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RISK & OPPORTUNITIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE STRUCTURES A Paper presented By Uttam Nangre-Patil & Mahadeo Nalawade

INTRODUCTION Concrete design has evolved rapidly in the last 30 years. Construction technology has seen the introduction of a variety of concrete products to the market as well as an increased use of supplementary

cementitious materials and recently blended cements. Emphasis has been placed on creating more durable concrete through changes to the mix constituents and proportions, including the aggregates, admixtures and the water-cement ratio. This evolution, along with impr oved reinforcing steel strength and the use of lightweight fiber reinforcement steel has lead to modifications in design philosophy - most notably the use of thinner structural members. Lightweight concrete can be defined as a type of concrete which includes an expanding agent in that it increases the volume of the mixture while giving a dditional qualities such as nailibility and lessened the dead weight. It is lighter than the conventional concrete with a dry density of 300 kg/m3 up to 1840 kg/m3; 87 to 23% lighter. It was first introduced by the Romans in the second century where ‗The P antheon‘ has been constructed using pumice, the most common type of

aggregate used in that particular year. From there on, the use of lightweight concrete has been widely spread across other countries such as USA, United Kingdom and Sweden. The main specia lties of lightweight concrete are its low density and thermal conductivity. Its advantages are that there is a reduction of dead load, faster building rates in construction and lower haulage and handling costs. The building of ‗The Pantheon‘ of lightweight concrete material is still

The increment of voids throughout the sample caused by the foam in the mixture will lower the density.35 2060 22. As a Density Kg/M3 .21 500 1840 16. The result is presented in Table 1 . RISKS……………. it can Density (Kg/M3) Compressive Strength (Kn/M2) 2500 1470 2. To highlight the issue w e would like to discuss bellow the results of the tests done by researcher on lightweight concrete.99 Table 1 : Density of Hardened Concrete and Compressive Strength at 28 days 2000 be seen that compressive strength for aerated lightweight concrete are low for lower density mixture.18 2050 9.52 1720 5..87 1840 13.34 1780 9.78 1920 16. Based on. But despite all these advantages there are research which shows the risk associated with use of lightweight concrete structures.27 Compressive Strength Kn/M2 2040 12.12 1000 1820 11.58 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2040 17. It shows that the lighter materials can be used in concrete construction and has an economical advantage.19 1810 13.standing eminently in Rome until now.73 0 1990 16. Strength & Density Comparison: The purpose of this test is to identif y the performance of aerated lightweight concrete in term of density and compressive strength.5 1500 1770 10.

As been discussed before. For example. compressive strength will also decrease with the increment of those voids.45 MPa at 28 days as a non load bearing wall. cement and sand ratio. There were three samples for each test and the results would be taken as the average of these three. All the results were based on the 75% foam injected in the mixture. 14.45 MPa and therefore it is acceptable to be produced as non -load bearing structure. cement and sand ratio were the variables made during the mixing process. with higher percentage of foam. This is due to the compaction problem dur ing mixing process. It can be seen that the mixture with 25% of foam is higher than the compressive strength of 100% foam.result. the compressive strength for the mixture with density of 2050 kg/m3 is slightly low compared with density of 2040 kg/m3. voids throughout the sample will be increased. Compressive strength of aerated lightweight concrete is determined on the 7. The percentage of foam applied is fixed for three mixtures and the difference in the results would occur because of the foam agent and water ratio. However. and as has been discussed . Fewer variables had been set for different mixture. This has resulted the compressive strength to be lower than the mixture with lower density. samples are not well compacted. Fourteen trial mixes have been prepared during the research and from the results. foam agent and water. the mixture with the highest compressive strength with low density will be used f or further investigation. This is because. this variable would be changed accordingly while the others were fixed to forecast their effect on the mixture. The compressive strengths obtained from these mixtures carried out are higher than 3. 21 and 28 days for each sample. The required compressive strength of lightweight concrete is 3. trial and e rror method was used in determining the most suitable mixture in preparing research samples. three mixtures were prepared to determine the effect of different foam agent and water. Figure 2 shows the compressive strength of aerated lightweight concrete according to the percentage of foam in each mixture. The final mixture is quite dry and since compaction is not perfectly done. Percentage of foam.

