preconference
contacts. materials and handouts prior to the tele-
cast. Work with the facilitator to plan
The personal touch works. If you know
local activities before and after the tele-
colleagues who should participate, call
cast that will encourage further discus-
sion of the issues presented. Consider
developing local questions, organizing
a discussion panel of experts, or dividing
Effective facilitation will ensure your the participants into smaller discussion
teleconference’s success. groups that report their observations to
the reassembled audience.
As you assemble the audience, collect Remember that the telecast has been
local information on the topic. Because designed as a catalyst for local action.
the teleconference will examine nation- Effective facilitation will ensure your
al data with selected regional applica- teleconference’s success.
tions, you should have information
about the issues facing your community
available for local participants. If time
and resources permit, consider making With the growth of downlink sites, satel-
the teleconference the centerpiece of lite teleconferences are becoming more
a local forum or training initiative. accessible. Many government agencies
and organizations are installing down-
links. If you do not own a satellite dish,
Facilitation you can probably arrange to use one. Al-
The most successful telecasts are supported though registration for OJJDP satellite
by active facilitation at the downlink teleconferences is free, each site may in-
sites. Hosting a teleconference requires cur some expense in securing the services
little more than tuning the satellite dish of a downlink site. Fees vary widely, and
to the proper coordinates, turning on you are encouraged to be a conscientious
the television, and opening the door. consumer.

Using Satellite Teleconferencing

To find a local viewing site, first check site coordinator will receive a master
government agencies. Within the Federal participant resource packet. The site co-
Government, the largest number of satel- ordinator also will receive a facilitator’s
lite downlinks are operated by the De- guide that outlines the tasks necessary
partment of Agriculture, the Department for a successful event and a technical
of Veterans Affairs (especially its medical guide that lists the program’s broadcast
facilities), the U.S. Postal Service, and coordinates.
the Social Security Administration. (The
Internal Revenue Service has a large net-
work of dishes, but they are difficult to
Sponsoring a
operate because they are locked onto a Teleconference
single satellite. Department of Defense
satellite facilities are also extensive but OJJDP encourages juvenile justice agen-
less accessible.) Other Federal agencies cies and organizations to consider using
that have their own networks include satellite teleconferences to disseminate
the Federal Aviation Administration, research from their projects. JJTAP has
the U.S. Customs Service, and the De- developed the Teleconferencing Resource
partment of Housing and Urban Devel- Manual as a guide to downlinking, de-
opment. Most Federal agencies offer their veloping, and broadcasting programs.
facilities to other Government agencies JJTAP staff and other experts in design-
free of charge if the downlink is not be- ing satellite teleconferences are available
ing used on the day of the broadcast. to help your agency take advantage of
this promising medium.
In addition, State and local governments
are installing dishes at an accelerated
rate. Check with these agencies for the Summary
availability and times of their viewing As testimony to its commitment to pro-
sites. If government facilities are not vide a comprehensive strategy for juve-
available, contact local community col- nile justice, OJJDP uses state-of-the-art
leges, universities, and schools. Educa- strategies to train and inform all levels
tional institutions often charge a fee of the juvenile justice, education, child
that ranges from a few dollars to several welfare, and law enforcement communi-
hundred dollars per hour. Other alter- ties about critical issues and research
natives include police and fire stations, affecting America’s youth. Although
local hotels, and satellite-dish rental satellite teleconferencing is not the only
firms. (Rental opportunities are listed
in the phone directory.) Even in rural
areas, you may find videoconference Previous OJJDP satellite teleconferences have attracted large audi-
facilities within a reasonable distance ences and received excellent evaluations. The potential for these
if you search diligently. events is virtually unlimited. Interested agencies or individuals who
would like to participate in future OJJDP teleconferences or who re-
Once your agency has been added to the quire assistance in locating a satellite dish should contact the grantee
Juvenile Justice Telecommunications office at Eastern Kentucky University, Training Resource Center,
Assistance Project database, you will be Telecommunications Assistance Project, 301 Perkins Building, Rich-
notified of all future OJJDP teleconfer- mond, Kentucky 40475–3127; by phone at (606) 622– 6270; by fax
ences. To participate in an OJJDP tele- at (606) 622–2333; or by e-mail at For informa-
conference, you must register a site. After tion on downlinks in your community, consult the Downlink Directory.
your registration has been processed, the

Volume III • Number 1 27

Juvenile Justice

method for accomplishing this task, its Ostendorf, V.A. (1992). Downlink Directory
for Commercial, Health Care and Transportable
importance has been widely accepted by Downlinks. Vol. 2, 6th Ed. Littleton, CO: Mido.
juvenile justice practitioners throughout
Ostendorf, V.A. (1992). Downlink Directory for
the Nation. Educational, Government and Association Down-
You and your agency are strongly encour- links. Vol. 1, 6th Ed. Littleton, CO: Mido.
aged to use satellite broadcast technology Ostendorf, V.A. (1989). Teaching Through In-
and participate in future OJJDP-sponsored teractive Television. Littleton, CO: Virginia A.
Ostendorf, Inc.
teleconferences. The savings realized
by conserving resources and delivering Turnbull, A.J. “Distance Education—The Trend
Setter.” In D. Stewart and J.S. Daniel, eds., De-
a consistent message can be substantial. veloping Distance Education (pp. 429–431). Paper
submitted to the World Conference of the Inter-
national Council for Distance Education, Oslo,
References Norway, 1988. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED 320 544)
Barker, B.O. (1989). Distance Education Technolo-
gies: All That Glitters Is Not Gold. Paper presented U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.
at the Second Annual Meeting of the Decisions Linking for Learning: A New Course for Education.
about Technology Conference, Bismarck, ND, (OTA–SET–430). Washington, DC: U.S. Gov-
1989. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ernment Printing Office, 1989. (ERIC Document
No. ED 309 894) Reproduction Service No. ED 310 765)

Chute, A.G., B.W. Hancock, and L.B. Balthazar. Zigerell, J. (1984). Distance Education: An Informa-
(May 1991). “Distance Education Futures: Infor- tion Age Approach to Adult Education. Columbus,
mation Needs and Technology Options.” Perform- OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and
ance and Instruction. Vocational Education, The Ohio State University,
1984. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
Jones, M., B. Wolford, and J. McDowell. (1996). No. ED 246 311)
Teleconferencing Resource Manual. Richmond, KY:
Eastern Kentucky University.


