SCFI 2010

Albert Qaeda

Iraq K aff
___ of ___

Critical Iraq Affirmative
Critical Iraq Affirmative................................................................................................................................... 1 **Argument Notes** ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Critical Iraq IAC ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Critical Iraq 1AC ............................................................................................................................................ 4 Critical Iraq 1AC ............................................................................................................................................ 5 Critical Iraq 1AC ............................................................................................................................................ 6 Critical Iraq 1AC ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Critical Iraq 1AC ............................................................................................................................................ 8 Critical Iraq 1AC ............................................................................................................................................ 9 Critical Iraq 1AC .......................................................................................................................................... 10 Critical Iraq 1AC .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Iraq War=Imperialist .................................................................................................................................... 13 Iraq War= Imperialist ................................................................................................................................... 14 Iraq War=Imperialist .................................................................................................................................... 15 Iraq war = Imperialist ................................................................................................................................... 16 Iraq war = Imperialist ................................................................................................................................... 17 Iraq War= Imperialist ................................................................................................................................... 18 Iraq war= Imperialist .................................................................................................................................... 19 Impacts- Economic Oppression ................................................................................................................... 20 Impacts- Dehumanization ............................................................................................................................ 21 Impacts-Poverty/Disease ............................................................................................................................. 22 Impacts- Destruction of Iraq ......................................................................................................................... 23 Imperialism Impacts ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Solvency ...................................................................................................................................................... 26 Solvency ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 Don‘t trust their authors ............................................................................................................................... 28

Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif.


SCFI 2010
Albert Qaeda

Iraq K aff
___ of ___

**Argument Notes**
This is not a complete affirmative- it is meant to be critical supplement to the big Iraq aff that has already been put out. Use that file for most of your A/T evidence/inherency/ etc. Best Regards, Albert Qaeda

Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif.


Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. the invasion of Iraq was wrong for fundamental political and—indeed—moral reasons. not because the occupation was incompetent. We see further into the future. Their problems with the Iraq invasion—and implicitly. We are the indispensable nation. the effects are even more insidious. and establishment of powers above the level of states. for America to set things straight on a global scale. Accepting this view of America as the ultimate and rightful arbiter of global affairs—as master hegemon or world superpower. We stand tall." America's violent remaking of Iraq would have been entirely acceptable. and its concomitant role of global enforcer. not because the Iraqi Army was disbanded. "If we have to use force. More important: the continuing mission of the United States as maker and breaker of regimes around the world remained unquestioned. to use less upbeat terms—triggers the weightiest implications and consequences. multilateral decision-making. Albright's effusions in this direction stopped short of support for invading Iraq—something that cannot be said for the so-called liberal hawks. Friedman. At home. Winter 2010. For those of us who challenge this view. or special "moral clarity"—has created opportunities. But its roots in American history lie at least as far back as notions of Manifest Destiny. it seems. Versions of this idea are pervasive among thinkers—American foreign policy elites. often passes without question. and often criminally negligent. aimed at revamping entire countries to fit the dictates of the invaders. Yet even for thinkers who identify themselves as being on the Left. then U." Or. and more to do with America’s militaristic quest for global domination.S. These wars are wrong because of the destruction and distortions that they spread both abroad and at home. Divine Providence. Not [End Page 82] because it was mismanaged. before the invasion occurred: he favored George W. We hear this kind of thinking in its most out-of-the-closet form from neoconservatives— who gave us the Iraq invasion in the first place. ambassador to the United Nations. Its key inspiration is a particularly aggressive form of American exceptionalism. DJ Yet the deeper. not the larger vision of American power that inspired the enterprise. For in order to make itself the kind of country capable of "projecting power" anywhere in the world. Often conveying the doctrine are code words referring to special "responsibilities" of the United States to guarantee world "stability. as Madeleine Albright. . it is because we are America. they countervail against one of the subtle but hopeful tendencies in the world today—the movement away from sole reliance on brute state power to resolve international conflict and toward supranational authorities. Nearly all of them. When any country gets seriously in the way of American power." but only "if we can do it right. the global responsibilities of this country are apt to require action like that taken in Iraq. I hold. if only Friedman's sensibilities could have guided it. indeed obligations. stated. Their words strike an eerie resonance with those of Thomas L. run in collision course to the best aims and directions of the democratic Left. future American military exploits of the same kind—have to do with execution. it has had to impose vast demands and distortions upon its own domestic life. acceptance of a hypermilitarized America. Volume 57. corrupt. Of the Center for the Study of Law and Society at the University of California. as America has done so unsuccessfully in Iraq." To her credit. The problems there have little to with the execution of the war. Rule 2010 (James B. . opportunistic wars of choice. 3 . Among nations.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq IAC The War in Iraq began as a racist and aggressive form of American Imperialism. Some higher power—fate. Number 1. mostly unstated assumptions underlying these authors' proposals ought to strike a chill throughout the democratic Left. MUSE. Bush's "audacious" war plan as "a job worth doing. It was wrong because wars of this kind are always wrong—aggressive. Not because too few troops were dispatched. Berkeley) ―The Military State of America and the Democratic Left‖ Dissent. and those who would guide them—who would disclaim identification with the neocons.

Instead. an associate professor in the Department of Government at the University of Texas. January 2007. The Iraqi state is not representing Iraq in a globalising world: it is representing the globalizing world in Iraq. we draw on literature which considers the relationships between national. JRR) In this article we argue that the Iraqi state is in many ways not an instrument to represent the sovereign will of the people of Iraq. At one end of the spectrum imperial globalisation is seen as being effectively a decentred form of global governance with the US as a state and US capital having lost their leading role. globalization is seen as US-dominated. the Iraqi state is being reconstituted from above and below to represent a variety of globalising agendas and enforce them in Iraq. Decentred globalisation may be international (involving multiple states as the dominant actors) or transnational (involving a deterritorialised class which rules by means of states and other institutions). Brownlee in 07’ (Jason. First. where these are perceived to challenge rule on behalf of capital. To understand the process of how the Iraqi state is being reconstituted. Second. higher living standards and liberal democracy will be sacrificed if politically feasible. 314-340. defined in the contemporary period as the formal and informal practices which sustain rule on behalf of capital.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC Troops in Iraq are not there to support Iraqis. we assess the management of Iraq reconstruction funds and Iraq's debt and compensation burdens in terms of decentred or US dominated imperial globalisation from above.1 The forces of globalisation are thus arranged hierarchically with regard to the states. and the role of the USA as empire. we consider the ways in which the transborder informal economy produces effects which work for and against imperial globalisation. We explore these issues in a number of steps. Third. we conclude with a series of observations about the current and highly contingent imperial globalization of the Iraqi state Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. Volume 59. we elaborate upon our critique of the sovereignty debate per se and as it relates to Iraq. Number 2.2 In both cases global governance is not counterposed to imperialism as it is in liberal conceptions of world politics: global governance in its current form is an expression of imperialism. pp. 4 . Finally. economies and societies that they are reconstituting but not hierarchically in relation to each other. At the other end of the spectrum. international and transnational capital. the institutions of global neoliberalism. World Politics.and teach about Middle East politics and US foreign policy. While higher living standards and liberal democracy can be functional for capital and can thus be compatible with and encouraged by rule on behalf of capital. rather Iraq has become a tool of US imperialism and neoliberal agendas.

This enormous expenditure attests to its centrality in the larger US imperial strategy for the entire Middle East/South and Central Asia region.http://dissidentvoice. writers. Provoking ethno-religious hatreds destroyed intermarriages. Breaking up the national state. census bureaus. Up to mid-2009. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. mixed communities and institutions with their long- physical elimination of academics. arming and encouraging rival tribal. advanced nationalist state. To establish long-term dominance and sustain ethno-religious cultural centers. the invasion and occupation of Iraq has officially cost the American treasury over $666 billion. All funding for national. The ‗divide and rule‘ tactics and reliance on retrograde social and religious organizations is the commonest and best-known practice in standing personal friendships and professional ties among diverse backgrounds.3 million Iraqi civilians during the first 7 years after Bush invaded in March 2003.3 million Iraqi civilians have died in addition to ongoing material consequences. the least nationalist sentiment. destroying nationalist consciousness and encouraging primitive ethno-religious. lawyers. and repositories of all property and court records. engineers. of thousands of Iraqi professionals and family members were driven by terror into internal and external exile. jurists and journalists was decisive in imposing ethno-religious rule under a colonial occupation. scientific thought. laboratories. was physically destroyed by the US and its Iraqi puppets. . The result is a deliberate attempt to destroy Iraqi culture. teachers. Washington‘s policy of politicizing and militarizing ethno-religious differences. historical memory and secular. Hundreds client rulers. scientists and professionals. feudal and regional loyalties required the systematic destruction of the principal purveyors of nationalist consciousness. religious and ethnic leaders to engage in mutual bloodletting served to destroy national unity and resistance. intellectuals. anyone with the least capacity to re-construct the republic was marked.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC Over 1. 5 . the entire pre-existing cultural edifice. This included destroying the libraries. schools. medical facilities and above all the entire scientific-literary-humanistic social scientific class of professionals. health departments. The pursuing the conquest and subjugation of a unified. Death squads engaged in the systematic murder of thousands of academics and professionals suspected of the least dissent. New The sustained bloody purge of Iraq under US occupation resulted in the killing 1. especially physicians. which had sustained an independent secular nationalist state. secular. a former Professor of Sociology at Binghamton University. resistance and national unity Petras 09 (―The US War against Iraq: The Destruction of a Civilization‖ James Petras. scientific and educational institutions were cut off.

the naming of what keeps us subjugated. 2/13/08. Obama is on the same war path. and. http://dissidentvoice. the Bush regime is coming to an end. 6 . the same old wars. To tell the truth is to betray the system. or will. is not our hope. the same old systemic racism. except in his public rhetoric. This is the wave Obama is riding. packaged as if it were something new.‖ but the perpetuation of oppression in a new guise. It‘s our enemy. Attaining authentic freedom requires. Obama doesn‘t represent a new system or the new way of life we dreamed of and fought for and that has been suppressed. and as a sweeping reactionary social agenda. Literally. ―Barak Obama and the ‗End‖ of Racism‖ Dissident Voice. and he can‘t bring himself to do The regime of Bush the Lesser was the pinnacle of this effort. What keeps us subjugated is the very system Obama wants to rule. the repressive powers of the State. the enemy of the world. the aura of invincibility and unstoppable momentum was destroyed. and the lack of such awareness is exactly what Barack Obama depends on if he is to remain a symbol of the impossible dream that the system can be something other than what it is. As we have seen. With its end. He represents a system that is fundamentally rooted in exploitation. even with Barack Obama as its first Black emperor. however chaotic and horrifying their tactics. he represents the old one. the lid of repression began to crack. He doesn‘t represent the real and legitimate needs. and he is living proof that no fundamental change for the better can. even though he is far too conscious not to know it. It doesn‘t work that way. With these events. He doesn‘t represent the ―end of racism. before it began to fracture and collapse under the weight of its own madness — before it met the determined resistance of society‘s most vulnerable. and the US war machine looked unstoppable until it met this opposition at home. as its barest starting point. and until it met the mad and fierce resistance of the people of Iraq who have. Obama doesn‘t represent peace — he represents an expansion of war and the power of Empire. oppression and destruction on a global scale. The expansion of militarism and imperialism will continue. he carried the agenda as far as it could go. and what had been suppressed in us rose again to the surface. comes a wave of hope and euphoria. it‘s something he‘s riding and that he is uniquely qualified to channel toward his own ends — which are not our ends. Santos 08 (Juan Santos. come about under the system he represents and upholds. writer from LA. the ocean of energy he is trying to steer into an acceptance of the same old deal.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC Even though the Bush era is over. This wave of energy is not something he‘s inspired. The combined force of the Christian fascist juggernaut. it is the enemy of all Life on Earth. in terms of time in office. This is exactly the understanding that the Christian fascists like Weyrich and Heubeck wanted to crush out of our awareness. scapegoated and openly stigmatized targets. because this system is rapidly undermining the ability of the planet to foster and sustain life. as they marched in their millions refusing to be victims. refused to be conquered. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. He‘s even more extreme on this than Bush himself. desires and hopes of Black people — he refuses to speak openly of the most fundamental issues affecting Black people. The system. inevitably.

