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Critical submergence for horizontal intakes in open channel flows

Z Ahmad, Associate Professor K V Rao, Former Post Graduate Student M K Mittal, Emeritus Fellow Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee 247667 Uttarakhand India

Abstract
An analytical and experimental study regarding critical submergence for a 90° horizontal intake in an open channel flow, is presented in this paper. Based on the potential flow and critical spherical sink surface theories, an analytical equation for the critical submergence for this type of intake is derived using two different locations of intake from the channel bed - one with clearance from the bottom equal to zero and the other having half the intake diameter. Experiments were performed in a concrete flume 10m in length, 0.37m wide, and 0.6m deep, using intake pipes with diameters equal to 4.25mm, 6.25mm and 10.16mm for collecting data for critical submergence under a wide range of flow conditions. Analysis of this data reveals that the critical submergence depends on the Froude number, ratio of intake velocity and channel velocity, Reynolds number, and Weber number. However, the effect of the Froude number and the ratio of intake velocity and channel velocity is more pronounced in comparison to the other parameters. Based on the statistical analysis, predictors for critical submergence for bottom clearance equal to zero, and half of the diameter, are proposed and validated with the unused data. The proposed predictors produce satisfactory results. However, the analytical equation does not produce satisfactory results due to large boundary effects. It also does not take into account the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and circulation, in its derivation. The predictors available in the literature when examined using these data were found to overestimate the value of critical submergence.

Introduction
Water is drawn from water bodies like rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, through intakes for

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its different uses, e.g. irrigation, domestic and industrial supply, and power generation. Intakes are more economical, easier to operate, and draw less sediment, when they are located near the water surface. However, if the water depth above an intake is insufficient, strong vortices are formed which may lead to air entrainment. Vortices have been observed frequently at many installations such as the Hirfanli Dam in Turkey, the Harspranget Dam in Sweden, and the Kariba Dam in Zambia. Such vortices not only cause appreciable loss in the efficiency of hydraulic machinery, and corrosion in the water conducting system, but also produce vibrations and noise. Denny [3] has reported that a vortex entraining one percent (by volume) of air can cause as much as a 15 percent reduction in the efficiency of a centrifugal pump. Air entraining is more severe in tropical climates where the water demand is high and the reservoir level is low. Thus, a sufficient cover of water is required at the intake, to avoid the formation of these vortices. Several empirical relationships and charts are available in literature (Gordon [5], Reddy & Pickford [17], Swaroop [18], Prosser [16], Jain [9], Jain et al [10], Gulliver et al [6], Odgaard [14], Knauss [12], Gulliver & Arndt [7], ASCE [1], IS 9761 [8], Jiming et al [11], Yildirim & Kocabas [19, 20, 21, 22], and Yildrim [23]) for the prediction of critical submergence for intakes. These relationships relate the critical submergence as a function of the Froude number, Reynolds number, the vertical height of intake, Weber number, circulation, and other additional parameters. Recently, Durai et al [4] reported that the Froude number is the predominant parameter which affects critical submergence. For the same Froude number, the values of critical submergence for flat and bell mouth vertical intakes are different. Circulation in flows increases the critical submergence for both flat and bell mouth vertical intake. Durai et al [4] also proposed the predictors for the critical submergence for both flat and bell mouth vertical intakes. Yildrim & Kocabas [19, 20, 21, 22] have shown that critical submergence can be predicted by means of potential flow solution for intakes in open channel flow, still water reservoir, and for rectangular intakes. In most projects, a series of intakes are provided along the river, like the Sakarya River Valley Irrigation Project in Turkey, in which a forward flow along the river occurs near the intakes. Critical submergence in such a case would obviously be different on account of forward flow in the channel. Yildrim & Kocabas [19] undertook such a study for the vertical intake using potential theory and dimensional analysis. The present study, however, deals with the determination of critical submergence for a lateral (90°) horizontal intake from an open channel flow.