Reducing Overrepresentation of
Minority Youth in Confinement
One of the core requirements of the designed and implemented strate- factors in the success of identifying
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency gies to address the DMC issues iden- and resolving DMC problems.
Prevention (JJDP) Act is that States tified in Phase I. The initiative
◆ In Oregon, the DMC initiative
develop and implement strategies included a national evaluation to
increased the cultural awareness
to appropriately address the over- document lessons learned, identify
and sensitivity of service providers;
representation of minority youth key factors in the success of State
addressed the needs of minority
in secure facilities where it is found and local efforts, and determine the
juvenile offenders in a more cultur-
to exist. The Office of Juvenile Jus- efficacy of different interventions.
ally appropriate manner; increased
tice and Delinquency Prevention
Highlights from the evaluations school and employment participa-
(OJJDP) supports this objective
include: tion; and heightened self-esteem
through a variety of initiatives un-
and self-control of minority juvenile
der The Deborah Ann Wysinger ◆ In Arizona, a pilot project dem-
Memorial Program. This program onstrated the value of involving
honors an OJJDP professional who agency and community representa- These findings have been incorpo-
devoted her life to helping young tives in DMC projects, particularly rated into training and technical
people, particularly by reducing minority community representa- assistance that OJJDP provides to
disproportionate incarceration of tives, and the importance of ensur- all States as resources for planning
minority youth and improving the ing informed political support at and implementing steps to reduce
juvenile justice system on Indian the State level. DMC in the juvenile justice system.
reservations. The program’s activi- ◆ In Florida, educating stakehold-
ties include data collection and For More Information
ers in the State’s juvenile justice
analysis on disproportionate minor- system about alternatives to con- Evaluation findings of the DMC
ity confinement (DMC), demon- finement available in the commu- sites are available from OJJDP’s
stration and evaluation of model nity led to the development of a Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse in
approaches in five pilot States, and diversion program for minority youth. five volumes (NCJ 161560 through
technical assistance and training. NCJ 161564). Electronic versions
OJJDP is also in the process of ◆ In Iowa, the DMC initiative
are available online through the
soliciting for and awarding a grant multiplied the impact of its efforts
publications section of OJJDP’s
for a 3-year DMC national train- by advocating for minority youth
World Wide Web page (http://
ing, technical assistance, and infor- and their families; collaborating
mation dissemination project. with juvenile justice agencies, other
Printed copies can be purchased
public agencies, and community
Under the model approaches from the Clearinghouse for $15
nonprofit organizations; and devel-
demonstration program, five pilot per volume or $39 for the set. Con-
oping alternative resources such
States—Arizona, Florida, Iowa, sult the order form on page 35
as culturally sensitive delinquency
North Carolina, and Oregon— or contact the Clearinghouse by
were selected on a competitive phone (800–638–8736); e-mail
basis. During Phase I of the ini- ◆ In North Carolina, DMC (; or mail
tiative, the States assessed the projects reinforced the recognition (Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse,
extent of DMC in their juvenile that community buy-in and strong Box 6000, Rockville, MD, 20849–
justice systems. In Phase II, they county-level leadership are critical 6000).

Volume III • Number 1 29


Resolving Conflict
A safe and orderly environment resolution program for a specific assistance to communities imple-
in our Nation’s schools and other youth population. The guide offers: menting conflict resolution pro-
public institutions is crucial to pro- grams for youth. The training and
◆ An overview of the principles
moting high standards for learning technical assistance is being offered
of conflict resolution.
and ensuring that children develop through regional conferences.
to their full potential. Resolving ◆ Descriptions of four effective
approaches to conflict resolution. Each conference featured more than
conflict is essential to creating such
40 sessions based on the Conflict
an environment. The Office of Ju- ◆ Guidance on extending conflict Resolution Education Guide. Work-
venile Justice and Delinquency Pre- resolution skills beyond the class- shop topics included mediation and
vention (OJJDP) is committed to room and into the community. violence prevention in justice set-
working with schools, community or- ◆ A summary of research on con- tings; creating peaceable schools;
ganizations, and other youth service flict resolution programs. effectiveness of conflict resolution
providers to develop the skills and
programs; peer mediation in elemen-
techniques they need to prevent Conflict Resolution tary, middle, and high schools; and
violence. Services and support avail-
able from OJJDP include publica-
Teleconference negotiation skills. The confer-
ences were designed for teams of
tions, a videotape, and training and On May 29, 1996, OJJDP, with participants, with participation by
technical assistance. support from its Juvenile Justice youth encouraged.
Telecommunications Technical
Conflict Resolution Assistance Project, presented a tele- For More Information
Curriculum conference on conflict resolution.
The 2-hour broadcast discussed Contact the Juvenile Justice
In partnership with the Safe and conflict resolution training and con- Clearinghouse (JJC) for more in-
Drug-Free Schools Office of the sultation resources and highlighted formation and to order copies of
U.S. Department of Education, conflict resolution approaches de- the Conflict Resolution Education
OJJDP has prepared a curriculum scribed in the Conflict Resolution Guide (NCJ 160935; free) and the
guide, Conflict Resolution Education: Education Guide. teleconference video and partic-
A Guide to Implementing Programs ipant’s guide (NCJ 161416; $17).
in Schools, Youth-Serving Organiza- Regional Training and You can reach the Clearinghouse
tions, and Community and Juvenile by phone (800–638–8736); e-mail
Justice Settings, to encourage the de-
Technical Assistance
(; or mail (Juve-
velopment of programs that teach OJJDP has awarded a grant to nile Justice Clearinghouse, Box
youth how to handle conflicts the Illinois Institute for Dispute 6000, Rockville, MD, 20849–6000).
without resorting to violence. The Resolution to provide, in concert The guide and video are also fea-
guide explains how to select and with other conflict resolution or- tured on the order form on page 35.
implement an appropriate conflict ganizations, training and technical