and the rule of law at home. where doing so threatens no pressing foreign policy goals—just as it commits and condones such violations when deemed necessary for raisons d'état.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC The war in Iraq not only colonizes the Iraqis. Federal agencies reflexively—and successfully—invoke national security as a pretext for blocking investigation of a shocking array of authoritarian measures. At other moments it blocks meaningful efforts to fight climate change. It condemns human rights violations. 7 . operations—many believed to have only the most dubious involvement in action against this country—have been held for many years without trial. into the indefinite future—and for predictable collateral damage to justice. It supports democracy in many corners of the world—South Korea today. Prisoners captured in U. Along with conflicts in Iraq and elsewhere. that overweening power will combine with exceptionalist fantasies to fuel messianic enterprises like the Iraq War. Who can say when we will emerge? Contra Madeleine Albright. This is a prescription for American warmaking all over the globe. Berkeley) ―The Military State of America and the Democratic Left‖ Dissent. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. it seems. The problem is not that America only uses its power perniciously.S. "if we can't use it?" The shocking logic at work here asserts itself over and over among apologists for American military dominance. well-being. Volume 57. It is that no country should exercise such disproportionate. source of all the world's troubles. Government has grown more closed. unilateral sway. ignorant. such as supporting campaigns against HIV/AIDS in Africa. In all things. the open-ended "War on Terror" has undermined invaluable restraints on executive power. Rule 2010 (James B. American failure to crush retrograde regimes anywhere amounts to appeasement. policy—and a supposedly liberal administration is seeking to block full disclosure on these matters. By these lights. The quotable Madeleine Albright once again gave quintessential expression to this mindset: "What's the point of having this superb military that you're always talking about. America's chronic war footing in the twenty-first century has fueled grave degradation in protections for civil liberties and public dissent. including government surveillance over U.S. Torture and extra-legal imprisonment are now acknowledged as routine instruments of U. It exports surplus foodstuffs to hungry parts of the world while also exporting financial calamity and (even under the Obama administration) torture. Of the Center for the Study of Law and Society at the University of California. the United States is not "the indispensable country. It is capable of doing noteworthy good." she chided Colin Powell in 1993. and supports twenty-first-century Zionism in the form of present-day Israeli appropriation of Palestinian territories. To acknowledge this much hardly requires adopting the mirror-image caricature of the United States as the Great Satan." It is not even an indispensable country. Number 1. the Obama administration has declined to make a clear break from the authoritarian doctrines of its predecessor. for example—and suppresses it elsewhere. Winter 2010.S. MUSE. Often it plays the role of loose cannon in international affairs. it also justifies endless war making and crushes the rule of law in the U. Here. DJ Meanwhile. if not that of a swaggering. as in Chile in the 1970s. In the courts. As long as it remains in place. We have entered an era of national political life dominated by a garrison mentality. doctrines of the "inherent power" of the president during wartime have undone vital checks on executive power. opposes restrictions on land-mine use. the United States goes to extremes. neighborhood bully.S. civilians. too.

8 .SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC Plan: The United States federal government should withdraw all of its military and police presence from Iraq. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif.

2004. There are connections here. in particular—remains the main obstacle to a more just social order.S. actions in Iraq and the Persian Gulf have been guided by calculations of global empire.S. horrific escalation of that deadly spiral of U. actions have brought neither peace nor stability. but spawned a deepening spiral of resistance. and overall control of Persian Gulf oil. Third.S. We must withdraw in order to stop a deathly spiral of war and escalation Everest 04 (Larry Everest. Finally. As a result. but realizing them can be quite another. from the 1953 coup that installed the Shah in Iran to the 1979 revolution that overthrew him.S. intervention and it is only the beginning. instability. Second. Power. Common Courage Press. and Empire: Iraq and the U. and then the second in 2003. but foreign domination—by the U. intervention and war. Washington has dispatched its military to conquer and occupy a country in the heart of the Arab world. There are deep national. to the subsequent Iran-Iraq war. and a trajectory to events which we will explore. to the first U. perhaps for years to come.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC Iraq is the first step. Oppression breeds resistance. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. they have never brought liberation. ―Oil. The new U. this war represents a further. Gulf War in 1991. the history of foreign intervention in the Persian Gulf demonstrates that grand ambitions of conquest and control are one thing. and use it as a springboard for further maneuvers and aggressions in the region. 9 .S. regional domination. actions provoke reactions. and events often careen beyond the control of their initiators in unexpected ways. but have instead inflicted enormous suffering and perpetuated oppression. Global Agenda‖) For over 60 years.S. U.S. National Security Strategy and its offspring—the “war on terror”—are efforts to forcibly resolve these growing impediments. U. social and class divisions running through the societies of the Middle East.

But for Lewis. even though there was no ―race. Ahmadinejad plans any such cataclysmic events for August 22. of Scociology @ Vassar. orientalism recreated the superior race. Even though ―Islamofascist‖ has for some time been a buzzword for Bill O‘Reilly.‖ In this context. When the Soviet Union existed as an opposing power. Nazism. Lewis‘s assertions run parallel with George Bush‘s claims. ―This nation is at war with Islamic fascists who will use any means to destroy those of us who love freedom. to hurt our nation‖ (TurkishPress. . Professor Emeritus at Princeton. Beck 2006). By focusing on ideology. 10 .‖ this and reinforces new rhetoric equates ideology with religion the worldview of a war of civilizations.will have to learn to coexist with the others‖ (Huntington 1993:49). and inferior to the peaceful. Bush claimed. set the terms of exclusion. War. such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached. and across North Africa. and voices raised to demand an apology (Fisher 2006a). one raised by the Pope and the other by the President of the United States. the orientalist vision of the 20th century shifted from the image of the ―Terrible Turk‖ racialized exclusion to define the terms of racial privilege and superiority. Considering that since 2001.we still aren‘t completely safe. [―The Heart of Violence: Global Racism. It Europe and later America used this iconography to define basic racist assumptions regarding their uncontestable right to impose political and economic dominance globally. For Muslims this day is a day of rejoicing and celebration. and communism. Bush argued that ―the fight against terrorism is the ideological struggle of the 21st century‖ and he compared it to the 20th century‘s fight against fascism.‖ Orientalism‘s global racist ideology reformed in the 1990s with Muslims and Islamic culture as to the ―inferior other. because there are people that still plot and people who want to harm us for what we believe in‖ (CNN 2006).‖ Seeing Muslims as opponents of Christian civilization is not new. He quoted a 14th-century Byzantine emperor who said. savage. 446-7] the turn of the 20th century. . racist visions such as his actually prove the validity of his position. ― . Yet. those who are subject to racial hatred and exclusion themselves become agents of racist legitimization. In the racialized world. Muslim Americans found this phrase ―contributing to the rising level of hostility to Islam and the American Muslim community‖ (Raum 2006). like Pope Benedict. Islamic societies as static. Some argue that the Pope was ordering a new crusade. Annihilation. Orientalism is based on the conceptualization of the ―Oriental‖ other—Eastern. Post-Enlightenment to that of the ―Barbaric Russian Bear. Even though the terms of exclusion are never complete. Rush Limbaugh. each . when the Pope apologized. Lewis. seek self-destruction in order to reach heaven faster. 2006. and global domination for exploitation and absorption. 2006.‖ In addition. racist attacks on Muslims in Europe and in the United States. for Christian civilization to conquer terrible and savage Islam. genocide is the definitive point in the exclusionary racial ideology. when Muhammad was taken to heaven and returned. is not only designed to maintain the terms of racial inequality. but is institutionalized with the vocabulary of self-protection. was the 27th day of the month of Rajab in the Islamic calendar and is considered a holy day. as now. ―show me just what Muhammad brought that was new. he is sorry that Muslims are intolerant to the point of fanaticism. unlike others. In other words. organizations and parliaments demanded a retraction and apology from the Pope and the Vatican (Lee 2006).‖ It equated the hegemony of Western civilization with the ―right ideological and cultural framework. of the world‖ (Lewis 2006). Bush has had a tendency to equate ―war on terrorism‖ with ―crusade. Like Huntington. political and cultural hegemony.‖ It segued into war and annihilation and genocide and continued to foster and aid the recreation of racial hatred of others with the collapse of the Soviet ―other. PhD @ UT-Austin – Prof. and there you will find things only evil and inhuman. . which were considered offensive to the sensibilities of Muslims‖ (Reuters 2006). orientalist thought then. When Benedict apologized. proving useful to describe whatever is considered as the latest threat to Western economic expansion.‖ and said. While some Muslims found the Pope‘s speech ―regrettable. Against the background of the latest Iraq war. For Lewis. and Sean Hannity on the talk-show circuit. Vera and Feagin. but rather saying that he was sorry that ―Muslim‖ violence had proved his point. and racialized exclusion has an internal logic leading to the annihilation of the excluded. because in his apology he said. the Pope‘s apology came as an effort to show justification for his speech—he was not apologizing for being insulting. if necessary. and Genocide. In 1993. Bernard Lewis was looking for Armageddon in his Wall Street Journal article warning that August 22. Pope Benedict XVI gave a speech in September 2006 at Regensburg University in Germany. both ideologically and physically. it came as a second insult.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC Justifying the occupation of Iraq because of “stability” is based on racial binaries and neoliberalism which reinforces American superiority and culminate in global war and genocide Pinar Batur 07. attacks in the name of Islam. ―this might well be deemed an appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of Israel and. going back to the Crusades. In response to the alleged plot to blow up British airliners. in this sense. Perpetuation of this imagery in American foreign policy exhibited how capitalism met with orientalist constructs in the white racial frame of the western mind (VanderLippe 1999). but the elasticity and reframing of this exclusion is evident in recent debates regarding Islam in the West. which he defined as Islamic ―holy war. He cautions that ―it is far from certain that [the President of Iran] Mr. and detention of Muslims without trial in secret prisons.‖ He also called for dialogue between cultures and religions (Fisher 2006b).‖ it also caused a spark of angry protests against the Pope‘s ―ill informed and bigoted‖ comments. views Islam as the apocalyptic destroyer of civilization and claims that reactions against orientalist. eds. and such is the logic of the outcome of the Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. the ―Terrible Turk‖ was the image that summarized the enemy of Europe and the antagonism toward the hegemony of the Ottoman Empire. Muslims in this mindset don‘t see the idea of Mutually Assured Destruction as a constraint but rather as ―an inducement‖ (Lewis 2006). the Pope discussed the concept of Jihad.‖ Lewis argues that Muslims. Through orientalist and the white racial frame. irrational. ―I‘m deeply sorry for the reaction in some countries to a few passages of my address at the University of Regensburg. Huntington pleaded that ―in a world of different civilizations. p. fanatical. but it would be wise to bear the possibility in mind. ―violence in the name of religion was contrary to God‘s nature and to reason. rational. for the president of the United States it drew reactions worldwide. Exclusion in physical space is only matched by exclusion in the imagination. . As Bush said. stretching from Europe to the Middle East.‖ in Handbook of the The Soiology of Racial and Ethnic Relations. This is as an elastic construct. scientific ―Occidental‖ Europe and the West (Said 1978).com.