The density of 25%. and 1470 kg/m3 respectively.02 2. The density of 50% and 75% of foam mixture is th e same as been showed in Figure 2. this would result in the decrease of the compressive strength.27 .88 11.27 MPa and for 100% mixture is 2. compressive strength for this two mixture did not differ much.45 8. the compressive strength is 85. Compressive strength of mixture with 50% foam is slightly higher than mixture with 75% foam.52 At 25% Foam 32.42 11.41 17.12 1. 75%.4% higher at 28 days.96 2.87 13.23 11.44 14.12 2.20 14.ealier. 50%. The density of 25% of foam mixture is 27% higher as compar ed to 100% of foam mixture and seen in Table 2. But it can be seen that there is a difference between 25% of foam mixture and 100% of foam mixture. For a 25% mixture the compressive strength is 17.43 8. 1810 kg/m3. and 100% of foam is 2040 kg/m3.68 16.52 MPa. Days 7 14 21 28 Compressive Strength ( Kn/m2) At 50% Foam At 75% Foam At 100% Foam 9. 1820 kg/m3.

w e Indians can explore in w hich these above mentioned risks are . it has been suggested that the use of lightweight concrete shall be restricted for slabs and horizontal components and regular concrete fo r vertical components like columns and shear walls to mitigate the risk associated with lightweight concretes. machineries and equipments . Now let us know some of great opportunities. Secondly there are some other research shows that the major disadvantages of lightweight concrete have been the inability to provide consistent compressive strengths and density throughout the entire area. There are researches going on to minimise these risks to increase the use of lightweight concrete in structures. If the foam additive is not properly mixed.As per above test it is seems that the reduction in density or the addition of voids in concrete would effect on the strength of the concrete. we need to be more cautious w hile using innovative materials and technologies. which weakens the product‘s compressive strength. But in the Indian scenario as our construction industr y is facing various challenges including the quality of labour force. There is also more possibility of l ightweight mixes tend to entrap air and honeycomb more than normal weight concrete s. they tend to float to the surface when improperly placed . use of technology. There are so many w ays developed to minimise the risk and improve the performance of the lightw eight concrete and it has been successfully used f or construction of landmark structures across the globe. Lightweight concrete derives its compressive strength from the molecules in the foam additive that — when properly mixed — form around the cement and se rve as aggregate does in standard concrete mixes. Secondly if the lightweight concrete produced with using the lightweigh t aggregates then uniform workability of the mix is more difficult to maintain with due to their general high absorption and the wide variation in rate of absorption from particle to particle. For highrise structures. there is a probability of foam collapse. And also because the coarse aggregates are lighter than the con crete mass.

The weight of building on foundations is important factor considered while designing the structures particularly in case of weak soil and highrise structures. Concrete Cloth and Pre-cast Fiber Reinforced Concrete structures. Let us discuss the two wonderful application of technologies .. W e know that a solid ordinary concrete made of only fly ash. W ith using innovations various products have been used across the globe which are not only enhancing the quality of structures but reducing the time and cost to execute the projects.minimised w ith using controlled process environment. Concrete Cloth and pre-cast concrete components w ith lightw eight concrete with glass fibre are tw o best options available for us w hich change paradigm of Indian Infrastructure scenario. OPPORTUNITIES………………. Basically one of the biggest disadvantages of normal conventional concrete is its self weight of about 2200 to 2600 Kg/m3 which is so high and attempt have been made in past to reduce the self weight of the concrete and to increase the efficiency of the concrete as a structural material. So the need for going for developing alternative ways to lighten the strength of concrete as well as make it lightweight with keeping desired properties required for most of the structural applications. material cost and the associated cost of labour for handling the materials. But develop ing a viable lightweight structural concrete with least amount -of materials and manufacturing cost is a complex science as it‘s not that easy to fulfill all the desired parameters. Therefore day by day the utilizat ion of normal concrete in building across the globe is going down due to its inflexibility. Portland cement and aggregates can gives the strength of 55to62 N/mm2. . This strength is much more than the required strength for most of the structural applications.