State Responses
Juvenile Crime
to Serious and Violent

Research Report Five Trends in Laws Focusing on Serious and Violent
Crime by Juveniles
Recent increases in violent juvenile
delinquency have prompted extraor- ◆ Jurisdictional Authority. More serious and violent juvenile
dinary measures by State legislators offenders are being removed from the juvenile system and
and Governors to get tough on ju- prosecuted in criminal courts.
venile crime. Since 1992, 47 States
and the District of Columbia have ◆ Disposition and Sentencing Options. More State legislatures
made substantive changes to their are experimenting with new disposition and sentencing strategies.
laws governing the handling of seri- ◆ Correctional Programming. New transfer and sentencing
ous and violent juvenile offenders. options are putting pressure on correctional administrators
to develop programs.
To document the scope of these
dramatic changes, the Office of ◆ Confidentiality in Juvenile Court. Traditional confidentiality
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency provisions are being revised in favor of more open proceedings
Prevention in the U.S. Department and records.
of Justice sponsored this compre- ◆ Victims of Juvenile Crime. U.S . Depa

hensive study by Patricia McFall

Office t of Ju
of Justic stice

Victims of juvenile crime have Office

of Juveni
e Progra
le Justic
e and De

Torbet and colleagues at the Na-

y Preve

become active participants in

tional Center for Juvenile Justice. STATE PA

the juvenile justice process.




An invaluable resource for any law- AND
maker, policymaker, or practitioner ENILE
concerned about juvenile justice in How To Get
the United States, State Responses
to Serious and Violent Juvenile Crime
Your Free Copy
analyzes State laws enacted between For a free copy of State Responses
1992 and 1995 addressing violent to Serious and Violent Juvenile
juvenile crime. The report discusses Crime, write to the Juvenile
the historical significance of this Justice Clearinghouse, P.O.
dramatic redefining of the juvenile Box 6000, Rockville, MD
justice system’s mission and includes 20849–6000, call toll-free
anecdotal information about sub- 800–638–8736, access the
stantive and procedural changes OJJDP home page at http:// R ES EA
collected through telephone surveys,
of juvenile justice practitioners in or e-mail
every State. Ask for NCJ 161565.

Volume III • Number 1 31


OJJDP Fact Sheets
OJJDP continues to expand its collection of Fact Sheets. OJJDP Fact Sheets are 2-page summaries that highlight
key points and sources for further information on the programs and initiatives of OJJDP. They are available from
OJJDP’s Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse in a variety of media to support your information needs. Printed copies
can be obtained through the mail (fax this checklist to 410–792–4358), via fax-on-demand (call 800–638–8736;
select option 1 for automated ordering services and option 2 for fax-on-demand instructions), or online through
the publications section of OJJDP’s World Wide Web page (
❑ FS009301 Conditions of Confinement in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities
❑ FS009302 Children in Custody 1991: Private Facilities
❑ FS009304 Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders: A Comprehensive Strategy
❑ FS009305 Children in Custody 1991: Public Facilities
❑ FS009406 Delinquency Prevention
U.S. Dep
Office of Justice
of Justice
Office Progra
of Juvenil ms
e Justice

and Del

FS009407 Meeting the Mandates

inq uency

❑ FS009408 Family Strengthening for High-Risk Youth Office PA



Delinq of Juvenile





uency J
❑ FS009409 Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Courts, 1991 Prevenustice and Shay
tion trator

❑ FS009410 Person Offense Cases in Juvenile Court The Gou

ld-Wysin by Micha
t #44
st 1996

❑ FS009411 Disproportionate Minority Confinement A Traditi ge el Goodn

on of E r Awards:

xcellenc A prima
ry goa
e Preven l
tion (OJ of the Office

of Juveni

FS009412 Gangs
enhanc JDP) is
e to
tial to the field of juv identify and le Justice and
dev promo De
risk and eloping effe enile justice. te progra linquency
ctiv Sound
Award delinquent you e strategies pro ms tha
t Utah Co
s have that add grams are ess
Progra mmunity Se
th. Sin

ment in com ce 199
2, the Goress the needs en-

FS009413 1992 Juvenile Arrests advanc mended exc


m (Salt rv
Lake Ci ice and Resti
Create ept
d by OJ ing juvenile jus ional State uld-Wysinge of at-



The Uta

Wysin JDP to tice and loc r



May 198 Community ty, Utah

ger pay trib and delinquen al achieve-


Nation , who contrib

of Justice ute JUSTICE

6 and has Servic )

U.S. Department ’s youth uted sig to James Go cy preven res titution shown e and Re

professio during nifican uld and tion. stitutio

FS009414 Juvenile Violent Crime Arrest Rates 1972–1992 Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice

Justice and
and Delinquency Preventio
as amend
le Justice and projec
and De
service nals, the award ir careers as to the welfar Deborah
s recogn
ts that
ize fed
era lly funded
juvenile of the
jus tice
number collected for growth bot
hou rs of
of com
search community ser ,103 in res
$1, 108
m collec munity servic s of juvenile percentage of
e hou
h in the Program beg

rs com crime and in

an in

Office of Juvenile tion

adv pleted. the
develo ed, and promo linquency Pre ance the object youth In 199

stu vic titu

FS009415 Violent Crimes Cleared by Juvenile Arrest

pm vention dy in 199 e. tion 5 the
quency ent and imp te a standard (JJDP)
ives of
who tak
e 2, the pro As a pilot site and logged
performin responsibilit
Delinquency Preven
lement 502,40
tion. ation in of excellence Act of 1974, g com
gra for
y for the m demonstrat an OJJDP re- 0
For 199 juvenile for likely
5, OJJD justice program to reoffen munity servic ir actions by ed that juveni
States and del t 1996 pay
to nom P implement Augus d than e
are juv hours, or doi ing restitution

in- Progra
Fact Sheet #35

FS009416 Are Juveniles Driving the Violent Crime Trends?

inate pro ed m eniles ng bot
◆ Delin grams a new proced Utah Juv contact: Mi withou h ,
istrator quenc for the ure tha chael Phi t sanctio are less
Shay Bilchik, Admin other init y Preven follow
ing cat t allowed City, UT enile Court, llips, De ns.
tio 84102; 230 put
acts and iatives design n, including egories
: 801–57 South 500 Eas y Court Ad
ed pro 8–3800 min
at risk directed to the to reduce the grams, resear t–Suite
300, Sal istrator,

Arlingt .

FS009417 Juvenile Victimization: 1987–1992 Action Program

of becom genera incidence ch, or on t Lak
nder Comprehensive
◆ Interv ing del l
inquen population of of del Progra Coun e
juveniles inquent m (Arli ty Juvenile
Serious Habitual Offe
ention t.
social, , includ Se
who are The Arl ngton,
Virgin x Offender
psy ing
corrective chological, programs pro compre

vocatio viding
rehabilita and preven

FS009418 Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 1992

nal, and edu hensiv Juveni
medical cational, offend e le
children’ tive services
tive gui
dance er, the treatment app Sex Offend
servic offend er Progra
s compet design and
ed to sup training; and es; the cracks byred munity. The
com er’s fam roach involv m is a
◆ enc ily, ing the
by Michael Medaris System ies whileyouth portfalling through other uce pro gram inte and signifi ado
Impro prevents protecfrom develo tely for the like cant sys lescent
initsiati program
vement ting thetion ispm ent of e immediaserious, vio lihood that
availabl rvenes

of offender informa wit tems wit

FS009419 Juveniles and Violence: Juvenile Offending and Victimization

on ves , inctheir case lent sex their h
d that a small proporti dures in to exa ensuring that
mine issu luddecision
public. trained
by nation ual devian behavior wil
young hin the
When research indicate violent juvenile crime, the Office of ing pro makers.
ers to
and edthe juv enile jusjustice
juvenile es and res offend al experts ce. Progra l escala
commit most serious on (OJJDP)Th introduc
e follow tice sys improve policieearch, and oth
demons case managem in sex m te into
Justice and Delinquency Preventi Program desin 1983, ing pro tem . s and er trat ent offend staff are intensi more
Juvenile er
l Offender/Drug-Involved Habitual Offende
ignated r grams, its
Benef all U.S. De proce- not reo
cited theed that 91 per . A recent eva treatment and vely

the Serious Habitua 1995 Go partm on, SHOCAP participants ffen
uld-Wysi in theOfinte

FS009420 What Works: Promising Interventions in Juvenile Justice

d. cent of lua
ration sites. The Serious indepen dentrveevaluati ent of juveniles tion of this sex
funding five demonst P) grew out of those In a 1995 nger Awfic e of ntio n cat
: egoJu
m contac who par progra
hensive Action Program (SHOCA safety by g significa
Of ard
nt winJustic
ner e Pro ry,stice
we Co t: tici pat
Compre public followin fice of re iation.unty Juveni Audrey ed did
P seeks to improve Juveni s. mission grams reconcil
B. Chase
initial efforts. SHOCA ent, prosecution, ◆ Interagency coopera
tion le andJustic Servic
es, MH
le Sex
Offend , Pro
work in law enforcem e and er Progra gram Direct

involving those who social services in a Dri MRSA

FS009421 Violent Families and Youth Violence tion deficits. Delinquenc ve, Arlington S Div or,
n, corrections, and ◆ Reduction of informa
, VA 222 ision, 1725 Department Arlington
education, probatio and manage juvenile y Pre
to share information s to serious habitual
offenders. vention 05; 703 North
of Huma
cooperative process the structure for focusing the ◆ Focused response
–358–5 Mason n
program provides s of misbehavior. 000.
justice cases. The offender s (SHO’s) and enhance s based on patterns
habitual system response

attention on serious ed through active ◆ Increase d

FS009522 The JJDP Act Mandates: Rationale and Summary quality and relevanc
interagency collabor
e of information exchang

Delin e of Juven
of Research on the
Causes and Correlat
es of
◆ Incapacitation of
◆ Improved resource
allocation. EP

o; l SHO’s.