This is how it was in colonialism. to the fact that total violence has not been employed to physically eradicate all terrorists and potential terrorists. If there is terrorism. the West has repeatedly been under the illusion that it should try to save humanity by destroying part of it. the West has experienced three versions of this logic. with the Gulag and in Nazism. The first two periods involved the destruction of democracy. rather. this is how it is in neoliberalism. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. This is a salvific and sacrificial destruction. 11 . this is not the result of market failures. worldwide. with the collective sacrifice of the periphery of the world system. Nazism. against the war is found to be incapable of halting the war machine set in motion by supposedly democratic rulers. in Darfur. The last one trivializes democracy. It is above all appropriate to ask if the new illusion will not herald the radicalization and the ultimate perversion of the western illusion: destroying all of humanity in the illusion of saving it. disarming it in the face of social actors sufficiently powerful to be able to privatize the State and international institutions in their favour. Sacrificial genocide arises from a totalitarian illusion that is manifested in the belief that there are no alternatives to the present-day reality and that the problems and difficulties confronting it arise from failing to take its logic of development to its ultimate consequences. University of Coimbra (Portugal) ―Collective suicide or globalization from below?‖ http://www. it is due. and on the radical rejection of alternatives. Inherent to it is the notion of the end of history. And now today. it is ultra-conservative in that it aims to infinitely reproduce the status quo. instead. If there is unemployment.eurozine. this is not due to the violence of the conditions that generate it. and neoliberalism. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the market. that it can conclude only in ultimate domination. it is the outcome of the market laws not having been fully applied. I have described this situation as a combination of political democracy and social fascism. therefore.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda (Batur Continues) Iraq K aff ___ of ___ exclusionary process. This political logic is based on the supposition of total power and knowledge. with the genocide of indigenous peoples. During the last hundred years. The 21st century opened up with genocide. This is how it was in Stalinism. and what its scope might be. This is how it was in the period of imperialist struggles. With the war against and the African slaves. with the holocaust. War and genocide take place with compliant efficiency to serve the global racist ideology with dizzying frequency. and. seen three versions of the end of history: Stalinism. committed in the name of the need to fulfill radically all the possibilities opened up by a given social and political reality over which it is supposed to have total power. Professor of Sociology at the School of Economics. One current manifestation of this combination resides in the fact that intensely strong public opinion. Staying in Iraq because “there is no alternative” is the same neoliberal assumption that is the root of genocide and totalitarianism Santos 03 (Boaventura de Sousa. it is fitting to ask whether what is in progress is a new genocidal and sacrificial illusion. which caused millions of deaths in two world wars and many other colonial wars. with its logic of racial superiority.html According to the German philosopher Franz Hinkelammert. hunger and death in the Third World. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the plan. living in Costa Rica.

if not the very idea. Within the university. Market fundamentalism and the militarization of public life mutually reinforce each other to displace the promise. or irrelevant academic specialities (Agger 1989. Afghanistan. At least in the Western countries. As U. and economic mobility. She writes: In 1945 or 1950. Hope. in the spread of wage slavery in the interest of capital accumulation. the state surrenders its obligation to contain the power of corporations and financial capital. Rather than reinventing and rethinking the challenge of an oppositional politics within a global public sphere. Fuelled by dreams of empire as well as the desire to mask the shape political power is taking in a period of economic and social decline. and jingoistic culture that is undermining "centuries of democratic gains" (Buck-Morss 2003:33). The idea that the market should be allowed to make major social and political decisions. The crucial task of theorizing a politics suitable for the twenty-first century has fallen on hard times. and the attempt to build international social movements seems. especially in the humanities and social sciences. solipsism. The naturalness and commonsense appeal of the neoliberal economic order produces a crisis of political and historical imagination. a nostalgic remnant of the 1960s. http://www. under the guise of an unlimited war against terrorism. at that time. or a social Christian democrat or some shade of Marxist. once embodied in the politics of persuasion. he or she would have hesitated to take such a position in public and would have had a hard time finding an audience (George 1999. reducing its role to matters of surveillance. Militarism increasingly engulfs the entire social order as matters of "war and national security" become "consuming anxieties" that provide the "memories. and measures. that trade unions should be curbed and citizens given much less rather than more social protection-such ideas were utterly foreign to the spirit of the time. 12 .) ―Cultural Studies in Dark Times: Public Pedagogy and the Challenge of Neoliberalism‖ Fast Capitalism 1. the academic Left appears to be withdrawing from the demands of civic engagement by retreating into what Susan Buck-Morss (2003) calls "theory-world. As politics is separated from economic power. and an educational crisis on the other. and metaphors that shape broad areas of national life" as well as drive American foreign policy (Sherry 1995:xi). military action expands its reach into Iraq. militarism and neoliberalism cloak themselves in the discourse of democracy in order to hide the barbarism being reproduced in the torture prisons in Iraq and Afghanistan. reducing politics to a reflection of economic and in the carceral surveillance and disciplinary measures being imposed on the nation's public schools. a powerful critic of neoliberalism and a leading voice in the anti-globalization movement. the progressive Left is in disarray.henryagiroux. Said 2004). Even if someone actually agreed with these ideas. basic social provisions for all. the idea that the state should voluntarily reduce its role in the economy. or reductionistic ideologies on the part of many progressives within and outside of the academy. 68). collective efforts to organize struggles within major institutions. and possibly Iran and Syria. models. It is in opposition to the current turn away from matters of history. disciplinary control. at best. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. para 2). and it is up to us to resist instances of abusive military action Giroux 2005 (Henry Global Television Network Chair in English and Cultural Studies @ McMaster University. and politics that I begin with a quote from Susan George. and order. social justice. Academics have retreated. you would have been laughed off the stage or sent to the insane asylum. Theoretical and political impoverishment feed off each other as hope of a revolutionary project capable of challenging the existing forces of domination appears remote.htm As the Right wages a frontal assault against all remnants of the democratic state and its welfare provisions. patriarchal. of the Great Society—with its emphasis on the common good. critically engaged intellectuals appear in short supply as most academics." a space where the "academic freedom of critical theorists coincides with our lack of influence in public and political debate"(p. interests. Democratic political projects appear remote and give rise to either cynicism. or that corporations should be given total freedom. bid a hasty retreat to arcane discourses. everyone was a Keynesian.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Critical Iraq 1AC We must take up the fight against imperialism. if you had seriously proposed any of the ideas and policies in today's standard neoliberal toolkit.S.2 2005. on the one hand. the drive for instituting critical education in a diverse number of public spheres. culture. retrograde notions of professionalism. Economistic theories return to dominate much of the Left. a social democrat. public spaces on the domestic front are increasingly being organized around values supporting a bellicose.

‘ CR: The New Centennial Review. a classic denunciation of French colonialism in North Africa. since the real aim is to give ―Iraq back to the Iraqis. British imperialism was only about trade and the ―white man‘s burden‖. when the Pentagon screens The Battle of Algiers it clearly empathizes with the French. when it comes to colonialism the assumption is that ―we Americans‖ are with the French. and some journalists. Some in U. is not totally disconnected with what happened 50 years earlier in Algeria. Number 1. These two groups.S. 13 . under the misguided hope that the Americans' plans included genuine. a Pax Americana. but they did so deploying distinct (though related) discourses. have blown the administration‘s cover by explicitly calling for a new ―stealth‖ imperialism. Rene L. We will do imperialism better.S. We tried it and it didn‘t work. However. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. University Professor of Cinema Studies at New York University. U. and Ella. the American occupation has been blatant colonization from the beginning. While FDR had made anti-colonialist gestures— certainly also in the name of U. Professor of Art & Public Policy and Middle Eastern Studies at New York University. France looks at the United States and says.‖ which usually turned out to be wars on behalf of strategic military or economic advantage.1stam. the Levant. Gonzalez Berrios ( Clearing House 22 January.S. popular democracy.‖ France spoke of its ―civilizing mission. But each power is convinced that its form of colonialism or imperialism is/was superior: Spanish colonialism was about saving souls. The Kurds to the north have remained supportive of the coalition and its long-term stated goals. Volume 5. were assumed to rally automatically to the American side. The Shiites have been wary of American plans as well. While the United States argued the universal applicability of its ―democracy‖ and the ―American Way of Life. Their pre-eminent concerns have been with Kurdish autonomy and protection from central control in Baghdad. American imperialism was about democracy and self-determination. of Massachusetts Gonzalez is a Doctoral Candidate in Comparative Politics at the University of Massachusetts He may be contacted by email at: renegonzalez7@hotmail. has led this "passive" support (or resistance. Thus. http://muse. 20 04 ―Dilemmas Of Colonialism: The Democracy Problem‖ http://www.S. strongly repressed by Saddam Hussein's Sunni minority. much of the emotion generated by right-wing Francophobia in the United States and antiAmericanism in France has to do with an intra-white narcissism of minor differences—our imperialism is better than your imperialism! What goes unrecognized is the common substratum of European/American economic/political/mediatic domination of the world. The colonization of Iraq depended greatly on the assumed support of the American "nation-building" project by the Kurds and Shiite Muslims of Iraq. Political Science / Univ. whatever shred of legitimacy that has stayed the wrath of a shocked American public is beginning to unravel. (Article) pp 147-148.A. interests—the post-war United States supported the French in Indochina until the Dien Bien Phu defeat in 1954 and then took over from the French in the calamitous Vietnam War that ended only in 1975.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq War=Imperialist The U.‖ But most imperialisms claimed to be helping the imperialized. but not of the current colonization. imperialism and French imperialism were sometimes allied and sometimes in conflict. French imperialism was about the ―civilizing mission‖. And here we find a tacit admission that what is happening in Iraq. invasion happened under the guise that America is “helping” Iraqis.2005. especially in the Arab/Muslim world.htm For courageous Leftists like the highest Shiite Muslim figure in Iraq. Iraq colonized by the U. Spring. But while France is now no longer imperialist—although occasionally neo-colonialist in Africa—the United States is embarked on a new imperial binge led by ―democratic Bolsheviks‖ eager to impose democracy (aka militant neo-liberalism) on third world peoples. The worst scenario (which has occurred) was that these groups would not violently oppose the colonization of Iraq. but was a symptom of imperialist politics Stam & Shohat 2005 (robert. choose your preference).pdf) KM United States and France deployed their claims of universality for imperialist purposes. Yet even the hawks have enough historical consciousness to feel obliged to explain that American invasions and domination do not really constitute imperialism or colonialism. if not the U. yet it is fascinating that the Pentagon recently had its members see The Battle of Algiers. Despite the proclaimed Francophobia of Donald Rumsfield and Richard Perle and others. such as Robert Kaplan.jhu. Ayatollah Ali Sistani. where France had always been an important player. Historically.‖ France‘s colonized ―assimiles‖ were seen as ―lucky‖ to be granted the privileges of French civilization.S. Much of the tension between France and the United States bears on this usually undiscussed issue: the United States looks at French history and says.) 2005 (Robert and Ella. whence Donald Rumsfeld‘s cutting insult about France as ―old Europe‖ even as he himself mimicked France‘s old imperialism in a Both the region. administrations expressed support for Algerian independence from France. Although the war in Iraq is theoretically designed to give Iraq back to the Iraqis. ―Variations on an Anti-American Theme. despite administration pretensions.S. The United States spoke of ―wars for democracy. for what could be learned about dealing with a guerilla insurrection. in support of everything Washington was to do in Iraq.countercurrents. This is also the majority opinion in the world. and despite the Francophobia of the hawks. even as they lost their lands and their The quarrel in the United Nations over the second Gulf War can be seen as a conflict between an arrogant imperialism in ascension and a subaltern imperialism in decline. constantly qualifying their "passive" support of the Coalition's efforts to an eventual development of a genuinely elected democracy.