Concrete cloth (CC) is a unique proprietary material.AM AZING INOV ATION. which can be moulded into required shape. Simply position the canvas & just add water. To overcome through this drawback of concrete . CC has a de sign life of above 10 years and is significantly quicker and less expensive to install compared to conventional concrete. when it is hardened. Concrete cloth is a fle xible. CC consists of a 3 . There are many advantages of concrete. CC allows concrete construction without the need for plant or mixing equipment. but there is one drawback is that. a new construction material was developed by British Engineering C ompany called Concrete Canvas. while hydrophilic fibers (Polyethylene and Polypropylene yarns) on the . durable. It has a very wide range of applications throughout the building & civil engineering industry. A PVC backing on one surface of the cloth ensures the material is completely waterproof. water & fire proof concrete layer. cement impregnated fabric that hardens when hydrated to form a thin.CONCRETE CLOTH Concrete is a freshly mixed material.dimensional fiber matrix containing a specially formulated dry Concrete mix. it is not flexible.

50 N?A Bulk Roll Coverages (Sqm) 200.00 5. The material can be hydrated either by spraying or by being fully i mmersed in water.00 Batched Roll Coverage (Sqm) 10.00 12.00 Bulk Roll Length (m) 200.00 N/A Batched Roll Length( m) 10. stapled through or coated with an adhesive for easy attachment to other surfaces.10 day compressive failure stress (MPa) 40 .00 80. Typical strengths and physical characteristics are as follows: Compressive Strength .70 CC Material Properties Strength: Very high early strength is a fundamental characteristic of CC. preventing crack propagation & providing a safe plastic failure mode.opposite surface aid hydration by drawing water into the mixture.00 4. Concrete Cloth Section Specifications For CC CC Type CC5 CC8 CC13 Thickness in mm 5 8 13 Roll Width in mm 1000 1100 1100 Dry Weight (Kg/Sqm) 7. CC is available in 5.60 72. 8 & 13 mm thicknesses Fig.00 113. It can be easily nailed.00 125. the fibers reinforce the concrete.00 19. Once set.

S pr a y The Fi ber S ur fa c e Wi th W ater U ntil I t Fe e ls We t To Touc h For S e ver a l M i nute s After S pr a yi ng.CC lost 60% less weight than marble over 1000 cycles.Gross weight of 2 axle vehicle 30 to 160kN . The minimum ratio of water to CC is 1:2 by weight. Deflection at Peak 38mm Resistance to Imposed Loads on Vehicle Traffic Areas .10 gm/cm 2 CBR Puncture Resistance . Push -through force 2. Tensile Test . CC cannot be over hydrated so an excess is recommended.4 hours after the initial hydration. The recommended methods are: In a hot/arid environment. .10 day bending Young‘s modulus (MPa) 180 Abrasion Resistance .10 day compressive Young‘s modulus (MPa) 1500 Bending tests .69 kN .4 . re -wet the material 2 .Similar to twice that of OPC Max 0.Uniformly distribu ted load not exceeding 5kN/sqm Method of Hydration : CC can be hydrated using saline o r non saline water.Min..10 day bending failure stress (MPa) 3. Fig.Max.

CC13 CC5. This can be avoided by wetting the CC prior to cutting.CC can also be cut using handheld self sharpening powered disc cutters.CC8. Slope Protection . W hen cutting dry CC.CC8. a 20mm allowance should be left from the cut edge due to lost fill. CC13 CC8 & CC13 CC8 & CC13 CC5.Cutting of CC : A disposable blade is the most suitable tool for cutting CC before it is hydrated or set. Angle Girder Disc cutter Applications of CC :.Some of the applicat ions of the CC are as follows : Application Dust Suppression Foundation Binding Weather proofing/ slope stabilization Ditch Lining Bund Lining Sandbag/Gobian Reinforcement Trackway/Flooring Pipe Protection Cable Covering Products CC5 CC5 CC5 CC5. CC13 CC13 Fig.CC8.

and impact strength. Its light weight also makes it ideal for use on low-rise frame buildings where heavier cladding systems would increase the size of framing members required. is a composite concrete product fabricated by many precast concrete manufacturers in many developed countries. The low weight of GFRC panels decreases superimposed loads on the building‘s structural framing and foundation.: Ground Resurfacing Fig. A variety of precast concrete components can be used in creating a complete passive-design system for a building.: Mining Applications Fig: Bund Lining Fig.Fig. The fibers serve as reinforcement to enhance the concrete‘s flexural. providing potential savings in multistory construction and in areas with poor supporting soil. It consists of a portland-cement-based composite that is reinforced with an absolute. tensile. commonly known as GFRC. Foremost among these are: . minimum of 4% by weight of alkali-resistant glass fibers to total mix.: Sandbag Reinforcement GLASS FIBERE-REINFORCED PRE-CAST CONCRETE COMPONANTS (GRFC) Glass fiber–reinforced concrete. which are randomly dispersed through the material.