OJJDP’s Program in Denver, Colorad identification of potentia

❑ cy Pr ile Justice
longitudinal studies


FS009523 Juvenile Admissions to State Custody, 1992 Delinquency (three vania) has pro- ◆ Early intervention

ay Bi

and Pittsburgh, Pennsyl system personnel.

of juvenile justicelchik, Ad

Rochest er, New York; violent, and habitual

◆ Improved morale
duced important new eventi
findings on serious,
a minis
on nd
offender s, who comprised 15 trato
violent of the r
delinquents. Chronic er and 14 percent tion

nt sample in Rochest Imple menta
FS009524 Juvenile Delinquency Development Statements Balan
of the adolesce offenses in first step in imple-
cent of violent is the
accounted for 75 percent in Denver. Statistics needs assessment -
Rochester and 82
d and
sample in Denver,
percent of violent
habitual offender
by Peter ing an initial
menting SHOCA
alds P.
Community leaders
should evaluate informa
s, and
such as these
reinforc e the need for specialized
able for their actions W ha
tion about
t Is Ba crime and delinque ncy, available resource
must also determin e what
tive Ju ncy cooperation. They
t #4

violent offenders account

FS009525 Juveniles in Public Facilities, 1993 are causing the

lan 2 Ju
programs that hold Theprevious interage
ced an violence ly 19
and ensure public
safety. stice P venerab delinquentdbehavio
crimetypes of le Resto r and
rativ ity.
SHOCAP has three
objectives: roject is
the vicgreatest co mmitte
concepin the commun
concern t of
d the restorati
e Ju stice?
juvenile justice system well- tim—aning an off
interage ve jus nt can solidify which
ncy agreeme

ted d en tic 1 agreement,
d, coordina
) beDevelop
ing tha by exten der inc Such

FS009526 VOCA: Helping Victims of Child Abuse ◆ To provide a structure ed by habitual juvenile offenders. balance commitm
focus on crimes
◆ To establish specific
juvenile justice policies that enhance jus cedestablish
res regarding habitual
juvenile nit e syste
y saf

t exent
connec SHOCA
ist ed
appro estion with toe the
sion theation.
and collabor
beforP policies
h, is criticalrestorati
m shou concdelineate ep
clearly t, 2 which
the off
urs an eanholds tha

and ob
se. Th responsi
justic e principl
res for
on The
to res
participating As
wh en a nt
state and establishAtlan
recom ce) Proje
me ndati
tic Un ons of a
ct. In fis
cal ye
effectiveness of procedu agency should review ar 19

(3) pro ety,should en ive wo

FS009527 Juvenile Admissions to State Custody, 1993

(2) ho ld giv equal aysuoperatio rives e of with the new hance fur rsity (FA rking gro 92, based
offenders. lding rk fore day-to-d weigh est
tracking, arresting syste, viding a framewo
comp policies offen and t to es
t the
m the as pa
rt ther de U) wa
up of pa
experts rtially on
safety by identifying, m
s. so theits internalete ders acprocedur (1) as necessar juv y. dance of systemw velopment awarded
◆ To promote public juvenile offender As a y can ntnc y demodify untab esen
velop itscoprocedur surin enile with ide juv of res a comp , Florida
most violent habitual agreeme pursu and
e legitim ment for le to offender
g comm jus ba
can vary from onetice princ lanced approenile justic tion progra tive grant
titu eti
and prosecuting the pro
Juus and gram co vic
offen tims, and u-SHOCADr

ity’s most dangerostice (BAR The habitual . Gordo iples. Th e im

FS009528 National Youth Gang Center

ep n of a serious
ate P ac h ms to
identifie s a commun mode s on has ad or
t mo en deprocess de
ofrsdefining the n Ba e co co ncep proveme
In short, SHOCAP ity resource ls such J) commun ity tode
l, BalanThe ors after rel the
another. in Umbre
it of the zemore of principal inv ts and res nt in acco
juvenile offender s and focuses commun (or. The as va nta (61 tor r-
violent they reoffend retributi the tre ges ov ced an ease. 2–62
4–49 University U (305–
FA estiga ative
tion or detention when one an ve atm er d Resto Malo 760– tors of BA
immediate interven other. ) models, ent (or me traditional rat ne 23). Ot of M
impo Unlik which dical) justic ive Coun y, Director her senior innesota 5663) and RJ are

❑ FS009529 Hate Crime

rta e
justic nce of the e these oth remain in and the pu system Pr obati
ty, Or
eg on
of Co
ol of
Dr. M
e er constan nis (50 the So
restor process an victim (indiv models, t confl hment on Of
ficer, 3–383–00
Corre project are cial Work
ati d BA The BA ction
comm on of the requires idual
or co RJ undersc
ict wi Quinc 41
y, Mass ), and An s, De De
unity vic the th assist RJ Project schute nnis
of its servic tim by pa offender mmunity) ores the an achuset drew Kl s

cre in the are im ce, and gu provides int ein

FS009530 YES: Youth Environmental Service Initiative

e, to ts (61
impro ators, De or both. ying restitu actively ple idelin 7–47 , Chief
ers to
ve the nn As
quali is Malone envisioned n, perform rsue
tio pu the BA menting e mater ensive tra 1–16
wo ty
accoun rk on co of life in y, the balan and practi ing Minn RJ model. 4 major syste ials to thr ng, techn
mmun eso ta; We Th e mi c ee sel ica l
co ce ce st Palm three BA change in ected sites
BARJ tability an ity im mmunitie d approac d by one Coun
ty, Pe

mo d co pro s h tec nn Be RJ ac co tha

FS009531 Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

del. Th mpete veme by can hnica sy ach sit es are rdanc t
rol e nc nt pro engagin lva
wide. l assistan nia. In additCounty, Flo Dakota e wi
involv es from lar BARJ mo y developme jects as g offend- Pr ce an Coun th
em de
develop ent work gely office l also restru nt compon rt of the
pa at pro oject sta d traini ion, the BA rida; and ty,
fessio ff Al
can inv ment ende and supervi sed fun ctures juv ents of the syste
m nal co provide tra ng to other RJ Project legheny
nfe ini jur
cti anced improveme rences de ng at reg isdiction offers

av en
the res olve the off ors. In ad sion of off ons to comm ile justic

FS009532 National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Wha

The Of
t Is th
e BA
ce ss.
on pro enders in vic ion, appro ders in co unity
tim -offen
pri ate
der me ly trained
mp etenc