that the cost of whatever we are doing is far less than the costs of another terrorist attack -. will remember that America seceded from the British Empire. Specifically." But while the president may shy away from the term empire. Instead of admitting that the costs of empire are great -. Knowing of Americans' long-standing opposition to the concept of empire. the American people will favor prudent. including a restrained foreign policy that protects American interests. And they are unlikely to do deceptively simple because it is impossible to disprove a negative. even those who did not pay attention during their high school history and the director of foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute. We are not an imperial power. Christopher Preble is a member of the Coalition for a Realistic Foreign Policy ( that is in keeping with America's traditions and values.cato. if the money hadn't been spent -.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq War= Imperialist US imperialism was the justification for invading Iraq Preble April 26.'" While citizens of Rome reveled in their glorious empire. They were guided by the Founders oft-stated warnings that a republican form of government was incompatible with an imperial foreign policy. and it often is. 14 . We are dedicated to promoting an alternative vision for an American national security strategy that is consistent with American traditions and values. Bush affirmed that the Iraqi people "do not support an indefinite occupation -. the defenders of the strategy of empire will declare that the attack would certainly have had far graver effects. Will open advocacy for empire in this political season be an asset. policy makers. the coalition holds conferences. but rather that Americans must send "their sons and daughters" abroad to rebuild countries damaged by American military intervention. or that there would have been far more attacks. 2004 http://www. In the more likely event that another terrorist attack does occur. or the concept behind it. On balance. at least in the near term. responsible foreign policies that defend U. This is the part of our history that many modern-day imperialists would prefer to forget. Spanning the ideological spectrum from left to right." Americans have yet to embrace the term. national security interests while rejecting imperialist fantasies. the key question revolves around the opinions of our fellow Americans. the objections to an imperial foreign policy can be summed up in a single sentence: empire is problematic because it threatens our liberty and economic security at home. There is an alternative to empire. and it is counterproductive abroad. `This is the way it's got to be. and the British "hailed Britannia. will be deemed to have been worth it. and media events.and then call for still more money to solve the problem. the imperialists are unlikely to put this question before the public for a vote. the world's only superpower. and should be. policy the creation of a world that is "not just safer but better. The National Security Strategy declares that the United States shall maintain its predominant position in the world at all costs. or appear likely to emerge. Arguing that the United States was "an empire in all but name.S. we will never know how much such an attack might have cost.php?pub_id=2627.and growing -. Beginning last summer. Discussing the ongoing military operations in Iraq. promotes as nations such as Japan and Germany can attest. (See our Statement of Principles.S. The Founders feared empire because it subverts the freedoms and liberties of citizens at home while simultaneously thwarting the will of sovereign people abroad. even acting preemptively if and when would-be rivals emerge. President Bush went out of his way to disavow any imperial intentions.) To counter the arguments of those who favor empire. a group of scholars. Garten called for the creation of a "colonial service" akin to the former British Colonial Service. The most common refrain -. and talk of a long-term occupation there.and neither does America. the Coalition is united by our opposition to an American empire. The Bush National Security Strategy pledges to reshape the world according to our image. In his prime time press conference last week. Whatever was spent to prevent such an attack. In the highly unlikely event that there is never another terrorist attack. and concerned citizens formed the Coalition for a Realistic Foreign Policy.the Bush administration and its ideological allies dismiss the costs of empire with a wave. and communicates a vision of the alternatives to empire. therefore. but implicitly understood. This continues to be the organizing principle on which we operate. however -. So much for the rhetoric from the 2000 campaign when candidate George Bush questioned America's right to "go around the world and say." Left unsaid. Americans resisted the imperial impulse. the conduct of our foreign policy is clearly guided by a presumption that the United States is. For most of our country's history. and attracting supporters from across the country. or a liability? If history is any guide." Garten urged the president to convince the American people not that an empire is unwise. is that the United States will determine what is better. Most Americans. the proponents of empire claim that the United States is not really an empire because it has noble intentions. But while the possession of a military force that is second-to-none might appear on the surface to be a manifestation of imperial domination.realisticforeignpolicy.For the advocates and opponents of empire. The general public is right to be skeptical of empire. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. This seems unlikely. and establishes as a core object of U.

paradoxically. in addition to Afghanistan. or engaging in wars and interventions. Holleman. hegemony as part of an imperial grand strategy. for example. [See Robert Kagan.. and keeping junior partners in line. but also Italy and Spain. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks it provided the most effective rationale for US global leadership since the cold war era. imperial grand strategy. research assistant. which continually strains the U. the amount of force to be applied. Distinguished Professor. Hannah. U. Disagreements were largely about troop levels. and despite the claims of support for "democracy" prefer compliant governmental elites and passive citizenries.S. Strong support was extended by both political parties.‖ and to attempts by Washington to leverage its enormous military power to regain economic and geopolitical strength. October.transnational. giving rise to widespread support for the US decision to wage war against Afghanistan. It is also building a lasting physical presence around the world that allows for control/subversion/rapid deployment.S. troops present in various capacities (including joint exercises) in perhaps twice that number.S. and it did so in a setting where the absence of strategic and ideological statist rivalry allowed the US Government to project a future world order at peace. Princeton University) Washington is thus not just spending money on the military and producing destructive weapons.S. Santa Barbara and Milbank Professor of International Law Emeritus. The move toward war with Iraq disclosed the limits of this consensus as well as the diplomatic limits of American power to induce political support for its project of global dominance. and the provision of peacekeeping capabilities that could act far more effectively than what could be achieved by the United Nations. system to its limits (as measured by the budget and trade deficits). society. "Burden"] The critics are concerned with arousing a geopolitical backlash in the form of a new strategic rivalry. even the use of torture.‖ Monthly Review. 2008 (Robert Bellamy. and Germany.S. Foster. especially Britain. Major dissent has mainly come from the bottom of the society. editor of Monthly Review and professor of sociology at the University of Oregon. while "punishing" those that refused to support fully recourse to aggressive war against Iraq.html Reimagining the Governance of Globalization September 11 gave an opening to the most ardent advocates of imperial globalization. University of California. in the Persian Gulf oil region. It is this dual reality of a temporary increase in U. Turkey. But in pursuing their belligerent ends they hardly lacked solid backing within the circles of power. and Robert W. ―The U. In recent years. Global Studies.28 Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif.php) KM To be sure. Bush "rewarded" and lavishly praised governments that ignored and overrode the clearly evidenced anti-war sentiments of their citizens. it seems prudent to worry about the emergence of some new oppressive political order that might be most accurately described as "global fascism. though an attempt would have been made to uphold U. if a Democratic administration under Al Gore had come into power in 2000 it is not at all certain that the United States would have gone to war with Iraq. imperialism has been transformed in recent decades by the absence of the Soviet Union. with reference to the spread of constitutional democracy and human rights. "Benevolent Empire. the Iraqi regime was widely deplored as oppressive and militarist. distribution of forces between the major ―theaters. The war in Iraq is best viewed as an attempt to assert giving the United States more immediate power (particularly in the military realm). including rolling back insurgent forces and ―rogue states‖ around the world. [See Bush forward to NSS] As suggested earlier. than with a response to the continuing threat of the al Qaeda network.27 The vast scale of U. Gutgsell Endowed Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. especially in the Middle East. the judiciary. and the corporations generally. imperial interests. relations to allies. In this setting. at least within the top echelons of U. and McChesney.S. 15 .S. as are its probable effects on the governance of political behavior in the world. were avoided. The Bush administration from the first was distinguished by the particularly bellicose group of neoconservatives at its helm." Michael Ignatieff. and other transfer payments) and constituting 7 percent of the entire GDP—is thus externally rooted in the needs of the U. [See Falk. the proponents of imperial globalization resent the frictions associated with civic globalization. The advocates of the new imperialism emphasize its benevolent potentialities. including France. All of this suggests that expanded militarism and imperialism is deeply entrenched at present. and which is part of the larger aim of the restoration of a grand U. and enjoying the benefits of a reinvigorated corporate globalization. More fundamental questions. the United States has enormously expanded its military bases and operations around the world with bases now in around seventy countries and U. medicare. and to dislodge the Taliban regime from control.S.S. hegemony.S. As with Afghanistan. Imperial Triangle and Military Spending. http://monthlyreview.S. geopolitical control over the entire Persian Gulf and its oil—an objective that both political wings of the establishment support. It converted the undertaking from one of indirection to that of the most vital security imperative in the history of the country. the anti-terrorist consensus loomed large at first.S. dates of withdrawal (partial or whole). with signs of a secular decline in U.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq War=Imperialist The war in Iraq was started as a quest for American Dominance Falk 2003 (Richard. It reflects a general concern to expand U. Iraq is a key part of US imperial strategy. coupled. Sheldon Wolin] Of course." a political fix that has no historical precedent. and about the prospect for a further abandonment of American republicanism at home and abroad under the pretext of responding to the security threats that are present. Washington's claims of preemption as directed toward Iraq seemed much more connected with geopolitical expansion. the media. The perception of imperial globalization is a matter of interpretation.‖ etc. but unlike Afghanistan. military spending—encompassing more than 50 percent of the federal budget (excluding social security. power along with indications of its long-term decline that has led to urgent calls throughout the power elite for a ―New American Century.S. "Will the Empire be Fascist?". economic hegemony. possibly involving a Sino-European alliance. Congress.