Analytical solution
An analytical equation for the critical submergence can be obtained by considering the flow as potential flow, with pipe intake as point sink, and superposition of point sink and uniform flow (Yildirim & Kocabas [19]). The Rankine half-body of revolution
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which is also called the Critical Spherical Sink Surface (CSSS). and not entering. the intake.divides the flow into two regions. At critical condition. plus the surface area of sector OBC. Figure 1. i. Thus. r is less than the channel width. as shown in Figure 1. and di = diameter of intake pipe. water surface level above the intake almost matches the upper surface of the Rankine half-body of revolution. Unless the upper boundary of the Rankine half-body of revolution reaches the free surface. Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 73 . Critical spherical sink surface for a horizontal intake Assuming the radius of CSSS. the surface water just above the centre of the intake cannot enter the intake. the flow area entering. the vertical distance between any point on the upper portion of the Rankine half-body of revolution and the intake level may be taken as approximately equal to the critical submergence. The surface area of CSSS Ac is equal to the surface area of sector OAB. c = bottom clearance. Surface area of sector OAB = Surface area of sector OBC = (1) (2) Here.e.

Thus: (3) Assuming critical radial velocity Us entering the CSSS. Thus: (5) Also. A close examination of Equation 8 reveals that the critical submergence increases with an increase in intake velocity and intake diameter. the water cover required for avoiding the air entrainment in a lateral intake from a channel flow is less than that required if the intake is from a stagnant pool of water. the intake discharge is: (4) Yildirim & Kocabas [19] showed that the critical submergence for an intake. From Equations 3. However. it decreases with an increase in velocity in the channel. is equal to the radius of an imaginary spherical sink surface. Thus. in a forward flow for a vertical intake. Furthermore. the intake discharge: (6) Here Ui = velocity in the intake pipe. where the radial velocity Us is equal to half of the velocity of the forward flow. i. critical submergence increases with a decrease of bottom clearance. one obtains: This can be solved for critical submergence Sc as (7) (8) Equation 8 can be used for the calculation of critical submergence for c = 0 and c = di / 2. 5 and 6. . Dimensional analysis Functional relationship for the critical submergence can also be obtained by dimensional 74 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . due to an increase of blockage from the bottom boundary.e.

Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 75 . surface tension . The effect of the width of the channel may be neglected for critical submergence Sc < b. Based on the experimental study. W. Experiments were performed with three horizontally oriented intake pipes of diameter di = 4. The data collected in the present study have been analysed for obtaining the relationship for Sc / di. the effects of surface tension and viscosity could be neglected.37m wide and 0. Padmanabhan & Hecker [15] proposed that for W > 600 and R > 7. U∞. and Jain et al [10]. and 10. and acceleration due to gravity g.7 x 104. 6. and Gulliver et al [6]). provided with bottom clearance c = 0 and di / 2. Prosser [16]. greater than 1. respectively. and Vi as repeating variables. (9) Experimental work Experiments were performed in the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering.16mm. Previous studies reveal that the critical submergence mainly depends on the Froude number (Gordon [5]. dynamic viscosity . which was fitted with a valve for the regulation of discharge. Odgaard [14] has shown that in the case of air entraining vortices in a still water body. 0. mass density . R. R = intake Reynolds number. and to prevent the surface disturbances. and a tank at the inlet of the flume.25mm. Flow straighteners and wave suppressors were provided at the entrance of the flume to align the flow. Jain [9]. Various pertinent variables influencing the criticality at a horizontal intake pipe are di. the dimensional analysis of variables of Equation 9 yields: (10) where F = intake Froude number. di. A sluice gate was provided in the tank to regulate the water level in the flume. Jain et al [10] concluded that there is no influence of surface tension on the critical submergence when W > 120. Dagget & Keulgan [2] reported that the Weber number. Ui. A tailgate was provided at the end. in the range 615 to 9000.analysis of variables affecting it. in a concrete flume 10m in length.1 x 105. concluded that the critical submergence increases with circulation.6m deep (Figure 2). and W = Weber number. for W > 720 and Reynolds number. Based on the experimental results for a bell mouth vertical pipe intake. width of the channel b. Water was supplied from an overhead tank through a supply pipe. the effects of surface tension and viscosity can be neglected. at the Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee. India. The functional relationship for the critical submergence Sc can be written as: Using . circulation . c.25mm. has no effect on the critical submergence. Reddy & Pickford [17].