n as pa ff
cal ass d Restorat nt. The BA aling with

articl as the BA and Med

ive Ju
ive Ju cket. The ce Update ct produce
stice Proje

letter the Bal-
round nation-
an d

(OJJD fice of Juve iation office at the and a tec

FS009533 Gould-Wysinger Awards

rt of es RJ na
P) ha
s nile Ju ative and deve tiona
l res , University Center hni-
ile res supported stice and Ju lop
show titu Delin the Ju stice, OJJD monogra ource ce of Minn for
ing tha tion pro developme qu 638–
venile P Pr phs. (S nter.
Sta esota,
recidi t
vism. 3 properly
grams nt and ency Prev 8736 Justice Cl ogram Su ee Balan ff also pu
sin im en .) ea mm ce bli

str ce pro tio n rin ghou ar d an sh

FS009534 Parental Kidnapping

(Rest se by y, 1994, av d Restor-
itutio The BARJ uctured res1977, based vement of The Fu
n, Ed callin ail
ucation Project sp titution pro on resea By the of Ba
lance g toll-f able from
, Spec ran grams rch ree 80
ialize g from OJ can red exam end of 19
d and
Resto 0–
d Train JD ini 95
ing, an P’s REST uce includ ng, juven , at least 24 rativ
e Justi

❑ FS009635 Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program

d Tech TA e the ile co States ce
nical This balan de
ma ced ap s or admi had ad
the ba y signal pro ach nis trativ op ted , or
lance a
d and realization or restorati e procedu were
restor amon ve jus res tha
ative g
justic State polic tice concep t

❑ FS009636 Juvenile Boot Camps: Lessons Learned

e mode ym t.
l offers akers tha
a basis t

❑ FS009637 Training of Staff in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities

❑ FS009638 SafeFutures: Partnerships To Reduce Youth Violence and Delinquency
❑ FS009639 Information Sharing and the Educational Rights and Privacy Act
❑ FS009640 A Comprehensive Response to America’s Youth Gang Problem
❑ FS009641 Department of Justice Programs for Missing and Exploited Children
❑ FS009642 Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)
❑ FS009643 An Introduction to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
❑ FS009644 The Gould-Wysinger Awards: A Tradition of Excellence
❑ FS009645 A Guide for Implementing Teen Court Programs


Put OJJDP Information To Work for You
A world of juvenile justice information is as close as your phone, fax, computer, or mailbox.
The Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse links you to OJJDP’s publications, research findings, program
information, literature reviews, referrals, and other resource materials. If you are searching for
what’s new and effective in juvenile justice, you will find the latest information at the Juvenile
Justice Clearinghouse.

Communicate With the Clearinghouse via:

Phone Online
800–638–8736 NCJRS World
Monday to Friday, Wide Web
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OJJDP Home Page
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Leave the subject line blank.
Mail Type subscribe juvjust your name
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Box 6000 (for example: subscribe juvjust
Rockville, MD 20849–6000 jane doe).

Volume III • Number 1 33


OJJDP Teleconference
As described in Using Satellite Teleconferencing on page 23, OJJDP is committed to sharing information with juve-
nile justice professionals across the Nation in a timely and cost-efficient manner. The Juvenile Justice Telecom-
munications Assistance Project offers the ability to increase access to training and technical assistance without
incurring travel costs or time away from work. To further expand access to training, OJJDP is making videotapes
of these broadcasts available through the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse. Topics include:
Reducing Youth Gun Violence (August 1996), NCJ 162421
Conflict Resolution for Youth (May 1996), NCJ 161416
Juvenile Boot Camps (February 1996), NCJ 160949
Youth-Oriented Community Policing (December 1995), NCJ 160947
Effective Programs for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders (October 1995), NCJ 160947
Communities Working Together (June 1995), NCJ 160946
Conditions of Confinement (September 1993), NCJ 147531

Copies of these videotapes (along with the information package distributed to participants) can be purchased for a nominal
fee of $17. (Note that Conditions of Confinement is available for $14.) The videotapes range in length from 90 to 220 minutes.
Please use the order form on page 35 or contact the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse at 800–638–8736 for more information.

OJJDP Home Page Redesign

Juvenile justice online has a new look. To advance its mission to provide na-
tional leadership, coordination, and juvenile delinquency prevention resources,
OJJDP has redesigned its World Wide Web site (
Our site now offers a more efficient approach to finding useful juvenile justice
information and resources on:

◆ OJJDP’s mission and priorities. ◆ Conferences, training, and technical

◆ News and resources. assistance.
◆ OJJDP’s Comprehensive Strategy. ◆ Grants and funding.
◆ Publications.

We invite you to visit our new site, and would welcome your comments and
suggestions. Send them to:

JUVENILE Juvenile Justice Order Form
JUSTICE Volume III • Number 1 December 1996

PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FREE. Up to To order other publications listed on the inside back
five publications are free. For bulk orders, contact cover, please complete the following:
the Clearinghouse for postage and handling rates.
Qty. NCJ No. Title Price
❑ Balanced and Restorative Justice (Program Summary). ____________________________________________
NCJ 149727.
❑ Combating Violence and Delinquency: The National
Juvenile Justice Action Plan (Report). NCJ 157106. ____________________________________________
❑ Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to ____________________________________________
Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving ____________________________________________
Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice
Settings (Program Report). NCJ 160935.
❑ Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: A Com- International Subscribers
munity Care Model (Program Summary). NCJ Airmail Postage Schedule
147575. All documents ordered by Canadian and other international users
are sent airmail. Postage is included in the cost of fee items but
❑ Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies must be paid separately for free items. Use the schedule below
and Procedures (Program Summary). NCJ 147712. to compute the postage cost for your free items.