As the rationale for war moved on to the link between Iraq and the events in New York of 11 September 2001. Collateral Language. unexamined— non-persons who seemingly have no role in the larger story. Volume 38. commentators were so focused on the truth or falsity of the US administration‘s reasons that they may have missed the larger ideological framework underlying all three of the stated reasons. From this perspective. The military language that is so widely repeated in the media softens the visceral impact of the violence on ordinary citizens. the use of language had already prepared the groundwork.‖ or ―If we do nothing. the existence of violence has the potential to generate revulsion on the part of the reading and viewing public. poorly trained soldiers. the most blatant assertion of Western hegemony took shape in the argument that war was necessary to rescue this desperate country from its tyrannical past and to bring it into line with western democratic practice. from the presidential revulsion at the photographs to the efforts made to contain the release of new photographs. First. Lawrence University. but to argue instead that a racialized imperialism lay at the heart of this venture. This is not to say that the matter of truth versus falsehood is a trivial one.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq war = Imperialist Iraq War atrocities are part of the imperialist ideology that fuels the Iraq occupationAbu Ghraib is just one example of the horrific actions that are legitimized in the name of “disciplining local colonials” Tucker. and therefore in need of a thorough disciplining by the arbiters of international decency and stability. ―The United States has no choice but to respond. The crusade to disarm Iraq of its WMD rested on a view of the Iraqi government and military as out of control. Clearly such activity is an instrument of policy in the disciplining of local colonials. pp 96-97. and the British during their occupation of India in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. and little public opposition was heard. because it was feared that enraged and embittered Iraqis would retaliate even more violently if more was seen or known. as it emerged from press releases and the mainstream media. Rather it is best understood as colonial violence similar to the behavior of the French in Algeria. the shrapnel wounds. Finally. Interpreted this way. Lawrence. As for the victims of torture. 2008 (Bruce and Sia.pdf) KM Having reviewed the consequences of the lack of contextual analysis of the photographs. the discourse around the photographs at Abu Ghraib was carefully framed.‖ By the time the U. anywhere where Americans held prisoners of war. government’s insistence that Iraq was a threat to U. Abu Ghraib. Number 1. In terms of media coverage. and fully ready to decimate Western populations. Collins 2002. even speaking of ―civilian casualties‖ deflects at¬tention from the real effects of the bombs.‘‘ The U. Prof of Global Studies at St.1. To speak of ―collateral damage‖ is a far cry from acknowledging the blown-off limbs. or the behaviour of a few renegade. their culture or the economic and imperial framework that makes the lifestyles of modern Americans possible. Almost immediately after September 11. John Assis. most of whom would be dealt with in military tribunals. the silencing of race as a category of analysis. implying that any country involved in such a heinous crime against humanity needed to be controlled and brought into line by the civilized powers. and the essential ‗‗Americanness‘‘ of the metanarrative. both making the already committed violence more palatable and softening up the public so that future military actions will seem more like video games and less like Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. The official discourse.‖ ―smart bombs‖) work and the psychological horror that are caused by heavy bombardment. events. This had the effect of distancing Americans from the behavior in the photographs. security created a commitment to violence and a detachment from the consequences of war. uncivilized. As the rationale for invasion and war changed. the violence at Abu Ghraib is not exceptional. Visiting Professor of Sociology at St. the punctured eardrums. p.‖ ―Taliban positions.4 Similarly.‖ thereby giving the subsequent war an aura of inevitability. the new war has made the highly managed Gulf War of 1991 look like an unrestricted festival of investigative reporting. and ideologies that better explain Abu Ghraib. 7-8 The link between language and violence works in at least two ways which combine to create an endless cycle of justification. in two directions. indeed. we will encourage more terrorism. military began raining bombs down on Afghanistan in early October. the Belgians in the Congo.S.‖ Canadian Review of American Studies. 2008 (Article). In the end the metanarrative exempted Americans from confronting race and the racialized violence that structures both the discourse and practice of the so called ‗‗war on terror. and Ross Glover. Administration officials and sympathetic commentators fueled the same process with similar remarks: ―We must respond forcefully to terrorism. 16 .edu/journals/canadian_review_of_american_studies/v038/38.jhu. and this is where language plays a second. we are now in a position to review the stated reasons for the invasion of Iraq and the particular convergence of orders. as if it had nothing to do with them. supposedly ―objective‖ journalists were echoing politicians and pundits by saying. Professor of History at University of Windsor. ―Lynndie England. the metanarrative of ‗‗the few undisciplined soldiers who have now been rooted out‘‘ lacks explanatory power. they remain unnamed. language helps to create a climate in which the need for military action appears to be self-evident. Such euphemisms (―aerial sorties.tucker. Yet even in such a controlled information environment.S. and the New Imperialism. left little room for a critical understanding either of the behaviour of soldiers at Abu Ghraib or. related role. research assistant. and Triantafyllos. We were left with a narrative that centered on the actions of a few soldiers.S. the rhetoric of the ‗‗clash of civilizations‘‘ heated up. http://muse.

occupation of Iraq is only the most recent in a long history of violent interventions. As the rationale for invasion and war changed.4 Similarly. they remain unnamed. as if it had nothing to do with them. most of whom would be dealt with in military tribunals.tucker. DJ Hassan 08 (Salan D. uncivilized. because it was feared that enraged and embittered Iraqis would retaliate even more violently if more was seen or known. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif.S. military occupations were initially explained as an administrative necessity. Volume 38. and the British during their occupation of India in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. as it emerged from press releases and the mainstream media. Rather it is best understood as colonial violence similar to the behavior of the French in Algeria. occupation of Iraq reproduce the features of previous never-ending occupations. yet quickly took the form of a permanent military presence. the rhetoric of the ‗‗clash of civilizations‘‘ heated up. Number ―Lynndie England. English Prof @ MSU. the occupation resulted from a formal declaration of war and was. In every one of these cases. events. We were left with a narrative that centered on the actions of a few soldiers. 17 . MUSE.jhu. From this perspective. This is not to say that the matter of truth versus falsehood is a trivial one. and ideologies that better explain Abu Ghraib. but to argue instead that a racialized imperialism lay at the heart of this venture. The crusade to disarm Iraq of its WMD rested on a view of the Iraqi government and military as out of control. such as they are.‘‘ Iraq is a symptom of US imperialism Spring. aimed at overthrowing an unjust dictatorship.1. the end of hostilities witnessed a change of regime and created a political vacuum that was first filled by the U. associate editor of The New Centennial Review. anywhere where Americans held prisoners of war.S. the rhetoric and modalities of the U. the silencing of race as a category of analysis. and Triantafyllos. Number 1. Despite developments in the international laws of war over the last 100 years. the metanarrative of ‗‗the few undisciplined soldiers who have now been rooted out‘‘ lacks explanatory power. This had the effect of distancing Americans from the behavior in the photographs. or the behaviour of a few renegade. It is precisely the convergence of these circumstances that produce the possibilities for an occupation without end. the discourse around the photographs at Abu Ghraib was carefully framed. Professor of History at University of Windsor. the most blatant assertion of Western hegemony took shape in the argument that war was necessary to rescue this desperate country from its tyrannical past and to bring it into line with western democratic practice.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq war = Imperialist Iraq War atrocities are only symptoms of the imperialist ideology that fuels the Iraq occupation. commentators were so focused on the truth or falsity of the US administration‘s reasons that they may have missed the larger ideological framework underlying all three of the stated reasons. One can see a repeating pattern from the 1890s occupation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the mid-twentieth-century occupation of Germany and Japan to the early twenty-first-century occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq. 2008 (Bruce and Sia.S. the Belgians in the Congo. presence was ostensibly temporary. 2008 (Article).pdf) KM Having reviewed the consequences of the lack of contextual analysis of the photographs.‖ Canadian Review of American Studies. and fully ready to decimate Western populations. In each case. Finally. Abu Ghraib. and therefore in need of a thorough disciplining by the arbiters of international decency and stability. indeed. These U.S. Interpreted this way. As the rationale for war moved on to the link between Iraq and the events in New York of 11 September 2001. unexamined— non-persons who seemingly have no role in the larger story. http://muse. As for the victims of torture. and the essential ‗‗Americanness‘‘ of the metanarrative. The New Centennial Review. left little room for a critical understanding either of the behaviour of soldiers at Abu Ghraib or. armed forces. we are now in a position to review the stated reasons for the invasion of Iraq and the particular convergence of orders. research assistant. pp 96-97. PhD. the violence at Abu Ghraib is not exceptional. military and its allies and then by some form of civilian administration operating always under the umbrella of the U. from the presidential revulsion at the photographs to the efforts made to contain the release of new photographs. The official discourse. and the New Imperialism.S. implying that any country involved in such a heinous crime against humanity needed to be controlled and brought into line by the civilized powers. The U. In the end the metanarrative exempted Americans from confronting race and the racialized violence that structures both the discourse and practice of the so called ‗‗war on terror.Abu Ghraib is just one example of the horrific actions that are legitimized in the name of “disciplining local colonials” Tucker.S. the U. subject to the laws of war. Clearly such activity is an instrument of policy in the disciplining of local colonials. therefore.) ―Never-Ending Occupations‖ Volume 8. their culture or the economic and imperial framework that makes the lifestyles of modern Americans possible. poorly trained soldiers.

then foreign-policy officials decide whether the results require direct action. of smiling American soldiers inflicting pain and suffering on nude prisoners piled on pyramids and chained to ceilings and cell doors. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. no more Americans kidnapped. intelligence officer on Iraq. secretary of defense under Richard Nixon during the Vietnam War. have safe drinking water and have electricity about four hours a day. Our presence caused the insurgency and helps recruit new resistance fighters. the insurgency will intensify. Democracy must develop from indigenous forces and usually results from modernization as opposed to being a catalyst for modernization. and created an intense global anti-Americanism that is unprecedented. Saddam Hussein did not possess chemical.N. inhuman or degrading treatment. but withdrew its forces in 1927 due to its failure to overcome a sectarian insurgency.‖ Melvin Laird. Kirstein's blog is http://english. and no more unconscionable wasting of our nation‘s resources with $350 billion already spent on this crusade. Five days later they even recruited the C. The world opposed this monstrous war with unprecedented prewar protests with millions marching for peace from Hyde Park in London. The country is in chaos. occupied by a military that did not speak English or Spanish and tortured its citizens? Iraq has become the new Afghanistan. Furthermore. ―politicized‖ and ―misused publicly to justify decisions already made. anti-Islamic colonizer. speech about Saddam‘s W.I. Chicago and San Francisco. it was prohibited from investigating whether it distorted or. has disgraced the reputation of the U. Fewer Iraqis.A. the Kurds in the north will never accept a unified Iraq unless given de facto independence with its Pesh Merga militia. than before the invasion.N. Kirstein is professor of history at St. 2003. Washington. The Iraq war.S.) ―Iraq: The Logic of Withdrawal‖ History News Network. with its torture and killings of defenseless detainees. except for World War II. as Ambassador Joseph C. one of America‘s greatest secretaries of state. to encircle Iran. Kirstein (Mr. has colonized Iraq Peter N. There is no unitary government but only a periphery with armed sectarian militias such as the 1. with just cause. A nation must not wage war to spread democracy in a neo-Wilsonian manner unless the international community supports it. and withdrawal might lessen the intensity of the insurgency. will resist a Shi‘a government that is allied with Iran. concluded ―official intelligence analysis‖ was ignored. nuclear weapons. Guantánamo and Camp Nama . cherry-picked intelligence they liked and ignored the rest. How would Americans react if it were invaded for no legitimate reason. that war was ―penciled in for March 10‖ and that an assassination of Saddam Hussein should be considered. The US must never preemptively invade a nation that is not an imminent threat. ―twisted‖ the intelligence.‖ Withdrawal might restore America‘s reputation as a constructive force within the international community and improve our relations with the Muslim world that believes America is a racist. ―cruel.A. whose director. The War Crimes Act of 1986 prohibits any American from inflicting torture. warned about going ―abroad. a former senior C.000-strong Mahdi Army. The former is supposed to emanate from independent analysis. Xavier University. to control Iraqi oil and to reestablish western colonialism in Iraq. biological or. He debated David Horowitz on his campus in Chicago on March 29 on "The Iraq War: In the Classroom and Beyond.D. in the oil barren center. unlike Israel.‖ This is an egregious breach of the firewall between intelligence gathering and policymaking. After no weapons of mass destruction were found the war aim shifted to spreading liberty and democracy: a convenient ruse to convert a crime into an alleged crusade for democracy over autocracy.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq War= Imperialist U.sxu.. 18 . The U. no more American wounded. 4-03-06 http://hnn. in search of monsters to destroy‖ particularly if the monster is more bluster than bite. has erased the image of imperial benevolence and revealed a hypocritical nation that emulated the same tactics that Saddam used against his own people.M. John Quincy Adams. 2003 U. and citizens wait up to two days to get gasoline. The British colonized Iraq under a League of Nations mandate following the demise of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Europe might construe disengagement from Iraq as an American acknowledgement that empire has its limits. The New York Times revealed Mr Bush told Prime Minister Tony Blair at a meeting at the White House on January 31. The Geneva Conventions also have the force of law in the United States and have been violated. Had Mr. Recently Paul Pillar. to Sydney. death or inhuman treatment upon a prisoner.‖ The Uniform Code of Military Justice makes ―maltreatment‖ of prisoners a crime. Wilson IV This was an elective war to project American geostrategic dominance in the Persian Gulf. Bush asked the Congress for force authorization to export democracy to Iraq. civil war between Shi‘a and Sunni is beyond the point of reconciliation. George Tenet. The United States did not calculate the war‘s impact on the civilian population—other than Vice President Dick Cheney‘s assertion that Americans would be greeted as liberators. The images of beatings. Rome. The Sunni. he never would have received it. The architects of illusion claim withdrawal will damage America‘s credibility to defeat so-called ―global terrorism. Iraq oil exports have plummeted due to sabotage and war. So where do we go from here? Toward an immediate disengagement with no more American The Bush administration thirsted for war.html This was not a war of last resort.S." These were his remarks on the Iraq war. no more colonization of Iraq. While the Silverman-Robb Commission did not conclude the Bush administration deliberately falsified intelligence. The architects of war against Islam maintain if troops are precipitously withdrawn. charged the war ―was launched on intelligence failures and possibly outright deception. Yes democracy is desirable but. Iraq is worse off than under Saddam. of humans tied to dog leashes. no foreign invader has been able to impose it.I. Torture of non-resistant detainees is the reality of Abu Ghraib. Convention Against Torture condemns. with right intentions or with proportionality that are requirements of Just War Doctrine. sat behind Secretary of State Colin Powell when he lied to the world in his infamous February 5.