These efficiencies can shave as much as one-third of the time needed for construction.Hollow-core slabs. or wall panels. which serve as combined floor/ceiling systems and can also be used as wall panels in either vertical or horizontal configurations. slab & walls Precast concrete components provide a variety of savings to a project in ways that are not always considered when looking at upfront costing versus other materials. Columns and beams. ceilings. Insulated sandwich wall panels can also be used. which create a framework that will resist intense heat and will not add fuel to a fire. including masonry and curtain wall. columns. The Use of all Pre-Cast Structure including tees. Wall panels. Time can be saved through: . which offer high fire ratings and work with other components to create a noncombustible envelope. from design through fabrication and erection. A total-precast concrete system provides an effective design for minimizing fire damage and containing the effects within the smallest space possible for the longest time. These savings include: Speed. which can be used similar to hollow-core planks for roofs. floors. meeting tight deadlines and generating revenues quicker. Precast concrete components provide a variety of ways to speed the construction process. Double tees. beams.

The fast enclosure also lessens concern for weather or material damage during erection. including several in one panel. Design Economy.The fabrication process. Precast concrete insulated sandwich panels create a finished interior wall that avoids the time and cost of furring and drywalling. double tees. The reinforcement yields alternately in tension and compression and provides energy dissipation. the same molds can be used. Architectural panels can have a variety of colors and textures cast into them. precasters help maintain the critical path scheduling. minimizing the total number needed and the changes between casting. if not identical. The finishing process. Wall panels. post-tensioned strands that run through a duct in the center of the beam and through the columns. As a single-source supplier for a large portion of the structural system. so they are ready to begin erection as soon as foundations are complete. Hybrid post-tensioned precast frame: This method has the precast concrete beams connected to multistory columns by unbonded. often cutting weeks or months from the schedule. Foundations can be placed one day and precast concrete loadbearing or non-loadbearing panels can be erected as soon as the foundations have cured sufficiently. while the post-tensioning strands essentially act as ―rubber bands‖ that help right the structure after the seismic event . Precast concrete components can be fabricated while permitting and foundation work progress. which is sleeved through the column and grouted. and hollowcore planking also erect quickly. sculptured designs that are possible with precast concrete may be achieved within a limited budget by selecting economical aggregates and textures combined with repetitive units and effective production and erection details. This speed allows construction to get into the dry quicker. Efficiency is created by making it possible for similar. reducing the contractor‘s risks and costs. By reusing the same dimensions for components. Mild steel reinforcement is placed in ducts at the top and bottom of the beam. The erection process. The custom. eliminating the need to field-set trim pieces or paint the façade after the structure is built. shapes to be produced from the same basic (master) mold and by minimizing the time required to disassemble a mold and reassemble it for the next piece.

As the frame displaces laterally. While the system .ends. which is applied at locations where the most economical connection method features one-story columns with multispan beams. There are no column corbels. The multispan beams are cast with partially deboned pre-tensioning strand set on the columns. The column‘s reinforcing steel extends through the sleeves inside the beams. The post-tensioning steel balances the mild steel reinforcement so the frame re-centers after flexing during a seismic event. with the vertical shear resistance provided by the post-tensioning strand. Reinforcing-bar splices ensure continuity above the beam. Pre-Cast Concrete Components Manufacturing Assembly Line A Pre-tensioned precast frame. the de-bonded strand remains elastic.

. Day 1 -Foundation Ready Day 7 – Taking Shape Day 15.dissipates relatively less energy than other systems.I am ready Finall y w e w ould like to close this article w ith one w onderful note in w hich w e can see that how human imagination i s w orking for innovations to create w onderful structures not onl y on earth but on Moon. it re-centres the structure after a major seismic event.Interior Shear Walls Day 25.Shear Structure Day 44.

This concrete w ill be useful for future permanent constr uction on the moon saving lot of cost for transportation from earth. It can be produced on moon w ith using cementitious material on the moon and regolith as aggregates w ith water and sulfur. Larry Be yer of University of Pittsburg conceived idea of lightw eight concrete formed from lunar regolith w hich is called as Lunacrete or Mooncrete. Water can be produced there with mix of ox ygen w ith hydrogen produced from lunar soil.Lunar Concrete: Mr. ******************************************************************************* .