No. of free items Canada Other countries

1–2 $ 6.30 $ 5.75
5–6 7.40 17.25
❑ Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confine- 7–8 7.95 23.00
ment (DMC) Initiative. $15 each, $39.00 for a set 9–10 8.50 28.75
11–12 9.05 34.50
of five. 13–14 9.60 40.25
❑ Arizona Final Report. NCJ 161564. 15–16 10.20 46.00
17–18 10.80 51.75
❑ Florida Final Report. NCJ 161563. 19–20 11.30 57.50
❑ Iowa Final Report. NCJ 161562. For more than 20 items, write JJC, Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849–
❑ North Carolina Final Report. NCJ 161561. 6000, or call 301–251–5500.
❑ Oregon Final Report. NCJ 161560.
❑ Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: An Total $ ___________
Assessment. NCJ 144018. $15.00 (U.S.), $19.50
(Canada and other countries). Enclose payment or provide account number.

Satellite Teleconference Videotapes. VHS. Each tape All payments must be in U.S. dollars and drawn on
$17.00 (U.S.), $21.00 (Canada and other countries), a U.S. bank.
unless otherwise indicated.
❑ Communities Working Together. NCJ 160946. ❑ Check or money order enclosed, payable to
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse.
❑ Conditions of Confinement. NCJ 147531.
$14.00 (U.S.), $16.00 (Canada), $23.00
(other countries).
❑ Deduct the total from my NCJRS Deposit Account.
❑ Conflict Resolution for Youth. NCJ 161416. Acct. No. ____________________________________
❑ Effective Programs for Serious, Violent, and Charge my ❑ MasterCard ❑ VISA
Chronic Juvenile Offenders. NCJ 160947.
❑ Juvenile Boot Camps. NCJ 160949. Card No. _____________________________________
❑ Reducing Youth Gun Violence. NCJ 162421. Exp. Date ____________________________________
❑ Youth-Oriented Community Policing. NCJ
160947. Signature _____________________________________
Allow 6 to 9 weeks for delivery. You will be notified by mail within
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Fee orders are shipped UPS. Because UPS cannot deliver to post office boxes,
please provide a street address for shipment of orders requiring payment.