no mater how weak the evidence. the United States would begin planning an invasion of Iraq (Clarke 2004. Bush and Rumsfeld ordered the Department of Defense to formulate a war plan for Iraq (Woodward 2004). even though there was no evidence linking Iraq to the events of the day (Clarke 2004. By November. Woodward 2004). the Bush administration skilfully exploited the political opportunities provided by the fear and anger over the 9/11 attacks. as plans for the war on Iraq were being formulated. geopolitical goals in the region and beyond. the decision was eventually made to launch a general ‗war on terrorism‘. This strategy obscured the more specific geopolitical and economic goals of creating a neoconservative Pax Americana behind the smokescreen of fighting terrorism. professor university of western Michigan. This document not only claimed the right to wage preventative war as previously discussed. In Falk‘s (2004: 195) words: ‗the Iraq debate was colored by the dogs that didn‘t bark: oil. 19 .‘ In the campaign to build public support for the invasion of Iraq. Kramer. By linking Saddam Hussein and Iraq to the wider war on terrorism. ―War. Fallows 2004). the government was able to establish the idea that security required the ability to attack any nation believed to be supporting terror. In the 29 January State of the Union address. the Bush administration made a number of formal pronouncements that demonstrated that the goals of the unipolarists were now the official goals of the US government. As Roy (2004: 56) notes: ‗Democracy has become Empire‘s euphemism for neo-liberal capitalism. and the security of Israel. Throughout 2002. it also claimed that the United States would use its military power to spread ‗democracy‘ and American-style laissez-faire capitalism around the world as the ‗single sustainable model for national success‘ (Callinicos 2003: 29). After an internal struggle between the ‗pragmatic realists‘ led by Secretary of State Powell and the unipolarists led by Vice President Cheney and Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld. specifically focused on Iraq Kramer and Michalowski 05 (Ronal C. barely one month after the invasion of Afghanistan. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies) O n the evening of 11 September 2001 and in the days following. Aggression and State Crime‖ April 05. unipolarists in the Bush administration advocated attacking Iraq immediately. and Raymond J. who were presented as legitimate targets for military action (Callinicos 2003). Iraq and North Korea (the ‗axis of evil‘). such as Iran. Michalowski.‘ Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. soon to be followed by the new National Security Strategy. the President unveiled a doctrine of preventative war—a policy that many judged as ‗the most open statement yet made of imperial globalization‘ (Falk 2004: 189). Bush honed the focus of the ‗war on terrorism‘ by associating terrorism with specific rogue states. professor northern Arizona university. and to begin it by attacking Al Queda‘s home-base in Afghanistan and removing that country‘s Taliban government (Mann 2004). The unipolarists were only temporarily delayed in so far as they had achieved agreement that as soon as the Afghanistan war was under way.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Iraq war= Imperialist 9/11 opened the floodgates for a new American imperialism. In a speech to the graduating cadets at West Point on 1 June.

The thesis of free-trade imperialism still explains capitalization of ―cultural exports‖ ranging from Hollywood entertainment and television programming to digital technologies and their protocols for communication a good deal about how traditional imperial military power should emerge with such prominence and frequency as a ―foreign policy‖ at the very moment when globalization seems the nearly inevitable consequence of US economic triumphalism. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. and Globalization.Gallagher and Robinson refute traditional theories that imperialism— their principal example was British imperialism in Africa— proceeded historically from military conquest to consolidation of economic development. privileged forms of capitalization) (1–25).4rowe. South Korea (Johnson 31). Military force is thus held in reserve. Contemporary critics of US foreign policy like Johnson have also recognized that ―free trade‖ is often used as a rationalization for the conduct of multinational corporations and for the US government‘s development of ―client states. US Imperialism. while the imperial power promotes trade agreements—either for raw materials or finished products—with the appearance of favorable and equitable terms to colonizer and colonized.‖ American Literary History. As Gallagher and Robinson write. not out of humane considerations but primarily for reasons of practicality and economy. trade with rule when necessary‘‖ ( ―Culture. Humanities Associates' Professor of the Humanities. 20 . 2004 (John Carlos. Literary Culture 132).S. John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson‘s theory of ―free-trade imperialism‖ is now half a century old and was formulated long before the postmodern economy came to dominate global relations by restructuring other forms of economic production and trade (especially devastating for the ―industrialized‖ developing nations. (Article). Number 4. then the appearance of free trade can be resumed. along with the complementary threats of inequitable and repressive policies toward peoples (especially but not exclusively non-US citizens) at home and abroad. until recently. under whose guise what in fact usually occurs is demonstrably inequitable exploitation of natural or human resources of the colony.pdf) KM But there is an important relationship between the emergence of US military power. English.‖ like Israel and.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Impacts. It is only when this illusion of ―free trade‖ is shattered that military force is required to reimpose imperial ―order‖. pp 580581. not rule‘ should read ‗trade with informal control if possible. Winter 2004. in Rowe. http://muse.Economic Oppression U. military power is used to exploit local economies Rowe. Gallagher and Robinson argue that ―freetrade‖ policies generally preceded historically the militarization of colonies and that such military force was required only by the failure to negotiate trade agreements between metropolitan and colonial centers. Volume 16.jhu. now cast in the shadow of new. ―The usual summing up of the policy of the free trade empire as ‗trade. and the Program in American Studies and Ethnicity at the University of Southern California. and the and work.

barbarity. Precisely because the difference of the Other is absolute. the term "alterity" denotes a "state of being other or different" in the Sartreian sense of the self constructing its own identity in relation to "the construction of its others.7 According to Robert J. an unconscious and incurable instrument of blind forces. BassVolume 13. foreign. racially based constructions of non-Europeans as others creates the imperial sense of self.html The idea of alterity and its use in imperial discourses of power has long been a focus of postcolonial critique. Despite the play of power within colonial discourse and the shifting positionalities of its subjects (for example.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Impacts.' a violence against the other produced by the inevitably dominatory systems of knowledge which constitute that figure of the other. even in its most benevolent pronouncements." In a political sense. the liberal article of faith most commonly pressed into the service of empire was the teleology of progress. different social formations. the practice of postcolonial critique appends an additional understanding of alterity as a "form of 'epistemic violence. varied systems of colonization and so on)."1 To this original meaning. distorting everything which involves aesthetics or morals."2 This idea of alterity as the racialized construction of the colonized other is largely attributed to Edward Said's discussion of its function as a form of Western power in civility.jhu. 21 .1353/rap. driven by the grandiose projects of power" in the form of an ideology "concerned with the assertion and expansion of state power. Young. the conviction that life "is ascent. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. the idea is of older vintage. and which [is] developed for ideological [End Page 284] as well as financial reasons. and the notion of a civilizing mission. at the most basic level.Dehumanization Imperialism is the root cause of dehumanization Jeff D. and it has as its opposite any form of stasis. for the fundamental difference between civilization and savagery that justified and required the civilizing mission assumed a basic differentiation between white and non-white races. imperialism was liberalism writ large. Empire was an "impulse to better the world"18 by developing its "static" regions both materially and spiritually. it can be inverted in a second [End Page 282] moment as the foundation of the Self. a corrupting element. As Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri note: In the logic of colonialist representations. In common usage. According to Uday Singh Mehta.0150 http://muse."17 Only those nations that continued to progress toward the fulfillment of their potential were acting in an authentically human manner." appropriates. the construction of a separate colonized other and the segregation of identity and alterity turns out paradoxically to be at once absolute and extremely intimate…. directs and dominates its various spheres of activity. and distant thus turns out to be very close and intimate. gender. and licentiousness of the colonized Other are what make possible the goodness."15 This ideology. presupposed racial superiority. and propriety of the European Self. the evil. imperialism is "a policy of state.3 However. "a structure that can be called imperialism" entails "an empire that [is] bureaucratically controlled by a government from the centre.0. Number 2. as evidenced by Frantz Fanon's impassioned declaration that the "colonized world is a world divided in two"4 between the virtuous and civilized European and the native as a "corrosive element. From this perspective. an agent of malevolent powers. destroying everything within his reach. C.By the same token. effects of class.bass. ideology. in order to justify conquest and to establish systems of administration and instruction.2. What first appears strange. is based upon a belief in the racial difference between colonizer and colonized: "The idea of imperialism. I am referring to a form of governmentality that in marking out a "subject nation."5 Such images enabled colonial oppressors to exploit racial difference in the manner noted by Homi Bhaba: The objective of colonial discourse is to construe the colonized as a population of degenerate types on the basis of racial origin. Summer 2010 E-ISSN: 1534-5238 Print ISSN: 1094-8392 DOI: 10. In other words."16 The ideology of modern imperialism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries borrowed heavily from (and was arguably a direct outgrowth of) certain key tenets of classic political liberalism.

It has taken more than six years of carnage—far longer than any pro-war analyst would have predicted—to establish the conditions where major corporations feel sufficiently confident to begin making substantial investments in Iraq‘s oil industry. as well as a powerful lever against their main European and Asian rivals. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. and continues to be.wsws. It is a reminder of the real motives for the 2003 invasion and in whose interests over one million Iraqis and 4. At least seven million people live on less than $2 a day. CA It is fitting that today‘s deadline for the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq‘s cities coincides with a meeting in Baghdad to auction off some of the country‘s largest oil fields to companies such as ExxonMobil. The claim by the Obama White House that it is continuing the occupation to consolidate ―Iraqi democracy‖ is also a lie.000 armed men. and malnutrition and disease are rampant. VP Global Supply Chain & Operations Planning at Suntron Corporation Consultant at Sanmina VP & GM San Jose. The war was driven by the decline of US global power and growing class tensions within the United States itself. The Iraq war was. to the destruction of cities such as Fallujah and the attack on densely populated suburbs like Sadr City. at a cost of less than $2 a barrel.634 American and other Western troops have been killed. Chevron and British Petroleum. Iraqi resistance to the US invasion had first to be drowned in blood and the population reduced to a state of terror and insecurity. 22 . who depend upon the region for critical supplies of energy.shtml MZ James Cogan 30 June 2009. The American capitalist elite believed that military domination in the Persian Gulf would give them access to lucrative resources. The militarist agitation surrounding the war was used to smother public disquiet and divert discontent away from the economic inequality that wracks American society. Millions of people around the world understood in 2003 that the claims of the Bush administration and its international allies about Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and links to terrorism were threadbare lies promulgated to justify the plunder of the country‘s oil an imperialist war waged by the American ruling elite for control of oil and geo-strategic advantage. The war has produced a litany of crimes. to the unleashing of Shiite death squads to depopulate the centres of Sunni resistance in Baghdad.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Impacts-Poverty/Disease US imperialism and the Iraqi War have devastated the Iraqi people Facility at Pemstar Corp.‖ Iraq‘s total oil reserves are estimated to be at least 115 billion barrels. In the autonomous Kurdish region of northern Iraq. In an apt analogy. It now has a bloated US-equipped military and police apparatus of over 630. where foreign companies are already operating.36 billion cubic metres. The contracts will facilitate the first large-scale exploitation of Iraq‘s energy resources by US and other transnationals since the country‘s oil industry was nationalised in 1972. The country has been economically ruined. Larry Goldstein of the US-based Energy Policy Research Foundation told the New York Times last week: ―Asking why oil companies are interested in Iraq is like asking why robbers rob banks—because that‘s where the money is. The Shiite fundamentalist-dominated Iraqi government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki presides over the misery of the population in exchange for US backing. On offer are 20-year rights over six fields that hold more than five billion barrels of easily and cheaply extractable oil. http://www. Unemployment and underemployment stand at between 30 and 50 percent. Its reserves of natural gas are at least 3. the Norwegian firm DNO is now producing so-called ―sweet oil‖ from a relatively small field at Tawke. from the torture policy at Abu Ghraib and other prisons.