at a distance of 5m from the inlet of the flume. while depth of flow was measured using a pointer gauge of accuracy 0. The water surface level in the flume near the intake was varied using the sluice gate of the inlet tank. intake discharge Qi. For each intake pipe the experiment was conducted for six different intake discharges. Figure 3 shows the formation of a typical air entraining vortex at the intake. flow velocity in the flume U∞.The intake was placed on a horizontal plane. Flow near the intake was observed for air entrainment. which gave 54 runs for each intake pipe. and connected to a pump which discharges water from the intake into the sump. were measured. Discharge through the intake was measured via an ultrasonic flow meter. and the depth of flow D. in a lateral direction. A total of 324 runs were conducted for the three intakes for c = 0 and di / 2. Figure 2. Once the air entrainment started. A pitot tube was used to measure the velocity. until the critical submergence condition was obtained. Qi. 76 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . and the pump was started to draw the water from the intake. and for each intake discharge the velocity of flow in the flume was varied nine times.01mm. Experimental setup Water was allowed to flow into the flume. while the remaining discharge in the downstream of the flume was measured by a weir.

surface tension. and (c) assuming intake as a point sink. which are more dominant in the case of lateral horizontal intake than vertical intake. This could be due to (a) effects of bed and side wall boundaries. and Figure 5 for c = di / 2. the analytical equation based on potential theory may not provide the solution for the critical submergence for horizontal intakes in view of the reasons mentioned above. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show that the observed values of Sc do not match the values obtained using an analytical solution. (b) neglecting viscosity. Figure 4 shows the variation of calculated Sc with those observed for c = 0. Thus. is validated with the data collected in the present study. in which complete Rankin half-body is formed.Figure 3. The calculated values of Sc are compared with those observed. for the critical submergence with bottom clearance c = 0 and di / 2. and circulation in deriving the analytical equation. Formation of air entraining vortex Analytical Equation 8. Validation of analytical equation for critical submergence Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 77 .

(b) Ui / di. (c) R. Validation of analytical equation for critical submergence Figure 5.Figure 4. and (d) W for c = 0 78 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . Variation of Sc / di with (a) F.

R. 0. with R2 = 0.713. to propose a predictor for Sc for c = 0 and di / 2. are 0. Variation of Sc / di with F. Equation 12 is proposed as a predictor for Sc / di.31. there is strong correlation between Sc / di and Ui / U∞. 0.93.678 and 0.Functional relationship. Neglecting R and W. and W. a4 = 0. are obtained using least square technique. Equation 10 for the critical submergence. From the total data collected in the present study. which depicts that Sc / di increases with an increase in F. Such high values of correlation coefficient reflect that all parameters affect the critical submergence. on Sc / di. is also observed for c = di / 2. W. 90 percent is used to propose the predictors. and W. other dimensionless parameters listed in Equation 10 do not affect the values of Sc / di. a4. the values of constants a1. and a5 = 0. a2. and the remaining 10 percent for their validation. the functional relationship may be written as: (11) Using 90 percent of the collected data. R. R. variation of Sc / di with F. and W. Analysis of data showed that except for F. However. and W. Ui / U∞.e. With slight adjustment of the parameters. therefore. Similarly. R.49. Dominancy of F. R. Ui / U∞.90. the relationship for Sc / di with F and Ui / U∞ is: (12) with R2 = 0.715.92. a2 = -0. R. Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 79 . a3 = 0. The partial correlation coefficients for Sc / di with F. for c = 0. Ui / U∞. and W. Ui / U∞.949. but decreases with increases of velocity in the channel. Thus. a3. These values are a1 = 0. Ui / U∞. Equation 12 may be written as: Proposed predictors for the critical submergence (a) Predictor for Sc / di for c = 0 (13) Equation 13 reveals that critical submergence increases with Froude number. which is close to R2 of Equation 11 and. is also studied by calculating the partial correlation coefficients. is shown in Figure 5. and Ui / U∞. respectively.042. i. is used along with the data collected in the present study. and a5.