Please print your name and mailing address or affix your mailing
label here. ❑ Check this box
if the information on
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Address incorrect and make
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Juvenile Justice
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849–6000
Publications From OJJDP
Corrections and Detention Offenders in Juvenile Court, 1994 (Update on Federal Resources on Missing and Exploited
Conditions of Confinement: Juvenile Detention Statistics). 1996, NCJ 162423 (12 pp.). Children: A Directory for Law Enforcement and
and Corrections Facilities. 1994, NCJ 141873 Peer Justice and Youth Empowerment: An Imple- Other Public and Private Agencies. 1996,
mentation Guide for Teen Court Programs. 1996, NCJ 161475 (126 pp.).
(16 pp.).
Conditions of Confinement Teleconference NCJ 162782 (285 pp.). Obstacles to the Recovery and Return of Paren-
tally Abducted Children. 1994, NCJ 143458
(Video). 1993, NCJ 147531 (90 min.), $14.00. Delinquency Prevention (21 pp.).
Desktop Guide to Good Juvenile Detention Prac- Bridging the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Portable Guides to Investigating Child Abuse. (A
tice. 1996, NCJ 161408 (218 pp.). Systems. 1995, NCJ 152155 (4 pp.). publication series—contact the JJC for titles and
Effective Programs for Serious, Violent and Combating Violence and Delinquency: The Na- further information.)
Chronic Juvenile Offenders: An Examination of tional Juvenile Justice Action Plan. 1996, Using Agency Records to Find Missing Children:
Three Model Interventions and Intensive Aftercare NCJ 157106 (200 pp.). A Guide for Law Enforcement. 1995,
Initiatives Teleconference (Video). 1996, NCJ Combating Violence and Delinquency: The Na- NCJ 154633 (20 pp.).
160947 (120 min.), $17.00. tional Juvenile Justice Action Plan. 1996,
Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Con- NCJ 157105 (36 pp.). Status Offenders
finement (DMC) Initiative. $15.00 each, $39.00 for Communities Working Together Teleconference Curfew: An Answer to Juvenile Delinquency and
set of five. (Video). 1996, NCJ 160946 (120 min.), $17.00. Victimization? 1996, NCJ 159533 (11 pp.).
Arizona Final Report. 1996, NCJ 161564 Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools: An Action Truancy: First Step to a Lifetime of Problems.
(111 pp.). 1996, NCJ 161958 (8 pp.).
Guide. 1996 (134 pp.), Available from the U.S.
Florida Final Report. 1996, NCJ 161563 Department of Education (800–624–0100). Unlocking the Doors for Status Offenders: The
(84 pp.). Delinquency Prevention Works. 1995, State of the States. 1995, NCJ 160803 (85 pp.),
Iowa Final Report. 1996, NCJ 161562 NCJ 155006 (74 pp.). $16.50.
(115 pp.). Family Life, Delinquency, and Crime: A Violence and Victimization
North Carolina Final Report. 1996, Policymaker’s Guide. 1994, NCJ 140517 (65 pp.).
NCJ 161561 (97 pp.). Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Imple-
Innovative Community Partnerships: Working menting Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving
Oregon Final Report. 1996, NCJ 161560 Together for Change. 1994, NCJ 146483 (32 pp.). Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Jus-
(71 pp.). Matrix of Community-Based Initiatives. 1995, tice Settings. 1996, NCJ 160935 (134 pp.).
Evaluation of the Impact of Boot Camps for Juve- NCJ 154816 (51 pp.). Conflict Resolution for Youth: Programming for
nile Offenders. $19.00 each. State Challenge Activities. 1996, NCJ 163055 Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Com-
Cleveland Interim Report. 1996, NCJ 160928 (7 pp.). munity and Juvenile Justice Settings Teleconfer-
(160 pp.). Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Commu- ence (Video). 1996, NCJ 161416 (150 min.),
Denver Interim Report. 1996, NCJ 160927 nity Self-Evaluation Workbook. 1996, NCJ 160125 $17.00.
(108 pp.). (162 pp.). Guide for Implementing the Comprehensive Strat-
Mobile Interim Report. 1996, NCJ 160926 Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency egy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile
(119 pp.). Prevention Programs. 1996, NCJ 160942 Offenders. 1995, NCJ 153571 (6 pp.).
Improving Literacy Skills of Juvenile Detainees. (100 pp.). Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of
1994, NCJ 150707 (5 pp.). What Works: Promising Interventions in Juvenile Programs and Initiatives. 1996, NCJ 154303
Justice. 1994, NCJ 150858 (248 pp.), $19.00. (74 pp.).
Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: A
Community Care Model. 1994, NCJ 147575 Youth Environmental Service in Action. 1996, State Responses to Serious and Violent Juvenile
(20 pp.). NCJ 159762 (38 pp.). Crime. 1996, NCJ 161565 (61 pp.).
Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Poli- Youth Environmental Service Technical As-
cies and Procedures. 1994, NCJ 147712 (28 pp.). sistance Package. 1996, NCJ 159763 (72 pp.).
Juvenile Boot Camps Teleconference (Video). Youth-Oriented Community Policing Teleconfer- The OJJDP Publications List (BC000115) offers a
1996, NCJ 160949 (120 min.), $17.00. ence (Video). 1996, NCJ 160947 (120 min.), complete list of OJJDP publications.
Juvenile Correctional Education: A Time for $17.00. Through OJJDP’s Clearinghouse, information,
Change. 1994, NCJ 150309 (3 pp.). publications, and resources are as close as your
Gangs phone, fax, computer, or mailbox.
Juvenile Detention Training Needs Assessment.
1996, NCJ 156833 (60 pp.). Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Phone:
Models. 1994, NCJ 148202 (26 pp.). 800–638–8736
Juvenile Intensive Supervision: An Assessment.
1994, NCJ 150064 (89 pp.), $13.00. Gang Suppression and Intervention: Problem and (Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m.–7:00 p.m. ET)
Response. 1994, NCJ 149629 (21 pp.). Fax:
Juvenile Intensive Supervision: Planning Guide.
1994, NCJ 150065 (80 pp.). Rising Above Gangs and Drugs: How To Start 301–251–5212
a Community Reclamation Project. 1995,
Juvenile Probation: The Workhorse of the Juve- NCJ 133522 (264 pp.). Fax-on-Demand:
nile Justice System. 1996, NCJ 158534 (5 pp.). 800–638–8736, select option 1 for automated
Juveniles Taken Into Custody: Fiscal Year 1993 General Juvenile Justice ordering services, select option 2 for Fax-on-
Report. 1995, NCJ 154022 (195 pp.). Female Offenders in the Juvenile Justice System. Demand instructions
A Resource Manual for Juvenile Detention and 1996, NCJ 160941 (28 pp.). Online:
Corrections: Effective and Innovative Programs. Juvenile Justice, Volume III, Number 1. 1996, OJJDP Home Page:
1995, NCJ 155285 (164 pp.), $15.00. NCJ 161410 (32 pp.).
Courts Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1996 Update on E-mail:
Violence. 1996, NCJ 159107 (32 pp.).
Balanced and Restorative Justice. 1994, NCJ
149727 (16 pp.). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Re- JUVJUST Mailing List:
port. 1995, NCJ 153569 (188 pp.). e-mail to
Beyond the Bench: How Judges Can Help Re- leave the subject line blank
duce Juvenile DUI and Alcohol and Other Drug Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse: Initial
Violations (Video and discussion guide). 1996, Findings. 1994, NCJ 143454 (27 pp.). type subscribe juvjust (your name)
NCJ 162357 (16 1/2 min.), $17.00. Missing and Exploited Children File Transfer Protocol (FTP):
The Child Victim as a Witness. 1994, NCJ 149172
Addressing Confidentiality of Records in Searches
(143 pp.). for Missing Children. 1995, NCJ 155183 (284 pp.), Bulletin Board:
How Juveniles Get to Criminal Court. 1994, $15.00. 301–738–8895
NCJ 150309 (5 pp.). (modem set at 9600 baud and 8–N–1)
The Compendium of the North American Sympo-
Juvenile Court Statistics 1993. 1995, NCJ 159535 sium on International Child Abduction: How To Mail:
(98 pp.). Handle International Child Abduction Cases. Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse/NCJRS,
1993, NCJ 148137 (928 pp.), $17.50. P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849–6000
Juvenile Justice
At The Crossroads— UVENILE
At T he Crossroads
OJJDP’s National
The Nation’s leaders in juvenile justice joined Attorney General Janet Reno at OJJDP’s national
conference, Juvenile Justice At The Crossroads, on December 12–14, 1996, in Baltimore, Maryland.
Strategic and programmatic solutions were the focus of the 2–1/2 day conference. Colleagues learned
from each other and shared insights on:

❖ The changing nature of juvenile offenders.

❖ The impact of “get tough” measures to combat juvenile crime.
❖ Community responses to juvenile crime and violence.
❖ Innovative intervention and juvenile justice system strategies.
❖ Tools to support juvenile justice professionals.
❖ Promising approaches in delinquency prevention planning.

Look for a special issue of Juvenile Justice featuring highlights of the conference presentations
and other helpful resources.

U.S. Department of Justice

Office of Justice Programs POSTAGE & FEES PAID
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention DOJ/OJJDP
Permit No. G–91

Washington, D.C. 20531

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

NCJ 161410