scientific thought. Sunni or Christian backgrounds. full-scale military attack against Iran. destroying nationalist consciousness and encouraging primitive ethno-religious. especially physicians.3 million Iraqi civilians during the first 7 years after Bush invaded in March 2003. nationalist. They viewed the success of the Iraq war (by success they meant the total dismemberment of the country) as the first ‗domino‘ in a series of war to ‗re-colonize‘ the Middle East (in their words: ―to re-draw the map‖). To establish long-term dominance and Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. extensive public services and wide-spread literacy naturally led to the growth of a wide array of militant and armed anti-occupation movements. The ‗divide and rule‘ tactics and reliance on retrograde social and religious organizations is the commonest and best-known practice in pursuing the conquest and subjugation of a unified. as an alternative to the secular Palestine Liberation Organization and set the stage for sectarian fighting among the Palestinians. 23 . The result of US colonial policies were to fund and multiply a wide range of internal conflicts as mullahs. like Hamas. They disguised their imperial ideology with a thin veneer of rhetoric about ‗promoting democracies‘ in the Middle East (excluding. Up to mid-2009. expatriates and death squads proliferated . targeting anyone suspected of criticizing the puppet government – especially among the educated and professional classes. intellectuals. Provoking ethno-religious hatreds destroyed intermarriages. Iraq. The result of the US policies were to eliminate most secular democratic anti-imperialist leaders and movements and to present their murderous net-work of ‗ethno-religious‘ collaborators as their uncontested ‗partners‘ in sustaining the long-term US colonial presence in Iraq. 2009 Bartle Professor (Emeritus) of Sociology at Binghamton University. Central Asian Republics…). of course. and adjunct professor at The militarist strategy of conquest and occupation was designed to establish a long-term colonial military presence in the form of strategic military bases with a significant and sustained contingent of colonial military advisors and combat units. The Iraq war was driven by an influential group of neo-conservative and neo-liberal ideologues with strong ties to Israel. U. and excluded experienced Iraqi military men from secular. The US and its Israeli advisers were well aware that Iraqi Christians had played a key role the historic development of the secular. writers. Washington‘s policy of politicizing and militarizing ethno-religious differences. The brutal colonial occupation of an independent secular state with a strong nationalist history and an advanced infrastructure with a sophisticated military and police apparatus. American policy-makers decided to permanently silence all independent Iraqi civilian dissidents. The ‗war of all against all‘ served the interests of the US occupation forces. which was displaced. James Petras / August 21st. the bombing of Syrian facilities and the big push (from Israel) for a pre-emptive. tribal leaders. and contracting scores of thousands of private mercenaries among the Kurdish Peshmerga warlords to carry out selective assassinations of leaders of civil society movements. teachers.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Impacts. police and functionaries from the previous regime (especially if they were from Sunni. precisely the Iraqis most capable of re-constructing an independent secular republic.S. which had been repressed by the deposed Baathist regime of Saddam Hussein. US Special Forces and CIA-directed death squads spread terror within Iraqi civil society. John Negroponte) fomenting armed sectarian-based conflicts and promoting inter-religious assassinations to debilitate any effort at a united nationalist anti-imperialist movement.http://dissidentvoice. They unanimously supported Israel‘s savage bombing campaign against Lebanon. They turned to the financing of Shia clerics and Sunni tribal assassins. Iran. Under the cover of generalized ‗war against terror‘. With their puppets in power. US colonial officials. SUNY. Israel had mastered this strategy earlier: It originally sponsored and financed sectarian Islamic militant groups. the neo-conservatives and their neo-liberal fellow travelers in the Democratic Party first backed President Bush and later President Obama in their escalation of the wars against Afghanistan and Pakistan.The sustained bloody purge of Iraq under US occupation resulted in the killing 1. advanced nationalist state. The ‗civil war‘ and ‗ethnic conflict‘ provided a pretext for the US and its Iraqi puppets to discharge hundreds of thousands of soldiers. mixed communities and institutions with their long-standing personal friendships and professional ties among diverse backgrounds. The physical elimination of academics. bishops and intellectuals. Conflating Israeli regional hegemonic ambitions with the US imperial interests. lawyers. political gangsters. from which to recruit a new mercenary army. Breaking up the national state. the land and air assault and massacre of thousands of civilians trapped in Gaza. jurists and journalists was decisive in imposing ethno-religious rule under a colonial occupation. The dismantling of the secular civilian bureaucracy and military was designed by the Zionists in the Bush Administration to enhance Israel‘s power in the region and to encourage the rise of militant Islamic groups.. In response.Destruction of Iraq US imperialism literally destroyed the infrastructure and values of Iraqi society Saint Mary's University. its churches bombed and its leaders. Iraq became a pool of armed. They were confident that Iraqi resistance would collapse rapidly after 13 years of brutal starvation sanctions imposed on the republic by the US and United Nations. issues. Iraq would serve as a launching platform for its strategic pursuit of the other ‗dominoes‘ (Syria. the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agencies devised a ‗divide and rule‘ strategy (the so-called ‗El Salvador solution‘ associated with the former ‗hot-spot‘ Ambassador and US Director of National Intelligence. This enormous expenditure attests to its centrality in the larger US imperial strategy for the entire Middle East/South and Central Asia region. mixed or secular families) and to undermine the basis for civilian employment. academics and scientists assassinated or driven into exile. arming and encouraging rival tribal. In order to consolidate imperial control. feudal and regional loyalties required the systematic destruction of the principal purveyors of nationalist consciousness. was the virtual destruction of the ancient Iraqi Christian population. The US created and trained a 200.000 member Iraqi colonial puppet army composed almost entirely of Shia gunmen. anti-British/anti-monarchist movements and their elimination as an influential force during the first years of US occupation was no accident. the un-democratic policies of their ‗homeland‘ Israel over its subjugated Palestinians). historical memory and secular. scientists and professionals. the invasion and occupation of Iraq has officially cost the American treasury over $666 billion. religious and ethnic leaders to engage in mutual bloodletting served to destroy national unity and resistance. unemployed young men. engineers. The US advocates of sequential and multiple simultaneous wars in the Middle East and South Asia believed that they could only unleash the full strength of their mass destructive power after they had secured total control of their first victim. A little known result of this build up of American trained and financed death squads and its puppet ‗Iraqi‘ army. New York.

the entire pre-existing cultural edifice. This included destroying the libraries. Hundreds of thousands of Iraqi professionals and family members were driven by terror into internal and external exile. 24 . Death squads engaged in the systematic murder of thousands of academics and professionals suspected of the least dissent. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. schools.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda (Petros Continues) Iraq K aff ___ of ___ sustain ethno-religious client rulers. All funding for national. medical facilities and above all the entire scientific-literary-humanistic social scientific class of professionals. was physically destroyed by the US and its Iraqi puppets. cultural centers. scientific and educational institutions were cut off. health departments. which had sustained an independent secular nationalist state. census bureaus. secular. the least nationalist sentiment. laboratories. anyone with the least capacity to re-construct the republic was marked. and repositories of all property and court records.

former director of the National Security Agency and responsible for the Bush administration‘s illegal warrantless spying program.Moreover.S. The most obvious is cash. This more than anything else makes it clear that the strategy of the American ruling class to expand the will prove to be its own-we hope not the world's-undoing. Not that even the mullahs are stupid. crazy. July/August. attempting to be a democratic empire ensures that we will be less democratic – or certainly less free. health care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs. or plot the destruction of the Capitol because they abhorred free elections in America. was succeeded in February 2003 by the largest global wave of antiwar protests in human history. Never before has the world's population risen up so quickly and in such massive numbers in the attempt to stop an imperialist war. the consequences for the population of the world could well be devastating beyond anything ever before witnessed. The new age of imperialism is also a new age of revolt. Grenada. both in the United States and globally. they sent the simple message: you want to be an empire? You‘ll pay the price for attempting to enforce your edicts on the rest of us. now seems not only to have left a deep legacy within the United States but also to have been coupled this time around with an Empire Syndrome on a much more global scale-something that no one really expected. Rather than generating a new "Pax Americana" the United States may be paving the way to new global holocausts. Rather. Given the unprecedented destructiveness of contemporary weapons. or addled enough to believe they could attack America without being destroyed. will be in the middle. The Vietnam Syndrome. which dominated the world stage for nearly two years following the events in Seattle in November 1999. Bush. If China attacks Taiwan. the Aleutians. And as 9/11 demonstrated. Iraq. Haiti.S. For despite the nonsense emanating from President George W. Hayden. so don‘t worry. North Accessed: July 01 5 – 19 – 06) Today. mislead you and lie to you. Empire abroad can be sustained only by empire at home. Panama. and the total climbs inexorably past the half-trillion mark. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. In the cases of Serbia. attack the Pentagon because they detested Disneyland. at least war with America. which has so worried the strategic planners of the imperial order for decades. Threatening war with America might discourage the parties from risking a fight. Toss in the costs of the Iraq war (routinely funded by ―supplemental‖ appropriations). Michael V. be happy. did the bombing. and perhaps most ironically. nuclear programs installed in the Energy Department. and. and U. It is inexcusable and unforgivable. Washington promises to be there. Iraq again. ―The new age of imperialism‖) This new age of U.Finally. The Bush administration‘s nomination as CIA head of Gen. Vietnam – and even Germany and Japan (other than Pearl Harbor. his neocon acolytes. which are diffused ever more widely. We spy on you. Americans once presumed that they could bomb without consequence. Other nations got bombed. Somalia.S. The greatest hope in these dire circumstances lies in a rising tide of revolt from below.causes asymmetrical warfare and global war Foster 2003 (John Bellamy. and what passes for Democratic foreign policy experts. search your bodies and cars. restrict what the media can tell you. Imperialism is unsustainable. terrorists seek to kill because they believe that America is at war with them.But no longer. policy.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Imperialism Impacts U. and aid payments to various foreign clients and dependents. Washington always inserts itself as an ally of one of the parties. American Empire cannot possibly succeed in the long run. 25 . of course.S. individual liberties must diminish. and all sorts of strategies by weaker states and non-state actors to engage in "asymmetric" forms of warfare. imperialism will generate its own contradictions. The policy of promiscuous interference and intervention makes war. It is dangerous and foolish. is emblematic.S Imperialism causes wars.antiwar. more likely.S. never as a disinterested observer. if Russia battles a former dependent. The costs of America‘s policy of empire have become obvious to everyone except those charged with selling and implementing it. They didn‘t fell the World Trade Center because they disliked the Bill of Rights.S. this policy of global empire is madness. And why deal if you have a superpower at your side?Although America would be unlikely to lose any such war. amongst them attempts by other major powers to assert their influence. After all. And the bill is high: Next year America will officially devote some $440 billion to the military. Such a world made empire seemingly easy. They could pass off their technology to groups more than willing to marry terrorism with WMD. to be more accurate – at home. Which is what makes the prospect of an Iranian bomb so frightening. groups that are angry enough to use such weapons because of U. a senior fellow at the Cato Institute ―A Foreign Policy of Fools. violence and the loss of civil rights Bandow 2006 (Doug. But it‘s in the cause of making the world democratic. if not cheap. the consequences nevertheless would be horrendous.‖ http://www. and a few balloon bombs) – the U. however. Military spending is the price of one‘s foreign policy. however. The national security state must grow. America makes often ancient quarrels harder to solve by encouraging friendly parties to be more recalcitrant. The growth of the antiglobalization movement. if Middle Eastern neighbors tangle.editor of the monthly review) Monthly Review. but if conflict comes the U. the U. homeland no longer is sacrosanct. resorting to similar belligerent means.