879. W.873. and Ui / U∞. but decreases with increases of velocity in the channel.068.206.211.936. which is comparable to R2 = 0.865. are obtained using the least square technique. 0. with F. R. 80 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . However.0. After neglecting R and W. a4 = 0. respectively.935.Partial correlation coefficients for Sc / di. a2 = -0. a3 = 1. 0. the values of different parameters a1 = 0. Equation 14 may be simplified as: (b) Predictor for Sc / di for c = di / 2 (15) Equation 15 also reveals that critical submergence increases with Froude number. Thus. and 0. Therefore. are 0. obtained after including R and W. the relationship for Sc / di with F and Ui / U∞ is: (14) The multiple correlation coefficient of the above equation is 0.967. and a5 = 0. Equation 14 is proposed for the estimation of critical submergence for c = di / 2. for the functional relationships of Equation 11.

and observed ones for c = 0 and c = di / 2. Sc / di = 1+F. The adequacy of predictors proposed by Swaroop [18]. It is clear from these figures that the proposed predictors produce satisfactory prediction of Sc / di. and Equation 15. are shown in Figure 6a and Figure 6b. which is about 10 percent of the total data. This is due to the fact that these predictors do not consider the approach velocity.Figure 6. and (b) c = di / 2 The proposed relationships for Sc / di. Validation of proposed predictors for (a) c = 0. as shown in Figure 7.e.e. and for c = di / 2 within 15 percent error of those observed. Equation 13 for c = 0. For c = 0 predictions are within a 20 percent error of those observed. and relate the critical submergence only with the Froude number of the intake.e. has also been checked with the data collected in the present study. The variation of predicted Sc / di. The values of Sc / di predicted by these two predictors are much greater than the observed ones. Sc / di = 1. and Reddy & Pickford [17]. i. are validated with the unused data. i. respectively. (c) Validation of proposed predictors Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 81 .5+F. i.

and (b) c = di / 2 82 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . Validation of Reddy & Pickford [17] and Swaroop [18] equations for (a) c = 0.Figure 7.

Range of data collected in the present study Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 83 .Table 1.

Table 2a. Details of data collected in the present study for c = 0 84 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 .

Details of data collected in the present study for c = 0 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 85 .Table 2a (cont).

Table 2b. Details of data collected in the present study for c = di / 2 86 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 .

Details of data collected in the present study for c = di / 2 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 87 .Table 2b (cont).

L L & Keulgan. and the analysis of experimental data collected in the present study. and di / 2. shows that the predicted values of Sc are much greater than the observed values. ‘Critical submergence at vertical pipe intakes’. 88 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . and W. [6] Gulliver. M K. Ahmad. This could be due to large boundary effects and neglecting viscosity. and for c = di / 2 they are within 15 percent. Rindels. However. Vol 170. Issue 1. for c = 0 and di / 2. [2] Daggett. Vol 38. Proc ASCE. International Water Power & Dam Construction. No 9. surface tension. 4. the effect of F and Ui / U∞ on Sc / di dominates the other parameters. Vol XVIII. produce satisfactory prediction of Sc / di. 1986. R. Z & Mittal. No 4. ‘Vortices at intake structures’. J L. pp17-33. No HY11. International Water Power & Dam Construction. Analysis of data reveals that Sc / di increases with an increase in F. K C. ‘Designing intakes to avoid free-surface vortices’. Analytical equation derived on the basis of potential flow and CSSS theories for the critical submergence. June 2007. pp1565-1581. for bottom clearance equal to zero. in the derivation of analytical equation. 1974. 1995. J S. do not produce satisfactory results. pp106-116. Journal of Hydraulics Division. [5] Gordon. Vol 100. Ui / U∞. 1970. 2. A check on the adequacy of predictors proposed by both Swaroop [18] and Reddy & Pickford [17]. A J & Lindblom. Proc Institution of Mechanical Engineers. and circulation affects. ‘Guidelines for design of intakes for hydroelectric plants’. E S R.Conclusions The critical submergence for the horizontal intake in an open channel flow is studied in this paper. No 2. 1956. ‘An experiment study of air-entraining vortices at pump sumps’. Based on the analytical considerations. the following conclusions are drawn: 1. [1] ASCE. References [3] Denny. The proposed relationships for Sc / di. [4] Durai. 3. ‘Similitude conditions in free-surface vortex formations’. for both c = 0 and di / 2. pp137-138. For c = 0 prediction is within 20 percent error of the observed values. Dam Engineering. D F. G H. using data collected in the present study. by the Committee on Hydropower Intakes of the Energy Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