Volume 16. Instead. Cultural Imperialism Today: Only a Chimera?‖ JR) The notion of ―traveling cultures‖ has a particularly powerful impact on current approaches to the global influence of U. and Globalization. The first dimension corresponds with the sociological concept of agency. then we must learn to recognize. From the Cargo Cults of Melanesia to the Islamic Revolution in Iran. and exploitation that drive these movements. and the Program in American Studies and Ethnicity at the University of Southern California. its neglect of public opinion. and to develop new institutions. however. 2 Summer–Fall 2003. Acknowledging that the dynamics of ―imperialism‖ have become more complex and internally contradictory in the latter part of the twentieth century does not mean that we should abandon the exploration of underlying power differences and forms of inequality. and the changing political economies affecting these historical crises. (Article). the world. the complex. technological.8 Although intercultural contact zones are ―inherently dialogical. there is likely to be unending terror from all sides in a new era of global warfare only one stage of which is being enacted in the US occupation of Iraq. We constraints on human behavior. To that extent. XXIII no. Actions seeking to maintain the ‗local‘ status quo. Humanities Associates' Professor of the Humanities. 26 . SAIS Review vol. to negotiate the inevitable conflicts of such histories.7 The ―traveling cultures‖ idea focuses on how cultural languages travel to new areas and are appropriated by people of other cultures to tell their own story. a process that transcends stable. US Imperialism. This approach looks almost exclusively at the receiving end of these encounters. Old universes must be subverted and a new universe created. culture. and as a result tends to overemphasize the active appropriation of cultural forms and to neglect cultural imposition through behavioral and structural forms of power. Before we can even the criteria of successful remaking are seen to be universal. It is time for us to think differently about how history is and has been made.‖ American Literary History. and social structures of must maintain a critical awareness of the transnational movements of people. 2004 (John Carlos.‖9 this does not mean that the exchanges always take place on a level playing field. capital. of Islam. would disagree that the Vietnam War marked a historic moment in which the US needed to change its foreign and domestic policies. and our dependence on the economic means the US has provided to ―modernize‖ and thus ―Westernize. its influence on the development of US and other Western societies. where models of social life. intertwined histories the state has not declined to the extent assumed by proponents of transculturation. do not qualify as history making. and commodities and the conditions of inequity. remake herself. ―U. to count the local as well as the global. the agent must create the future. political.S. disempowerment. not simply interpretive methods.S. pp 593. states are undergoing a transformation: transnational forces are reshaping their institutions and policies toward the intensified adoption of neoliberal concepts and practices. English. or to follow local begin to learn this lesson. rather than repress.‖ often at its own peril. the Netherlands. Without such critical knowledge. the second with the concept of structure that refers to all kinds of social such exchanges that tend to ―force‖ them into certain forms and ―steer‖ them toward certain results. Winter 2004. Retaining Critical awareness of the ideas and effects of Imperialism are key to ending the cycle it constructs Elteren 03 (Mel van. ―Culture.10 Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Solvency We must critically examine western imperialism and the binaries it creates http://muse.4rowe. Associate Professor of Social Sciences at Tilburg University. they merely attempt (hopelessly) ‗to resist the future‘ or ‗to turn back the clock of history‘‖ (Asad 19).pdf) KM General William Westmoreland. its ties between government and corporation. A more complete transcultural perspective should also encompass the study of the economic. Despite the growing importance of transnational corporations and other nongovernmental organizations. unified national cultures. Number 4.jhu. If we are to learn the lesson of the Vietnam era. A second flaw in the ―traveling cultures‖ theory of cultural globalization is its neglect of the nation-state. we will have to read critically that other narrative of Western historicity Asad has so cogently interpreted as dependent on a constant ―assumption‖: ―To make history. and help others to do so. history can be made only on the back of a universal teleology.

whether Baathist or theocratic fundamentalist. on a sunny day at a riverside park. Rule 2010 (James B. corruption and imposed privatization. They fired shots. would not open up the road to democracy. Iraq. both the obsession with maintaining that status and the frightening conviction of moral superiority that seems to go along with it. However. music playing and couples mixing. if they came to power. Most dangerous of all is the view of America as some sort of avenging angel of global righteousness. to the contrary. ‗They were beating them viciously. no timetables -. "Celia Garabet thought students were roughhousing. http://ww3. . Those who say that Western peace activists should support anyone and everyone in the Iraqi resistance.S. they realized something different was afoot. secular outcome for Iraq becomes. stays in Iraq the less likely a democratic.000 civilian deaths. There are just too many unappealing regimes and movements around the world for them all to be targeted. . including an estimated 100.S. no negotiations. Such logic can never be applied systematically. if we try to assure people that withdrawal will necessarily produce a positive outcome. And far from effectively combating terror. The only hope for democrats in Iraq is a speedy end to the brutal occupation of the country. thick wire cables and sticks had charged into crowds of hundreds at a college picnic. Not only in Iraq. And the only hope for democrats internationally is to break out of the terrible symbiotic relationship between the U. massive unemployment. Taliban-like fundamentalists. hence a legitimate target for made-in-America mayhem.wpunj. gives one-sided support to Israel against the Palestinians. now.'" (Anthony Shadid. the character of the different elements of the resistance matters. Such elements. Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. no matter how capable of and committed to imposing hyperauthoritarian rule they may be ("Anybody But the U. the victory of resistance forces controlled by fascists. as the Washington Post reported. Winter 2010. are quite rightly horrified by repression and authoritarianism. horrific torture. Pol Pot. a continuing infrastructure disaster. and promotes unjust. The true interests of the American people are not served by this policy.S. and hauled some of them away in pickup Moreover. by opposing both of them. that there will always be intellectuals ready to supply high-minded rationales for such efforts. occupation.S. Stalinists. but throughout the Middle East and globally. Within a few minutes. It may be that the grotesque polarization fostered by the U." Washington Post Foreign Service. This is not a question of the peace movement seeking respectability by pandering to the prejudices of the American people. Osama Adnan.just bring the troops home.S." In response to such arguments. inequitable economic policies throughout the world. rule.") are giving misadvice. Such justifications must never come from the democratic Left. U. Volume 57. where. however. Peace activists should say to the American people that the occupation is part and parcel of an imperial U. actions in Iraq have only served to recruit more terrorists both inside the country and globally. ‗They focused on the women. Of the Center for the Study of Law and Society at the University of California. war and occupation has already succeeded in legitimizing and strengthening reactionary elements in the resistance to the point where they will be able to impose their retrograde agenda on the Iraqi people. at the same time the peace movement should give no support to the victory of those elements of the resistance. "Picnic Is No Party In the New Basra: Uproar Over Armed Attack on Student Event Redraws Debate on Islam's Role and Reach.S.S. 3/29/05) This is not to say that one should only support "ideal" democratic resistance forces: the victory of even undemocratic forces against imperialism can still serve to open up pathways toward future democratic and radical struggles.S. Sinan Saeed was sure a fight had erupted. the peace movement can point out that inside Iraq the occupation has caused terrible suffering. beat students. . it has served to undermine them.*\ In Iraq. unconditional withdrawal of all U. then. Some who opposed the war argue now that the United States can't just "cut and run. empire and the reactionary forces that feed off of its brutality. A foretaste of this repression was glimpsed in the terrible March 15. troops from Iraq and the closing of all military bases there: no temporizing. military and political presence has not strengthened secular and democratic elements in Iraq. People in the U. or unreconstructed Baathists intercepts the normal liberatory dynamic of national movements against imperialism. 2005 events in Basra. Berkeley) ―The Military State of America and the America has to get over the fantastical fixation on its status as the world's master military enforcer. MUSE.S. foreign policy that shores up undemocratic regimes like those of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. that are organized to impose an extreme authoritarian regime on the Iraqi people. Number 1.' said Saeed's friend. If we peace activists ever hope to disentangle that horror from the support for imperialism with which it has become entwined. there is a threshold of authoritarianism and historical momentum beyond which this is not the case: for example. pistols. social justice or social progress for the people of Iraq: they would simply substitute systematic and brutal domestic repression for U. The Iraqi people have the right to resist the U. But one thing is for sure: the longer the U. such that American failure to rain down military destruction on retrograde regimes becomes tantamount to supporting them. alas. we need to make clear our own deep commitment to democracy and freedom.htm THE PEACE MOVEMENT SHOULD call for the immediate. A group of Shiite Muslim militiamen with rifles. But the availability of that idea in the language of American politics enables whoever holds sway in Washington to demonize any regime that gets in America's way as the Evil du jour. Those of us who advocate immediate withdrawal of the United States and its dwindling number of allies from Iraq make a mistake.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Solvency US imperialism can be resisted by immediately withdrawing of all US troops from Iraq Joanne Landy. And it appears. DJ Above all. U. and brutal destruction in Fallujah and elsewhere. The transgressions: men dancing and singing. 27 . the U. America must resist being the master military enforcer Democratic Left‖ Dissent. 2008 co-director of the Campaign for Peace and Democracy and a member of the New Politics editorial board.S.S. and they should have our support. foreign and military policy either directly or indirectly subverts freedom and democracy.

S. founded in 1997) have recently been joined by relative moderates. members of the so-called anti-globalization movement have expressed similar concerns about the United States‘s cultural impact abroad.‖2 These new proponents of empire advocate a national moral renaissance and a self-conscious. SAIS Review vol.‖ they imbue it with higher moral authority. imperialism benefits the rest of the world. proud.1 The latest large-scale manifestation of opposition to U. and the Heritage Foundation have suggested that U.S.-based transnational corporations.S.‖Intriguingly. Today. Some influential U.S. The French have been leading critics in this regard for a long time. during the fierce debates over an exemption clause for ―cultural works‖ in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations of 1993. like human rights advocate Michael Ignatieff. missionary universalism. focusing on U.SCFI 2010 Albert Qaeda Iraq K aff ___ of ___ Don’t trust their authors Mainstream Journalists and Conservative think tanks have sided with the Imperialist Regime. but they usually do not speak explicitly of ―U. who also see the exercise of unbridled U. cultural imperialism. cultural imperialism occurred ten years ago.S. power as the best hope for building a more stable world. The notion of empire is gaining a degree of mainstream acceptability because these rightwing unilateralists (concentratedaround the Project for the New American Century. American imperialism. 28 . 2 Summer–Fall 2003. More recently.S. journalists and 170 SAIS Review SUMMER–FALL 2003 international relations experts affiliated with neoconservative think tanks such as the American Enterprise Institute. boldly calling for a ―new.S.S. the Netherlands. refurbishing a long-standing tradition of U. be skeptical of their evidence Elteren 03 (Mel van. interest in cultural imperialism has surfaced in quite a different way lately. it is primarily European intellectuals and politicians warning against the purported threat of the ―Americanization‖ of some part of European culture who employ the term. interventionist role for the United States abroad based on a belief in the country‘s unique mission to spread freedom and democracy around the world. ―U. XXIII no. Rather than the rebuke originally implied by the term ―imperialism. Associate Professor of Social Sciences at Tilburg University. Cultural Imperialism Today: Only a Chimera?‖ JR) The concept of ―cultural imperialism‖ has generally been discredited.3 Carol‘s glock outweighs Turkey Prolif. the Hoover Institution.

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