A K. International Water Power & Dam Construction. India. L & Jitang. G E. 1984. No 8. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Thesis presented to the University of Roorkee. A J. 1977. pp741-752.criteria for hydraulic design’. Civil Engineering Department. pp1429-1445. Vol 112. Roorkee. 2002. No 11. F. ‘Vortices at intakes in conventional sump’. ‘Effect of circulation on critical submergence for an intake’. R E A. ‘The hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes’. No 3. N & Kocabas. Hydraulic Structures Design Manual. University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee). Ranga Raju. Vol 110. [9] Jain. New York. Vol 126. [18] Swaroop. F & Yildrim. Balkema. J. IAHR. A K. ‘Scale effects in pump sump models’. M. 1AA. 1995. ASCE. 1986. Netherlands.[8] Indian Standard Code IS 9761. 1977. Y R & Pickford. Yuanbo. [14] Odgaard. M & Hecker. 1991. ASCE. 1972. R. [17] Reddy. pp1540-1556. ‘Free surface air core vortex’. 2000. H. No 3. Vol 40. [7] Gulliver. [19] Yildrim. McGraw-Hill Inc. ‘Vortex formation at vertical pipe intakes’. pp628-631. [10] Jain. No 7. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Vol 24. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. J S & Arndt. ‘Swirling flow problems at intakes’. K G & Garde. US. 1987. [13] Kocabas. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. ‘Vortex formation at intakes’. M J. Roorkee. ASCE. Vol 120. [16] Prosser. R J. [15] Padmanabhan. British Hydromechanics Research Association/Construction Industry Research & Information Association. ‘Critical submergence for intakes in open channel flow’. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. NY. N. [11] Jiming. ME dissertation. Rotterdam. [12] Knauss. ‘Hydropower intakes . ‘Vortex formation at vertical pipe intakes’. Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 89 . J A. Journal of Hydraulic Research. India. 1973. ‘Hydropower Engineering Handbook’. ‘Minimum submergence before doubleentrance pressure intakes’. 1978. No 6. ASCE.

No 3. [21] Yildrim. Vol 121. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. F. Vol 124. Vol 126. F & Gulcan. No 4. 1995. ‘Flow boundary effects on critical submergence of an intake pipe’. Kocabas. 1998. Journal of Hydraulic Research. pp1195-1210. S C. [20] Yildrim. No 1. Ac b c di D F g Qi r R Sc U∞ Ui Us W Notations = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = surface area of CSSS width of the channel bottom clearance intake pipe diameter depth of flow in the channel Froude number acceleration due to gravity intake discharge radius of CSSS Reynolds number critical submergence velocity of cross flow velocity in the intake pipe radial velocity Weber number circulation mass density of liquid used surface tension dynamic viscosity 90 Dam Engineering Vol XIX Issue 2 . ‘Prediction of critical submergence for an intake pipe’. ASCE. ASCE. ASCE. N. F. 2002. ASCE. N & Kocabas. N. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Vol 124. Vol 130.Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. ‘Critical submergence for intakes in still water reservoir’. ‘Critical submergence for a rectangular intake’. IAHR. 2000. No 10. pp288-297. [22] Yildrim. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. pp900-905. N & Kocabas. pp103-104. 2004. No 12. [23] Yildrim.